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The Official Tourist Guide of Guyana 2014 EXPLORE GUYANA is published annually for the Tourism and Hospitality Association of Guyana (THAG) in association with the Ministry of Tourism, Industry and Commerce and the Guyana Tourism Association (GTA) by: Advertising & Marketing Services (AMS) 213 B Camp Street P.O.Box 101582, Georgetown, Guyana Tel: (011592) 225-5384 Fax: (011592) 225-5383 E-mail:

Publisher & Editor:

Lokesh Singh

Advertising Sales: Lokesh Singh Adrian Pryce Christine Gooding Tessa Allen

Graphic Design: Mensah Fox

Editorial Contributors:

Lokesh Singh Treina F. Butts Pippa Jacks Ian Craddock National Trust of Guyana Michael Devenish Major General (ret’d) Joseph Singh Chevon Singh Damian Fernandes Salvador De Caires Alex Morritt Matt Hallett Samantha James Philippe J R Kok Monique Holting Raffael Ernst Capt. Lloyd Marshall Dr Vindhya V Persaud Carnegie School of Home Economics

Contributing Photography:

Mensah Fox Pippa Jacks National Trust of Guyana Major General (ret’d) Joseph Singh Duane De Freitas Guyana Tourism Authority Ministry of Natural Resources Andrea de Caires Andrew Snyder Dr Racquel Thomas-Caesar

Adrian Narine Office of the President Michael Devenish and Friends Rommel Niamatali Chevon Singh Damien Fernandes Salvador de Caires Paul Waldron Ricardo Stannoss Dr Vindhya V Persaud

On The Cover: Hollywood Actor Channing Tatum with Amerindian Group at Surama Village

Cover Photo: Ian Craddock

© Copyright 2014. Reproduction of any material without the permission of AMS is strictly prohibited. AMS and THAG wish to express sincere thanks and appreciation to all parties who have assisted in making this publication a reality.


The Official Tourist Guide of Guyana 2014


INTRODUCTION AND WELCOME 6 - President of Guyana Message 8 - THAG Welcome Message 11 - Minister of Tourism Message 12 - On the Prowl 20 - Adventure to Remember

About the Tourism and Hospitality Association of Guyana (THAG)



he Tourism and Hospitality Association of Guyana (THAG) was established in January 1991 by a number of persons working in the industry and is a member of the Private Sector Commission. It was initially called the Tourism Association of Guyana but evolved into Tourism and Hospitality Association of Guyana in recognition of the magnitude of the industry. It is the umbrella body of all tourism related restauranteurs, tour operators, travel agents, hoteliers and transportation services, comunity based tourism providers among others. THAG has pursued partnership with the Government of Guyana in development and expansion of various aspects of the tourism industry; generic marketing, training and development; positioning individual members locally, regionally and internationally to operate with the highest standards in the industry. THAG is headed by an Executive Board comprising of a President, Vice President, Treasurer and four Committee members.

25 - Map of Guyana 26 - Map of Georgetown / Architectural Treasures EXPLORE GUYANA 29 - Colonial Homes of Georgetown 34 - Fishing in the Jungle Rivers 42 - The Wonderful Demerara River 50 - Riding the Rapids of the Raging Rivers 53 - Three Parks Initiatives 57 - The Story of Buddy - The Blind Giant Otter 61 - Kaieteur Falls 63 - Mighty Kaieteur 64 - Unusual Images of the Jungle 66 - Berbice - The Ancient County 70 - Local Wisdom for Conservation 75 - The Frog that may be lost 79 - 100 Years of Aviation in Guyana FUN & FOOD 85 - Deepavali 89 - Guyanese Recipes

The Secretariat is headed by an Executive Director whose responsibility is the day to day management of the Association. THAG’s permanent staff is the Executive Officer. THAG, the Guyana Tourism Authority and the Ministry of Tourism, Industry and Commerce have built a strong alliance to promote and develop Guyana’s many natural and cultural attributes as a tourism destination.

ABOUT GUYANA 90 - Country Facts, Government, Travelling & Money & Business THAG TRAVELLER 94 - Accommodations Georgetown & Environs 96 - Eco-Resorts, Interior Lodges & Attractions 100 - THAG Member Services 103 - Calendar of Events

Tourism & Hospitality Association of Guyana, Private Sector Commission Building Waterloo Street, Georgetown, Guyana. Tel: 011 592 225 0807 / 592 225 0817 Email: EXPLORE GUYANA

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Come, Re-Discover


am pleased to be associated with this the 2014 edition of Explore Guyana magazine, a publication that continues to make an invaluable contribution to the promotion of Guyana as a tourist destination. This high– class publication, produced by professionals committed to the highest standards of excellence is loaded with important information and features about Guyana’s ever- improving tourism product. I am pleased to note that this year’s magazine focuses on my country’s nature- based and adventure tourism product. Blessed with stupendous natural beauty and home to extensive virgin rainforests, some of the world’s rarest species of flora, and many extinct fauna, Guyana offers an experience of adventure and fun, one that is quite different from the traditional sun, sea and sand that is the traditional fare of other destinations in the Caribbean. Tourists are now increasingly demanding new, exotic and adventure-filled experiences. Guyana, given its natural attributes and its geographic location on the doorstep to some of the major economies in South America and close to the islands of the Caribbean Sea, can provide that memorable experience that is unique, special, educational, adventurous and fun-filled.

H.E Donald Ramotar President Republic of Guyana

It is my hope that as you meander through the pages of this magazine that your interest will be tickled and your appetite for a different kind of tourist experience will be wetted so that when you plan your next vacation you will seriously consider Guyana, a country brimming with confidence, inviting, hospitable, and with delights and adventure awaiting your arrival. I invite you to come and experience for yourselves the unforgettable natural wonders of Guyana, and to have a season of fun and adventure, the likes of which you have never experienced nor will you ever regret. H.E Donald Ramotar President Republic of Guyana


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Visit, Enjoy, Experience



A warm welcome to Explore Guyana 2014!

This is my first year as President of THAG. It is a privilege to have been elected and I very much look forward to our working together to build and promote Guyana as a wonderful and very special tourist destination. On behalf of THAG, I am especially pleased to extend a warm welcome to all current and prospective visitors to Guyana. I thank you for choosing Guyana, the third largest country in South America and the only English Speaking country on the Continent.

