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CRANES AGA IN ST I H

Construction scenes like thi s are nevI', I lltJ I thousa nds af Shipyard emp loyees who h ov' J blHII

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CNTCR PRISE.

NEWPORT NEWS SHIPBUILDING AND DRY DOCK COMPANY

SEPTEM BER, 1960 .

Volume

xx -

Number 5


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Shipyard Bulletin

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Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company , Newport News , Virginia

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ROBER T B. HOPKINS

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Ed'!tor

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W . H . BYRN

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Associate Edito r

•• B. ]. NIXON-R. G . ISNER

Photographers

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Table of Contents PAGE

The World's Largest Ship ....... ..... . . ... ... , ........... , . . . . . . . . . .. 4 The StOry of Seven Ships N amed U.S.S. /i17terpl'i.se . .... . .... . , . . ......... 8

Enterprise Memorialized by Bronze Medallion and Commemora tive Plate . ' .. . 11 Aircraft Carrier Development Through the Years., ....... , . . ..... .... ... 12

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Cranes to Build the Enterprise . ,.,""',. ,', .. , ., ', ... ,', .. .. ," " '" 16

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More Electronics on the Enterprise Than Any Ship Afloat, ' , . , , ' , . , , , .. , , . 18

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These Navy Planes May Be Assigned to the Enterprise, . , .. , , . , . , , . , . , . , .2 1

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Her elevators and distinct'ive towe r and

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Name in Lights Signals Floating of Ente1'p"ise . ... .... , , , . , .. , . , , , . . , , , , . 15

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Firs t aerial view of the ENTERPRISE after she was s tructurally complete, most were th e lost components to be in stalled ,

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The StOry of Nuclear Power at NewpOrt News. , . , . , , , , , ' , , , .. . , . ' . , , , , .2 2

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Facts About the bztel'p"ise . ... . .. , , , . , , , , , ... , ... . . ' , , .. ' , , , .. ' ... , ' . ,~O

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** * ** ** :*•

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~ ~ ~ : :

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Shipyard Bulletin

** *

Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company , Newport News , Virginia

: :

~ :t•

·

** *

ROBER T B. HOPKINS

•t

:

Ed'!tor

:t

W . H . BYRN

:t

Associate Edito r

•• B. ]. NIXON-R. G . ISNER

Photographers

:

~

•~ :t•• :

~

:t ~ :t :t :t :t• ~

Table of Contents PAGE

The World's Largest Ship ....... ..... . . ... ... , ........... , . . . . . . . . . .. 4 The StOry of Seven Ships N amed U.S.S. /i17terpl'i.se . .... . .... . , . . ......... 8

Enterprise Memorialized by Bronze Medallion and Commemora tive Plate . ' .. . 11 Aircraft Carrier Development Through the Years., ....... , . . ..... .... ... 12

i

Cranes to Build the Enterprise . ,.,""',. ,', .. , ., ', ... ,', .. .. ," " '" 16

:t

More Electronics on the Enterprise Than Any Ship Afloat, ' , . , , ' , . , , , .. , , . 18

:

These Navy Planes May Be Assigned to the Enterprise, . , .. , , . , . , , . , . , . , .2 1

~

:t

Her elevators and distinct'ive towe r and

* :**

Name in Lights Signals Floating of Ente1'p"ise . ... .... , , , . , .. , . , , , . . , , , , . 15

~

Firs t aerial view of the ENTERPRISE after she was s tructurally complete, most were th e lost components to be in stalled ,

**

:t ~

~

:

The StOry of Nuclear Power at NewpOrt News. , . , . , , , , , ' , , , .. . , . ' . , , , , .2 2

:

* * : : : :

*: * : * :

:*

i* :

•:• :t•

T rammg " f or t hE ' C rew", ... , . . " ,. " " . " , . " ,. , .. . ... , .,. "') ')e "ntel'prtse

**

H I sE ') ) ow Long the ntel'pnse".",",.,.," , ., "", .. ,', . . , .. . , ' ,.,' " _8

:*

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Facts About the bztel'p"ise . ... . .. , , , . , , , , , ... , ... . . ' , , .. ' , , , .. ' ... , ' . ,~O

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THE

WORLD'S

LARGES SHI In Naval histOry, the attack aircraft carrier has ex­ tended air power on the seas to revolutionize modern Naval warfare. This mighty weapon, which has meant so much to the free world's survival in World War II and since, has had an extraordinary growth and develop­ ment since the keel of the first vessel built as an air­ craft carrier was laid here on September 26, 1931. As heavier aircraft with higher speeds and longer ranges have been developed to extend their capabilities, larger and better equipped carriers have been constructed to serve as their floating landing fields anywhere on the world's high seas. The Attack Aircraft Carrier Enterprise incorporates the latest of these developments and is also ro be driven by nuclear energy. Quite naturally, then, she has earned

the superlatives such as largest, first, most and latest which are needed to des cribe her. With her length of I , 101 feet and displacement of 85,350 tons, EnterpriJC' is (lor only the largest carrier ever built, but also th e wnrld's largest ship. When she joins the Fleet in the Fall of 19(, I , she will give the U . S. Navy the advantage of having rhe o nly nuclear-powered aircraft carrier in the world. Wlten sit e is commissioned as CVA(N) 65, it is anticipated site will be the first Naval combatant surface vessc:l co operate on nuclear power, not only in the U. S. Fleets. hu.r in any nation's

navy. Obviously, she is also the world's first nuclear­ powered aircraft carrier. The first vessel ever designed with more than two nuclear reactOrs, Enterprise will have eight pressurized water reactOrs arranged in four dual systems to dri ve her four propellers. In combination, they make up the world's mos t powerful atOmic power plant, afloat or ashore. With this unique plant producing horsepower rated at "over 200,000" and driving her at speeds "in excess of 30 knots", the Entelprise will be ca pable of operating for several years without refueling. In con-

The flight deck of the Enterprise, the largest in the world, measures nearly 4Yz acres, enough room for 68 tennis courts or four football fields. The length of the flight deck is equal to five city blocks.

tinuous operation, she could circle the earth at high speed many times without stOpping. The nuclear

The keel laying on February 4, 1958, consisti ng of plac­ ing fi ve of these bottom she ll plates in Gra ving Dock Number 11 .

Some of thi s group of Shipyard personnel seem tense a s they watch Rear Admiral A. G. Mumma, USN (pc n in hand), prepare to sign the contract plans for the world's first nuclear powered aircraft carrier. Then Chief of the Burem l o f Sh ips, the Admiral has since retired .

4

5


THE

WORLD'S

LARGES SHI In Naval histOry, the attack aircraft carrier has ex­ tended air power on the seas to revolutionize modern Naval warfare. This mighty weapon, which has meant so much to the free world's survival in World War II and since, has had an extraordinary growth and develop­ ment since the keel of the first vessel built as an air­ craft carrier was laid here on September 26, 1931. As heavier aircraft with higher speeds and longer ranges have been developed to extend their capabilities, larger and better equipped carriers have been constructed to serve as their floating landing fields anywhere on the world's high seas. The Attack Aircraft Carrier Enterprise incorporates the latest of these developments and is also ro be driven by nuclear energy. Quite naturally, then, she has earned

the superlatives such as largest, first, most and latest which are needed to des cribe her. With her length of I , 101 feet and displacement of 85,350 tons, EnterpriJC' is (lor only the largest carrier ever built, but also th e wnrld's largest ship. When she joins the Fleet in the Fall of 19(, I , she will give the U . S. Navy the advantage of having rhe o nly nuclear-powered aircraft carrier in the world. Wlten sit e is commissioned as CVA(N) 65, it is anticipated site will be the first Naval combatant surface vessc:l co operate on nuclear power, not only in the U. S. Fleets. hu.r in any nation's

navy. Obviously, she is also the world's first nuclear­ powered aircraft carrier. The first vessel ever designed with more than two nuclear reactOrs, Enterprise will have eight pressurized water reactOrs arranged in four dual systems to dri ve her four propellers. In combination, they make up the world's mos t powerful atOmic power plant, afloat or ashore. With this unique plant producing horsepower rated at "over 200,000" and driving her at speeds "in excess of 30 knots", the Entelprise will be ca pable of operating for several years without refueling. In con-

The flight deck of the Enterprise, the largest in the world, measures nearly 4Yz acres, enough room for 68 tennis courts or four football fields. The length of the flight deck is equal to five city blocks.

tinuous operation, she could circle the earth at high speed many times without stOpping. The nuclear

The keel laying on February 4, 1958, consisti ng of plac­ ing fi ve of these bottom she ll plates in Gra ving Dock Number 11 .

Some of thi s group of Shipyard personnel seem tense a s they watch Rear Admiral A. G. Mumma, USN (pc n in hand), prepare to sign the contract plans for the world's first nuclear powered aircraft carrier. Then Chief of the Burem l o f Sh ips, the Admiral has since retired .

4

5


SPONSOR OF THE ENTERPRISE

The christening of the CVA(N) 65 by Mrs. Franke marks the second time the wife of a Secre­ tary of the Navy has given the name Enterprise to a carrier built here. On October 3, 1936, Mrs. Swan­ son, wife of Claude A. Swanson, Secretary of the Navy at that time, christened Our Hull No. 360, CV-6, later to become famous as "The Big E".

plant will also increase the striking capabilities of her planes, sin ce the tank spaces normally required by oil­ fired carriers for carrying their own fuel will be available for aviation fuels. Besides her n ucJear plant, the Enterprise will have many advances in carrier design and development since the first U. s. S. Ranger (CV-4), was completed by Newport News in 1934. These inel ude what is believed to be the greatest concentration of electrical and elec­ tronic equipment evt:r assembled on board any ship in the world . H er an g led flight deck allows for the simul­ taneous launchin g and landing of planes. The four powerful catapults uf the latest design , the largest ever installed, will fling her hea vy jet aircraft into the air at their fast flying speeds in a few seconds. In a matter of minutes , her four gian r deck-edge elevators, the largest ever built, will carry her planes from the hangar deck to the flight deck for laun ching. On her flight deck of nearly 4\12 acres, also th e world' s largest, there is toom for 68 tennis courts or four foo th all 6elds, or five city blocks of buildings.

As we shall see in the following pages, the construc­ rion of the Enterprise is the result of the best thinking of the forward-looking U. S. Navy and the combined experience and efforts of thousands of Newport News ' designers, engineers and craftsmen devoted to "build­ ing good ships". Although she was built and will be equipped in Newport News at the world's largest inte­ grated private shipyard, the big carrier is actually made up of materials and equipment supplied by hundreds of American manufacturers, large and small, from Maine to California. These materials received at Newport News include over 230 miles of pipe, 60,000 tons of structural steel, 625 miles of electric cable and more than a million electronic tubes, transistors and diodes. They would fill 3,000 railroad cars, making up a train 30 miles long. As would be expected for the world's largest vessel , the crew of the Enterprise will be considerably larger than that of any other Naval ship. A total of 13,800 meals will be served daily. The fully air-conditioned quarters and living spaces, a veritable "floating city" will have complete facilities for the accommodation, safety and comfort of her 4,600 officers and men, in­ eluding air gtoups. Two and a half years in the building to her launching date, the Enterprise will require another year for Out­ fitting before she is commissioned in the Fall of 1961. The cOntract was awarded in November of 1957, and her keel was laid on February 4, 1958, in Graving Dock No. 11 , which had to be lengthened to 1,100 feet to accommodate her.

One of the vessel's giant reduction gears set in place on dockside before being installed.

MRS. WILLIAM B. FRANKE

Sponsor

The Sponsor of the ENTERPRISE is Mrs. William B. Franke, the wife of the Secretary of the Nav/. Before her marriage to the Honorable Mr. Franke in 1919, she was the former Bertha Irene Reedy, daughter of the late Dr. and Mrs. John Edward Reedy of Schenectady, New York. She taught French and History following her graduation from New York College for Teachers. Active in work for the Girl Scouts fo r many year s, Mrs. Franke served as Commissioner of Girl Scouts 01 Dobbs Ferry, N . Y., when she and the Secretory mode thei r home there. A strong supporter of th e Navy Relief Society, she has held many positi ons in that organization, including that of Chairman, in 1958, of the Society's Washington Boll. She and Secretory Franke have three married daughters and nine grand­ ch i Id ren, and ma into in residences on Loughboro Road in Washington and at Rutland, Vermont.

The three star­ board elevators in place. The largest single structures ever made of alumi­ num, each has room for 2 ,000 persons to stand on.

At th e keel laying, President W. E. Blewett, Jr., watches intentl y a 5 Admiral Mumma authenticates the vessel's name plate .

6

7


SPONSOR OF THE ENTERPRISE

The christening of the CVA(N) 65 by Mrs. Franke marks the second time the wife of a Secre­ tary of the Navy has given the name Enterprise to a carrier built here. On October 3, 1936, Mrs. Swan­ son, wife of Claude A. Swanson, Secretary of the Navy at that time, christened Our Hull No. 360, CV-6, later to become famous as "The Big E".

plant will also increase the striking capabilities of her planes, sin ce the tank spaces normally required by oil­ fired carriers for carrying their own fuel will be available for aviation fuels. Besides her n ucJear plant, the Enterprise will have many advances in carrier design and development since the first U. s. S. Ranger (CV-4), was completed by Newport News in 1934. These inel ude what is believed to be the greatest concentration of electrical and elec­ tronic equipment evt:r assembled on board any ship in the world . H er an g led flight deck allows for the simul­ taneous launchin g and landing of planes. The four powerful catapults uf the latest design , the largest ever installed, will fling her hea vy jet aircraft into the air at their fast flying speeds in a few seconds. In a matter of minutes , her four gian r deck-edge elevators, the largest ever built, will carry her planes from the hangar deck to the flight deck for laun ching. On her flight deck of nearly 4\12 acres, also th e world' s largest, there is toom for 68 tennis courts or four foo th all 6elds, or five city blocks of buildings.

