Sydney Medical School office for global health
Our Engagement in Africa July 2011
Teta Lincoln, University of Sydney MIPH student
This newsletter provides some insight into the growing relationships across teaching, learning and research that Sydney Medical School and its affiliated research institutes are building with key partners in Africa. You will find that our activities and relationships vary in partnerships, themes and in geographic locations across Africa. Here we also profile just some of these activities and the voices of some of our African students. We hope that this publication sets the scene for increased engagement with African organisations and future students. 1
Eliminating female genital cutting in subSaharan Africa By Kirsten Wade
The Partnership for the Abandonment of Female Genital Cutting in subSaharan Africa is one of eighteen Sydney Medical School projects to be successful in gaining support from the Universityâ€™s International Program Development Fund (IPDF) for 2011. Led by Dr Nesrin Varol, International Development Manager (Africa), Office of Deputy Vice Chancellor (International) and Clinical Senior Lecturer, Sydney Medical School, the project is a joint venture between the University of Sydney, the University of Nairobi and the World Health Organisation (WHO). It will also involve collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the University of Washington and Ghent University, Belgium.
“The programs that have been most successful in dealing with this particular issue are those that have been built around the principles of human rights.”
Funding from the IPDF and Sydney Medical School totaling $29,000 will contribute to a project aimed at eliminating female genital cutting (FGC) in sub-Saharan Africa through the establishment of an African Coordinating Centre. The Centre will act as the principal facility for partnership, research, capacity building and policy-making at the University of Nairobi with links to Kenyatta Hospital. The aim is to train health care professionals to care for women who have had the procedure, as they require specialised care, especially during childbirth. This training assists health care professionals appropriately deal with the long-term complications associated with FGC, including medical and psychosexual complications. A team of obstetricians, gynaecologists, scientists, anthropologists and psychologists has been assigned to the Centre to support the training of health care professionals to assist in the treatment of patients. Prof John Hearn, Prof Robert Cumming, Prof Lyndal Trevena, Mr Joel Negin and Mr Mohsen Soliman are part of the team from the University of Sydney. Female genital cutting refers to all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia and/or other injury to the female genital organs for cultural or any other non-medical reasons (WHO 2010). The World Health Organisation identifies four main grades of FGC. 1. Clitoridectomy: partial or total removal of the clitoris. 2. Excision: partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora. 3. Infibulation: narrowing of the vaginal opening through the creation of a covering seal by cutting and appositioning the labia minora and/or the labia majora, with or without removal of the clitoris. 4. Other: all other harmful procedures to the female genitalia
for non-medical purposes, including pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterizing the genital area.
African countries. “It takes a long time to actually build relationships, establish trust, form friendship and only then can you start to discuss Considered a cultural ritual, FGC is what you had in mind,” Dr Varol performed on girls from birth to the said. “Our discourse and engagement age of 15. Dr Varol says, “It’s a deeply with sub-Saharan Africa, and in low rooted cultural practice that pre-dates income countries in general, need to all the major religions and goes all be collaborative. Programs need to be the way back to the Pharaohs.” It is with people rather than doing things performed in the belief the woman to them. Otherwise we risk imposing will stay a virgin, that it will decrease our Western cultural values and notion her sexual urge and that it will ensure of quality of life and human rights on she is not promiscuous, which in turn another country, with further loss of makes her culturally more marriageable. self esteem, feelings of oppression, “For many women in sub-Saharan Africa even insult, as well as loss of control marriage is often the only means of over their bodies and culture of the survival” Dr Varol said. women and communities we are advocating for. Although culture and tradition are central to FGC, there are a number “The programs that have been of complications associated with most successful in dealing with this the practice. Often performed in particular issue are those that have unhygienic conditions and without been built around the principles of anaesthetic, infection rates are high. human rights,” Dr Varol said. Through In addition to infection, fistula, and education and health care promotion, haemorrhage, pain during urination, the project has a particular focus on menstruation and sexual intercourse empowering women, which is in line are also medical complications from with the United Nations Development FGC. For females who undergo Millennium Goals, in particular Goal the procedure, repercussions are 3, ‘to promote gender equality and long lasting and are often further empower women’. Professor Robert complicated during pregnancy. A Cumming, Professor of Epidemiology in landmark prospective collaborative the School of Public Health and Chair, study by WHO involving about 30,000 University of Sydney Africa Expert women at 28 obstetric centers in six Group, explains, “Education of girls African countries has clearly shown and women in Africa is the best way to that women with the most severe produce results.” form of FGC have a 30 per cent This human rights focus is echoed by higher risk of undergoing a Caesarean the term change from female genital section, and a 70 percent increase in mutilation to female genital cutting. postpartum haemorrhage compared In explaining the reasoning behind to women who had not undergone the term change Dr Varol, Professor FGC. The perinatal mortality rate Cumming and Mohsen Soliman from was 15, 32 and 55 percent higher the Office for Global Health and in women with FGC type I, II and with responsibility for projects with III, respectively. The practice can be African countries, who is also part of a traumatising experience leading the project, all noted the judgmental to possible long-term psychological characteristic that the term ‘mutilation’ conditions, including psychosexual and carried. “ ‘Cutting’ doesn’t carry post-traumatic stress disorders. the same negative connotation that The fifteen-year project to eliminate mutilation does, which is so important FGC recognises the importance of when you’re working with communities not simply imposing Western ideas that carry out these practices,” Dr and practices on communities of Varol said. 3