Kit Nascimento President

Come and share with us the warmth of our hospitality, the wonders of Kaieteur Falls, our unique biodiversity, our huge variety of birds, our diverse culture and cuisine. In many ways, Guyana serves as the lungs and the laboratory to the world. We look forward to 2014 with anticipation as more and more visitors discover Guyana. We are pleased to welcome Fly Jamaica and continue to welcome Caribbean Airlines and Suriname Airways to our friendly skies. In 2014, when our new airport is completed and the Marriott Hotel in place, we look forward to additional new airlines coming on board. The hosting of the Rupununi Music and Arts Festival planned for 14-16th February, this year, could not have been better timed. Begin making your travel arrangements and bookings now. Make November a month to remember as the Guyana Motor Racing and Sports Club hosts yet another exciting weekend of events and the industry celebrates Tourism Awareness Month. We hosted in September last year, the Inaugural Nereid’s Yacht Rally from Chaguaramas in Trinidad & Tobago and the first Rally destined for our magnificent Essequibo River at the Hurakabra River Resort. We look forward to hosting a bigger and better 2014 Rally.

Nicole Correia Vice President

I wish to thank our existing members, previous executives and partners for all their tireless efforts and their contributions to this publication over the years. I welcome new members of the industry to join us, to support the initiatives of THAG and strengthen our voice on behalf of the sector. I believe that the strength of any organisation is in its membership. As your new President, I know that it is fundamental to our success that the membership be fully consulted and actively involved in our governance and in our decisions. Together, THAG and the Government of Guyana, through the Ministry of Tourism and the Guyana Tourism Authority, have expanded our drive to increase the promotion of Guyana as both a Caribbean and South American destination. We look to our government to partner us and invest in our development but it is our private sector who invest in our tourism product and for us to grow and prosper, it must be private sector driven and public sector regulated. To all of our visitors a hearty welcome. We look forward to hosting you and to your coming again and again.

Treina F. Butts Executive Director

See you soon!!

Kit Nascimento President, Tourism & Hospitality Association of Guyana

Mitra Ramkumar Treasurer

Jacqueline Allicock Chairman Amerindian Affairs

Colin Edwards Committee Member EXPLORE GUYANA

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Ann Hamilton Committee Member

Andrea de Caires Committee Member

Come, Re-Discover



f you are looking for one of a kind destination full of adventure, hospitality and unique experiences, then Guyana is the place to come!!!

A truly memorable, unforgettable and out of the ordinary experience awaits you in this is a paradise for nature lovers, bird enthusiasts, adventure seekers and the eco- tourists; with this in mind, a series of exciting and diverse cultural events have been held in 2013, providing the perfect opportunity for thousands of visitors and locals to experience Guyana’s unique blend of customs and activities. With Guyana’s wealth of world class natural tourism attractions including vast trails of wilderness, rainforests, river systems, mountains, an abundance of natural resources and a variety of historic sites, the country’s tourism product continues to grow and attract significant interest from investors and visitors alike. Over the past year, the Tourism Ministry and the Guyana Tourism Authority have succeeded in ensuring that the destination’s tourism product is showcased through increased marketing and heightened participation in international trade shows; as representatives proceed to sell Guyana as a birding, yachting, and eco tourism destination. The thrust to brand and promote Guyana has lead to increased international recognition; the destination has been featured in several international publications including Fortune 500, Caribbean Airlines In flight Magazine Bamazon- the History Channel, Gold Rush – Discovery Channel and a team from Blue Paw out of Germany recently concluded filming Big 5 Series in Guyana. Acknowledging the benefits and importance of this sector to Guyana and the region as a whole; the Government continues to invest in infrastructural developments- the Marriott Hotel, the Expansion of the Cheddi Jagan International Airport and the Ogle International Airport, to maintain International destination awareness through the attendance at key trade shows, and to continue to be featured in films, documentaries and publications. With these and other developments taking hold, it is clear the Tourism Sector in Guyana is on the precipice of take off and we are well poised to welcome even more visitors to the destination. Various initiatives which have been vigorously promoted have also helped contribute towards an increase in tourist arrivals into Guyana from around 99,000 in 2001 to over in 176, 642 in 2012- an almost 80% increase in ten years. In an effort to make Guyana an even more competitive destination and to widen the country’s appeal , outside of the Guyanese Diaspora , destination branding has accelerated , there has been more focused improvements to the transport infrastructure for greater connectivity and more airlifts, reduce travel time/ travel cost, there has been extended marketing efforts to improve our market position, increased and improve tourist facilities, improved standards within the industry (both service and product), and increase funding to institutions that support tourism development. We continue to improve our competitive edge in the sector to ensure a quality tourism product is offered to our many new and returning guests to the destination, this will undoubtedly result in better customer satisfaction and the sustainable development of the sector. Further, we remain committed to Public Private Partnership through our continued support of publications such as the Explore Guyana Magazine, aimed at promoting Guyana as the premier destination of choice. I take this opportunity to invite to you visit and re visit the destination with your family and friends to experience an unforgettable journey that is …Destination Guyana… Hon. Mohamed Irfaan Ali Minister of Tourism, Industry and Commerce (ag.)

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Howler Monkey

On the

Prowl Story by Pippa Jacks, Managing Editor, TTG.

Guyana is in South America but has more in common with the Caribbean, and is the CTO’s poster-child for sustainable tourism. Pippa Jacks goes in search of jaguars in this littlevisited country.

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White Hawk holding a Fire Snake


s the sun begins to peep over the forest canopy, the rainforest orchestra strikes up for its morning concert. Cicadas supply the strings with their synthesized buzz, while a woodpecker plays percussion on a tree trunk. Distant birdsong sounds like a recorder; a caracara bird shrieks like a firework before it explodes and there’s the constant, penny-whistle call of the screaming piha bird. I’m sharing this viewing platform 33 metres above the rainforest floor with just two other people, so I feel like the birds are giving me a private performance. Iwokrama Rainforest Reserve is described as the “green heart of Guyana”, and covers a million acres of pristine rainforest. The raised canopy walkway on which I’m sitting allows me a better view of some of the country’s 800 bird species and 7,000 plants and – if I’m lucky – I may catch a glimpse of an elusive jaguar. The reserve was created in 1996 as a “gift” to the international community, so research could be carried out into sustainable forestry

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A Black Caiman “On the Prowl”

and climate change, and enabling the indigenous Makushi people to earn money from tourism instead of mining. There are only a handful of places to stay in the rainforest and surrounding savannah, and the lodges and camps have been carefully crafted to offer different experiences, so as not to compete with one another. After a jaguar-less stay at Atta Lodge, we drive further into the reserve to Iwokrama River Lodge and Centre for Rainforest Conservation where I get a chance to chat to the resident scientist about her research.

