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Utah Cultural Site Stewardship

Program Guide and Manual MARCH 2021


CONTENTS Welcome to the Program If you're new to the Utah Site Stewardship Program, start here!

Archaeological Ethics 101 Stewards believe they are morally and ethically charged to protect the past, and here's why they're right.

This Program brings together Site Stewards, Agency Srchaeologists, and a Statewide Site Stewardship Coordinator to get results.

Visit with Respect Our good pals at Friends of Cedar Mesa have developed some tips to help you as you venture out.

This Program Guide and Manual will give you the information you need to get outside and start protecting the past! By becoming a Cultural Site Steward you will have opportunities to protect the past, learn about archaeology, and meet new friends.

Stay Safe While Stewarding The most important thing on any archaeological site is you! Learn how to keep yourself safe.

What's in Our Packs? Archaeologists love their gear and here we show you the basics of a well rounded daypack.

Site Monitoring Procedures You're rady to go out... now what? We'll show you what to expect.

Criteria of Change Let's delve into the most important concept in site monitoring: communicating changes.

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We have lots of trainings, and more are available all the time. Check our website to take refresher courses or learn something new.


We need your help to Stop Archaeological Vandalism! Cultural sites in Utah, like this rock imagery panel near Escalante, face damage and descrtruction every day.

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Welcome to the program

W

elcome, and thank you for joining the Utah Cultural Site Stewardship Program! Utah is home to over 12,000 years of human history that can be seen and experienced in over 100,000 archaeological sites across the state, and we’re so glad you’ve joined us to protect these sites. This manual will help you understand why cultural site stewardship is so important, as well as how to steward sites. We have tried to keep the manual uncomplicated and straightforward so you can get outside quickly with a clear sense of purpose and an essential knowledge of how to get the job done.

across federal and state boundaries to create a consistent procedure and framework for stewardship. Consistency is key. The Program works with federal and state land managing agencies to ensure that volunteers can apply their skills throughout the state. When land managers and archaeologists are planning projects or surveying the land, the work done by Site Stewards will be recognized as accurate and up-to-date information. By participating in the Program and stewarding these sites you will help archaeological sites by letting the people who manage them know when problems arise.

What is the Utah Cultural Site Stewardship Program?

Who Participates in the Utah Cu l t u ra l S i t e S t ewa r d s h i p Program?

The Utah Cultural Site Stewardship Program (Program) is a network of professional archaeologists, federal and state agency staff, and (most importantly) volunteers who work together to monitor sensitive or threatened archaeological sites. Housed at the Utah SHPO, the program operates

There are three categories of people who create the Utah Cultural Site Stewardship Program: the Site Stewardship Coordinator, federal and/or state agency staff, and volunteer stewards. This section discusses who these people are, what are their roles and responsibilities, and will

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provide a framework for stewards to understand some of what goes on behind the scenes. Let’s start with who matters the most: Site Stewards! Site stewards are volunteers of the Utah SHPO and they agree to monitor one or more archaeological/cultural sites. As such, they are the “eyes and ears” of the state and federal archaeologists who rely on them for accurate and up-to-date information. Stewards are also the people that the public will interact with the most, and will be knowledgeable and helpful resources for people who want to know more about archaeology.

Site stewards may apply online (webpage in progress) to monitor one or more sites. The Site Stewardship Coordinator works directly with each steward during the on-boarding process to help find cultural site(s) that fit with the steward’s personal goals, abilities, and desires. Site stewards attend at least one training conducted by the Site Stewardship Coordinator, and often interact with Agency Archaeologists at this stage. Both the Site Stewardship Coordinator and the Agency Archaeologists should be able to provide stewards with good education on not only the specific site, but the prehistory and history of the area at-large. A benefit of becoming a Site Steward is having a direct line to experts.

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The Agency Archaeologists know the most about each archaeological site within the Program and help determine which sites are right for which steward. These archaeologists will typically accompany new stewards on their first site visit to establish “baseline” data about the site, and will be available for additional site visits at the stewards’ request. Agency archaeologists are often responsible for reporting information about stewardship to officials, and so will have access to not only site information but steward information as well, such as hours spent in the field and number of site visits accomplished. The federal and/or state archaeologists who manage the steward’s site may have the most “day to day” interaction with them, so the Program tries to establish a relationship right away.

Stewardship Coordinator is responsible for making sure the Program is welcoming, supports stewards, and fulfills the needs of Agency Archaeologists.