University of Sydney delegates during their visit to the University of Nairobi - Professor Robert Cumming, Professor Lyndal Trevena, Mr Joel Negin and Mr Mohsen Soliman
By working with community leaders to provide health care education and opportunities to discuss their cultural practices in relation to human rights, individuals and communities can determine for themselves the harmful physical and psychological effects of FGC. “If you communicate that they have the right to health care, the right to education, the mothers have the right not to subject their daughters to this procedure, not be ostracised and still be able to marry off their daughters,“ Dr Varol said, then the community can work together towards the elimination of FGC. Dr Varol also credits the media in the role they have played in reducing FGC rates so far. Health care promotion through radio and television, as well as more recently mobile phones, allow even rural communities to stay in touch with changing societal practices, such as the elimination of FGC. Professor Cumming explains a number of African countries, including Kenya and Uganda, have taken an important step in eliminating female genital cutting by outlawing the practice. In late 2001, the Kenyan Government passed a bill banning female genital
cutting on girls under the age of 17. Harsh penalties were enacted, including a minimum one-year prison sentence, to act as deterrents for those engaged in the practice. While this ban has been seen as victory for women’s rights, Professor Cumming highlights the fact that “simply making it illegal is useless unless it is enforced.” This further highlights the reasons behind the project using education and health care promotion to empower women, starting from within communities. The FGC project is starting in Kenya as facilities are already well established and The University of Sydney signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the University of Nairobi in 2010 to signal a commitment of working together on issues pertinent to Africa. Once established, this project aims to extend beyond Kenya to Sub-Saharan Africa, then to other parts of Africa and the remainder of countries where FGC is practiced. “I believe we will see the end of FGC within a generation, which is 25 years, because we are already seeing a significant decrease in the practice,” Dr Varol said.
In October this year, Dr Varol and Professor Cumming, along with Professor John Hearn, Deputy Vice Chancellor (International), will travel to Nairobi to host an international conference on the FGC Project. It will be attended by the institutions already involved, including WHO and UNFPA, as well as non-government organisations, who already have established programs in the region, key researchers and funding bodies. The conference will provide opportunities for collaboration and proposals for further research, education and funding. Dr Varol reiterates the purpose of the project and this collaboration with various organisations and universities, “One person can do good things, but to do great things you’ve got to have a team.” For more information on this project contact: Dr Nesrin Varol International Development Manager (Africa) Office of the Deputy Vice-Chancellor (International) firstname.lastname@example.org This article first appeared in Radius magazine, July 2011
Building capacity in HIV By Adrian Mindel
HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections present major public health challenges to both developing and developed countries, with millions of adults and children becoming infected and dying each year. The Sexually Transmitted Infections Research Centre or STIRC is working with partners in Africa to improve outcomes for those affected. HIV virus spreading
HIV and STIs present major public health challenges to developing countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, an estimated 1.9 million people became newly infected with HIV in 2008 and this region accounted for 67% of HIV infections worldwide and 72% of the world’s AIDS-related deaths. Strengthening relevant human resources in the fields of prevention and management of HIV is crucial for effective public health responses. STIRC, led by Professor Adrian Mindel has been successful in obtaining an Australian Leadership Awards Fellowships Grant administered by the Australian Agency for International Development to assist in developing the critical human resources capacity. “The evolving epidemics have particularly affected resource-poor countries, leading to increased demand for both educational opportunities and research skills in these areas”, says Adrian Mindel. The grant of $790,000 will host 15 fellows nominated by academic institutes, government and non-government organisations in Botswana, South Africa and Zambia to undertake a Short Intensive Professional Program in HIV (SIPP-HIV). The SIPP-HIV program is focussed on midcareer health care professionals and will commence in August 2011. It is specifically aimed at enhancing the skill base in these counties with a view to improving the public health response to these infections. The SIPP-HIV program provides a comprehensive multidisciplinary training in the prevention and management of HIV infection and STIs. The program also provides opportunities to enhance professional experience and to develop networks and strengthen leadership skills.