My home for the night is a simple wooden chalet with a hammock out on the porch, from where I can stare out onto the mighty Essequibo River. After dinner, we go out by boat in search of nocturnal wildlife, and spy Sankhar, the friendly six-foot caiman, as well as several snakes. On a morning hike to the top of Turtle Mountain, there’s still no sign of a jaguar, but we do encounter a group of cheeky howler monkeys, who pee on us from above and throw sticks to make us move on. EXPLORE GUYANA

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On a 6am river trip, we see a group of red howler monkeys, beautiful blue and gold macaws, and a terrifyingly large harpy eagle – with a wing span of up to six feet – which can take animals as big as a sloth out of a tree. Big attractions The harpy eagle is just one of Guyana’s many natural giants. It’s as if, left undisturbed by man, wildlife has gone into turbo-evolution here. There is the giant river otter, the giant anteater, the world’s biggest lily and the world’s largest

Giant Anteater & Baby

constricting snake, the anaconda. And of course there’s the legendary jaguar, which is the largest cat in the Americas. But even the BBC documentary team, which came to film Lost Land of The Jaguar here in 2008, only caught one jaguar on camera, so I try not to get my hopes up. With such incredible biodiversity, it’s no surprise that Guyana is popular with wildlife enthusiasts. Lodges and camps also offer activities like horse-riding, canoeing, sportfishing and jungle survival courses.

Such small-scale tourism (only around 2,500 annual tourists from the UK) with internal flights in tiny planes makes Guyana a “reassuringly expensive” destination. But those who can afford it are treated to some of the most diverse and untouched wildlife in the world, and have the rare privilege of barely bumping into any other tourists. On a day trip from the capital city of Georgetown to the magnificent Kaieteur Falls, I was one of only a handful of visitors

that day – hard to believe when you think of the droves of tourists at other famous waterfall sitesbin the world. Pottering around Georgetown too, clients are unlikely to come across many other holidaymakers. Churches, mosques and Hindu shrines sit side by side, hinting at how this resource-rich country was conquered by the Dutch and then the British. More than 90% of the population live in a narrow coastal strip, and, as an Englishspeaking country, these people feel more in common with the Caribbean than with Latin America. Sustainable future Guyana is also the member destination to which the Caribbean Tourism Organisation looks for best practice in low-impact, nature-centric and community-focused tourism. Surama Village, Guyana’s most famous example of community-led tourism is therefore a fitting place to conclude my trip. This community of nearly 300 Makushi people in the Rupununi savannah, just south of Iwokrama, has successfully opened up to tourism while retaining its hunting and farming traditions.


Guests are welcomed to the village like friends and can stay in either a traditional thatched “benab” or a more modern cabin. Over a delicious breakfast of breads,


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homemade peanut butter and fruits grown in her own garden, Surama’s chef and “culture leader” Jeane Allicock tells me how she teaches songs and poems to the community’s children to keep the Makushi language and legends alive. I’m lucky to get the chance to chat to village elder Fred Allicock, one of the brothers who founded the Surama community, and who worked closely with the research organisations to locate and build Iwokrama field station. He also created the agreement between the indigenous owners of the land and the research bodies as to how Iwokrama would be run. I can’t help but ask how many jaguars he’s seen himself. He chuckles as if he’s been asked this question a thousand times. “The jaguars are there,” he promises. “But if your eyes aren’t accustomed to the landscape then you miss them.”


If only the stealthy jaguars would take their lead from the birds at Iwokrama and stage a private perfomance for me. Though that would rather ruin the fun of searching. For more information visit

Canopy Walkway - Iwokrama


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Channing and Friends on top of Kaieteur

An Adventure to Remember Channing Tatum & Friends Explore Guyana Story & Photos by Ian Craddock

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Channing Tatum with Amerindian Group at Surama Village


uyana is rapidly emerging as the new jewel in the crown of rainforest destinations around the World. Because of its size, relatively few tourists and the remoteness of the interior locations, many trips are planned by local operators who know the place well and can best work the infrastructure and attractions of Guyana into a great tour. But if you want to do something a little different, your dates don’t match a scheduled trip or you need more of a bespoke package then that is no problem! One such person was movie star Channing Tatum and a group of friends who travelled to Guyana in 2012. They reached out to the UK and Guyana registered tour operator Bushmasters (who specialize in adventure and survival experiences in the jungle) to develop a trip which would push these guys to the limits, to see if they can handle life without all the luxuries of home, but also to have some serious fun and memories to last a life time. Channing and his friends flew to Surama, but of course en route they stopped off at the amazing Kaieteur Falls. The fact that it is in the middle of nowhere, has no cheesy souvenir stands or such like and there was no one else there, made the experience of this huge jungle waterfall all the more stunning. In Surama they slept every night in hammocks in the jungle, lit their own fire with no matches, swam rivers using their EXPLORE GUYANA

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packs as floatation aids, climbed into the tallest of the silk cotton trees (and rappelled down afterwards), fished for their dinner and even had a mad and exciting day of paintball in the forest. One scenario had them protecting some local girls from the bad guys! GI Joe himself as one of their bodyguards certainly went down very well with the girls!! Throughout their time in the interior of Guyana and deep into the forest the guys had with them Bushmasters staff and the awesome local hunters from the village. Ninja 1 and 2 as they became known! “Every person we met was so laid back, nice, and capable! Man were they ever capable. We watched one of the local boys fish using his bow and arrow, and he was spearing fish from 30 feet away! Fish that we couldn’t even see were there. It was amazing.” Indeed, throughout their time in Guyana the team was really made to feel safe, at home and really welcome by the people. To say Channing and his friends were impressed is an understatement. “The people in Guyana are half the story, they’re incredible. It’s like something out of a storybook. They can fix a car with a roll of duct tape and kill a charging jaguar with a bow and arrow, and all with a calm smile on their face like they’ve done it a million times before.” From the jungle the guys took to 4x4 vehicles to bounce along rainforest tracks

Channing and Friends Crossing Challenging Terrain

March into jungle

and then out into the savannah for the 150km journey across the savannah. In torrential rain, they drove the vehicles through swollen creeks, muddy tracks and were often winching, pulling and hi-lift jacking themselves out of the many stick ups they got into. It was hard driving, but great fun with the tunes coming loud from each vehicle. Finally, reaching Lethem on the Brazilian border the guys had a let their hair down that night at a well known Brazilian BBQ next to the airstrip and later at the Takatu Hotel, where, along with what seemed like half of the youth of Lethem, they had a great Tuesday (!) night out. Channing had several dance offs with local guys testifying to his Step Up Movie street dance skills, whilst the rest took to karaoke, pool and some awesome guitar solos! As Channing said: “After the jungle, and long road trip to the