Lastly, the Site Stewardship Coordinator is a staff position at the Utah SHPO tasked with making the Program run smoothly. This person sets up stewards with the information and training they need to get out into the field, and creates introductions between the new Site Steward and the Agency Archaeologist(s). The Site Stewardship Coordinator also resolves any disputes and investigates problems, maintains the steward data for the Agency Archaeologists, and also works with the SHPO Records staff to make sure that data collected by stewards becomes a part of the official statewide archaeological database. The Site

Sites that are included in the Utah Cultural Site Stewardship Program are:

All three participants, Site Stewards, Agency Archaeologists, and the Site Stewardship Coordinator, rely on each other to get the job done. Every participant in the Utah Cultural Stewardship Program performs important work to protect and preserve cultural sites, and all members of the program are expected to treat each other respectfully and professionally.

How Are Sites Selected?

• • • •

Threatened by environmental or human-caused forces Do not pose a threat to Site Stewards Within land management units that are in Utah and participate in the Program Are of cultural, historical, ethnological, or archaeological importance

The Site Stewardship Coordinator works with Agency Archaeologists to identify sites that are good candidates for the Program based on the criteria above. The Site Stewardship Coordinator then works one-on-one with stewards to find a good fit between sites and stewards based on: • • •

Access Type of site Consideration of steward’s abilities & interest

As a Site Steward you may request to steward a particular site, and we will do our best to accommodate those requests. However, if that site does not meet all of the above standards or if it is already assigned to another steward, we may offer you another site of a similar nature.

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A R C H A E O LO G I C A L ETHICS Professional archaeologists follow ethical principles to make sure that they “do right” by the archaeological record and the public. When archaeologists work within an ethical framework they make sure that what they are doing, and how they do it, is in service to the archaeological record itself, descendant communities, and interested members of the public. As Site Stewards, we know that you already have internal ethical principles that closely match professional ones. Read on to learn what ethical principles archaeologists live by, and what Site Stewards are expected to live up to as well.

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Archaeologists and Site Stewards Respect the Resource Once an archaeological site is gone, it’s gone forever. Our presence on a site can sometimes be enough to cause damage to it. Site Stewards commit to staying mindful of their impact and following Visit with Respect Principles to reduce it. Archaeologists and Site Stewards Respect the Visiting Public Having positive interactions with strangers that you meet on the trail or at your site helps protect the site, and it can help protect you! When you talk to people in ways that are helpful, informative, and respectful, this gives them the opportunity to learn for themselves how to protect and preserve the past. By keeping conversations friendly and being a good source of information for the people you meet, you also keep yourself out of potentially dangerous situations. Archaeologists and Site Stewards Respect the Law In the normal course of our work, archaeologists and site stewards will never be placed in a position where they run afoul of the law! If you ever feel that you are being pressured to engage in illegal activity, or if you ever feel uncomfortable with a task you have been asked to perform you can always talk to the Site Stewardship Coordinator, an Agency Archaeologists, or the Public Archaeologist at the SHPO. Check out Appendix A for a run-down of State and Federal archaeological laws.

Archaeologists and Site Stewards Respect the Visiting Public UCSS takes these ethical principles and policies seriously! If you have any questions the UCSS Coordinator will be happy to talk them through with you. Abiding by these principles and policies is required for participation in the program, so if you need clarification on any points please ask!

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FIREARMS AND STEWARDSHIP DON'T MIX Stewards agree not to carry firearms while engaged in program activities. This is to keep our work separate from the realm of law enforcement. If you suspect you have come across a crime in progress, you do not need to take matters into your own hands! By agreeing to leave your firearm at home you are implictly agreeing that any untoward activities you may encounter are a job for law enforcement. In this manual you will learn what to do in the event that you encounter a crime in progress, no weapons necessary!


CONFIDENTIALITY MATTERS! To avoid endangering the very site you are committed to protecting, you are expected to follow these principles: Do not share information regarding the location of contents of your sites. Follow appropriate rules and guidelines on Social Media Posts. Do not take friends and family to your sites without permission from the agency representative or regional program coordinator. Turn off GPS tagging on your camera, smartphone or other devices so locational data is not embedded in your photographs. All documentation provided by the agency remains the property the agency and must not be copied or shared. Photos and reports generated by stewards are also property of the managing agency and should be submitted directly to the agency and not shared with others.