As we shall see in the following pages, the construc­ rion of the Enterprise is the result of the best thinking of the forward-looking U. S. Navy and the combined experience and efforts of thousands of Newport News ' designers, engineers and craftsmen devoted to "build­ ing good ships". Although she was built and will be equipped in Newport News at the world's largest inte­ grated private shipyard, the big carrier is actually made up of materials and equipment supplied by hundreds of American manufacturers, large and small, from Maine to California. These materials received at Newport News include over 230 miles of pipe, 60,000 tons of structural steel, 625 miles of electric cable and more than a million electronic tubes, transistors and diodes. They would fill 3,000 railroad cars, making up a train 30 miles long. As would be expected for the world's largest vessel , the crew of the Enterprise will be considerably larger than that of any other Naval ship. A total of 13,800 meals will be served daily. The fully air-conditioned quarters and living spaces, a veritable "floating city" will have complete facilities for the accommodation, safety and comfort of her 4,600 officers and men, in­ eluding air gtoups. Two and a half years in the building to her launching date, the Enterprise will require another year for Out­ fitting before she is commissioned in the Fall of 1961. The cOntract was awarded in November of 1957, and her keel was laid on February 4, 1958, in Graving Dock No. 11 , which had to be lengthened to 1,100 feet to accommodate her.

One of the vessel's giant reduction gears set in place on dockside before being installed.

MRS. WILLIAM B. FRANKE

Sponsor

The Sponsor of the ENTERPRISE is Mrs. William B. Franke, the wife of the Secretary of the Nav/. Before her marriage to the Honorable Mr. Franke in 1919, she was the former Bertha Irene Reedy, daughter of the late Dr. and Mrs. John Edward Reedy of Schenectady, New York. She taught French and History following her graduation from New York College for Teachers. Active in work for the Girl Scouts fo r many year s, Mrs. Franke served as Commissioner of Girl Scouts 01 Dobbs Ferry, N . Y., when she and the Secretory mode thei r home there. A strong supporter of th e Navy Relief Society, she has held many positi ons in that organization, including that of Chairman, in 1958, of the Society's Washington Boll. She and Secretory Franke have three married daughters and nine grand­ ch i Id ren, and ma into in residences on Loughboro Road in Washington and at Rutland, Vermont.

The three star­ board elevators in place. The largest single structures ever made of alumi­ num, each has room for 2 ,000 persons to stand on.

At th e keel laying, President W. E. Blewett, Jr., watches intentl y a 5 Admiral Mumma authenticates the vessel's name plate .

6

7


!. ?!;

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THE STORY .I OF SEVEN

SHIPS 'NAMED

u. s. s. EN TERPRISE ENTERPRISE IV-

This 10-gun schooner helped suppress the Africon slove trode.

The proud name of Enterprise is inherited from seven Naval predecessors dating from the Revolutionary War. These include the most decorated ship in U. S. Naval history, the Newporr News-built World War II carrier nicknamed "The Big E" by her devoted crews. The only ship in Naval hisrory ro receive both the Presidential and Navy Unit Citations, "The Big E" never became inoperative throughout her four years of battle action in the Pacific. As flagship for the task forces of such heroes as Admiral W. F. Halsey, she earned twenty battle stars out of a possibly twenty­ two. Her swift movements during a period when she was the only active carrier in the Pacific misled enemy intelligence into reporring her as three different ships. Her tripod mast, familiar to the thousands of officers

ENTERPRISE V-

and men who served aboard her and in II (;r ulsk forces, now graces the grounds of th e U. S. Naval A.cademy in Annapolis as a memorial to her alld hc:r v,tiiant crews. The first Enterprise was a sloop o f twel ve four­ pounders, ten swivels and fifty men, ca prlln.:J from the British at St. John's in the Richelieu River, Canada, in the summer of 1775, and fitted for servi ce o n La ke Champlain, the first American vessel to be pl aceJ in commission there. She was commanded by Captain Dickin son in General Benedict Arnold's squadron on Lake Cham­ plain and parricipated in engagements with the British on Ocrober 11-13,1776, in which the Am erican force was defeated, and ten vessels capwred or de­ stroyed, the Enterprise escaping. Although m os t

A wooden cruiser, she hod a long coreer from 1877 to 1909.

decisively defeated in the battle upon the Lake, Arnold had delayed the advance of the British some twO or three months while they were obtaining a naval superiority. This delay had far-reaching con­ sequences in the War for Independence. The second EllteljJrisl: was known as "The Lucky Little Enterprise." She was a schooner of 135 tons with twelve guns and seventy men. Built at Baltimore, Maryland, in 1799, she was later altered to a brig of 165 tons, fourteen guns and ninety men in 1811. In a cruise of onl y eight months in the year 1800, during the naval war with France, she fought five actions and captured nineteen vessels. Owing to these gallant services to her country, she was the only small cruiser retained in the Navy after the French War. During the Tripolitan War she was actively employed in the Mediterranean under Lieutenants Andrew

Sterrett, Isaac Hull , Stephen Decatur and Thomas Robinson. In 1809, she went ro Europe under Lieu­ tenant John Trippe . After her return and rebuilding , she cruised near our coast from 1811 to 1814, under Lieutenants Johnston Blackely, William Burrows, Edward R. McCall and James Renshaw, during which time she captured two vessels, oneofthemtheH.B . M.S. Boxer, which she defeated in an engagement on September 5, 1813. In 1814, she made three captures in company with the U. S. S. Rattlesnake. After the War of 1812 , she cruised with her usual good fortune in the Mediterranean and West Indies under Lieutenant Lawrence Kearny. She was lost at Little Curacao on July 9 , 1823 , while under the command of Lieutenant John Gallagher , but the crew was saved. The third Enterprise was a schooner of 194 tons and ten guns, built at New York in 1831. She was sold at BostOn in 1845 and cruised on the Brazil station in 1832 and 1833 under Lieutenant Samuel W. Downing; on the Brazil and East India stations from 1834 to

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ENTERPRISE I-A sloop, she fought in the RE:volutionary War.

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ENTERPR ISE II-A schooner, she captured 19

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Drowing of the design of ENTERPRISE III.

9


!. ?!;

I

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THE STORY .I OF SEVEN

SHIPS 'NAMED

u. s. s. EN TERPRISE ENTERPRISE IV-

This 10-gun schooner helped suppress the Africon slove trode.

The proud name of Enterprise is inherited from seven Naval predecessors dating from the Revolutionary War. These include the most decorated ship in U. S. Naval history, the Newporr News-built World War II carrier nicknamed "The Big E" by her devoted crews. The only ship in Naval hisrory ro receive both the Presidential and Navy Unit Citations, "The Big E" never became inoperative throughout her four years of battle action in the Pacific. As flagship for the task forces of such heroes as Admiral W. F. Halsey, she earned twenty battle stars out of a possibly twenty­ two. Her swift movements during a period when she was the only active carrier in the Pacific misled enemy intelligence into reporring her as three different ships. Her tripod mast, familiar to the thousands of officers

ENTERPRISE V-

and men who served aboard her and in II (;r ulsk forces, now graces the grounds of th e U. S. Naval A.cademy in Annapolis as a memorial to her alld hc:r v,tiiant crews. The first Enterprise was a sloop o f twel ve four­ pounders, ten swivels and fifty men, ca prlln.:J from the British at St. John's in the Richelieu River, Canada, in the summer of 1775, and fitted for servi ce o n La ke Champlain, the first American vessel to be pl aceJ in commission there. She was commanded by Captain Dickin son in General Benedict Arnold's squadron on Lake Cham­ plain and parricipated in engagements with the British on Ocrober 11-13,1776, in which the Am erican force was defeated, and ten vessels capwred or de­ stroyed, the Enterprise escaping. Although m os t

A wooden cruiser, she hod a long coreer from 1877 to 1909.

decisively defeated in the battle upon the Lake, Arnold had delayed the advance of the British some twO or three months while they were obtaining a naval superiority. This delay had far-reaching con­ sequences in the War for Independence. The second EllteljJrisl: was known as "The Lucky Little Enterprise." She was a schooner of 135 tons with twelve guns and seventy men. Built at Baltimore, Maryland, in 1799, she was later altered to a brig of 165 tons, fourteen guns and ninety men in 1811. In a cruise of onl y eight months in the year 1800, during the naval war with France, she fought five actions and captured nineteen vessels. Owing to these gallant services to her country, she was the only small cruiser retained in the Navy after the French War. During the Tripolitan War she was actively employed in the Mediterranean under Lieutenants Andrew

Sterrett, Isaac Hull , Stephen Decatur and Thomas Robinson. In 1809, she went ro Europe under Lieu­ tenant John Trippe . After her return and rebuilding , she cruised near our coast from 1811 to 1814, under Lieutenants Johnston Blackely, William Burrows, Edward R. McCall and James Renshaw, during which time she captured two vessels, oneofthemtheH.B . M.S. Boxer, which she defeated in an engagement on September 5, 1813. In 1814, she made three captures in company with the U. S. S. Rattlesnake. After the War of 1812 , she cruised with her usual good fortune in the Mediterranean and West Indies under Lieutenant Lawrence Kearny. She was lost at Little Curacao on July 9 , 1823 , while under the command of Lieutenant John Gallagher , but the crew was saved. The third Enterprise was a schooner of 194 tons and ten guns, built at New York in 1831. She was sold at BostOn in 1845 and cruised on the Brazil station in 1832 and 1833 under Lieutenant Samuel W. Downing; on the Brazil and East India stations from 1834 to

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ENTERPRISE I-A sloop, she fought in the RE:volutionary War.

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nllder \'tjg-h.

ENTERPR ISE II-A schooner, she captured 19

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ENTERPRISE I II-

A 12· C] u"

:.chooncr o f 194 tons built in 1831 .

Drowing of the design of ENTERPRISE III.

9


ENTERPRISE VI -

A World War I Motor Patrol V essel of 16 tans.

1847 under Lieutenants A. S. Campbell and George Hollins; in the Pacific, 1838-39, under Lieutenants William M. Glendy and Harry Ingersoll; on the Brazil station , 1839-44 , under Lieutenants Frank Ellery and Percival Drayton , Commander Louis M. Goldsborough, and Lieutenants James P. Wilson and James M. Watson . The fourth Entelprise was a ten-gun schooner, which saw service in the Navy ftom 1831 to 1845. Her principal duty was to help in suppressing the West African slave trade. The fifth Enterprise was a wooden cruiser of 1,375 tons and fourteen guns, built at the Portsmouth N avy Yard by John W. Griffith and the United States Navy in 1873-74. She was launched on June 13, 1874, and commissioned at the Portsmouth Yard on March 16, 1877. She was assigned to the North Atlantic Squadton with Commander George C. Remey as her first com­ mander. In April 1878 she was detached ftom the Squadron and assigned to special service and engaged in exploring and surveying the Amazon and Madeira Rivers under the command of Commander Thomas O . Selfridge, a result of which was the commendation of the officers and crew for their splendid work. Ftom 1880 to 1885 she cruised in the Mediterranean, the

West Indies and on the Asiatic station, returning from the last via Australia and Cape Horn. After repairs, she cruised on the Eutopean station ftom 1888 to 1889. On January 14, 1890, at Antwerp, Belgium, the Enterprise received the remains of the late U . S. Minister George H . Pendleton on board for transportation to the United States. From August 1890 to May 1891 , she cruised in the West Indies and on the northern coast of South America . While on this cruise at the request of the Bureau of American Republics, the ship surveyed the ruins of the ancient city of Isabella, founded by Columbus. From June 24 to September, 1891, she cruised on the northeast coast of the United States, attached to the North Atlantic Squadron. In September of that year she was detached so that she might be used as a cadet training and practice ship . A year later she sailed to the Boston Navy Yard to be prepared and turned over to the State of Massachusetts as a school ship. She was used as a public matine school ship at Boston until May 1909, when was returned to the Navy Department. The ship was stricken from the Navy list on August 6, 1909, and sold in October. The sixth Entelprise was a motor patrol boat of 16 tons, purchased in September 1917 . Originally, she was a wooden pleasure craft built at East Grenwich , Rhode Island . For Naval service she was equipped with one I-pounder and one machine gun and she carried a crew of eight men. For twO years she was placed on patrol duty in the Seco nd Naval District. At the conclusion of the first Wo rld War she was transferred to the Bureau of Fisheries, Department of Commerce, on August 2, 1919. "The Big E," placed out of commission in reserve in 1947 and stricken ftom the Navy List in 1956, was the seventh of the famous name. It is very appropriate that her successot and the first nuclear-poweted aircraft carrier should also be built by Newport News .

/ /

ENTERPRISE

/~ --------­"~

MEMORIALIZED

BY BRONZE MEDALLION AND COMMEMORATIVE PLATE

The occasion of the christening of the first nuclear­ powered aircraft carrier, also the world's largest ship, is being appropriatcl~' memorializc:d by the Company with a commemorative plate and a bronze me­ dallion . The one and one-half inch medallion, slightly larger than a half dollar, was designed and struck as a memento of the day for those attending the ceremony. One side has the name and the carrier, broadside, in relief, with the inscriptions, "World's Larg est Ship " and " First Nuclear Powered Aircraft Carrier" . The Company 's name and trademark are on the other side, with the name of the sponsor, Mrs . William B. Franke, and the date. The medallions were made to the Com-

pany's specifications by the Medallic Art Company of New York. The commemorative plate is a special issue produced by the famous 200-year old British firm of Wedgwood. The center of the plate depicts the Entelprise underwa y, complete with her planes, catapults, elevators and even a bow wave and wake. The border carries dra"w­ ings of the CVA (N 's), seven Naval predecessors named Enletj)riJe, from the first, a sloop which served in the Revolutionary War, to "The Big E", famous World War II carrier built here. Designed by A. C. Ford Associates, the plate took more than a year for re­ search and perfection of the art work and composition. The plates are a ruSt color on white.

With these eight vessels, the ptoud name of Enter­ prise has been perpetuated by the Navy from the beginning of our nation's histor y.

ENTERPRISE the famous carrier built named " The

VII-CV-6 was World War II here and nick­ Big E".

Th e hand s ome b r QI,ze medallion wos mode especial­ ly tor a II those O ll o n dl n g the ch rl '.l cl, I "

':':' '1 'JJ'''i'( ..s...rf_l'~J -!J.!J J . ' ). /~,1J') ~I I,)'\) fJ

-J.

' \ 'I' I ' r:: ' ..~ 'J " !J.t:;...J ,_ lJ:.L; j

I £'I'/fl Ul (j' I IEW'

'IlPUjdl"

10

11


ENTERPRISE VI -

A World War I Motor Patrol V essel of 16 tans.