The program has been given added nuance by undertaking a comprehensive set of visits Zambia and Botswana. In April 2011, Professor Mindel visited various government departments, universities and NGO’s involved with policy development and implementation and care of individuals with STIs and HIV and was able to gain an enhanced understanding of the issues in context. “Following the discussions and meetings in Zambia and Botswana, several common themes became evident”, says Professor Mindel. “These were, challenges of managing HIV and STIs in resource poor settings, resolving skill shortages, service provision difficulties in remote and isolated communities, gender inequalities as they impact on the HIV and STIs and provision of education, public health initiatives. Of particular issue was service provision for marginalised populations and individuals who may be important in the HIV epidemic including injecting drug users and men who have sex with men.” The program will be conducted by Professor Adrian Mindel, Associate Professor Richard Hillman and Dr Shailendra Sawleshwarkar from STIRC in conjunction with Dr Marylouise Caldwell from the Discipline of Marketing at the University of Sydney Business School, Professor Elias Mpofu, Faculty of Health Sciences, and Kabo Matlho of the Westmead Millennium Institute. The program will provide HIV-related knowledge and skills to two professional groupings: A medical stream targeting doctors, nurses and laboratory personnel, will focus on clinical aspects of HIV/AIDs, particularly around diagnosis and management. A program 5
delivery stream will target educators, public health professionals and program managers and will focus on prevention initiatives, social marketing, counselling and practical issues involved in HIV-related programs.
The course is expected to start in August 2011. It is hoped that visits such as the one to Zambia and Botswana and the building of networks of health professionals through the SIPP-HIV program will lead to ongoing teaching and research partnerships between STIRC and health care professionals, government agencies and NGOs.
Sexually Transmitted Infections Research Centre The Sexually Transmitted Infections Research Centre (STIRC) is an internationally renowned research and teaching centre at the University of Sydney. STIRC has an active research program, helping build a thriving and stimulating academic community and dynamic postgraduate teaching courses in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV.
Dr Peter Mwaba, Permanent Secretary Ministry of Health for Zambia and Professor Mindel
Ms Matshedis Botshelo-Rankoa
Ministry of Education & Skills Development
Mr Thabang Dikae
Botswana Network of People living with AIDS (BONEPWA)
Miss Baitlhatswi Gaolatlhe Motseotsile
Ministry of Health
Miss Kayi Ntinda
Africa Scholarship Development Enterprise (ASDE)
Mrs Ofentse Rampete
Ministry of Education & Skills Development
Mrs Nontobeko Sylvia Tau
Ministry of Health
Ms Fatima Gallie
Department of Trade and Industry
Dr Sumeshni Govender
University of Zululand
Mr Nkandu Chikonde
Dr Clementina Lwatula
The University of Zambia - Health Services
Mrs Abigail Musonda
Mrs Zulu Joyce Mwandila
Ministry of Education & Skills Development - Guidance and Counselling
Mr Benjamin Mwape
Mrs Irene Miti Singogo
Plan International Zambia
Mr Robert Mukwiza Sakutaha
Kafue Child Development Agency
For more information on the program and STIRC contact: Professor Adrian Mindel Professor of Sexual Health Medicine Director, Sexually Transmitted Infections Research Centre
About the ALA Fellowships The Australian Leadership Awards (ALA) Fellowships is an Australian Government initiative under the Australia Awards designed to promote knowledge, education links and enduring ties between Australia and the global community. ALA Fellowships are administered by AusAID with the aim to develop leadership, address priority regional development issues, and build partnerships and linkages between Australian organisations and partner organisations in developing countries in the AsiaPacific region, Latin America, the Caribbean, Africa and the Middle East.