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Friends of Cedar Mesa, a UCSS partner, has come up with this awesome guide to help you visit archaeological sites in ways that will reduce your impact and help protect sites for millenia to come! These are all tried and true principles that archaeologists abide by when they're on sites, and we can't recommend this guide highly enough!

Historic Artifacts Aren't Trash Leave historic artifacts like rusted cans where they are. They help interpret the past and show who has been here before.

Dogs and Archaeology Don't Mix To prevent digging and erosion, pets are not allowed in archaeological sites. Please make sure to leash pets and keep them away from the site. Pets are not allowed in some areas, so know beforehand where dogs are permitted.

Don't Touch Rock Imagery, or Make Your Own Natural oils on your hands damage these delicate images. Vandalism of petroglyphs and pictographs erases stories of ancient people and destroys the experience for future visitors.artifact, including historic trash, from public lands.

Camp and Eat Away from Archaeology Camping, fires, and food can damage archaeological remains and spoil the view for other visitors. Remember to pack out all your waste, including food scraps.

Use Rubber-Tipped Hiking Poles A rubber tip prevents your hiking pole from scratching and scarring rock images on the ground.

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Steer Clear of Walls Structures are easily damaged. Please refrain from touching, leaning, standing, or climbing on any structures, no matter how solid they look.

Keep Vehicles on Designated Roads Use existing roads that are approved for use by land managers. Driving off-road can damage fragile archaeology and ecosystems.

Leave All Artifacts Artifacts are sacred to modern Indigenous people, and scientists can learn valuable lessons about the past when objects stay where they are. Artifacts include pottery pieces, stone tools, rock flakes, and corn cobs. It’s illegal to remove any artifact, including historic trash, from public lands.

Leave Grinding in the Past Re-grinding in slicks and grooves removes the finish left by those who created them. Please refrain from touching or using grinding slicks.

Don't Build Cairns Cairns can increase impacts on sensitive sites and are a form of vandalism to the natural world that detracts from the wild beauty of the area. You might not realize you’re making a cairn with an artifact such as a grinding or shrine stone, which is illegal. Leave placement of trail directional signs and cairns to land managers.

Guide Children Through Sites Archaeological sites are not playgrounds. Teach children to respect these places. Keep a close eye on them, so they don’t get hurt or accidentally damage cultural resources.

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Stay Safe While Stewarding We all know that stewardship is fun but bad roads, rough terrain, changing weather conditions, and wildlife can really hamper a site visit! Not only that, but sometimes encounters with other people can become confrontatinoal, or even dangerous. These things are rare, but the UCSS never wants you to put yourself or others at risk. Be aware of your surroundings and avoid situations which could leave you stranded, injured, or in conflict with others. This section will tell give you some handy advice on how to get out of trouble, and more importantly, avoid it entirely!

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Before You Go Make sure that your vehicle is in good operating condition and contains supplies to keep you warm and safe if you become stranded. Review Safety Protocols Review notes and photos from previous visits to the site.


On The Way Travel in pairs whenever possible. Carry a list of emergency contact numbers. Take a phone or other communication device. Make notes/describe road conditions. Be observant for other activities and visitors. Keep an eye on the weather.

When you Get Back Let your contact person know that you have returned safely. Report any illegal conduct to authorities and the Coordinator. Upload site monitoring forms, if you didn’t finish in the field.

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Dealing with the Weather Unpleasant weather conditions will be, by far, the most common problem you encounter! Ask any archaeologist in the field and they can rattle off not only the day's forecast, but the extended 10-day outlook! You don't need to become a desktop meterologist, but know the weather conditions around your site and your travel route. Here are some other things to consider: - How are your roads? Assume that if you are on a dirt road that it will be impassable when wet. If it has rained or snowed in the last day or will rain or snow the day you are plannign to go out, it'sbest to delay your trip. A lot of roads here in Utah have a high silt content, when this gets wet it turns into slippery, sticky clay that tires can't handle. In some areas roads can have standing or flowing water that you shouldn't try to ford! (A lot of southern Utah's slickrock can be prone to this.) - How hot and shadeless is your site and the approach? While packing a lot of water and a hat can certainly help, know your own ilmits when it comes to the heat. When the weather is about about 80 Fyou may find you drink a lot more water, and adding a long or strenous hike can increase

your water needs. You can sometimes stash extra water along your route for the return trip so you don't have to lug extra pounds around! If the daily high temperature is spiking above what you would be confortable with, we recommend going early in the day to avoid the peak heat, or delaying your trip until cooler weather. - The cold can be a problem, too! Some sites will require you to sit and think, and move slowly to investigate... in cold weather this can get uncomfortable, or even dangerous! From the discomfort of having colkd fingers and hands while you fill out your forms to the real dangers of hypothermia, be sure that you are dressed appropriately. We recommend avoiding trouble by going on relatively warm and sunny days, and trying to keep your visit short.