1847 under Lieutenants A. S. Campbell and George Hollins; in the Pacific, 1838-39, under Lieutenants William M. Glendy and Harry Ingersoll; on the Brazil station , 1839-44 , under Lieutenants Frank Ellery and Percival Drayton , Commander Louis M. Goldsborough, and Lieutenants James P. Wilson and James M. Watson . The fourth Entelprise was a ten-gun schooner, which saw service in the Navy ftom 1831 to 1845. Her principal duty was to help in suppressing the West African slave trade. The fifth Enterprise was a wooden cruiser of 1,375 tons and fourteen guns, built at the Portsmouth N avy Yard by John W. Griffith and the United States Navy in 1873-74. She was launched on June 13, 1874, and commissioned at the Portsmouth Yard on March 16, 1877. She was assigned to the North Atlantic Squadton with Commander George C. Remey as her first com­ mander. In April 1878 she was detached ftom the Squadron and assigned to special service and engaged in exploring and surveying the Amazon and Madeira Rivers under the command of Commander Thomas O . Selfridge, a result of which was the commendation of the officers and crew for their splendid work. Ftom 1880 to 1885 she cruised in the Mediterranean, the

West Indies and on the Asiatic station, returning from the last via Australia and Cape Horn. After repairs, she cruised on the Eutopean station ftom 1888 to 1889. On January 14, 1890, at Antwerp, Belgium, the Enterprise received the remains of the late U . S. Minister George H . Pendleton on board for transportation to the United States. From August 1890 to May 1891 , she cruised in the West Indies and on the northern coast of South America . While on this cruise at the request of the Bureau of American Republics, the ship surveyed the ruins of the ancient city of Isabella, founded by Columbus. From June 24 to September, 1891, she cruised on the northeast coast of the United States, attached to the North Atlantic Squadron. In September of that year she was detached so that she might be used as a cadet training and practice ship . A year later she sailed to the Boston Navy Yard to be prepared and turned over to the State of Massachusetts as a school ship. She was used as a public matine school ship at Boston until May 1909, when was returned to the Navy Department. The ship was stricken from the Navy list on August 6, 1909, and sold in October. The sixth Entelprise was a motor patrol boat of 16 tons, purchased in September 1917 . Originally, she was a wooden pleasure craft built at East Grenwich , Rhode Island . For Naval service she was equipped with one I-pounder and one machine gun and she carried a crew of eight men. For twO years she was placed on patrol duty in the Seco nd Naval District. At the conclusion of the first Wo rld War she was transferred to the Bureau of Fisheries, Department of Commerce, on August 2, 1919. "The Big E," placed out of commission in reserve in 1947 and stricken ftom the Navy List in 1956, was the seventh of the famous name. It is very appropriate that her successot and the first nuclear-poweted aircraft carrier should also be built by Newport News .

/ /

ENTERPRISE

/~ --------­"~

MEMORIALIZED

BY BRONZE MEDALLION AND COMMEMORATIVE PLATE

The occasion of the christening of the first nuclear­ powered aircraft carrier, also the world's largest ship, is being appropriatcl~' memorializc:d by the Company with a commemorative plate and a bronze me­ dallion . The one and one-half inch medallion, slightly larger than a half dollar, was designed and struck as a memento of the day for those attending the ceremony. One side has the name and the carrier, broadside, in relief, with the inscriptions, "World's Larg est Ship " and " First Nuclear Powered Aircraft Carrier" . The Company 's name and trademark are on the other side, with the name of the sponsor, Mrs . William B. Franke, and the date. The medallions were made to the Com-

pany's specifications by the Medallic Art Company of New York. The commemorative plate is a special issue produced by the famous 200-year old British firm of Wedgwood. The center of the plate depicts the Entelprise underwa y, complete with her planes, catapults, elevators and even a bow wave and wake. The border carries dra"w­ ings of the CVA (N 's), seven Naval predecessors named Enletj)riJe, from the first, a sloop which served in the Revolutionary War, to "The Big E", famous World War II carrier built here. Designed by A. C. Ford Associates, the plate took more than a year for re­ search and perfection of the art work and composition. The plates are a ruSt color on white.

With these eight vessels, the ptoud name of Enter­ prise has been perpetuated by the Navy from the beginning of our nation's histor y.

ENTERPRISE the famous carrier built named " The

VII-CV-6 was World War II here and nick­ Big E".

Th e hand s ome b r QI,ze medallion wos mode especial­ ly tor a II those O ll o n dl n g the ch rl '.l cl, I "

':':' '1 'JJ'''i'( ..s...rf_l'~J -!J.!J J . ' ). /~,1J') ~I I,)'\) fJ

-J.

' \ 'I' I ' r:: ' ..~ 'J " !J.t:;...J ,_ lJ:.L; j

I £'I'/fl Ul (j' I IEW'

'IlPUjdl"

10

11


As the speeds and sizes of planes increased , and the flatrops gained experience at the beginning of World War II, the need for larger vessels became evident. Ourweig hing the previous class by nearly half as much again was the 27 ,100-ron Essex, delivered in December of 1942. She was 856 feet lon g . Of the o thers of this class, the second Y orktown, Intrepid and second Ho rnet were delivered in 1943 and the Franklin in 1944. That year also saw th e commissioning of the modified Essex Class carriers, T iconderoga and Randolph, with the Boxer foll owing in 1945 and the Leyte in 1946. The ron­ nage of the earlier Essex was maintained , but these later vessels had increased slightly in length, to 888 feet . Meanwhile, both length and displacement took a jump again in the design of another new class, the M idway. Completed in 1945 as the largest of her day, she was 933 feet with a displacement of 54,000 tons.

Aircraft Carrier

Development

Through the Years

A second ship of th e Midway Class, the Coral Sea, was completed and commissioned in 1947. In the early 1950's several existing Essex Class Carriers were also leng thened and modernized here.

RANGER, CV-4 , wa s the fir st ship co mplete ly designed and built as an aircraft carrier fo r the U. S. Navy. Th e fir st of the ei g hteen built by the Shipyard , she was completed in 1934 .

The rapid developments in missiles, satellites , super­ sonic aircraft and nuclear-powered ships since World War II makes the evaluation of the role of the aircraft carrier in the nation 's defense a difficult one. Intangi­ bles in the internatio nal political situation further clo ud the issues for the public. But this much is cer­ tain : as long as the cold war continues , with its threat of limited engagements as well as an atomic war, the air­ craft carrier will have a prominent place in the defense of the United States and the Free World. The role of the attack aircraft carrier in this defense is authoritively presented in a recent publicatio n entitled "Security in the Nuclear Age" . This paper outlines the major co mponents of the Navy's depl o yed fle ets , which are: The Attack Carrier Striking Force; The Amphibious Landing Force; The Fleet M arine Force, and The M o bile Lo gistic SuppOrt Force. The attack aircraft carrier is the major fighting ship of the Fleet. As events have repeatedly demonstrated, it is an optimum weapon system for deterrence of limited war.

biplanes buzzed g racefully into the skies from the flight decks of those first carriers. N o w the super­ so nic jets such as Skyhawk and Crusader leave fast­ growing vapor trails as they are catapulted into the air. As mo bile landing fields and hangars , the carriers have been increased in length and displacement ro keep pace with the increases in the sizes, weights and speeds of the aircraft. Nowhere is this better illustrated than in the steady pro g ression in the displacement ronnag es and lengths of the aircraft carriers . The eighteen constructed here tell that srory, for they include the first American vessel ever built as a carrier from the keel up, the first Ranger, CV-4, as well as the final word .to date , the nuclear po wered J:l1terprise. M any of the other sixteen were also the first of their class. The Ranger, launched as our Hull 353 in 1933, reg is­ tered a displacement of 14,500 rons, and a length of 769 feet. The Yorktown, taking to the water three years later, had a displacement of 20,000 rons . The first Enterprise, famous as "The Big E", and the first Ho rnet were of the same class and weight. These earl y carriers were big for their day, and very effective, as the his­ rorians have testified.

The 26-year span separating the first carrier Ranger from the nuclear p owered Enterprise spells out in floating steel the rapid rise of Naval aviation . In those early days, the now flimsy-looking Curtiss and Vought

12

Successful developments in catapults and retraction systems have contributed to carriers' ability to handle new planes. However, the aircrafts ' g reater speed and other requirem ents, including increases in fuel con­ sumption, led to the design of the Forrestal Class. The first of these, for whom the Class is named, was the largest warship in the world when completed in 1955 . Our hull number 506, she is 1,039 feet with a dis­ placement of 60,000 tons . She was followed in 1957 by the Ranger, which measures 1,046 feet . The supersonic jet planes for which vessels of this class are home bases g ive them a capability unsurpassed up to this time .

The first YO RKTOW N, s i s ter s hip o f the 20,OOO-ta n " Big E", was sunk after help­ ing to win the deci sive Bottle o f Midwa y.

13

The second HORNET wa s an Essex Class carrier delivered during W o rld War II.

Althoug h her nuclear propulsion plant sets the CV A(N) 65 apart from all other carriers, she is never­ theless a part of the pattern which has continued since the first vessel was designed and built here as a sea­ g oing mobile landing field. By virture of both her displacement of more than 85,000 tons and her length of 1,101 feet , she is the largest ship ever built. Her nuclear plant will not only enable her to operate for years without refueling; it also greatly increases the amount of fuel she will carry for her hungry jet air­ craft . With her greater mobility and flexibility , sus ­ tained high speeds and reduced suppOrt requirements , the nuclear powered carrier meets the needs of this . nuclear age.


As the speeds and sizes of planes increased , and the flatrops gained experience at the beginning of World War II, the need for larger vessels became evident. Ourweig hing the previous class by nearly half as much again was the 27 ,100-ron Essex, delivered in December of 1942. She was 856 feet lon g . Of the o thers of this class, the second Y orktown, Intrepid and second Ho rnet were delivered in 1943 and the Franklin in 1944. That year also saw th e commissioning of the modified Essex Class carriers, T iconderoga and Randolph, with the Boxer foll owing in 1945 and the Leyte in 1946. The ron­ nage of the earlier Essex was maintained , but these later vessels had increased slightly in length, to 888 feet . Meanwhile, both length and displacement took a jump again in the design of another new class, the M idway. Completed in 1945 as the largest of her day, she was 933 feet with a displacement of 54,000 tons.

Aircraft Carrier

Development

Through the Years

A second ship of th e Midway Class, the Coral Sea, was completed and commissioned in 1947. In the early 1950's several existing Essex Class Carriers were also leng thened and modernized here.

RANGER, CV-4 , wa s the fir st ship co mplete ly designed and built as an aircraft carrier fo r the U. S. Navy. Th e fir st of the ei g hteen built by the Shipyard , she was completed in 1934 .

The rapid developments in missiles, satellites , super­ sonic aircraft and nuclear-powered ships since World War II makes the evaluation of the role of the aircraft carrier in the nation 's defense a difficult one. Intangi­ bles in the internatio nal political situation further clo ud the issues for the public. But this much is cer­ tain : as long as the cold war continues , with its threat of limited engagements as well as an atomic war, the air­ craft carrier will have a prominent place in the defense of the United States and the Free World. The role of the attack aircraft carrier in this defense is authoritively presented in a recent publicatio n entitled "Security in the Nuclear Age" . This paper outlines the major co mponents of the Navy's depl o yed fle ets , which are: The Attack Carrier Striking Force; The Amphibious Landing Force; The Fleet M arine Force, and The M o bile Lo gistic SuppOrt Force. The attack aircraft carrier is the major fighting ship of the Fleet. As events have repeatedly demonstrated, it is an optimum weapon system for deterrence of limited war.

biplanes buzzed g racefully into the skies from the flight decks of those first carriers. N o w the super­ so nic jets such as Skyhawk and Crusader leave fast­ growing vapor trails as they are catapulted into the air. As mo bile landing fields and hangars , the carriers have been increased in length and displacement ro keep pace with the increases in the sizes, weights and speeds of the aircraft. Nowhere is this better illustrated than in the steady pro g ression in the displacement ronnag es and lengths of the aircraft carriers . The eighteen constructed here tell that srory, for they include the first American vessel ever built as a carrier from the keel up, the first Ranger, CV-4, as well as the final word .to date , the nuclear po wered J:l1terprise. M any of the other sixteen were also the first of their class. The Ranger, launched as our Hull 353 in 1933, reg is­ tered a displacement of 14,500 rons, and a length of 769 feet. The Yorktown, taking to the water three years later, had a displacement of 20,000 rons . The first Enterprise, famous as "The Big E", and the first Ho rnet were of the same class and weight. These earl y carriers were big for their day, and very effective, as the his­ rorians have testified.

The 26-year span separating the first carrier Ranger from the nuclear p owered Enterprise spells out in floating steel the rapid rise of Naval aviation . In those early days, the now flimsy-looking Curtiss and Vought

12

Successful developments in catapults and retraction systems have contributed to carriers' ability to handle new planes. However, the aircrafts ' g reater speed and other requirem ents, including increases in fuel con­ sumption, led to the design of the Forrestal Class. The first of these, for whom the Class is named, was the largest warship in the world when completed in 1955 . Our hull number 506, she is 1,039 feet with a dis­ placement of 60,000 tons . She was followed in 1957 by the Ranger, which measures 1,046 feet . The supersonic jet planes for which vessels of this class are home bases g ive them a capability unsurpassed up to this time .

The first YO RKTOW N, s i s ter s hip o f the 20,OOO-ta n " Big E", was sunk after help­ ing to win the deci sive Bottle o f Midwa y.

13

The second HORNET wa s an Essex Class carrier delivered during W o rld War II.

Althoug h her nuclear propulsion plant sets the CV A(N) 65 apart from all other carriers, she is never­ theless a part of the pattern which has continued since the first vessel was designed and built here as a sea­ g oing mobile landing field. By virture of both her displacement of more than 85,000 tons and her length of 1,101 feet , she is the largest ship ever built. Her nuclear plant will not only enable her to operate for years without refueling; it also greatly increases the amount of fuel she will carry for her hungry jet air­ craft . With her greater mobility and flexibility , sus ­ tained high speeds and reduced suppOrt requirements , the nuclear powered carrier meets the needs of this . nuclear age.


The 933-foot CORAL SEA, a Midway Closs carrier, was completed in 1947.

Here in Hampton Roads on November 14, 19lO, a man named Eugene El y gunned his unwieldy Curtiss biplane along a makeshift platform on the bow of a converted cruiser and took off to become the first carrier pilot. During the half century since, thousands of pilots have risked their lives in experiments, training and combat to make the carrier the force for the defense of the Free World it is today. Thousands more ashore, throughout the nation as well as here in our Yard, have made lasting contributions to this record of progress.

In a new feotu re for a floo tot ion launching, the ship will light up her name as she is floated. The posi­ tion of the nome in Iights on the bow can be seen in this view of the model.