HIV and Older People in Africa By Professor robert Cumming
HIV and AIDS in Africa are usually thought of as health issues that predominately affect children and young and middle-aged adults, not people over 50 years old. The peak international agency in the field, UNAIDS, restricts its published HIV prevalence data to the age range 15 to 49 years. Recent work by two Sydney Medical School academics shows that this is wrong. Senior Lecturer Mr Joel Negin and Professor Robert Cumming, from the School of Public Health, extrapolated from published data to estimate that there are about three million people aged 50 years and over in sub-Saharan Africa who are infected with HIV. This is about 15% of all adults living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. This work was published in the Bulletin of the World
Health Organisation in November 2010.1 The existence of large numbers of older people in sub-Saharan Africa with HIV is important for both treatment and prevention. Older people risk being excluded from treatment programs 1
Volume 88, number 11 p. 847-853 http:// www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/88/11/10-001110/en/ index.html
if it is assumed that they are at very low risk of being infected. Prevention programs aimed at young people will never be successful if there is a pool of older men with HIV who are engaging in transactional sex with younger women. Robert Cumming became interested in HIV among older people when he spent
HIV and Older People in Africa CONT. about HIV and they are also looking at a sabbatical at Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda, in 2008. At that time treatment outcomes in older people in a Malawi cohort. They will present this the words “older people” and “HIV” work at the International Conference were only ever mentioned together in on AIDS and STIs in Africa (ICASA) in the context of grandmothers caring Addis Ababa in December, 2011. for children orphaned by AIDS. When he returned to Australia he teamed For more information on this project up with Joel Negin, who had worked contact: on HIV control programs in many Professor Robert Cumming countries across Africa. Professor of Epidemiology and Negin and Cumming are currently Geriatric Medicine investigating older people’s knowledge School of Public Health
Professor Robert Cumming with workshop participants in Uganda
Addressing noncommunicable disease in Africa By Mohsen Soliman
Non-communicable disease (NCDs) such as diabetes, hypertension, stroke and heart disease are becoming more frequent in Kenya and other parts of East Africa. The University of Sydney is working with the University of Nairobi and the Kenyan Ministry of Health to strengthen the evidence base for action in this area. The University of Sydney’s School of malaria and tuberculosis but what we Sydney partner university. Public Health is working with Kenya’s have seen recently is an emergence The workshop had two main goals. leading health authorities to build the of substantial numbers of deaths from “Firstly, it enabled us to identify country’s capacity to respond to the non-communicable diseases,” said Joel the NCD priorities. Secondly, we growth of non-communicable diseases. Negin. need to build capacity by improving Non-communicable diseases (NCD) “In fact, recent studies have shown understanding so that the Ministry may result from genetic or lifestyle that 80% of deaths in developing of Health can better deliver services,” factors and the most common include countries are from NCDs and although said Cumming. heart disease, diabetes, stroke, cancer no solid data really exists for Africa we The workshop welcomed over 25 and high blood pressure. can safely say it is a growing problem participants from across Kenya to Professor Robert Cumming and Senior largely due to modernisation, such as discuss how to increase the evidence Lecturer Joel Negin were awarded changes in diet, smoking and adopting base for NCD action in the country. seed funding through the University a western lifestyle,” said Professor Three research proposals emerged of Sydney’s International Program Robert Cumming. from the group work, each of which Development Fund (IPDF) to partner Cumming and Negin travelled to Kenya was provided with seed funding. The with the University of Nairobi and the in July 2010 to run a short course in studies included one on childhood Kenyan Ministry for Health on a project conjunction with Dr William Maina, obesity and another on the costto build the capacity of local health who is Director of the NCD Division effectiveness of decentralising diabetes authorities to identify and address at Kenya’s Ministry of Health and an care away from the national hospital. NCDs. alumnus of the University of Sydney. The partnerships in Kenya are seen “So much of the emphasis in Africa The workshop was jointly planned with as the starting point of a long-term has been in stopping the spread of Associate Professor Mark Joshi of the collaboration with the Ministry of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, University of Nairobi - a University of 8
Professor Robert Cumming and Mr Joel Negin with workshop participants in Kenya
Health and the University of Nairobi leveraging the strengths of The University of Sydney to make a difference in the health of people in East Africa.
NCD work in Uganda Professor Robert Cumming is a regular visitor to Uganda, where he teaches at both Makerere and Gulu Universities. He is involved in research projects in Uganda related to control of noncommunicable diseases and also the impact of HIV on older people. He is on the Scientific Programme Committee for the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics conference to be held in Cape Town in 2012 - the first ever conference on ageing in Africa. For more information on this project contact: Professor Robert Cumming Professor of Epidemiology and Geriatric Medicine School of Public Health
What is Africa? Africa is the world’s second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. With 1.0 billion people in 54 countries, it accounts for about 15% of the world’s population, including Madagascar and various island groups.