People and Other Wildlife Most of the people you encounter are friendly, nature-loving folks just like you and we want you to share your knowledge with them! (Just bear in mind that you will need to keep some information confidential). But on the rare occasions that you find yourself in an unpleasant encounter with people and wildlife, here are some tips:

Helpful Links Want to learn more about any of these topics? Here are the sources the pros rely on: nws.gov For accurate weather in your project area enter in your nearest city, then use the map feature to get local conditions udottraffic.utah.gov For Road conditions and closures, check out their live webcams for conditions en route to your site wildawareutah.org For information on how to handle wildlife in your area, including how to report aggressive or at-risk wildlife you may encounter. Be sure to also follow up with UCSS and your Agency, though!

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trust your gut! Continuing to engage probably won't bring the other party around to your way of thinking, so as soon as you feel like you are hitting resistance just walk away. Maybe your phone is buzzing and you need to take a call, or maybe you just need to see a man about a horse, but you definitely have other places to be! - Most wildlife will give you a wide berth, but on rare occassions archaeologists have had run ins with the local denizens. Snakes: probably the most common type of animal you encounter will be snakes. Most snakes are not venonous, but all snakebites carry a risk of infection and will need medical attention. Snake bites are incredible rare, and you can avoid them by being careful about where you step, where you set your gear, and where you sit. Snakes like the cool spaces between and underneath rocks, so use care in these areas in the heat of the day. Rattlesnakes will try to give you a warning rattle, but if they are too cold (for example, early in the day), they may not be warm enough to give you warning. If you are bitten by a snake, stay calm and leave as quickly as you can. Use your phone to call a friend, UCSS Coordinator, or Agency Archaeologist. If you can, have a friend drive you to the hospital. The most important thing is to remain calm - serious or long lasting effects from snakebites are often avoidable with prompt medical care. In some rare cases people or pets are allergic to snake bites, so carry some Claritin or Benadryl with you and take it at the first sign of an allergic reaction.

like a deer or antelope as it leaves the area. If you come across an injured animal, do not approach it since it may panic and injure you or iteself further. Call the UCSS Coordinator, the Agency Archaeologist, or refer to Wild Aware Utah for more contacts. Similarly if you find an "abandoned" juvenile animal, just leave the area. Most of the time these animals are not abandoned, but just waiting for their parents to return with dinner. If a situation concerns you, please reach out to your contacts but don't try to resolve the situation yourself. We have a list of hazards and precautions at the back of this Manual (Appendix B), and if you ever have questions or a specific scenario you want to talk about, just ask us!

Predatory or territorial wildlife: In all likelihood you will never come across predatory wildlife, but if you do you will need an exit strategy. For most predators like cats and dogs making yourself large and loud and throwing rocks and sticks will scare them off. Walk backward to your vehicle, if safe, while keeping eye contact. If your approach is a difficult one, then don't try to walk backward, scare off the animal then quickly and calmly leave the area. If you are concerned about the wildlife in your project area please talk to the UCSS Coordinator or your Agency Archaeologist ahead of time and they can give you a sense of how likely a wildlife encounter is. Other wildlife: Most of the time you will see birds, rodents, and maybe a glimpse of something larger

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Some things are standard issue in every archaeologist's backpack. Here are the safety equipment and work tools that Elizabeth packs for every field trip. We have this in a handy checklist for you to use in Appendix C..

Even on a cloudy day, archaeologists wear sunscreen. Remember to get a new bottle every year since SPF degrades over time.

It's pens and pencils, not trowels and shovels, that are the archaeologist's most important tools! Pack plenty.

A tape measure that has both standard and metric units is a must for every pack!

Not all sites will require maps, GPS, and other wayfinding tools, but some may. Be sure you are prepared to venture out!