Channing Conquers the Challenge

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border; we had barbeque at this awesome Brazilian place and then spent the night hanging with the locals, dancing, singing, and drinking the local rum. Easily one of the best travel experiences of my life so far.” This carried on to the very early hours so the flight back to Georgetown the next day was pretty quiet, though by the evening all had recovered enough to hit the Brazilian BBQ and then onto a great night out at Jerries on Waterloo Street. Jerries graffiti wall is still full of the whole teams prose! After 10 days in Guyana the guys left next day, having had a great time, loving Guyana and planning their next boys own adventure. Channing was on the Letterman show a few days later promoting the Magic Mike movie, but also extolling the virtues of Guyana and the jungle. Letterman thought he was crazy swimming rivers full of piranha, caiman and anacondas, but for Channing and his friends, this is what it was all about, getting back to basics, to pristine nature and in Guyana they found the perfect place….how about you? Channing summed it up perfectly “Going to Guyana is like stepping back in time. It’s so untouched by man. The Jungle, the plains, the rivers and the animals. Seriously, I’m not sure you could find another country this far off the beaten path and pristine left on earth.“

Channing and Friends in Lethem

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Aracari Resort Grand Coastal Hotel

Jubilee Resorts


Wonotobo Resort

Fair View

Atta Lodge Iwokrama Canopy


Adventure Guianas Villa & Courtyard

Surama Walkway Aranaputa Wowetta

Conservation International Concession

Rewa Lodge

Yupukari / Caiman House

Savannah Inn



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DENOTES CITY HOTEL LOCATIONS Please refer to page 94 for details of Hotel listings


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Colonial Homes of

Georgetown Story by: The National Trust of Guyana

Introduction In the ever changing landscape of Guyana, especially in the district of Georgetown, some striking old traditional wooden buildings can still be found. In the conservation of our wooden built heritage, strategies had to be adopted to make the use of historic buildings current so that they can survive for the benefit of future generations. This is so since the original use of the building may not have been sustainable enough to safeguard the future of the building. The term “adaptive reuse” is common among conservation enthusiasts. It is the act of changing the original function of the building or site in an attempt to ensure the survival of the historic building. This change is usually designed for the benefit of the public and in an effort to garner revenue to aid in maintenance. In adaptive reuse, the aim is to retain the aesthetics of the original building especially the facades. In many such projects the internal areas of the building will be altered to accommodate the new functions of the building. For example, if a historic building which was once a dwelling house is to be changed to a hotel, its internal spaces will be retrofitted to suit the new functions. There are a number of exemplars of adaptive reuse in Guyana including the Dutch Heritage Museum which was once a Court of Policy building located at Fort Island on the Essequibo River, Cara Lodge Hotel, Red House, Castellani House, Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sport among others. In this article, a number of historic buildings will be featured most of which now serve various functions from what they were originally built for, that is, private dwellings. Some still retain their original purpose such as Austin House.

Brazilian Ambassador’s Residence

Brazilian Ambassador’s Residence This residence, located on the corner of Peter Rose and Anira Streets in Queenstown, was built in 1939-40 by the De Freitas brothers for their sister Aurelia

Woodbine House - Now Cara Lodge

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De Freitas on the occasion of her marriage to Andrew Baldwin. He was a British schoolteacher who was once employed by Queen’s College. A team from Charlestown Sawmills led by one “Harry” was responsible for the erection of the house, all timber and materials having been procured from this establishment. Its “Brazilian connection” was initiated through the association of Mrs. Baldwin (nee De Freitas) who acted as liaison for Cruzeiro Airlines, a Brazilian Airline that was operating in British Guyana in July of 1971 upon the retirement of the Baldwins to England.

Woodbine House – now Cara Lodge This building is located at 294 Quamina Street. It was built in the 1840s and was called the Woodbine House and was home to several influential owners. Now a heritage hotel, this building constitutes a variety of architectural features stemming mainly from colonial influences including the prominent Demerara shutters, turned timber balusters and English brick columns. It also has Portuguese ceramic floor tiles and the railing and gate bear the crest of Woodbine House. This heritage hotel has successfully merged the beauty of traditional architecture with contemporary luxury and comfort.

Dargan House - Now UNESCO Office

Dargan House - now UNESCO Office This traditionally designed building is located on the corner of Robb and Oronoque Streets. It was named after its first and most influential owner Patrick Dargan (1850-1908), a coloured lawyer and Politician. It was purportedly built circa 1880. This elegant two storey wooden building features a unique grand staircase constructed of local wood and is a splendid example of traditional colonial architecture. It was purchased by the Government of Guyana in 1975. It now houses the office of the Guyana National Commission for UNESCO (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation).

Austain House

Austin House Home of the Anglican Bishops of Guyana, Austin House is named after Bishop William Piercy Austin (1807–1892) who lived in the original building on the site. Opened in 1842 as the Bishop’s residence, the original

Sharples House - Now Duke Lodge

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of the roof beam) and a combined frieze/ architrave (the lower part) with running panels of figures – one female, one animal and one male (left to right). This building is now an apartment building in conjunction with the Duke Lodge Hotel. GO-INVEST Office Located on the corner of Camp and Church Streets this impressive colonial style structure was designed by H.O Durham and constructed circa 1925.


building was U-shaped, and was known as Kingston House. Kingston House, in disrepair was demolished in early July 1894 and construction of a new structure started later in the month. This second building, handed over on October 5, 1894, is the structure we know today as Austin House which is located on High street, Kingston. The 1894 structure is credited to the construction capability of John Bradshaw Sharples (possibly John Bradshaw) and is typical of the colonial structures of the day with steep roofs, Demerara windows and six-paned Georgian windows. During the tenure of Bishop Swaby (up to 1899) the building was known as Bishop’s Court. In the 1930s the ground floor was enclosed to provide more space for offices and in the

1950s the stained glass windows over the main entrance were added. In 2012 major restorative works were done by Architect Rawle Jordon.

Sharples House – now Duke Lodge Sharples House, located on the northern portion of Lot 93 Duke Street, Kingston on the western side of the street, was constructed circa 1890. Kingston was the first area of settlement of the British in Georgetown and this particular part of the street, north of Barrack Street, boasts a fine ensemble of 19th century historic wooden colonial homes. A distinctive feature of this building is the centrally placed open entrance porch with its classical entablature (horizontal roof beam resting on the columns) with a cornice (the top slightly projecting part

The imposing facade of push-out jalousie windows on the top floor and with glass windows running the full length of the gallery below join with arches and stairways and high wall within to create a warmth and comfort and security that is almost tangible. The southern tower anchors the building firmly carrying a special feature known as a widow’s walk. Upon construction, the building was then purchased by E. Kidman and was later sold to a Dr. Browne. In the 1940s, the property was acquired by Dr. Frederick M. Kerry and became the Kerry family home until 1979 when Mrs. Eleanor Kerry sold the property to the Government of Guyana. The property was then converted to commercial use and became the offices of Design & Graphics – the Government owned Advertising Agency at the time. Today it houses the offices of GO-INVEST, The Guyana Office for Investment. For further information on monuments and other historic sites in Guyana please contact the National Trust, Carmichael Street, Georgetown. Telephone: (011592) 2255071. Email: nationaltrustgy@gmail. com

John with his prized catch of an Elusive Arawana

Fishing in the Jungle Rivers Where Exotic Species Abound Story By Michael Devenish

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or myself, old friends Nick Houlgate and John Petchey and, more recently, my brother Ian, February 2013 was not our first trip to the beautiful Country of Guyana.