Did you know? • Total population: 1.0 billion • Population growth: 2.5% • Life expectancy at birth: 52 years • Infant mortality per 1,000 births: 89 • Female youth literacy: 67% • Number of people living with HIV/AIDS: 22.3 million http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Africa
• In 2007, more than one in every four 15-49 year olds in Swaziland has contracted HIV (26.1 percent); the rate is one in every thousand in Mauritania. • In Somalia, 29 percent of the population has access to a safe source of water, in Mauritius, it is 100 percent. • Skilled personnel attend 5.7 percent of births in Ethiopia http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/AFRICAEXT/0,,contentMDK:2 0563739~menuPK:1613741~pagePK:146736~piPK:146830~theSitePK:258644,00.html
“There are so many ways different countries handle the same health related issue and therefore I need to have an open mind”. Emmanuel Ifubaraboye Taribo MIPH student
Emmanuel Ifubaraboye Taribo
our african students African students from Nigeria, South Africa, Botswana, Uganda, Liberia, Ethiopia, Malawi, Mozambique and Sierra Leone are currently undertaking their post graduate degrees at Sydney Medical School. Their degree courses varied from Graduate Diploma in Public Health to Master of Science in Medicine (STD/HIV). Here we profile just two of our African students.
Emmanuel Ifubaraboye Taribo Emmanuel is a young doctor from Nigeria who was nominated by the Federal Ministry of Health to be a beneficiary of an Australian Development Scholarship. While browsing the internet for Australian Universities, he found that the Masters of International Public Health course was one of the courses offered by the University of Sydney. “I graduated with a Medical degree, but after practicing for a year, I realised that I had no interest in clinical practice”, says Emmanuel, “instead, I developed an interest in public health. I’ve always had an interest in doing public health in order to have a broader knowledge on how to overcome the health related challenges in my country. “ Emmanuel worked at the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health before coming to Australia to study where he was involved in monitoring and evaluation of government health programs in malaria, HIV and AIDS, TB, safe motherhood, all directed at achieving the Millennium Development Goals. “While undertaking this task, I felt programs lacked the technical capacity to implement their activities and therefore developed a passion to be on the field implementing rather than plan to evaluate from the national level”, says Emmanuel. Emmanuel found writing academic essays a tough challenge but one that he has overcome. “Undertaking research to
provide evidence to substantiate statements and arguments Emmanuel Ifubaraboye Taribo and also to critically appraise various research articles to Emmanuel is a young doctor from form an opinion is a herculean task which I am not familiar Nigeria who was nominated by with. Trying to convince my assessors of my formed opinion the Federal Ministry of Health to in order to get good grades was challenging”. be a beneficiary of an Australian “My experienceScholarship. here has taught Development Whileme how to learn and find solutions given health issue. The course made me browsing for theainternet for Australian realize that there are so many different countries Universities, he found that the ways Masters handle the samePublic healthHealth related issue and therefore I need of International course to have mind and be able was onean of open the courses offered by to thesearch this out and apply whatever is realistic and achievable within the context University of Sydney. of my country. While in Sydney I developed a specific “I graduated with a Medical degree, interest in malaria control and hope to set up my NGO but after practicing for a year, I sometime in the future to address this disease in a manner realised that I had no interest in clinical that may not be well-known among health practitioners practice”, says Emmanuel, “instead, I in my country using evidence based approach through developed an interest in public health. vigorous research.” I’ve always had an interest in doing public health in order to have a broader knowledge on how to overcome Teta Lincoln the health related challenges in my Teta Lincoln is a young mum with a first degree in general country. “ nursing from Liberia. She was offered a scholarship by the Emmanuel Government worked at the Australian to Nigerian study Public Health in Australia Federal Ministry of Health her before and decided to undertake Master of International Public coming to the Australia to study where Health at University of Sydney. he was involved in monitoring and “I had some experience working in public health and realized that I had developed a passion for the job. I worked with the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare in Liberia as a coordinator of the Basic Package of Health Services. The package was developed in 2007 with the goal of improving access to health care services by 70% in 2010. This package was being implemented within the 15 counties of Liberia” says Teta. “When the right opportunity came along to study an MIPH, I was glad to advance my skills to allow me to better contribute to my country”. Teta found the first few months a challenge, but soon adapted to the change. “I can say at first it was really terrifying especially coming from a different part of the world I was not sure as to what to expect, but the program has been an experience I would never forget. The course brought people from different parts of the world together and sharing our experiences has allowed me to visualize what is happening around the world and how much of a task we need to do as public health technicians”. “Upon entering the program, even though I worked in the health sector, I had little knowledge on the procedures of implementing public health. But it all began falling into place as I went thru the various course components. Now with all this knowledge, I am glad to say that I am prepared to contribute extensively to the development of my country’s health sector.” Upon returning home, Teta is looking forward to continuing her work with the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare. Offering advice to others, Teta says, “I would tell them that not only will they be inspired by what they will learn, but it would change them positively.”