Apples and almonds are Elizabeth's favorite field snack! Actually, for a couple of years apples and almonds were just about all she ate... this is not something the UCSS program advocates!

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Protect your eyes like you protect your skin with good UVA/UVB resistent shades.

If you need any medication, be sure to bring it! Elizabeth uses an asthma inhaler sometimes, especially when the rabbitbrush is blooming!


Depending on the season, Elizabeth has a hat and a lightweight jacket stuffed in her pack.

Sometimes a small multi-tool makes a big difference!

Elizabeth's field notes ain't pretty, but they get the job done! She always has a small notebook with her dedicated to field notes.

This is not Elizabeth's compass, but she wishes it was. Her friend Hillary is much,much cooler than she as evidenced by this Brunton.

Remember to bring your IDs, including your UCSS ID Card.

Elizabeth's cell phone holds her site forms, doubles as her camera, is loaded with GPS apps, and of course the Stewardship123! app If you have a smartphone, this maybe come the most powerful tool in your pack.

Depending on the expected length of your trip, this may not be enough water. Remember that you'll drink more in heat and wind, and aim to bring a liter for every few hours. In a standard 8 hour field day, most archaeologists will drink up to three liters of water. U TA H C U LT U R A L S I T E ST E WA R D S H I P - B


You've learned the ethics, your bag is packed...but what is it that stewards actually do?

The previous sections have laid the foundation for you to be successful as a Site Steward, now let's talk about what you'll be expected to do once you're on an archaeological site. There are two different site visits this section covers: the Baseline Site Visit and the Monitoring Site Visits. For each archaeological site you steward you will have one Baseline Site Visit before you go on subsequent Monitoring Site Visits.

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Site Monitoring Procedures

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Your Baseline Site Visit During your first visit you will document the site to professional standards or examine the site guided by a previous site form. Alongside the Agency Archaeologist UCSS Coordinator, or other professional archaeologist you will get intimately familiar with the site so that any future changes will be recognizable. For this visit you will need: Stewardship123 on you tablet or mobile device, a notebook and pencil/ pen, a camera, and a GPS. In a lot of cases, your smartphone can be all of these things! Either you or your archaeologist helper will be given the previous site form prior to your site visit; the previous form and your GPS device will help you locate the site, and recognize it once you get there. The Site Stewardship Coordinator or another professional archaeologist will walk through the site with you, and together you will identify any important features, artifacts, and potential sources of damage. You will check to see whether or not

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the site is in the same condition as described on the site form. Once you and your archaeologist pal have explored the site throughly, you will record your findings using the Stewardship123 app. This will entail taking notes on specific kinds of damage and taking baseline photographs. This visit will also help you develop your own pattern for how you approach recording your site. This is a trick professional archaeologists use: they rely on previous site forms and patterned observations that increase their ability to notice even subtle changes to archaeological sites. If you always follow the same series of steps to investigate your site then nothing can shake you. Imagine if you walked onto your formerly sleepy site only to find that it had been looted and spray painted! Following your own pattern of investigation will help you stay focused and record the damage so that the land managers and law enforcement can do their work.


Your Monitoring Site Visits After your baseline site visit, you will visit the site on your own several times a year to check for changes to the site condition. You will visit the site alone or with another steward (or UCSS approved buddy) to fill out and submit observations using the Stewardship123 app. Look and listen for indications that people are at the site. Once you are comfortable that there is no active looing or vandalism taking place, proceed to the site. If you suspect that vandalism or looting is taking place, or that looters are in the area and may return, leave immediately! Make a rough sketch map (you can modify the existing site map) to show photo points, important features and artifacts, or damage locations

Photograph, describe, and map existing impacts. If recent vandalism, looting, or other damage to the site is apparent you are encouraged to take notes and photographs. If the damage is "significant" these notes and photographs will be required and we ask that you make the UCSS Coordinator and/or Agency Archaeologist aware of it. That way we can act fast to try to resolve the issue.

Who Qualifies As a Professional Archaeologist? We use the term " Professional Archaeologist" to describe anyone who can obtain an archaeological permit to access the State's database and perform archaeological work on State and Federal Lands. Usually this means the person holds at least a Master's degree in anthropology and has previous experience in Utah archaeology.

Replicate photo points, if the site has them, or establish your own. Include overview photos to make it easier to find the site again and to recognize significant changes

You may find that the site is the scene of a recent crime. Without disturbing anything, take some photographs and notes and call Law Enforcement and the Agency Archaeologist. If you are unsure of who to call, check in with the UCSS Coordinator and they can direct you. You don't need to be skittish about calling Law Enforcement though, they want your expertise with this site and will take your report seriously.