This, of course, is not a problem for us in Guyana and the benefits of being able to talk freely and easily with everyone we meet and in our own language, is never under-estimated by us.

In fact this was our third visit in as many years and the reason can be found in Guyana’s other title, “The Land of Many Waters “. For we are four men from the UK who share a passion for sport fishing and we have travelled all over the World over many years in order to catch and photograph exotic fish species.

However, the real advantage to fishing in Guyana comes about because of the merging of some of the Countries larger river systems with those of other Amazonian rivers during the high waters of the rainy season. This is when the rivers rise and break their banks, flooding into the forests and allowing the fish in to forage on the flooded ground. This is known as the “time of plenty” for the fish but the “time of little” for the fisherman.

This may seem a strange past- time to most people whose usual experience of fish is something which turns up on a plate at meal times but to us the challenge of hunting and catching fish and to record and photograph them before returning them unharmed to the water, holds far more appeal. In fact, in some of the Countries we have visited in the past there is almost no understanding of the concept of sport fishing and letting fish go to live another day is not only bewildering to the local people but has even caused friction at times. This is an attitude that we can understand from a poor African or Indian Villager trying to feed his family and we always try to explain that our “tourist dollars” are what we offer instead, but sadly fish stocks are in decline all over the world and fish have few “friends” South America has always been a favourite destination for us but, not being great linguists, we have often experienced isolation and communication difficulties in most Latin American Countries.

Black Caiman

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The flooding of the Rupununi Savannah enables rivers to connect with their Brazilian neighbours and not only helps the fish to survive and thrive but has also allowed species to migrate as a consequence of which we can find many of the “classic” Amazonian sport fish in Guyana. Species such as the beautiful and highly colured Lucanani or Peacock Bass, much prized for its aggressive nature in taking our artificial lures, and the Baiara or Vampire Devil Fish with its outlandish fang like bottom teeth. The elusive Arawana, which can be so difficult to catch and even harder to hold due to its incredible speed and manoeuvrability. From the prehistoric looking Haimara, which must rank high on the list of the World ugliest fish, to the mighty Arapaima, the largest scaled fresh water fish of all.

Jungle River

Nick and Ian Fishing

Home Sweet Home

Ian with Bayara

Then there are the many species of cat fish or skin fish, so called because they have no scales, The Lau Lau (largest skin fresh water fish in the world), The Red Tail or Banana fish, the Jundea and the Surabim, Tiger Fish and many more all inhabit these waters. The list of species is almost endless and they can all be found in the Jungle Rivers of Guyana. Our journey begins in Georgetown with our regular driver Dennis who meets us at the airport and crams us and all our baggage into his (too small) car for the always entertaining drive into town where we always overnight at the lovely old colonial building that is now the Herdmanston Lodge Hotel.

we are off the next day to Ogle airport for the short ninety minute flight to Annai in the Rupununi Savannah where sometimes we will linger a night at the lovely Rock View Lodge as guests of fellow Englishman Colin Edwards. Colin has created a beautiful Eco Lodge and Gardens here which must be seen and experienced by any visitor to Guyana.

who does all the cooking and who, despite all the jokes, has yet to serve up anything truly disagreeable. Once loaded aboard the boats and underway on the river we travel for a few hours to our first stop which is the ecolodge at Rewa where we stay for an hour or so and collect a small two man canoe left here by Ashley on his last visit.

This year however we want to keep moving and we only stay long enough to pick up some packed breakfasts and a bottle of Colins home made fruit juice before loading up the truck which Colins son Jorge will drive to transport us the short distance across the Savannah to the landing at Kwatamang on the Rupununi River.

Rewa Lodge is also the very last opportunity to enjoy a cold beer before the jungle “proper”

We invariably receive a wonderfully warm welcome from the staff here and Tuana, Edna, Malcolm, Michael and all the others who make our stay comfortable are always pleased to see us again, it’s a delight to be back again albeit for one night only.

This is where we meet up with our old friend and guide Ashley Holland from Yupukarri who brings along all the boats, hammocks, tarpaulins and food we will need for two weeks of camping in the jungle.

“Uncle” Stanley and his Son in Law Neville bring local knowledge of the channels and routes on this river which are essential to safe travel on the water.

After a good nights sleep and the re-packing of our equipment into jungle proof dry bags

Also with Ashley are our Amerindian boatmen friends Brian and Telford and Jose

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Soon we are off again and entering the mighty Essequibo River and onto the village of Apoteri where we stop to pick up two more Amerindian Guides.

River travel is slow this year, as water levels are very low due to the lack of rain in the wet season, but very soon we are getting

Redtailed Catfish Mouth

Ashley Relaxing

Michael with an Arawana

These lakes are left behind when the water levels recede after the rains and will often trap fish so they can be very good places for the angler to try his luck. Kingfisher

rain showers which prompts much joking from the boatmen about us bringing the English weather with us to Guyana. The river surface is teeming with millions of small yellow butterflies all seeming to be on their way to somewhere else and in quantities that we have never seen previously and before the afternoon is up we have also spotted an Osprey and a pair of giant otters. Late afternoon we land at out first campsite and very quickly a small river-side clearing becomes a comfortable abode with hammocks slung under tarpaulins and dinner under way. Very quickly we adjust to camp life and our daily routine sees us rising before dawn for an early session of bait fishing for the cat fish. Once the sun is up we will return to camp for breakfast, usually porridge with wild honey or eggs with fried fish. Although we are sport fisherman we do, of course, have to eat some of what we catch and fried cat fish for breakfast is delicious.