Carriers Constructed at Newport News Name Launched RANGER (CVA-4) February 25, 1933 YORKTOWN (CVA-5) April 4, 1936 ENTERPRISE (CVA-6) October 3, 1936 HORNET (CVA-S) December 14, 1940 July 31,1942 ESSEX (CVA-9) YORKTOWN (CVA-I0) January 21, 1943 INTREPID (CVA-II) April 26, 1943 HORNET (CVA-12) August 30, 1943 FRANKLIN (CVA-13) October 14, 1943 TICONDEROGA (CBA-14) February 7, 1944 RANDOLPH (CVA-15) June 2S, 1944 BOXER (CVA-21) December 24, 1944 LEYTE (CVA-32) August 23,1945 MIDWAY (CVA-41) March 20, 1945 CORAL SEA (CVA-43 ) April 2,1946 FORRESTAL (CVA-59) December 11, 1954 RANGER (CVA-Ol) September 29, 1956 ENTERPRISE (CVA(N)-65) September 24, 1960

It is pleasant to speculate on what those who con­ tributed so much to Naval aviation in its infancy would say if they toO couLd see this nuclear powered giant. We believe Eugene Ely and all the others would echo the same thoughts: "We are proud of what has been done with our heritage; the Enterprise is indeed a magnificent achievement" .

Name in Lights Signals Floating of Enterprise

Traditionally, a ship is launched by sliding down the shipway upon which she is built into the water. In the language of shipbuilding, a ship such as the Enterprise which becomes waterborne for the first time in her building dock is said to be floated . Sometimes, the combined phrase "launched by flotation " is used.

.. •

ing Dock Number lO on April 26, 1943. That famous World War II Essex Class carrier was pulled out of her building dock by tugs after she was christened by her sponsor, Mrs. John H. Hoover , wife of Vice Admiral Hoover. The others were U. S. S. Franklin, Randolph, Ticonderoga, Midway , Coral Sea , Forrestal and Ranger. Other large vessels built and floated here have been the S. S. United States , the heavy cruiser U. S. S. Newport News, and several large tankers and landing craft.

To signal the launching of the Enterprise more dra­ matically for guests and spectators, the series of lights spelling out her name on the bow will be lighted one by one by the floating of the vessel. This scene may nOt seem quite as breathtaking to the observer as the spec­ tacle of a ship going down the ways, but it will become dramatic as he experiences it. With the four-foot letters lighting up, the spectator gets a different kind of thrill, as he realizes she is telling him, in lights, that her dis­ placement is matching her weight, section by secrion , to make her float.

Some idea of the magnitude of the job of floating the carrier is realized from the fact that launching preparations alone required several hundred men work­ ing around the clock for several days prior to the event. The tanks are checked and tested, and some are flooded ro insure that she will be properly trimmed. Stairways and elevarors used by the hundreds of workmen build­ ing her are removed, many details about the ship are checked and rechecked, and mooring lines are made up ro secure her to the dock.

Although the Entelprise is the ninth aircraft carrier ro be floated after construction here, she is the first ever ro signal the instant of becoming afloat in this manner. The lights which spell out her name are being activated electrically through relays attached to the keel blocks on which she rests. The relays transmit a signal as she lifts free ff() n1 each series of blocks .

The 60,OOO-ton FOR­ REST AL on her Sea Trials.

The floating of the EnterprIse is the climax of more than twO and a half years of construction in Graving Dock Number 1l. This is a thrilling twenty minutes , from the time the first letter of her name lights up to indicate the massive bow is beginning ro lift , until the lighting of the last letter and shrill sound of the whistle signal that she is afloat, and the instant of christening has arrived.

The first carrier (loared here was the U. S. S. Intrepid, which was launched by rh e flooding of adjacent Grav­

14

15


The 933-foot CORAL SEA, a Midway Closs carrier, was completed in 1947.

Here in Hampton Roads on November 14, 19lO, a man named Eugene El y gunned his unwieldy Curtiss biplane along a makeshift platform on the bow of a converted cruiser and took off to become the first carrier pilot. During the half century since, thousands of pilots have risked their lives in experiments, training and combat to make the carrier the force for the defense of the Free World it is today. Thousands more ashore, throughout the nation as well as here in our Yard, have made lasting contributions to this record of progress.

In a new feotu re for a floo tot ion launching, the ship will light up her name as she is floated. The posi­ tion of the nome in Iights on the bow can be seen in this view of the model.

Carriers Constructed at Newport News Name Launched RANGER (CVA-4) February 25, 1933 YORKTOWN (CVA-5) April 4, 1936 ENTERPRISE (CVA-6) October 3, 1936 HORNET (CVA-S) December 14, 1940 July 31,1942 ESSEX (CVA-9) YORKTOWN (CVA-I0) January 21, 1943 INTREPID (CVA-II) April 26, 1943 HORNET (CVA-12) August 30, 1943 FRANKLIN (CVA-13) October 14, 1943 TICONDEROGA (CBA-14) February 7, 1944 RANDOLPH (CVA-15) June 2S, 1944 BOXER (CVA-21) December 24, 1944 LEYTE (CVA-32) August 23,1945 MIDWAY (CVA-41) March 20, 1945 CORAL SEA (CVA-43 ) April 2,1946 FORRESTAL (CVA-59) December 11, 1954 RANGER (CVA-Ol) September 29, 1956 ENTERPRISE (CVA(N)-65) September 24, 1960

It is pleasant to speculate on what those who con­ tributed so much to Naval aviation in its infancy would say if they toO couLd see this nuclear powered giant. We believe Eugene Ely and all the others would echo the same thoughts: "We are proud of what has been done with our heritage; the Enterprise is indeed a magnificent achievement" .

Name in Lights Signals Floating of Enterprise

Traditionally, a ship is launched by sliding down the shipway upon which she is built into the water. In the language of shipbuilding, a ship such as the Enterprise which becomes waterborne for the first time in her building dock is said to be floated . Sometimes, the combined phrase "launched by flotation " is used.

.. •

ing Dock Number lO on April 26, 1943. That famous World War II Essex Class carrier was pulled out of her building dock by tugs after she was christened by her sponsor, Mrs. John H. Hoover , wife of Vice Admiral Hoover. The others were U. S. S. Franklin, Randolph, Ticonderoga, Midway , Coral Sea , Forrestal and Ranger. Other large vessels built and floated here have been the S. S. United States , the heavy cruiser U. S. S. Newport News, and several large tankers and landing craft.

To signal the launching of the Enterprise more dra­ matically for guests and spectators, the series of lights spelling out her name on the bow will be lighted one by one by the floating of the vessel. This scene may nOt seem quite as breathtaking to the observer as the spec­ tacle of a ship going down the ways, but it will become dramatic as he experiences it. With the four-foot letters lighting up, the spectator gets a different kind of thrill, as he realizes she is telling him, in lights, that her dis­ placement is matching her weight, section by secrion , to make her float.

Some idea of the magnitude of the job of floating the carrier is realized from the fact that launching preparations alone required several hundred men work­ ing around the clock for several days prior to the event. The tanks are checked and tested, and some are flooded ro insure that she will be properly trimmed. Stairways and elevarors used by the hundreds of workmen build­ ing her are removed, many details about the ship are checked and rechecked, and mooring lines are made up ro secure her to the dock.

Although the Entelprise is the ninth aircraft carrier ro be floated after construction here, she is the first ever ro signal the instant of becoming afloat in this manner. The lights which spell out her name are being activated electrically through relays attached to the keel blocks on which she rests. The relays transmit a signal as she lifts free ff() n1 each series of blocks .

The 60,OOO-ton FOR­ REST AL on her Sea Trials.

The floating of the EnterprIse is the climax of more than twO and a half years of construction in Graving Dock Number 1l. This is a thrilling twenty minutes , from the time the first letter of her name lights up to indicate the massive bow is beginning ro lift , until the lighting of the last letter and shrill sound of the whistle signal that she is afloat, and the instant of christening has arrived.

The first carrier (loared here was the U. S. S. Intrepid, which was launched by rh e flooding of adjacent Grav­

14

15


sponsons prevented access by the Shipway's whirler cranes, they were brought across the adjacent dock by a special 150-ton floating crane. The erection of the 30-foot aluminum tower and the mast on top of the island was another problem. Over 160 feet above the vessel's keel, this was toO high for the whirlers . A special crawler with a 150­ foot boom was lifted to the flight deck in sections, where it was reassembled for the high lift. The most difficult and unusual of the cranes jobs was in handling the components for the vessel's eight reactors. Such care was required in the handling of these lifts that special test rigs, equal to the com­ ponent's weights, were used to test the equalizers and linkage to be used and the movements to be made. Preliminary runs with these dummy loads insured that every precaution was taken in the handling of this large but delicate equipment.

CRANES TO

BU IlD THE

ENTERPRISE

Erection of the three starboard elevators on the ship called for teamwork by several cranes. Here the lOS-ton lifts are being placed in position for the floating crane. (See photo on right.)

If anyone set of tools can be called the backbone of shipbuilding, it is the cranes. Large and small; steam, diesel and electric; locomotive , Gantry, job, whirler and crawler , they are the major tools used by the shipbuilder to magnify his strength and reach . During the Company's 74 years of continuous

shipbuilding operations, the cranes have been called on for many large and complex jobs. The present assortment of more than 50 cranes of all types which serve the 22S-acre Plant is one of the largest and finest in the world. The construction of the Forrestal and Ranger was believed to be the toughest assignment

From adjacent Gra ving Dock Number 10, the spec ial Na vy float· ing crane fini shed the exacting job of installing the starboard elevators.

~

, I

The lSO-foot boom of this crawler crane was needed to lift the tower onto the island. The crane itself was dismantled and carried to the flight deck in se cti ons by other cranes.

16

Some of the cranes used on the 4 Y2 -acre fl ight deck.

they could get-as it was, until they tackled the mammoth job of handling the sections and com­ ponents of the Enterprise. The cranes have capacities of 22\12 to 350 tons, and are strategically located thtoughout the Plant. Even those far removed from the site of the carrier's con­ struction have served well in her building, for the operation is Yard-wide. For the hull itself, the size and bulk of the ship's subassemblies which were moved to the building dock for erection is staggering. For example , there were over 200 subassemblies of the sponsons alone, ranging up to 100 tons. There were boxlike structures which make up her 3,200 compartments and spaces, and large seCtions of flight deck. Too large for the doors of the Ship Shed in which they were built, the huge elevators were cut in twO for moving to the platens, where they were assembled. Erection of the three starboard elevators on the ship presented another problem. Since the overhang of the flight deck and

17

The Yard's largest crane, a 3S0-tan Gantry, handled the larges t of the reactor components. Here, 0 dummy test lift is removed from the special frame on the lowboy used to bring the com­ ponents into the Yard.


sponsons prevented access by the Shipway's whirler cranes, they were brought across the adjacent dock by a special 150-ton floating crane. The erection of the 30-foot aluminum tower and the mast on top of the island was another problem. Over 160 feet above the vessel's keel, this was toO high for the whirlers . A special crawler with a 150­ foot boom was lifted to the flight deck in sections, where it was reassembled for the high lift. The most difficult and unusual of the cranes jobs was in handling the components for the vessel's eight reactors. Such care was required in the handling of these lifts that special test rigs, equal to the com­ ponent's weights, were used to test the equalizers and linkage to be used and the movements to be made. Preliminary runs with these dummy loads insured that every precaution was taken in the handling of this large but delicate equipment.

CRANES TO

BU IlD THE

ENTERPRISE

Erection of the three starboard elevators on the ship called for teamwork by several cranes. Here the lOS-ton lifts are being placed in position for the floating crane. (See photo on right.)

If anyone set of tools can be called the backbone of shipbuilding, it is the cranes. Large and small; steam, diesel and electric; locomotive , Gantry, job, whirler and crawler , they are the major tools used by the shipbuilder to magnify his strength and reach . During the Company's 74 years of continuous

shipbuilding operations, the cranes have been called on for many large and complex jobs. The present assortment of more than 50 cranes of all types which serve the 22S-acre Plant is one of the largest and finest in the world. The construction of the Forrestal and Ranger was believed to be the toughest assignment

From adjacent Gra ving Dock Number 10, the spec ial Na vy float· ing crane fini shed the exacting job of installing the starboard elevators.

~

, I

The lSO-foot boom of this crawler crane was needed to lift the tower onto the island. The crane itself was dismantled and carried to the flight deck in se cti ons by other cranes.

16

Some of the cranes used on the 4 Y2 -acre fl ight deck.

they could get-as it was, until they tackled the mammoth job of handling the sections and com­ ponents of the Enterprise. The cranes have capacities of 22\12 to 350 tons, and are strategically located thtoughout the Plant. Even those far removed from the site of the carrier's con­ struction have served well in her building, for the operation is Yard-wide. For the hull itself, the size and bulk of the ship's subassemblies which were moved to the building dock for erection is staggering. For example , there were over 200 subassemblies of the sponsons alone, ranging up to 100 tons. There were boxlike structures which make up her 3,200 compartments and spaces, and large seCtions of flight deck. Too large for the doors of the Ship Shed in which they were built, the huge elevators were cut in twO for moving to the platens, where they were assembled. Erection of the three starboard elevators on the ship presented another problem. Since the overhang of the flight deck and

17

The Yard's largest crane, a 3S0-tan Gantry, handled the larges t of the reactor components. Here, 0 dummy test lift is removed from the special frame on the lowboy used to bring the com­ ponents into the Yard.


Sh ipyord personnel learn the complexi­ ties of electronic equipment step by step in the Com­ pany's Electronic School and at other special equipment schools throughout the country.

MORE ELECTRONICS ON THE ENTERPRISE

THAN ANY SHIP AFLOAT

New Naval Ships Data System Included Among 1500 Devices data processing and communications system that evaluates enemy threats and recommends counter­ moves to shipboard commanders in millionths of a second. This multi-unit computer system enables Naval ships to exchange information at fantastic speeds. With its aiel, an entire Naval task force can be coordinated almost to the point of operating as one ship. Acco rding to the office of the Chief of Naval Operations, under whose overall guidance the system was developed , NTDS will expand the effective scope of instant command decision funcrion to ocean­ wide dimensi o ns .

Aside from her size and tremendous nuclear propul­ sion plant, rhe nexr mOSr disrincrive feature of rhe Enterprise is rhe complexiry and amount of her eiecuical and elecrronic equipment. This equipment co be on board when she becomes operarional is cerrainly rhe largesr and m osr compacr assomnent of irs kind on any ship, and , very possibly, anywhere in rhe world.