Once you have investigated your site, you will open up your Stewardship123 app, record your findings, take the appropriate photos, and submit your form. Depending on the site and the amount of change you observe, this visit could take as little as 30 minutes or as much as an hour or two.

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SOMETHING LOOKS DIFFERENT... UNDERSTANDING THE CRITERIA OF CHANGE When we talk about changes to a site that we're monitoring, we have different ways to categorize what we mean, so that we can clearly communicate any new damage. Remember, we're always examining change from the last monitoring visit, not summarizing all of the changes that have happened to the site across all time! No Change The site is in the same condition as the previous report, or changes are minor. Decrease A decrease indicates that destructive behaviors at the site are in decline from the previous site visit. Examples could include decreases in traffic to the site by foot or vehicle,, or a decrease in amounts of trash at the site. Increase An increase indicates that destructive impacts are still occurring at the site, but not to an exponential degree. Examples include a marginal increase in the visitation to the site, increased levels of trash, or other forms of vandalism. If you feel that the impacts have increased in frequency or severity beyond a natural progression, indicate a Significant Increase. Significant Increase A significant increase denotes exponential growth in destructive impacts or a singular destructive impact that has a large negative effect on the site. Examples of a significant increase may include human caused damage, multiple campsites and fires, or dramatic increases in natural deterioration such as mudslides, flooding, or erosion.

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Criteria of Change •

Change in Condition

Foot Traffic

Vehicle Traffic

Camping/Campfire

Trash

Collector’s Piles

Woodcutting/Vegetation Removal

Vandalism, graffiti, and/or other intentional human-caused damage

Natural Deterioration


When recording, how do you distinguish scene if there is any indication that there may between “recent vandalism or looting” and be clues on the site that could lead to appre“significant damage”? If the damage is human- hension of the vandals. caused it could fall into either categor y. If collectors’ piles The primary difference are present, assess would be whether there whether there are i s ev i d e n ce of r e ce n t any other signs activity at the site- such Human Remains Discovery of disturbance as footprints or back at the site. If it dirt piles that have not If you find what you think are human appears that the been weathered by site has NOT been wind or rain. Trash on remains on an archaeological site, looted or vandalsite such as empty spray leave them in place. Contact local law ized, document cans could also indicate enforcement, and contact the landthe collection with recent vandalism. Err on p h ot o s a n d l o c a the side of caution and owner. Pictures should only be taken tion information treat the site as a crime if the steward can guarantee confidentiality (NO posting on social media or sending them to other contacts).

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GPS coordinates, sketch, or both). If the site has been looted or vandalized, contact your regional coordinator or agency representative, and they will inform you on how to proceed. If you note recent vandalism or looting you need to report this to Law Enforcement and/or your stewardship contact person immediately. Your photos and notes are critical to catching and prosecuting people who damage heritage sites. Your documentation should include: Site overview photos showing where the damage is located Note the damage location on your site map If your site is large, take GPS coordinates of the damaged areas Describe what you see If you are using the mobile app, complete and submit your site visit form as soon as you return home. If you are documenting with the Site Monitoring Form, complete the form and email it to your regional coordinator or agency specialist. Your contact person will let you know how to submit photos.

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ONE LAST THING... We're glad you're here. From all of us at the Utah Cultural Site Stewardship Program, thanks for helping us preserve the past.

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This program is made possible by the support of our federal and state land managing agency partners, the Utah Department of Community and Cultural Engagement, and the Utah Division of State History.

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APPENDIX A ARCHAEOLOGY AND THE LAW As a volunteer, you are expected to understand and adhere to federal and state laws, as well as agency and program policies. Stewards do not enforce laws and policies, For the sake of your safety, avoid confrontation and conflict with those you encounter. Failure to adhere to the code of ethics and conduct is grounds for removal from the program. Stewards who engage in unlawful activities may be prosecuted under the applicable laws.