Fully fuelled we set off again to spend the day casting lures to the many species that will take artificial bait. The Lucanani, the Arawana, the Haimara, the Pacu and of course the ubiquitous Piranha. The Piranha is everywhere and is usually viewed by us as a nuisance fish but they are feisty and aggressive and can be great sport on a quiet day, just stay away from those teeth. They also provide a reliable protein source for the local people during the rainy season when other species are hard to catch. Our first full days fishing saw John and Nick catch quite a few Haimara, a species which has eluded us in the past so we’re off to a good start, despite the odd rain shower. Ashley, of course, is never slow to remind us that we are in the Rain Forest again and that’s why it’s called Rain Forest. The clue is in the title I guess. The next day I went with Ian and Neville to take the small canoe around one of the large land- locked Ox-Bow lakes which abound in this area. EXPLORE GUYANA

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Mine was in on this day and my second cast produced an 8lb tiger cat fish which took my artificial lure and was soon followed over the next hour or two by half a dozen Haimara up to 15lb and two Peacock Bass at 5 and 6 lb respectively. Ian was not doing quite as well when suddenly the whole situation changed and my lure was engulfed by something much larger. Suddenly I was into a battle of epic proportions. This was the famed Arapaima and was most certainly not what I was fishing for. These fish have been hunted to near extinction in other Countries but are a protected species in Guyana and thankfully it seems that populations of these fish are now on the rise again here. But my immediate problem now is that I find myself connected to a fish not much smaller than myself which I must free again as soon as possible. Imagining all along that this large fish will spit out my ridiculously small lure like a grain of rice at any moment I hold on tight but I think this fish knew that I meant it no harm and thankfully it was very soon returned to the water having suffered

Ian with Peacock Bass

Michael with another Peacock Bass or Lucanani

no more than wounded pride and the inevitable photograph. Sport fishermen are mostly fairly serious conservationists and I will admit that I was never happier to see a fish swim safely away.

Michael with 100lb Red Tail Catfish

Michael with Pink Pacu

river, enjoying the cool of the evening after a long hot day in the sun and listening to the sounds of the rain forest at night. This is when the many types of frogs and Cicadas start calling to each other across the water and the macaws will be returning to roost

with their characteristic screeching as they fly overhead. They often seem to fly in pairs and I have heard it said that Macaws mate for life.

After a few days at this camp it was time to pack up and move the thirty or so miles to our next camp site which took most of the day but by evening we are again well established and comfortable in Anteater Camp, so called by Ashley and the guides because of the large rock midstream in the river that resembles an Anteater. Use your imagination lads! Late afternoon is a good time to freshen up with a bath in the river, always keeping an eye out for the opportunistic black Caiman of course, and is a chance to relax for an hour or two before another Cat fishing session into the evening. As the light fades and darkness falls we can be found anchored up somewhere on the

Michael with Black Piranha EXPLORE GUYANA

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Howler monkeys too are often heard at

night with their distinctive and eerie howling sound which is said by the Amerindians to predict the coming of rain. Now, to an Englishman who knows a thing or two about rain, this was interesting information. Sure enough, we found them to be very accurate in their weather forecasting, usually giving us a ten to fifteen minute warning of an imminent downpour, and allowing time to dig out the rain coats. They were certainly more reliable than our own Meteorological Office back in the UK. The cool evenings relaxing in a boat under a star studded sky of inky blackness is usually a quiet time however. The conversation is almost whispered sometimes as noise will travel far across water at night.

it’s also why we keep coming back to the Jungle Rivers of Guyana. All too soon it’s time to break camp for the last time, pack away the tackle and head back up river to say our goodbyes and return to Georgetown. But, this year I have prepared one last treat and chartered a small plane to pick us up from the landing strip at Apoteri and take us back to Georgetown via Kaieteur which is, of course, one of the true wonders of the world and, although knowing a great deal about the Falls, is somewhere we have not yet managed to visit. After a slightly nerve- wracking wait wondering whether the pilot will manage to get through a very small hole in the cloud to land the plane at Apoteri, it eventually

arrives and after unloading a delivery of roofing sheets (no point in wasting the outward bound trip from Georgetown after all) we are soon up in the air and leaving the rivers behind us Kaieteur didn’t disappoint and richly deserves all the superlatives heaped upon it. What a magnificent place. Our journeys into the jungle may not be to everyone’s taste but we all love Guyana and wouldn’t change a thing. The only thing left to do now is to start planning our next trip. Refer to the list of Tour Operators in the THAG Member Listings in this Magazine.

Sulphur Butterflies

This is a time to learn a little more about Amerindian customs and traditions or perhaps just swap jokes whilst we wait for that elusive bite which at any moment can turn into the fisherman’s fight of his life. There can be few experiences that can transport a person from pure tranquillity, through panic and action to jubilation or disappointment in such a short space of time. One fish I lost this year in exactly these circumstances was a good sized Lau Lau, a cat fish probably well in excess of 100lbs, although they can get much larger, which I suspect was robbed from me by an excitable Piranha joining in the action and biting cleanly through my 200lb line just as my fish was about to give up and was no more than twenty yards from the boat. The line was good and we could think of no other explanation other than a “line bite” from a Piranha. And Piranhas, being sight feeders with correspondingly big eyes, are not even meant to be feeding at this time of night. Anyway nothing is guaranteed until we can see the fish through the lens of a camera and however the session turns out it will always be a good excuse to discuss and dissect the moment in minute detail back at camp, probably over some five year old El Dorado rum in either celebration or commiseration for the poor soul concerned. And, as we always say, that’s fishing and that’s why we don’t call it catching and

Top of Kaieteur Falls

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The Demerara River – origin of its name, its profile and its significance The early Spanish explorers referred to this river as ‘Rio de Mirar’, the wonderful river, but it was the Dutch who christened the river, the Demerara, from the word ‘Demirar’, the wonderful. The wonderful Demerara River originates from the rugged, rain-fed, forested northern slopes of the Makari Mountains, located slightly right of centre of the narrow waist of Guyana. In 1956, while prospecting for diamonds at Lindo Creek, Matthew Young, man of many parts – sugar estate overseer, gold panner, diamond prospector and hinterland construction engineer during the 1920s to 1980, received an invitation to visit Mr Bleakey, a Government Geologist who was working in the area towards the source of the Demerara River. Young wrote: “I dropped downriver to his riverside camp from where Edwards, his boat man carried me to the walking line on which Bleakey and his other geologists were working. The next day, I followed the geologists over laterite rock which was oozing water, in some

places a foot deep. We continued walking through this water to climb a sandstone mountain about 1,000 feet high from which two black water tributaries emerged. At the top I found myself on a flat tableland of rock with dwarfed trees and shrubs. There was a grand view all around. From the southern tip I could clearly see the Makari Mountain peak rising above us. This then was the source of the Demerara River” . The black water source tributaries –the Kuruduni and the Charabaru, conjoin just above the Mauri tributary to form the Demerara River and its volume increases from the numerous tributaries flowing into EXPLORE GUYANA