Among the latest in electronic equipment sched uled for the carrier is the Naval Tactical Data System, a

A II switchboards going aboard the ENTERPRISE placed end to end would reach very nearl y from her bow to her stern.

18

NTDS was evolved to meet the demands of modern warfare, in which aircraft and missiles may approach a task force at speeds of thousands of miles an hour. It anticipates simultaneous attacks on fleet units from several quarters at several altitudes, in numbers that would saturate the plots with grease pencil and rransparencies now in use in combat information centers. A description of the system as "highly successful" was announced on August 26 by Admiral Arleigh A. Burke, Chief of Naval Operations. The announce­ ment that NSDS will be aboard the nuclear powered aircraft carrier was made ro the SHIPYARD BULLETIN by the Navy in connection with the christening cere­ mony. To date, other ships so equipped had not been identified . The system works at fantastic speeds. Un correlated information coming from a variety of sources goes into data processing equipment located on board. Here, such functions as detection, location, tracking, speed, identity and size of friendly and enemy vehicles are worked out in transistorized computers that form the "brain" of the system. The "answers" are displayed automatically on scopes installed in the Combat Information Center where command and operating personnel monitor the tactical situation and issue the required commands. The display of such information makes it readily possible for key personnel to comprehend quickly the immediate situation, thus permitting a concentration of judgment for effective weapon assignment to threats against the ship. More than this, computer installations within the task force, interconnected by means of radio equipment employing advanced communications techniques, will exchange tactical information at high speeds. As a result, the task force commander, as well as individual unit commanders, will be provided with a complete overall tactical picture of the task force situation as well as the picture available from local information sources. The system can incorporate all anti-air warfare weapon systems now in use or under development by the Navy. While teams of Naval officers and men are training ro learn programming and other operational techniques , Shipyard perso nnel have also been training for the job of installing and wnning operational tests on the equipment. Obviousl y, the technical details of the design and installation of devices such as STDS cannOt be re­ vealed . However, a few statistics about the components of all electrical and electronic equipment on the ship give us an idea of their volume and complexity. For instance, all of the equipment will require about 625 miles of cable and wiring, which is a total length of three thousand times the length of the ship herself. The copper conductors in the cables, placed end to end, would reach from Newport News to Hawaii .

19

The 625 miles of coble and wiring required for the ENTERPRISE is three thousand times a s long as the vessel.

The potential electrical generating capacity of the vessel 's plants is enough to supply the needs of a city of over twO million persons . The total radiated power of the electronic systems alone is the equivalent of that of approximately 300 powerful commercial radio stations operating simultaneously . Electronic devices to go aboard the ship total more than 1,500 pieces of equipment. They vary in weight from about two pounds to three-quarters of a ton. Over one million tubes, transistors and diodes will go into these components , some of which are so sensitive rhat they must be installed as well as operated in air-conditioned spaces. Serving the numerous radars and special navigational systems will be more than 500 antennas. These will vary in weight from less than a pound to more than 18 tons, and in size from several inches up to the width of a house. The communications equipment on the carrier is believed to be the largest assortment ever assembled on any ship. Besides more than 1,800 telephones, there is the complexity of numerous radio circuits, teletypes, a pneumatic tube arrangement to carry messages from one station to another and numerous announcing systems, several of which have speakers throughout the ship . As modern and involved as this equipment has become , the world 's largest ship will also still have the twO early Naval communications systems, yardarm blinker lights for "speaking" other vessels within sight, and voice tubes for internal communica­


Sh ipyord personnel learn the complexi­ ties of electronic equipment step by step in the Com­ pany's Electronic School and at other special equipment schools throughout the country.

MORE ELECTRONICS ON THE ENTERPRISE

THAN ANY SHIP AFLOAT

New Naval Ships Data System Included Among 1500 Devices data processing and communications system that evaluates enemy threats and recommends counter­ moves to shipboard commanders in millionths of a second. This multi-unit computer system enables Naval ships to exchange information at fantastic speeds. With its aiel, an entire Naval task force can be coordinated almost to the point of operating as one ship. Acco rding to the office of the Chief of Naval Operations, under whose overall guidance the system was developed , NTDS will expand the effective scope of instant command decision funcrion to ocean­ wide dimensi o ns .

Aside from her size and tremendous nuclear propul­ sion plant, rhe nexr mOSr disrincrive feature of rhe Enterprise is rhe complexiry and amount of her eiecuical and elecrronic equipment. This equipment co be on board when she becomes operarional is cerrainly rhe largesr and m osr compacr assomnent of irs kind on any ship, and , very possibly, anywhere in rhe world.

Among the latest in electronic equipment sched uled for the carrier is the Naval Tactical Data System, a

A II switchboards going aboard the ENTERPRISE placed end to end would reach very nearl y from her bow to her stern.

18

NTDS was evolved to meet the demands of modern warfare, in which aircraft and missiles may approach a task force at speeds of thousands of miles an hour. It anticipates simultaneous attacks on fleet units from several quarters at several altitudes, in numbers that would saturate the plots with grease pencil and rransparencies now in use in combat information centers. A description of the system as "highly successful" was announced on August 26 by Admiral Arleigh A. Burke, Chief of Naval Operations. The announce­ ment that NSDS will be aboard the nuclear powered aircraft carrier was made ro the SHIPYARD BULLETIN by the Navy in connection with the christening cere­ mony. To date, other ships so equipped had not been identified . The system works at fantastic speeds. Un correlated information coming from a variety of sources goes into data processing equipment located on board. Here, such functions as detection, location, tracking, speed, identity and size of friendly and enemy vehicles are worked out in transistorized computers that form the "brain" of the system. The "answers" are displayed automatically on scopes installed in the Combat Information Center where command and operating personnel monitor the tactical situation and issue the required commands. The display of such information makes it readily possible for key personnel to comprehend quickly the immediate situation, thus permitting a concentration of judgment for effective weapon assignment to threats against the ship. More than this, computer installations within the task force, interconnected by means of radio equipment employing advanced communications techniques, will exchange tactical information at high speeds. As a result, the task force commander, as well as individual unit commanders, will be provided with a complete overall tactical picture of the task force situation as well as the picture available from local information sources. The system can incorporate all anti-air warfare weapon systems now in use or under development by the Navy. While teams of Naval officers and men are training ro learn programming and other operational techniques , Shipyard perso nnel have also been training for the job of installing and wnning operational tests on the equipment. Obviousl y, the technical details of the design and installation of devices such as STDS cannOt be re­ vealed . However, a few statistics about the components of all electrical and electronic equipment on the ship give us an idea of their volume and complexity. For instance, all of the equipment will require about 625 miles of cable and wiring, which is a total length of three thousand times the length of the ship herself. The copper conductors in the cables, placed end to end, would reach from Newport News to Hawaii .

19

The 625 miles of coble and wiring required for the ENTERPRISE is three thousand times a s long as the vessel.

The potential electrical generating capacity of the vessel 's plants is enough to supply the needs of a city of over twO million persons . The total radiated power of the electronic systems alone is the equivalent of that of approximately 300 powerful commercial radio stations operating simultaneously . Electronic devices to go aboard the ship total more than 1,500 pieces of equipment. They vary in weight from about two pounds to three-quarters of a ton. Over one million tubes, transistors and diodes will go into these components , some of which are so sensitive rhat they must be installed as well as operated in air-conditioned spaces. Serving the numerous radars and special navigational systems will be more than 500 antennas. These will vary in weight from less than a pound to more than 18 tons, and in size from several inches up to the width of a house. The communications equipment on the carrier is believed to be the largest assortment ever assembled on any ship. Besides more than 1,800 telephones, there is the complexity of numerous radio circuits, teletypes, a pneumatic tube arrangement to carry messages from one station to another and numerous announcing systems, several of which have speakers throughout the ship . As modern and involved as this equipment has become , the world 's largest ship will also still have the twO early Naval communications systems, yardarm blinker lights for "speaking" other vessels within sight, and voice tubes for internal communica­


~

-5058 VA46

Some of the test equipment used by the Instrumenta­ tion Shop is almost as complicoted as the equipment be­ ing in stalled on the ship.

NAVY

Douglas A4D Skyhaw k

tions between some aCClVltles. She will also have an entertainment sysrem for piping music or news events throughout the ship. No auxiliary system is more important ro a modern naval vessel than her electrical plant. Wirh her tre­ mendous amount of electrical and electronic equip­ ment, this power has become even mOre vital on the nuclear-powered carrier. The distribution system supplying power exrends to all pares of rhe ship, like the circulatOry and nerve sysrems in the human body. Switchboards similar to rhe body's hearr and mind control and distribute this power to all locations. Thus, the fact that rhe carrier's switchboards take up abour 7,000 square feet of space and would reach nearly from her bow to her stern if lined up end to end give some idea of the size and scope of the electrical system. Switchgear for the Ente1prise was designed here by the Electrical Design Department and built by rhe Elec­ trical Department. Most of rhe electronic devices are supplied by manufacturers from all over the country, but rhe Shipyard is responsible to the Navy for rhe satisfactory operation of this as well as all other electrical equip­ ment on board. To be sure ir has the skilled technicians for this tremendous job, rhe Yard maintains an Electronics SchooL Of the 164 employees trained in rhis school during rhe last six years, over half have also received special training of up to rwelve weeks at various Naval installarions and manufacturers' plants . Orher employees are enrolled in evening elecrronic and electrical courses sponsored by the Company, and every apprentice now gets basic training in electroni cs. All equipment received from manufacturers , in­ cluding reactOr instruments and controls, must be checked, installed and rechecked on board the ship. This work is carried our by the Electrical Department 's Instrumentation Shop , where the array of resr equip­ ment includes rhe latest designs for these exacring jobs . Lighting fixtures for illumination on the carrier tOtal more than 25,500, exclusive of the thousands of

20

indicaror and dial lights. The hundteds of morors which operate her air-conditioning fans, pumps, capsrans, windlasses, carapult systems, elevatOrs, shop equipment and the like, as well as those used for the nuclear plant have a tOral rared horsepower of nearl y 30,000, enough to operare 240,000 conventional home vacuum cleaners. This array of electrical circuirs and switchboards, radios and radar gear, electronic compurers and other devices such as the Naval Tactical Data System may tax rhe imaginations of rhose unfamiliar wirh them. However, the experience, devotion and training of the Yard personnel responsible enables them to meet on sched ule rhe installation, resting and operational maintenance of rhese complexities , so vital to our Navy and our national defense.

These Navy Planes May Be

Assigned To The Enterprise

will be announced later by the Navy . They are expected to include some of rhe fastest aircraft in rhe world .

These planes , some of the Navy 's latest carrier rypes , are among those which may be assigned to the world's first nuclear powered aircraft carrier. The Skyhawk and Crusader will be seen by rhose persons arrending the chrisrening ceremony , for rhey will be displayed on board the vesseL Unirs composed of these twO , as well as the F4D Douglas Skyray , a supersonic delra-wing fighter, are also scheduled to participate in the fly-over for the occasion. Other planes which will operate from the Enterprise afrer she is commissioned next year

SKYHAWK The Douglas A4D Sky hawk is a single-place turbo­ jet attack airplane capable of delivering atOmic weap­ ons. Ie exemplifies the concept that lighter, more efficient aircraft can be produced without sacrificing pilot safety and with a corresponding increase in per­ formance. It is designed to carry a wide variety of ord­ nance including bombs, tOrpedoes , rockets and mines as well as atomic weapons . The Skyhawk recently broke rhe world's 500 kilometer closed course speed record wirh an average speed of 695 mph. CRUSADER This all-weather fighter being builr for the Navy by Chance Vought Aircraft carries a doubled complement of four Sidewinder missiles as well as orher armament. It is powered by the Pratt & Whitney ]-57-P20 engine, which gives the plane a speed nearly twice that of sound. Ie is said to be capable of shooting down any aircraft flying.

Chance Vought FSU-2N Crusader

McDONNELL'S F4H-1

Instrumentotion Shop personnel study the dials of one af the Shop's testing devices.

McDonnell Aircraft's F4H-1 is one of the Navy 's newest and fastest jet fighters, designed to fly at better than twice the speed of sound. Said to have the greatest range of any Navy jet fighter, it is capable of destroying enemy bombers, day or night, in any weather at supersonic speeds . It is powered by two General Electric ]-79 jet engines , which are in the 10,000 pound thrust class. Ie will carry improved air­ to-air missiles and is also capable of long-range delivery of conventional and nuclear bombs.

' ;411 1 Mc l)ormt ll

21


~

-5058 VA46

Some of the test equipment used by the Instrumenta­ tion Shop is almost as complicoted as the equipment be­ ing in stalled on the ship.

NAVY

Douglas A4D Skyhaw k

tions between some aCClVltles. She will also have an entertainment sysrem for piping music or news events throughout the ship. No auxiliary system is more important ro a modern naval vessel than her electrical plant. Wirh her tre­ mendous amount of electrical and electronic equip­ ment, this power has become even mOre vital on the nuclear-powered carrier. The distribution system supplying power exrends to all pares of rhe ship, like the circulatOry and nerve sysrems in the human body. Switchboards similar to rhe body's hearr and mind control and distribute this power to all locations. Thus, the fact that rhe carrier's switchboards take up abour 7,000 square feet of space and would reach nearly from her bow to her stern if lined up end to end give some idea of the size and scope of the electrical system. Switchgear for the Ente1prise was designed here by the Electrical Design Department and built by rhe Elec­ trical Department. Most of rhe electronic devices are supplied by manufacturers from all over the country, but rhe Shipyard is responsible to the Navy for rhe satisfactory operation of this as well as all other electrical equip­ ment on board. To be sure ir has the skilled technicians for this tremendous job, rhe Yard maintains an Electronics SchooL Of the 164 employees trained in rhis school during rhe last six years, over half have also received special training of up to rwelve weeks at various Naval installarions and manufacturers' plants . Orher employees are enrolled in evening elecrronic and electrical courses sponsored by the Company, and every apprentice now gets basic training in electroni cs. All equipment received from manufacturers , in­ cluding reactOr instruments and controls, must be checked, installed and rechecked on board the ship. This work is carried our by the Electrical Department 's Instrumentation Shop , where the array of resr equip­ ment includes rhe latest designs for these exacring jobs . Lighting fixtures for illumination on the carrier tOtal more than 25,500, exclusive of the thousands of

20

indicaror and dial lights. The hundteds of morors which operate her air-conditioning fans, pumps, capsrans, windlasses, carapult systems, elevatOrs, shop equipment and the like, as well as those used for the nuclear plant have a tOral rared horsepower of nearl y 30,000, enough to operare 240,000 conventional home vacuum cleaners. This array of electrical circuirs and switchboards, radios and radar gear, electronic compurers and other devices such as the Naval Tactical Data System may tax rhe imaginations of rhose unfamiliar wirh them. However, the experience, devotion and training of the Yard personnel responsible enables them to meet on sched ule rhe installation, resting and operational maintenance of rhese complexities , so vital to our Navy and our national defense.