Global perspectives on health - Sydney Medical School BY Louise Freckelton
Health is an international field. Health professionals are in demand across the globe and health issues do not recognize national boundaries. No matter whether students decide to practice at home or abroad, an understanding of the global burden of disease, how certain diseases link or are more prevalent according to ethnicity and how disease is changing across the globe due to modernization and climate change is imperative. Sydney Medical School takes seriously the global dimensions of health and has built this aspect into both the informal and formal curricula. The University of Sydney Medical Program is committed to ensuring that its graduates are globally competent and globally mobile health professionals prepared in part to interact in that borderless world. Our international exchanges are a prime way in which we aim to internationalise our student’s experiences. International Exchanges Naturally our program provides space for electives and many of our students organise placements in far flung corners of the world organized by themselves. But we have also developed a number of special exchanges and international experiences with key partners. These include opportunities to undertake an elective with some of the best universities in the world like Cornell and Columbia in the United States, Karolinska in Sweden, Shanghai Jiao Tong in China and with CMC Vellore in India. In Africa we have developed student exchanges in Zambia at the Mikuni Village Hospital and in Uganda where Sydney Medical School has a growing relationship with Makerere University in Uganda’s capital city Kampala. “We are constantly growing these opportunity for students and this will also develop in-line with where our students come from and what the interests of our students are”, says Associate Dean (International) and Director of the Office for Global Health, Associate Professor Lyndal Trevena.
Studying at Sydney Medical School Sydney Medical School is Australia’s largest and oldest. At Sydney Medical School our aim is to develop caring, clear-thinking, clinically outstanding, research capable and globally engaged graduates who have the capabilities to become leaders in medicine, public health and research. Ranked by the Times Higher Education Supplement as 15th in the world for Life and Biosciences, you can be sure that our programs are world-class. Sydney Medical School offers programs in a large number of disciplines critical to contemporary health care. These include: Graduate-entry studies in: • Medicine (MBBS) Postgraduate study in: • Biostatistics • Brain and Mind Sciences • Clinical Epidemiology
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Health Policy Indigenous Health Promotion Indigenous Health (Substance Use) Infection and Immunity International Ophthalmology International Public Health Medical Education Medical Humanities Ophthalmic Science Paediatric Medicine Pain Management Psychotherapy Public Health Qualitative Health Research Refractive Surgery Reproductive Health Sciences and Human Genetics • Sexually Transmitted Diseases/HIV • Sleep Medicine • Surgery And research programs in any medical field. www.sydney.edu.au/medicine
Office for Global Health The Office for Global Health works closely with the University’s Office of the Deputy Vice-Chancellor (International). The Office for Global Health is part of Sydney Medical School and aims to internationalise the research we undertake, the experience of our students and staff and our approaches to learning and teaching. We also aim to contribute to the health and wellbeing of our region by engaging in health projects with some of our nearest neighbours. Find out more about the activities of our office by visiting our website: www.sydney.edu.au/global-health
MOHSEN SOLIMAN Mohsen Soliman is Manager International Relations, Office for Global Health. Mohsen is responsible for developing key strategic relationships in Africa and Middle East in regards to research and innovation, teaching and learning, the student experience and community engagement. He provides analysis, program development, support and advice on relationships with partners in this region. Mohsen was born in Egypt and lived and worked in Europe and the Middle East before moving to Australia.
CREDITS Copy: Kirsten Wade, Mohsen Soliman, Louise Freckelton, Adrian Mindel, Robert Cumming, Joel Negin Editor: Louise Freckelton Layout: Philippa d’Halluin
Sydney Medical School
for more information contact T +61 2 9036 7123 F +61 2 9036 7124 E email@example.com sydney.edu.au/global-health