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the valley from the two ridge lines on the left and right banks as the river journeys 346 kilometres to its estuary at the Atlantic Ocean. The ridge line on the left (western) bank of the river provides the alignment of the Kurupukari –Mabura - Linden – Sand Hills trail and the one on the right (eastern) bank, the alignment of the Kwakwani – Linden- Timehri – Georgetown road and trail. There are significant hill features on these ridge lines: the Akaiwanna Mountains, Wamara Hill, Mabura Hill, Arisaru Mountain, Tiger Hill, Wismar and Sand Hills are located along the western ridge line while on the eastern ridge line are Red Hill, and the Ituni, Seba, Linden,

Dora and Timehri Hills. Along its journey also, the river descends from a height of approximately 300 metres through a series of falls and rapids of which the more well known are the Canister Falls, Great Falls, and Malali Falls. This article on the wonderful Demerara River is intended to provide the reader with relevant aspects of Dutch, French and British occupation of the Colony of Demerara as they pertain to the pivotal role of the river in facilitating the development of early settlements, plantations and enterprises. It illustrates how the river was integral to this development and helped shape the foundations of trade and commerce based on sugar, minerals and timber that have been the magnets for colonial exploitation and post-emancipation settlement.

and then British occupation there was the establishment of the Capital City and Port of Georgetown on the right bank of the estuary of the Demerara River. Later, the discovery of bauxite at McKenzie and the quest for gold, diamonds, timber and balata in the hinterland, catalysed the development of lines of communication – a sand trail of approximately 60 kilometres running south through the forested ridge line from Hyde Park (later Atkinson Field and Timehri) to McKenzie, and the steamer service in the Demerara River from Georgetown to McKenzie. A 27 kilometres single track railway ran from Wismar on the left bank of the Demerara River to Rockstone on the right bank of the Essequibo River and from there, boats plied to the Potaro and the gold and diamond fields, the logging and balata concessions. Later, a cattle trail was opened up from the Rupununi to Kurupukari on the Essequibo River and from there to the Canister F a l l s on the

The employment opportunities associated with production and processing of sugar, extraction of minerals, and logistic movement, attracted the flow of foreign contractors and also migrant workers from coastal communities and this led to the establishment of settlements on both banks of the river. The presence of the Demerara River as a natural feature as well as a logistic artery was advantageous to the Demerara colonial administrators and the River and Borsselen Island in foreign-owned companies, who, through to the Demerara River up to the late 1960s, propagated a the Berbice stratified society, based on class, religion savannahs. Cattle and ethnicity. The Demerara River has were driven through its unique folk-lore and it has provided this trail to the Berbice River, and then travelers and settled communities with transported by steam-driven paddle boats euphoric as well as the painful memories. to the coast. And, it continues to stimulate the modernday shared optimism and promise of a The lines of communications are in constant brighter future. evolution. Trails, roads, airstrips, river landings and bridges provide the threads It is worthy of note that some of Guyana’s of connectivity for economic enterprises, best known signature products carry the market access, tourism, socialisation and brand name Demerara – Demerara Rum, culture. A fixed metal bridge was constructed Demerara Sugar, and the Demerara over the Demerara River to service the Shutters. Wismar-Rockstone railway, as well as the bauxite industry and the mining operations It is the river that provided the artery, conduit in the hinterland. In July 1978, the floating and lifeblood for the multiplicity of activities. pontoon-supported Demerara Harbour Commencing in the 1750s under Dutch Bridge was commissioned - 1,851 metres in colonial occupation, the early settlements length, with a retractable span for passage existed alongside plantations on both banks of ocean going vessels, and it provides of the Demerara River, where European the connection for the communities on the Planters, utilizing their slave labour, eastern and western banks of the lower produced sugar, coffee and cotton for the Demerara River. More recently, wooden Dutch West India Company. During French bridges have been constructed over the

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upper Demerara River by Demerara Timbers Limited in the vicinity of Mabura, and by Variety Woods Limited just below Canister Falls, in order to manage their operations in timber concessions granted in accordance with Timber Sales Agreements with the Guyana Forestry Commission. The Demerara River and its significance to the Dutch In 1744 during the Dutch occupation, there was an overflow of new settlers in the Essequibo colony and the Directors of the Zeeland Chamber of the Dutch West India Company allowed the Commander of the Essequibo Colony, Laurens Storm Van Gravesande to throw open Demerara to settlement. The first grant of land in Demerara was to Andries Pietersen on the Kuliserabo River, a left bank tributary of the Demerara River and approximately 66 kilometres upriver. Concessionaires were to commence cultivation within a year and six weeks or risk forfeiture of the land. Between each concession a strip of land 10 roods (1 hectare) wide was to be left in reserve as a company path to secure access to the lands beyond. Ignatius Courthial, a Frenchman who was a miner, established a coffee estate on the West Bank Demerara. During Gravesande’s visit to Holland in 1750 to brief the managing body of the Dutch West India Company, referred to as the TEN - who represented the Amsterdam and Zeeland Chambers of the West India Council, his report so impressed them that he was appointed the Director General of the two rivers – the Essequibo and Demerara and his son Jonathan Samuel Gravesande was appointed the Commander of Demerara. On his return to the colonies in 1752, Gravesande brought with him his wife’s nephew, a qualified surveyor - Laurens Lodewijck Van Berch-Eyck and the latter commenced the laying out of the boundaries in Demerara. Jonathan had received a 1,600 hectares concession on the Madewini Creek on the right bank of the Demerara River and his father Laurens received 800 hectares concession on the Madewini and 800 hectares on the Haimaruni Creek - approximately 10 kilometres upriver from Madewini. The Dutch settlements in Demerara that developed from the cluster of plantations located along the eastern or right bank of the Demerara River required that a Brandwagt or Guard-House be established at the mouth of the Demerara River close to what is now the Stabroek Market.