These Navy Planes May Be

Assigned To The Enterprise

will be announced later by the Navy . They are expected to include some of rhe fastest aircraft in rhe world .

These planes , some of the Navy 's latest carrier rypes , are among those which may be assigned to the world's first nuclear powered aircraft carrier. The Skyhawk and Crusader will be seen by rhose persons arrending the chrisrening ceremony , for rhey will be displayed on board the vesseL Unirs composed of these twO , as well as the F4D Douglas Skyray , a supersonic delra-wing fighter, are also scheduled to participate in the fly-over for the occasion. Other planes which will operate from the Enterprise afrer she is commissioned next year

SKYHAWK The Douglas A4D Sky hawk is a single-place turbo­ jet attack airplane capable of delivering atOmic weap­ ons. Ie exemplifies the concept that lighter, more efficient aircraft can be produced without sacrificing pilot safety and with a corresponding increase in per­ formance. It is designed to carry a wide variety of ord­ nance including bombs, tOrpedoes , rockets and mines as well as atomic weapons . The Skyhawk recently broke rhe world's 500 kilometer closed course speed record wirh an average speed of 695 mph. CRUSADER This all-weather fighter being builr for the Navy by Chance Vought Aircraft carries a doubled complement of four Sidewinder missiles as well as orher armament. It is powered by the Pratt & Whitney ]-57-P20 engine, which gives the plane a speed nearly twice that of sound. Ie is said to be capable of shooting down any aircraft flying.

Chance Vought FSU-2N Crusader

McDONNELL'S F4H-1

Instrumentotion Shop personnel study the dials of one af the Shop's testing devices.

McDonnell Aircraft's F4H-1 is one of the Navy 's newest and fastest jet fighters, designed to fly at better than twice the speed of sound. Said to have the greatest range of any Navy jet fighter, it is capable of destroying enemy bombers, day or night, in any weather at supersonic speeds . It is powered by two General Electric ]-79 jet engines , which are in the 10,000 pound thrust class. Ie will carry improved air­ to-air missiles and is also capable of long-range delivery of conventional and nuclear bombs.

' ;411 1 Mc l)ormt ll

21


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The Story Of Nuclear Power At Newport News Rapid Growth of Nuclear Activities in Last Eight Years is Soundly Based on Years of Shipbuilding Experience The launching of the 85,350-ton nuclear-propelled

Enterprise is a significant milestone in the new era of the Atomic Age. It marks the coming of age of the appli­ cation of nuclear power to the propulsion of surface shi ps and the maturity of the science and technology which makes it possible . It also marks another out­ standing accomplishment in the long and successful hisrory of the Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company. The story of the Enterprise is also the story of Nuclear Power at Newport News for, in reality, they are one and the same. The story has its beginning in 1952 . In that year, well before there was assurance that this new source of power would lend itself to mobile applications and while great efforts were being made against almost overwhelming technical odds and popular skepticism in the harnessing of this new force for the propulsion of submarines, nuclear power was born at Newport News. In keeping with the progressive management policy which has kept the company in the forefront of the shipbuilding industry, this new, potential source of

energy was recog ni zed as the key to the future and immediate steps were taken to prepare for leadership in the field. Initial activiti es were modest, but effective. A half dozen youn g engineers were carefully selected from various departments and sent to the Oak Ridge Na­ tional Labo ratory to achieve a base for understanding this technol ogy which was being born . Others were assig ned to work with the Westinghouse Atomic Power o rgani zation then busil y engaged in the solving of the m yriad design problems relating to the submarine Ncttttilus under construction at Electric Boat Compan y. Still others began devoting themselves to the study of ship designs compatible with the new concepts . Preliminary design work on a Large Ship Reactor was initiated under subcontract to Westinghouse and under the cognizance of the Navy . This work was primaril y concerned with studies leading to the successful physical arrangement of the unique reactor plant equipment in the propulsion plant of a large ship and conceptio n o f systems designs which would marry

22

together this new heat source and the conventional marine steam plant. This phase of activity came to an abrupt halt in 1953 on cancellation of the prime con­ tract by the Navy, but not before the desi g n framework was established from which the Enterprise was to emerge. Preparatory activity did not cease with the con­ tractual demise. The Shipyard co ntinued to explore the vast areas of problems, new to shipbuilding, which had ro be overcome if nuclear propulsion of surface ships was to become a reality. Merchant ship appli­ cations , in particular, were investigated , and the design for a nuclear propelled vessel of the Mariner Class was developed. The unique problems related to shielding, reacror control, and health physics , to name a few , were explored continuousl y. The new materials involved were identified and studied with em phasis on fabrica­ tion methods and techniques . Classes in Reactor Theory, Nuclear Engineering and related subjects were established for after-wo rking-hour participation of all who were interested . Lectures were arranged during working hours to begin to expose a broad cross-section of the total enrollment to the facts of the future. With startling suddenness to all but a few, the work officiall y dropped in 1953 was reinstituted with New-

The oth e rs are Na vy perso nnel who were

port News in the role of builder and codesigner with Westinghouse of the Al W Project. This installation, to be constructed at the N ational Reactor Testing Station in Idaho, was to be a full-size pro totype of one propulsion plant of a large surface vessel. It consisted of all reactor plant, steam plant and auxiliary equipment required to drive one propeller shaft of a large ship, complete to the extent of being able to run the tur­ bines just as if the plant were at sea . This was the challenge for which the Ship yard had been preparing. Quickly, the Atomic Power Design Department was formed and the relativel y dormant design activity sprang to full life. With a smoothness born of long experience in meeting the changing re­ quirements of aggressive shipbuilding, the activity which had so long been carried on b y a ver y small gtoup expanded to the point where all yard functions were contributing to the needed effort. The Atomic Power Design Department grew into a Division and, in addition, another new division, known as the Atomic Power Installation Division was formed to accomplish the "Shipbuilding in the Desert". This Division, which later became a Company subsidiary, the Eastern Idaho Construction Company, was composed of ex-

Some idea o f the growth of nuclear deSign activities at the Yard may be reali zed fr o m these two photographs of the Atomic Power Di visio n . The one on the le ft was token in June, 1955, the other just 26 mo nth s late r.


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_-----::;::;Tn,~ .pO-­

The Story Of Nuclear Power At Newport News Rapid Growth of Nuclear Activities in Last Eight Years is Soundly Based on Years of Shipbuilding Experience The launching of the 85,350-ton nuclear-propelled

Enterprise is a significant milestone in the new era of the Atomic Age. It marks the coming of age of the appli­ cation of nuclear power to the propulsion of surface shi ps and the maturity of the science and technology which makes it possible . It also marks another out­ standing accomplishment in the long and successful hisrory of the Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company. The story of the Enterprise is also the story of Nuclear Power at Newport News for, in reality, they are one and the same. The story has its beginning in 1952 . In that year, well before there was assurance that this new source of power would lend itself to mobile applications and while great efforts were being made against almost overwhelming technical odds and popular skepticism in the harnessing of this new force for the propulsion of submarines, nuclear power was born at Newport News. In keeping with the progressive management policy which has kept the company in the forefront of the shipbuilding industry, this new, potential source of

energy was recog ni zed as the key to the future and immediate steps were taken to prepare for leadership in the field. Initial activiti es were modest, but effective. A half dozen youn g engineers were carefully selected from various departments and sent to the Oak Ridge Na­ tional Labo ratory to achieve a base for understanding this technol ogy which was being born . Others were assig ned to work with the Westinghouse Atomic Power o rgani zation then busil y engaged in the solving of the m yriad design problems relating to the submarine Ncttttilus under construction at Electric Boat Compan y. Still others began devoting themselves to the study of ship designs compatible with the new concepts . Preliminary design work on a Large Ship Reactor was initiated under subcontract to Westinghouse and under the cognizance of the Navy . This work was primaril y concerned with studies leading to the successful physical arrangement of the unique reactor plant equipment in the propulsion plant of a large ship and conceptio n o f systems designs which would marry

22

together this new heat source and the conventional marine steam plant. This phase of activity came to an abrupt halt in 1953 on cancellation of the prime con­ tract by the Navy, but not before the desi g n framework was established from which the Enterprise was to emerge. Preparatory activity did not cease with the con­ tractual demise. The Shipyard co ntinued to explore the vast areas of problems, new to shipbuilding, which had ro be overcome if nuclear propulsion of surface ships was to become a reality. Merchant ship appli­ cations , in particular, were investigated , and the design for a nuclear propelled vessel of the Mariner Class was developed. The unique problems related to shielding, reacror control, and health physics , to name a few , were explored continuousl y. The new materials involved were identified and studied with em phasis on fabrica­ tion methods and techniques . Classes in Reactor Theory, Nuclear Engineering and related subjects were established for after-wo rking-hour participation of all who were interested . Lectures were arranged during working hours to begin to expose a broad cross-section of the total enrollment to the facts of the future. With startling suddenness to all but a few, the work officiall y dropped in 1953 was reinstituted with New-

The oth e rs are Na vy perso nnel who were

port News in the role of builder and codesigner with Westinghouse of the Al W Project. This installation, to be constructed at the N ational Reactor Testing Station in Idaho, was to be a full-size pro totype of one propulsion plant of a large surface vessel. It consisted of all reactor plant, steam plant and auxiliary equipment required to drive one propeller shaft of a large ship, complete to the extent of being able to run the tur­ bines just as if the plant were at sea . This was the challenge for which the Ship yard had been preparing. Quickly, the Atomic Power Design Department was formed and the relativel y dormant design activity sprang to full life. With a smoothness born of long experience in meeting the changing re­ quirements of aggressive shipbuilding, the activity which had so long been carried on b y a ver y small gtoup expanded to the point where all yard functions were contributing to the needed effort. The Atomic Power Design Department grew into a Division and, in addition, another new division, known as the Atomic Power Installation Division was formed to accomplish the "Shipbuilding in the Desert". This Division, which later became a Company subsidiary, the Eastern Idaho Construction Company, was composed of ex-

Some idea o f the growth of nuclear deSign activities at the Yard may be reali zed fr o m these two photographs of the Atomic Power Di visio n . The one on the le ft was token in June, 1955, the other just 26 mo nth s late r.


The shore-based Steam Plant built on the southside to supply th e nuclear vessels.

perienced , long-time em plo yees of almost every Yard Department. In May of 1956, the first of this group moved to Idaho . The keel for the "ship" was laid in the desert sand on June 26, 1956. The first reacror went critical on October 21, 1958, and the full plant was placed in operation on January 19, 1959. The project was hailed as an outstanding success in all quarters. In the meanwhile, at home in Virginia , hisrory had not been waiting for the success of the prototype. While the steam plant and reactor plant plans were being developed here, a group of Shipyard personnel was assigned to the Bureau of Ships in Washington to develop contract plans for a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier. Their work was commended by the Chief of the Bureau , and became the basis for the final hull plans. The keel for EnterpriJe was laid February 4, 1958 and construction ptoceeded at a rapid pace. The thousands of tons of steel taking shape under the skillful hands of the shipfitters did not appear to be too unlike ptoud predecessors such as the Forrestal and Ranger until

Special handling of th e reactor components required the enclosure af work areas in "clean rooms", such as these on the ship's hangar deck .

reactor plant components began to arrive on the scene. Reactor vessels, steam generators, pressurizers, main coolant piping, main coolant pumps and many other objects bearing unfamiliar names and having unique functions were installed in a seemingl y endless stream . It soon became apparent that Enterprise was to be powered by the greatest aggregation of nuclear power ever assembled. As Enterprise took shape , so did the Yard's organi­ zation begin to reflect the nature of the new area. In addition to the Aromic Power Division, a Quality Inspection Department was created to assure that the new standards of quality required were attained . A Health Physics group was established to encompass and control the personnel safety aspects related to radiation which is inherent to the nuclear plants. The more rigorous approach to testing, reflecting the new look at safety and technical adequacy, was recognized in the formation of a propulsion plant test organization. The handling of Controlled Materials introduced new facets of activity in most departments and a lead shield­ ing fabrication and installation group was established, closel y allied with the steel construction work. These activities and the training and experience related thereto stood the Yard in good stead when nuclear submarine activity was initiated with the layi ng of the keel of the Shark on February 24, 1958. This momentous event signalled the start of a submarine construction program which, to date, includes a total of five vessels in various stages of planning and con­ struction and the delivery of one, the Robert E. Lee on September 16, 1960. In the relatively short period of eight years, a radi­ call y new concept of shi p propulsion has been success­ full y encompassed by Newport News. This bespeaks the foresight and wisdom of those guiding the destiny of the Company and the ability and desire of ever y employee to meet the challenge with determination and . . . ll1Splranon.

24

The pre-launching detail of the crew assigned to the ENTERPRISE reached nearly 400 officers and men.

Training for the Enterprise Crew BY LIEUTENANT ROBERT C. WHITE ,

USN

Assistant Reactor CO/ltrol O(jic{'/" U. S. 5. Ente,priJe A new romance is blossoming into full flower this week in the Ship yard . Yet it is as old as the sea itself. It is the combined thrill that is felt by the men who are associated with a ship-the men who designed her, the men who sweated hard to build her, and the men who will soon take her to sea. Certainly the

shapely lines of Enterprise, the world's first nuclear aircraft carrier, make her worthy of admiration. She's big, as "girls" go, the biggest afloat, but her lines are smooth and clean, her beauty statuesque, and her crown the most unique to be seen on the sea. The men of the Ship yard have brought many talents to designers ' boards, Shipway eleven, and the Idaho desert. Strange to think of shipbuilders in Idaho al­ most 1,000 miles from the nearest ocean, but that is where the construction story of the Enterprise power plant began. For many months temporarily displaced men from Newport News took the "scenic" 65-mile

In daily classes and conferences, the afficers and en­ listed men con­ tinue training be­ gun at schools and in Idaho.