Federal Laws The most commonly cited laws are summarized below. The full text of relevant laws affecting preservation of heritage resources, and any recent amendments, may be found at: https://www.nps.gov/subjects/historicpreservation/laws.htm https://www.nps.gov//archeology/public/publiclaw.htm

Antiquities Act of 1906 (PL 59-209; 54 USC 320301-320303) The Antiquities Act is the first law to establish that archeological sites on public lands are important public resources. It obligates federal agencies that manage the public lands to preserve for present and future generations the historic, scientific, commemorative, and cultural values of the archaeological and historic sites and structures on these lands. It also authorizes the President to protect landmarks, structures, and objects of historic or scientific interest by designating them as National Monuments.

Historic Sites Act of 1935 (49 Stat. 66; 54 USC 320101-320106) The Historic Sites Act explicitly declares “that U TA H C U LT U R A L S I T E ST E WA R D S H I P - 30

it is a national policy to preserve for public use historic sites, buildings, and objects of national significance for the inspiration and benefit of the people of the United States.” The Historic Sites Act reiterated the penalties described in the Antiquities Act: a person found to have damaged an object of antiquity would be subject to fines and/or imprisonment not to exceed 90 days.

National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA) (PL 89-665; 54 USC 300101 et seq) The National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 was passed primarily to acknowledge the importance of protecting our nation’s heritage from rampant federal development. Some key elements from the Act: Sets the federal policy for preserving our nation’s heritage Establishes a federal-state and federal-tribal partnership Establishes the National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Programs Mandates the selection of qualified State Historic Preservation Officers Establishes the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation Charges Federal Agencies with responsible stewardship Establishes the role of Certified Local Governments within the States


Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 (ARPA) (PL 96-95; 16 USC 470)

Law Enforcement and your agency archaeologist immediately.

The Antiquities Act of 1906 established penalties for the damage of antiquities.

Other Applicable Federal Regulations

The Archaeological Resources Protection Act provides more specific definitions of what an “antiquity” or archaeological resource is and which activities are prohibited. The term "archaeological resource" means any material remains of past human life or activities which are of archaeological interest shall include, but not be limited to: pottery, basketry, bottles, weapons, weapon projectiles, tools, structures or portions of structures, pit houses, rock paintings, rock carvings, intaglios, graves, human skeletal materials, or any portion or piece of any of the foregoing items … No item shall be treated as an archaeological resource under regulations under this paragraph unless such item is at least 100 years of age. The Act also substantially strengthened the penalties associated with damaging or trafficking archaeological resources. Either civil or criminal penalties may apply. Note: Although ARPA does not protect arrowheads, their removal is illegal under other laws and is considered theft of government property (see below).

Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act – 1990 (NAGPRA) (PL 101601; 25 USC 3001 et seq.) The primary purpose of NAGPRA is to provide a process for the return of cultural items, including human remains and associated funerary items, to lineal descendants. Federal agencies, and federally funded museums, were instructed to inventory their collections and arrange for disposition of cultural items as determined by lineal descendants, affiliated Indian Tribes, or affiliated Native Hawaiian organizations. The second major purpose of the act was to protect Native American burials and cultural items in a way similar to how ARPA protects archeological resources: NAGPRA stipulates that illegal trafficking in human remains and cultural items may result in criminal penalties. Should you encounter human

What about arrowheads, or materials less than 100 years of age which aren’t covered by ARPA? Removal of property, including heritage and paleontological materials from federal lands without a permit or other authorization is considered theft of government property. There are exceptions to this rule for casual or hobby collection of invertebrate or plant fossils.

Theft of Government Property, 18 USC Section 641 Theft of government property is a federal offense under 18 U.S.C. Section 641. According to this law it is a crime to embezzle, steal, or knowingly convert with intent for your own personal gain the property of someone else, or without authority to sell, convey or dispose of any record, voucher, money, or thing of value issued by a department of the United States government. It is also a crime to receive, conceal or retain anything of value if you know it has been embezzled, stolen or converted.

Agency Policies and Guidelines Each federal agency may have slightly different policies. Policies specific to the Department of the Interior and the Bureau of Land Management can be found in Title 43 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR).