25


The shore-based Steam Plant built on the southside to supply th e nuclear vessels.

perienced , long-time em plo yees of almost every Yard Department. In May of 1956, the first of this group moved to Idaho . The keel for the "ship" was laid in the desert sand on June 26, 1956. The first reacror went critical on October 21, 1958, and the full plant was placed in operation on January 19, 1959. The project was hailed as an outstanding success in all quarters. In the meanwhile, at home in Virginia , hisrory had not been waiting for the success of the prototype. While the steam plant and reactor plant plans were being developed here, a group of Shipyard personnel was assigned to the Bureau of Ships in Washington to develop contract plans for a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier. Their work was commended by the Chief of the Bureau , and became the basis for the final hull plans. The keel for EnterpriJe was laid February 4, 1958 and construction ptoceeded at a rapid pace. The thousands of tons of steel taking shape under the skillful hands of the shipfitters did not appear to be too unlike ptoud predecessors such as the Forrestal and Ranger until

Special handling of th e reactor components required the enclosure af work areas in "clean rooms", such as these on the ship's hangar deck .

reactor plant components began to arrive on the scene. Reactor vessels, steam generators, pressurizers, main coolant piping, main coolant pumps and many other objects bearing unfamiliar names and having unique functions were installed in a seemingl y endless stream . It soon became apparent that Enterprise was to be powered by the greatest aggregation of nuclear power ever assembled. As Enterprise took shape , so did the Yard's organi­ zation begin to reflect the nature of the new area. In addition to the Aromic Power Division, a Quality Inspection Department was created to assure that the new standards of quality required were attained . A Health Physics group was established to encompass and control the personnel safety aspects related to radiation which is inherent to the nuclear plants. The more rigorous approach to testing, reflecting the new look at safety and technical adequacy, was recognized in the formation of a propulsion plant test organization. The handling of Controlled Materials introduced new facets of activity in most departments and a lead shield­ ing fabrication and installation group was established, closel y allied with the steel construction work. These activities and the training and experience related thereto stood the Yard in good stead when nuclear submarine activity was initiated with the layi ng of the keel of the Shark on February 24, 1958. This momentous event signalled the start of a submarine construction program which, to date, includes a total of five vessels in various stages of planning and con­ struction and the delivery of one, the Robert E. Lee on September 16, 1960. In the relatively short period of eight years, a radi­ call y new concept of shi p propulsion has been success­ full y encompassed by Newport News. This bespeaks the foresight and wisdom of those guiding the destiny of the Company and the ability and desire of ever y employee to meet the challenge with determination and . . . ll1Splranon.

24

The pre-launching detail of the crew assigned to the ENTERPRISE reached nearly 400 officers and men.

Training for the Enterprise Crew BY LIEUTENANT ROBERT C. WHITE ,

USN

Assistant Reactor CO/ltrol O(jic{'/" U. S. 5. Ente,priJe A new romance is blossoming into full flower this week in the Ship yard . Yet it is as old as the sea itself. It is the combined thrill that is felt by the men who are associated with a ship-the men who designed her, the men who sweated hard to build her, and the men who will soon take her to sea. Certainly the

shapely lines of Enterprise, the world's first nuclear aircraft carrier, make her worthy of admiration. She's big, as "girls" go, the biggest afloat, but her lines are smooth and clean, her beauty statuesque, and her crown the most unique to be seen on the sea. The men of the Ship yard have brought many talents to designers ' boards, Shipway eleven, and the Idaho desert. Strange to think of shipbuilders in Idaho al­ most 1,000 miles from the nearest ocean, but that is where the construction story of the Enterprise power plant began. For many months temporarily displaced men from Newport News took the "scenic" 65-mile

In daily classes and conferences, the afficers and en­ listed men con­ tinue training be­ gun at schools and in Idaho.

25


ride out into the desert ftom Idaho Falls and Pocatello, Idaho, to build the ptototype of the ship's machinery plant. One of the ptopulsion plants constructed in Shipway eleven is a duplicate of this testing and training facility built in cooperation with the Atomic Energy Commission and the Westinghouse Electric Corporation. The design modifications discovered and the new construction techniques developed in Idaho were quickly applied to the construction pto­ ceeding back here in the Yard. If the ship is unique, so is the gtoup of men who built her. Cooperation and coordination have been needed every step of the way. The Office of the Chief of Naval Operations ptoduced the over-all concept of the ship. The Naval Reactors Branch of the Bureau of Ships, under the leadership of Vice Admiral Hyman G. Rickover, supervised the design of the ptopulsion plant. Westinghouse Electric Corporation became the prime contractor for the development of the reactor plant, while Newport News was given the responsi­ bility for the construction of the ship, design of the steam plant and engineering support of the prime contract in the reactor plant area. In order to coordi­ nate all of these widespread organizations here at the construction site, the Joint Test Gtoup, JTG, was formed. This policy-making gtoup is composed of representatives of Newport News, Westinghouse, the Pittsburgh Naval Reactors Operations Office of the Atomic Energy Commission (PNROO), and the local Naval Supervisor of Shipbuilding. The JTG meets at least three times a week, more often if neces­ sary, to assure the steady ptogress of construction and testing. A representative of the Ship's Force attends each meeting. The PNROO representatives have two responsi­ bilities; to see that the engineering section of the

Every engineering department officer was selected by senior naval officers after multiple personal inter­ views. The enlisted personnel who are to operate the power plant were selected for their extensive experience in the Beet. Each man is a volunteer. The original officers and men met on the Idaho desert for six months of intense academic study in the fields of Atomic Physics, Chemistry, Reactor Theory, Metallurgy, advanced mathematics, and reactor sys­ tems. The eventual growth of the nuclear power program, both surface and submarine, resulted in the establishment of two such schools-one at the U. S. Naval Submarine Base, Groton, Conn., and one on the west coast in the Mare Island Naval Shipyard. All of the operators of the nuclear plant of Enterprise were trained in one of the academic schools followed by operation of the prototype in Idaho. There they made friends with the equipment and the men who con­ structed it. These friendships are very much in evi­ dence here in the Shi pyard. The completion of nuclear qualification is an in­ volved process very similar to the apprentice program COMMANDER DANIEL PHILIP BROOKS, USN so effectively established here in the Shipyard. Each Prospective Engineering Officer man was selected for his proven abilities within his U. S. S. Enterprise rating. With the six engineering department divisions E (electrical), M (main propulsio n) , B (reactor auxi­ The path to Newport News was not direct for the liaries), RC (reactor control), A (ship's auxiliaries), future crew of the Enterprise. Between Idaho and and R (repair), he will be expected to maintain this Newport News most of the men spent twO weeks under proficiency in rate. However, only a team effort can instruction at the Bettis Laboratories of the AEC in fully utilize the full potential of nuclear power and Pittsburgh. During this time the designers and the all men must have a working knowledge of the entire operators exchanged ideas, discussed design character­ plant. In Idaho, and here at the Shipyard, each man istics, and developed greater mutual understanding. was issued a set of qualification cards which were both More recently, Petty Officers with a wealth of a study guide and a record of progress. There was a supercarrier experience with the catapults, elevators card for each watch station on which the man would and other auxiliary machinery have arrived. The Supply be expected to qualify. In addition, there were selected Department has begun to take form and become "cro ss-rate" cards which sent the electricians down effective. A complete suppOrt organization has been to the main eng ines and feed pumps, the machinist established on the Benewah (APB-35), which is tied mates up into th e control equipment rooms, and the up opposite the berth where Enterprise will be out­ electronics techni cians into reactor auxiliary machinery fitted on the south side. spaces. Hospi tal corpsmen became experts in the The members of the Navy crew are in a unique field of radiol ogi cal safety and boiler tenders became position. In a btoad sense, they are the "customers" engineering laborator y technicians, monitoring water who will eventually take the finished ptoduct from chemistry. Each card m eant study from the power the manufacturer. While preparing for that tole, they plant manuals, techni cal manuals, blueprint files, are operating the equipment with Newport News, system tracing under th e Jeck plates and thtough the during the rigorous testing and acceptance program. overhead, oral examinatio ns by qualified instructors, The workload is much the same as it was in Idaho. and written examinations. Eng ineering department It has been a long toad for many men of all the officers had to qualify on all watch stations and com­ organizations who are building Enterprise. When she plete a comprehensive oral examination. is complete, some men will have spent seven years of Time was short and the need was great. Newport their lives in her development. For all hands it will News had stepped up construction and Navy operators have been worthwhile, for Enterprise is more than an were needed. The rule at the Id aho site was "double instrument for the defense of the United States. She shift" to complete qualification. This meant that will have materially contributed in the development men left their homes in "The Falls" an d "Poky" with of new techniques for peaceful use of the atom. enough clean clothes and food (Q stay on the site Nuclear power is the future of our Navy, and Enter­ for three or four da ys at a time. prise represents the Navy of the future.

u~

An analysis for chloride is made on board by Engineering labora­ tory technician Hall.

ship is being constructed as it was conceived by the Buteau of Ships, and to insure public safety via one of the most vigorous testing ptograms ever devised. The design of the reactor system is the result of meticulous attention to detail. The men who work with these reactors have the utmost confidence in their inherent safety. The testing program is designed to examine every phase of construction, and operation to check design calculations and provide proof of public safety. The testing program produced a unique require­ ment. Atomic Energy laws require that personnel who operate nuclear power plants have special qualifi­ cations. Following the traditions established in the nuclear submarine program the future Navy crew was trained in the operation of the Idaho prototype. The first of these men arrived ,i n the Shipyard from Idaho last January, almost two years before the scheduled completion of the ship.

Officers and men of the crew are in­ spected by the ranking officer cur­ rently assig ned, Commander Brooks.

26

27


ride out into the desert ftom Idaho Falls and Pocatello, Idaho, to build the ptototype of the ship's machinery plant. One of the ptopulsion plants constructed in Shipway eleven is a duplicate of this testing and training facility built in cooperation with the Atomic Energy Commission and the Westinghouse Electric Corporation. The design modifications discovered and the new construction techniques developed in Idaho were quickly applied to the construction pto­ ceeding back here in the Yard. If the ship is unique, so is the gtoup of men who built her. Cooperation and coordination have been needed every step of the way. The Office of the Chief of Naval Operations ptoduced the over-all concept of the ship. The Naval Reactors Branch of the Bureau of Ships, under the leadership of Vice Admiral Hyman G. Rickover, supervised the design of the ptopulsion plant. Westinghouse Electric Corporation became the prime contractor for the development of the reactor plant, while Newport News was given the responsi­ bility for the construction of the ship, design of the steam plant and engineering support of the prime contract in the reactor plant area. In order to coordi­ nate all of these widespread organizations here at the construction site, the Joint Test Gtoup, JTG, was formed. This policy-making gtoup is composed of representatives of Newport News, Westinghouse, the Pittsburgh Naval Reactors Operations Office of the Atomic Energy Commission (PNROO), and the local Naval Supervisor of Shipbuilding. The JTG meets at least three times a week, more often if neces­ sary, to assure the steady ptogress of construction and testing. A representative of the Ship's Force attends each meeting. The PNROO representatives have two responsi­ bilities; to see that the engineering section of the

Every engineering department officer was selected by senior naval officers after multiple personal inter­ views. The enlisted personnel who are to operate the power plant were selected for their extensive experience in the Beet. Each man is a volunteer. The original officers and men met on the Idaho desert for six months of intense academic study in the fields of Atomic Physics, Chemistry, Reactor Theory, Metallurgy, advanced mathematics, and reactor sys­ tems. The eventual growth of the nuclear power program, both surface and submarine, resulted in the establishment of two such schools-one at the U. S. Naval Submarine Base, Groton, Conn., and one on the west coast in the Mare Island Naval Shipyard. All of the operators of the nuclear plant of Enterprise were trained in one of the academic schools followed by operation of the prototype in Idaho. There they made friends with the equipment and the men who con­ structed it. These friendships are very much in evi­ dence here in the Shi pyard. The completion of nuclear qualification is an in­ volved process very similar to the apprentice program COMMANDER DANIEL PHILIP BROOKS, USN so effectively established here in the Shipyard. Each Prospective Engineering Officer man was selected for his proven abilities within his U. S. S. Enterprise rating. With the six engineering department divisions E (electrical), M (main propulsio n) , B (reactor auxi­ The path to Newport News was not direct for the liaries), RC (reactor control), A (ship's auxiliaries), future crew of the Enterprise. Between Idaho and and R (repair), he will be expected to maintain this Newport News most of the men spent twO weeks under proficiency in rate. However, only a team effort can instruction at the Bettis Laboratories of the AEC in fully utilize the full potential of nuclear power and Pittsburgh. During this time the designers and the all men must have a working knowledge of the entire operators exchanged ideas, discussed design character­ plant. In Idaho, and here at the Shipyard, each man istics, and developed greater mutual understanding. was issued a set of qualification cards which were both More recently, Petty Officers with a wealth of a study guide and a record of progress. There was a supercarrier experience with the catapults, elevators card for each watch station on which the man would and other auxiliary machinery have arrived. The Supply be expected to qualify. In addition, there were selected Department has begun to take form and become "cro ss-rate" cards which sent the electricians down effective. A complete suppOrt organization has been to the main eng ines and feed pumps, the machinist established on the Benewah (APB-35), which is tied mates up into th e control equipment rooms, and the up opposite the berth where Enterprise will be out­ electronics techni cians into reactor auxiliary machinery fitted on the south side. spaces. Hospi tal corpsmen became experts in the The members of the Navy crew are in a unique field of radiol ogi cal safety and boiler tenders became position. In a btoad sense, they are the "customers" engineering laborator y technicians, monitoring water who will eventually take the finished ptoduct from chemistry. Each card m eant study from the power the manufacturer. While preparing for that tole, they plant manuals, techni cal manuals, blueprint files, are operating the equipment with Newport News, system tracing under th e Jeck plates and thtough the during the rigorous testing and acceptance program. overhead, oral examinatio ns by qualified instructors, The workload is much the same as it was in Idaho. and written examinations. Eng ineering department It has been a long toad for many men of all the officers had to qualify on all watch stations and com­ organizations who are building Enterprise. When she plete a comprehensive oral examination. is complete, some men will have spent seven years of Time was short and the need was great. Newport their lives in her development. For all hands it will News had stepped up construction and Navy operators have been worthwhile, for Enterprise is more than an were needed. The rule at the Id aho site was "double instrument for the defense of the United States. She shift" to complete qualification. This meant that will have materially contributed in the development men left their homes in "The Falls" an d "Poky" with of new techniques for peaceful use of the atom. enough clean clothes and food (Q stay on the site Nuclear power is the future of our Navy, and Enter­ for three or four da ys at a time. prise represents the Navy of the future.

u~

An analysis for chloride is made on board by Engineering labora­ tory technician Hall.

ship is being constructed as it was conceived by the Buteau of Ships, and to insure public safety via one of the most vigorous testing ptograms ever devised. The design of the reactor system is the result of meticulous attention to detail. The men who work with these reactors have the utmost confidence in their inherent safety. The testing program is designed to examine every phase of construction, and operation to check design calculations and provide proof of public safety. The testing program produced a unique require­ ment. Atomic Energy laws require that personnel who operate nuclear power plants have special qualifi­ cations. Following the traditions established in the nuclear submarine program the future Navy crew was trained in the operation of the Idaho prototype. The first of these men arrived ,i n the Shipyard from Idaho last January, almost two years before the scheduled completion of the ship.

Officers and men of the crew are in­ spected by the ranking officer cur­ rently assig ned, Commander Brooks.

26

27


DOW ~ ONG

IS THE ENTERPRISE?

"How big is the Enterprise?"

u.

S. S. Enterprise

A Superlative Ship­ World's Largest Ship­ First Nuclear Carrier­ Most Powerful Atomic Power Plant- Greatest Array of Electronic Equipment.

The first vessel ever designed with more than twO nuclear re­ actors, Enterprise will have eight pressurized water reactors arranged in four dual systems to drive herfour propellers. In combination, they make up the world 's most powerful atomic power plant, afloat or ashore.

Although shipbuilding is based on very exact figures , there are, strangely enough, several COrrect answers to that question. In the first place, she is large enough to displace 85,350 tons of sea water \vhen completed and Out­ fitted. That is one of the reasons this nuclear ai rcraft carrier is the world's largest ship. The fact that she has an official over-all length of 1,101 feet six inches , makin g her longer than any other ship ever built , is another. The measurement between perpendiculars , 1,040 feet, is the key figure used by naval architects and others interested in the details of construction. An­ other indication is found in those who will man and operate her; the complement of 4,600 officers and men, including air groups , is the largest ever officially assigned to a Naval vessel. The observer may say , "This is all very well, but what is her actual length, from the very tip of her most forward part on the bow to the final correspond­ ing point aft on the stern?" Her designers have an answer to that question tOO , although it becomes a little complicated.

The ptotrusions farthest outboard forward of the flight deck bow ramp consist of twO bridle arresters . These appendages serve to catch and retrieve the air­ craft bridles, the gear by which the planes are connected to the catapults for launching. Before they were developed and added to carriers, the bridles were often lost overboard as a plane was shot into the air. At the stern of the vessel, a series of antennas will pro­ trude Out over the hull , aft of the after flight deck ramp . Measured from the extreme ends of these ptotrusions, the length taken from the designers drawings is exactly 1,1 23 feet and two and three­ eighths inches. But even that len g th , like the official over-all , will va ry, since the massive steel hull will expand and con­ traCt several inches with changes in temperature. This calls for a word of caution for anyone who sa ys, " Let's measure her". D o n't use a yardstick or short tape , because the job may take so long that the length would change before the measurement was finished. Thus , to be perfectly accurate, any statement of length should be qualified by the temperature at which she was measured. Any way you look at it, CVA(N) 65 is the world 's larg est shi p.

..

The Enterprise's nu­ clear power plant pro­ d uces horsepower rated at over 200,000 and will drive the carrier at speeds in excess of 30 knots . It will enable the Entelprise to operate for several years with­ out refueling. In con­ tinuous operation, she could circle the earth at high speed many times without stopping.

28

FOX BROTHERS WORKED ON BOTH ENTERPRISES

There is no doubt that hundred s of our employees ha ve worked on both of the carriers named ENTERPRISE. Shown here are the three Fox brothers who wo rked on both carriers. A fourth Fox brother, who also worked on both, was out s ick when the photagraph was taken. The four have a tatal service record of 168 years. From left to right, George has 25 years' serv ice, Robby has 41, Phil has 45, and Clarence, not shown, ha s 37 years.

A boo m for the aircraft bridle arre5tcr\ bei ng erected on the bow. Antennas will also protrude from Ihe h ell I s lr Llc lu rc at the ste rn .

29


DOW ~ ONG

IS THE ENTERPRISE?

"How big is the Enterprise?"

u.

S. S. Enterprise

A Superlative Ship­ World's Largest Ship­ First Nuclear Carrier­ Most Powerful Atomic Power Plant- Greatest Array of Electronic Equipment.

The first vessel ever designed with more than twO nuclear re­ actors, Enterprise will have eight pressurized water reactors arranged in four dual systems to drive herfour propellers. In combination, they make up the world 's most powerful atomic power plant, afloat or ashore.

Although shipbuilding is based on very exact figures , there are, strangely enough, several COrrect answers to that question. In the first place, she is large enough to displace 85,350 tons of sea water \vhen completed and Out­ fitted. That is one of the reasons this nuclear ai rcraft carrier is the world's largest ship. The fact that she has an official over-all length of 1,101 feet six inches , makin g her longer than any other ship ever built , is another. The measurement between perpendiculars , 1,040 feet, is the key figure used by naval architects and others interested in the details of construction. An­ other indication is found in those who will man and operate her; the complement of 4,600 officers and men, including air groups , is the largest ever officially assigned to a Naval vessel. The observer may say , "This is all very well, but what is her actual length, from the very tip of her most forward part on the bow to the final correspond­ ing point aft on the stern?" Her designers have an answer to that question tOO , although it becomes a little complicated.

The ptotrusions farthest outboard forward of the flight deck bow ramp consist of twO bridle arresters . These appendages serve to catch and retrieve the air­ craft bridles, the gear by which the planes are connected to the catapults for launching. Before they were developed and added to carriers, the bridles were often lost overboard as a plane was shot into the air. At the stern of the vessel, a series of antennas will pro­ trude Out over the hull , aft of the after flight deck ramp . Measured from the extreme ends of these ptotrusions, the length taken from the designers drawings is exactly 1,1 23 feet and two and three­ eighths inches. But even that len g th , like the official over-all , will va ry, since the massive steel hull will expand and con­ traCt several inches with changes in temperature. This calls for a word of caution for anyone who sa ys, " Let's measure her". D o n't use a yardstick or short tape , because the job may take so long that the length would change before the measurement was finished. Thus , to be perfectly accurate, any statement of length should be qualified by the temperature at which she was measured. Any way you look at it, CVA(N) 65 is the world 's larg est shi p.

..

The Enterprise's nu­ clear power plant pro­ d uces horsepower rated at over 200,000 and will drive the carrier at speeds in excess of 30 knots . It will enable the Entelprise to operate for several years with­ out refueling. In con­ tinuous operation, she could circle the earth at high speed many times without stopping.

28

FOX BROTHERS WORKED ON BOTH ENTERPRISES

There is no doubt that hundred s of our employees ha ve worked on both of the carriers named ENTERPRISE. Shown here are the three Fox brothers who wo rked on both carriers. A fourth Fox brother, who also worked on both, was out s ick when the photagraph was taken. The four have a tatal service record of 168 years. From left to right, George has 25 years' serv ice, Robby has 41, Phil has 45, and Clarence, not shown, ha s 37 years.

A boo m for the aircraft bridle arre5tcr\ bei ng erected on the bow. Antennas will also protrude from Ihe h ell I s lr Llc lu rc at the ste rn .

29


FACTS ABOUT THE ENTERPRISE

Navy designation Type of vessel Propulsion Number of reactors Horsepower, over Speed, over Length over-all Length between

perpend iculars Breadth at main deck Extreme bteadth at

flight deck Depth Depth at Ci L flight deck Contract date Keel laid Christening Delivery Height, keel to mast top,

equal to Area of flight deck Displacement Number of crew

(including air group) Meals served aboard daily Number of compartments

& spaces, over Weight of rudders, about Number of anchors Weight of anchors Weight of links in

anchor chain Number of propelJers

(all five blades) Height of propelJers Weight of propeiJers Number of telephones, over Number of designers required Number of drawings made Miles of blueprints issued Number of plane elevators

(all deck edge) Size of plane elevators, about Number of catapults Capacity of air conditioning

plants Daily capacity of distilling plants

CVA(N)65

Nuclear Attack Aircraft

Carrier

Nuclear

8

200,000

30 knots

1,101 feet

Length of ventilation & heating ducts aboard, about Length of electrical cable, about Length of y,j -inch welding Length of pipe & rubing (from I/~ -inch to two feet in diameter) Material received at Newport News, equal to more than

1,040 feet

133 feet

252 feet

229 feet 6 inches

99 feet 4 inches

November 15, 195 7

February 4, 1958

September 24, 1960

Fall 1961

625 miles 4,080 miles

230 miles 3,000 rail carloads

The Enterprise - A Floating City Will Have Air-conditioning Plants Armory Bakery Barber Shop Blacksmith Shop Butcher Shop Carpenter Shop Copper Shop Dental Office Distillation Plant (Waterworks) Electric Shop Electrical Generating Stations Fire Stations Garbage Disposal Plant Hospital Ice Cream Plant & Bars (3) Jail (Brig) Ladies' Powder Rooms (4)

23-story building

4.47 acres

85,350 tons

4,600

13,800

3,200

35 tons each

2

30 tons each

360 pounds each

4

21 feet each

64,500 pounds each

1,800

915

16,100

2,400

Laundry Library Machine Shop Movie Theater Operating Rooms Oxygen Plant Paint Shop Pharmacy Photographic Laboratories Post Office Printing Plant Radio and TV Repair Shop Sheet Metal Shop Shoe Repair Shop Soda Fountain Tailor Shop TV Lounges VolJeybali CourtS Weather Bureau

Facts About The Electrical and Electronic Equip:ment Total output of all electronic equipment

4

4,000 square feet

4

Estimated number of rubes, transistors and diodes, about Total power of auxiliary motors, nearly Area taken up by sw itchboards, nearly Potential electrical genetating capacity

1,225 tons (enough to serve over 400 homes) 280,000 galJons (e nough to supply daily needs of over 1,400 homes )

Facts About The Materials Used Strucrural steel required Weld metal used in

construction Aluminum used in

construction

37 miles

60,923 tons

Total number of lighting fixtures Length of all cable and wiring used

3,400,000 pounds

3,0 14 ,266 pounds

Equal to output of about 300 powerful radio stations, operating simultaneously 1,000,000 30,000 horsepower 7,000 square feet Enough [0 supply the needs of a ci ty of over 2,000,000 persons 25,500 Equal to 3,000 times the length of the ship Some of th e thou ~o nd s o f men working On boord streom through the orchway of a giant tower whirler crone after another rewardinQ day ':, cfro rl ~ on the construction of the first nuclear-powered oircraft carrier.

30


FACTS ABOUT THE ENTERPRISE

Navy designation Type of vessel Propulsion Number of reactors Horsepower, over Speed, over Length over-all Length between

perpend iculars Breadth at main deck Extreme bteadth at

flight deck Depth Depth at Ci L flight deck Contract date Keel laid Christening Delivery Height, keel to mast top,

equal to Area of flight deck Displacement Number of crew

(including air group) Meals served aboard daily Number of compartments

& spaces, over Weight of rudders, about Number of anchors Weight of anchors Weight of links in

anchor chain Number of propelJers

(all five blades) Height of propelJers Weight of propeiJers Number of telephones, over Number of designers required Number of drawings made Miles of blueprints issued Number of plane elevators

(all deck edge) Size of plane elevators, about Number of catapults Capacity of air conditioning

plants Daily capacity of distilling plants

CVA(N)65

Nuclear Attack Aircraft

Carrier

Nuclear

8

200,000

30 knots

1,101 feet

Length of ventilation & heating ducts aboard, about Length of electrical cable, about Length of y,j -inch welding Length of pipe & rubing (from I/~ -inch to two feet in diameter) Material received at Newport News, equal to more than

1,040 feet

133 feet

252 feet

229 feet 6 inches

99 feet 4 inches

November 15, 195 7

February 4, 1958

September 24, 1960

Fall 1961

625 miles 4,080 miles

230 miles 3,000 rail carloads

The Enterprise - A Floating City Will Have Air-conditioning Plants Armory Bakery Barber Shop Blacksmith Shop Butcher Shop Carpenter Shop Copper Shop Dental Office Distillation Plant (Waterworks) Electric Shop Electrical Generating Stations Fire Stations Garbage Disposal Plant Hospital Ice Cream Plant & Bars (3) Jail (Brig) Ladies' Powder Rooms (4)

23-story building

4.47 acres

85,350 tons

4,600

13,800

3,200

35 tons each

2

30 tons each

360 pounds each

4

21 feet each

64,500 pounds each

1,800

915

16,100

2,400

Laundry Library Machine Shop Movie Theater Operating Rooms Oxygen Plant Paint Shop Pharmacy Photographic Laboratories Post Office Printing Plant Radio and TV Repair Shop Sheet Metal Shop Shoe Repair Shop Soda Fountain Tailor Shop TV Lounges VolJeybali CourtS Weather Bureau

Facts About The Electrical and Electronic Equip:ment Total output of all electronic equipment

4

4,000 square feet

4

Estimated number of rubes, transistors and diodes, about Total power of auxiliary motors, nearly Area taken up by sw itchboards, nearly Potential electrical genetating capacity

1,225 tons (enough to serve over 400 homes) 280,000 galJons (e nough to supply daily needs of over 1,400 homes )

Facts About The Materials Used Strucrural steel required Weld metal used in

construction Aluminum used in

construction

37 miles

60,923 tons

Total number of lighting fixtures Length of all cable and wiring used

3,400,000 pounds

3,0 14 ,266 pounds

Equal to output of about 300 powerful radio stations, operating simultaneously 1,000,000 30,000 horsepower 7,000 square feet Enough [0 supply the needs of a ci ty of over 2,000,000 persons 25,500 Equal to 3,000 times the length of the ship Some of th e thou ~o nd s o f men working On boord streom through the orchway of a giant tower whirler crone after another rewardinQ day ':, cfro rl ~ on the construction of the first nuclear-powered oircraft carrier.

30


CRANES AGA IN ST I H

Construction scenes like thi s are nevI', I lltJ I thousa nds af Shipyard emp loyees who h ov' J blHII

II

m( ma ries for

th e

CNTCR PRISE.

NEWPORT NEWS SHIPBUILDING AND DRY DOCK COMPANY

SEPTEM BER, 1960 .

Volume

xx -

Number 5


Newport News Shipyard Bulletin from Sept. 1960