1. Code of Federal Regulations Title 43 Full Text: https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx ?SID=83ca26b8fd07d3c649f95c9d89d93cae& mc=true&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title43/43tab_02.tpl

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43 CFR 8365.1-5, Property and Resources, states that no person, unless authorized, shall: “(1) Willfully deface, disturb, remove or destroy any personal property, or structures, or any scientific, cultural, archaeological or historic resource, natural object or area; “ Confidentiality of archaeological resources information (43 CFR 7.18) Maintaining the confidentiality of site locations is an important measure in protecting those resources from vandalism, looting, or overuse/damage by well-meaning visitors. Exceptions are provided in instances where disclosure can be made “without risking harm to the archaeological resource or to the site in which it is located.” As a volunteer you are not authorized to make information available to the public unless you have specific authorization from the land manager. Firearms (43 CFR 20.511§ 20.511) Employees (this includes volunteers), are prohibited from carrying or having in their possession firearms on property under the control of the Secretary. Notwithstanding this paragraph, employees who are not on official duty may carry firearms on Departmental lands under the same conditions and in accordance with procedures and authorizations established for members of the general public.

State Laws Many of Utah’s laws which govern heritage resources closely parallel the federal statutes described above. The full text of Utah’s laws may be found at: https://le.utah.gov/xcode/code.html

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HB 163 (2020) This bill, sponsored by Representative Hawkes and Senator Sandall, passed the Utah Legislature and was signed into law by Governor Herbert in 2020. This law establishes the Utah Cultural Site Steward Program in state statute, tasks the Division of State History with it's operation, and invests the Division with the ability to make rules to govern the program's operation.

Utah State Antiquities Act (UCA 9-8-301 – 308) Similar to the Archaeological Resource Protection Act (ARPA), the act requires a permit to excavate archaeological materials and defines penalties for excavation without permit.

Archaeological Vandalism Statues (76-6-901, 76-6-902, 76-6-903) “It is unlawful for any person to intentionally alter, remove, injure, or destroy antiquities from state lands or private lands without the landowner's consent.”

Statute 9-8-309 governs “Ancient human remains on non-federal lands that are not state lands,” Statute 76-9-704 defines penalties for failing to report human remains or for disturbing, moving, removing, concealing, or destroying a human body.


APPENDIX B HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR UCSS Environmental Hazards

Environmental Precaution/Response

Human Hazards

Human Precaution/Response

Equipment Hazards

Equipment Precaution/Response

Medical Hazards

Medical Precaution/Response

Heat: Sunburns, Dehydration Cold: exposure, numbness Elevation: Sickness, dizziness, lethargy Insects: Mosquitoes, spiders gnat bites Animal: Snakes, rodents, dogs, other big and small game

Personal Safety: Tripping, cutting Public Interaction: Stranger danger Looting/Vandalism: Digging, metal detecting Illegal Activity: Drugs, firearms, alcohol

Electrocution: Battery powered Blunt Trauma: Dropping/hitting body Abandoned equipment:Mineshafts, nails, barbed wire

First Aid: Cuts, breaks, lacerations Allergies: Reactions Poison/Chemicals: Abandoned, aerosol

Heat: Sunscreen, Water, peer review Cold: Protective clothing Elevation: Be aware of elevation Insects: Insect repellent, bite remedy Animal: Situational awareness, avid animals and do not disturb nests or habitations

Personal Safety: Situational awareness Public Interaction: Safe & respectful Looting/Vandalism: No engagement, passive description Illegal activity: Exit situation and leave

Electrocution: Situational awareness Blunt Trauma: Careful handling of tools Abandoned equipment:Situational, be aware of surroundings

First Aid: Simple dressing, Wearing personal protective equipment (gloves) Allergies: Immediate removal Poisons/Chemicals: Immediate removal

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APPENDIX C PACKING CHECKLISTS Backpack

Car or Truck

Water

Emergency Car repair kit

Snacks

Tire changing tools

First Aid kit

Spare tire

Trail maps/guidebooks

Tow strap

Compass

Spare Key

GPS device

Extra flashlights

Camera

Batteries

Flashlight

Extra water

Pocketknife

Extra Gas

Sunglasses

Emergency flares

Sunscreen

First Aid Kit

Notepad

Blankets

Pen/pencils

Shovel

Insect repellent

Wood planks

Necessary IDs

Sunscreen

Recording Forms

Rain Gear

Smart device with Survey123 downloaded

Extra contact list

Portable charging device

Any needed permits

Tape measure or scale bar Cellphone Contact List Bite kit Medications/prescriptions Waterproof matches Extra clothing

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U TA H C U LT U R A L S I T E ST E WA R D S H I P - B

Profile for Utah State History

Utah Cultural Site Stewardship  

Program Guide and Manual March 2021

Utah Cultural Site Stewardship  

Program Guide and Manual March 2021

Profile for utah10

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