Canister Falls in the upper Demerara River

Demerara River Hopetown Georgetown Madewini Timehri (Hyde Park) Christianburg Linden (McKenzie) Three Friends Seba Mabura &Great Falls Makari Mountains & Canister Falls

In 1752, it was decided that no concession of 800 hectares should be granted except on condition that a sugar mill be erected within 3 years. The Director General was therefore undertaking to erect 2 new sugar mills within 3 years and the foundation of the sugar industry of the colony of Demerara was laid at this instance. Later, an Administrative Centre was established on the second island, located 32 kilometres up the Demerara River, which lay abreast of Jonathan Gravesande’s plantation at Madewini. The island was called Borsselen in honour of one of the TEN –P.J. Van Borsselen Van Der Hooge. The island was laid out into 24 lots - 3 for government purposes and 21 were sold and among the first grantees were Laurens and two of his nephews – the Van Berch-Eycks.

grant of 2000 hectares below the Brandwagt and this included Plantations Vlissengen and Eve Leary. Joran Heyligar also owned properties in Werk-en-Rust, La Penitence and Ruimveldt. In 1759 also, Laurens 2 Lodewijck Van Berch-Eyck published his famous chart of the Demerara River and for

his efforts as a draughtsman, the Directors presented him with a slave and a cask of red wine. The Lower Demerara River and the Capital The Demerara Trade grew as a result of the increase in production of sugar, coffee and cotton and in 1762, ten ships entered the Demerara River and shipped a total cargo of 1200 tons of sugar, 281 bags of coffee and 10 bales of cotton. On 24 February 1781, the English captured the colony of Essequibo and Demerara and established Fort St. George on the site of the Guard-House or Brandwagt which had been built by the Dutch to monitor activities along the river. Thus were the plans laid for the Capital – Georgetown. On 3 February 1782, the French captured the colony from the British and the new town was named Longchamps. When the Dutch regained possession of the colony on 16 February 1784 under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, Longchamps was renamed Stabroek and when on 22 April 1796 the colony again came under British rule the administrative centre continued to expand and on 5 May 1812, Stabroek was renamed Georgetown. On Robert Schomburgk’s second journey to BG, accompanied by his brother Richard in 1840, they arrived on the ship ‘Cleopatra’ and Richard recorded this view of Demerara

Tributary of the Demerara River above Canister Falls

The site on which Georgetown is situated was first laid out in plantations in 1759. Jacques Solinoe was the first to receive a EXPLORE GUYANA

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of the Cuyuni, Mazaruni and Potaro and the cattle ranches, tobacco fields and balata concessions of the Rupununi. Settlement along the upper Demerara River can be traced back to 1759 when a land survey was carried out for the establishment of a township which later became known as Three Friends. This was named for three friends - Messrs Spencer, Blount and John Dalgeish Patterson, who had settled there in the late 18th century. They were former British naval officers who had fought against the French in the Caribbean during the Napoleonic War. Patterson, a contractor for the Dutch colony of EssequiboDemerara at the time, owned Plantation Christiansburg which was a choice place The Wooden Bridge over the Demerara River below Canister Falls for retirement of British naval officers after 1803. Patterson built a great house there from the deck: timber and quarry products, and water-taxis which became a Guest House for visitors “The dense tropical vegetation, with which ferrying passengers across the river as an of the early settlement and when he died Georgetown or Demerara was regularly alternative to using the Demerara Harbour in 1842, the British Guiana Government veiled, prevented us from satisfying our Bridge. Vessels transporting bauxite from took over his plantation and used the great inquisitive We bank couldof the onlyDemerara see a River Linden ships laden with 800 petroleum Madewini Creekgaze. on the right and hisand father Laurens received hectares house as a Magistrate’s Court. A portion of majesticonLighthouse with proud summit products, Creek cement, containerized and concession the Madewini andits 800 hectares on the Haimaruni - approximately 10 cargo kilometres the plantation was then sold to Sprostons andfrom the huge locking of the sugar agricultural produce, arethealso a of regular upriver Madewini. Thechimneys Dutch settlements in Demerara that developed from cluster which then established the Wismar– plantations” feature. Plans to required desilt the channelor plantations located along the eastern or right bank of the Demerara River thatriver a Brandwagt Rockstone railway to move stone and will facilitate of Stabroek increased Guard-House be established at the mouth of the Demerara River closetransportation to what is now the timber from the Essequibo to Demerara. After the efforts of the French resulted in the tonnage of cargo, with consequential Market. Wismar was formed by influx of immigrants empoldering of lands along the coast and benefits to the private sector and the from various European countries, mainly the Canals Polder,that there was a shift fromhectares country’s stream. In 1752, it was decided no concession of 800 shouldrevenue be granted except on condition that a Germany, and after emancipation, many themill plantations the upper Demerara suchGeneral   was therefore undertaking to erect 2 new sugar be erectedinwithin 3 years. The Director of the former African slaves who refused to asmills Kulisiabo, Madewini Theindustry Upperof the Demerara River and its at sugar within 3 Haimaruni years and theand foundation of the sugar colony of Demerara was laid work on the sugar plantations, migrated to were experiencing declining linkages exploitation of 32 mineral thiswhich instance. Later, an Administrative Centreyields was established on to thethe second island, located live there. The German settlers named the to the upmore productive logistically otherGravesande’s resources. plantation at Madewini. kilometres the Demerara River,and which lay abreast ofand Jonathan settlement Wismar after a German town of accessible, lower in Demerara and exploitation of bauxite, Themore island was called Borsselen honour of River. one of theThe TENdiscovery –P.J. Van Borsselen Van Der Hooge. The that name. Significant economic activities influencedpurposes gold and and21 were diamonds, tapping island was laid out into 24 lots - 3 for government sold andthe among the first and the demographic to the coast and the processing of balata, and the demand grantees were Laurens shift and two of his nephews – the Van Berch-Eycks. Bauxite, as an economic term, is defined as Capital Georgetown, and many of upper for beef and tobacco from the sprawling an aggregate of hydrated aluminum oxides of Theplantations site on which Georgetown is situated was first laidsavannahs out in plantations 1759. west, Jacques Solinoe was were abandoned. in theinsouth influenced sufficient concentration to be commercially migration to the upper the first to receive a grant of 2000 hectares below the the Brandwagt and of thiscoastlanders included Plantations exploitable as an ore of aluminum metal. It The modern day Joran profileHeyligar of the riverine settlements and the hinterlandand . The Vlissengen and Eve Leary. also lower owned properties in Werk-en-Rust, La Penitence was described, but not identified as such, Demerara River isLaurens that ofLodewijck a bustling Demerara River Essequibo Ruimveldt. In 1759 also, VanPort Berch-Eyck published his along famouswith chartthe of the Demerara by JG Sawlins and C Barrington Brown in with variety of vessels and crews the plying River provided the ameans through which River andafor his efforts as a draughtsman, Directors presented him with slave and a cask of red 1875 in the vicinity of Christianburg. The their trade – ocean- going and coastal logistic movement was made possible to wine. material was investigated by J.B.Harrison in vessels, fishing trawlers, artisanal fishing the bauxite locations of McKenzie, Ituni and of Demerara Dutch Plantations in thediamond 1760s districts 1897-1916 and field work over an extensive boats, fuel boats, Map pontoons ladenRiver withshowing Kwakwani, the gold and area was carried out in 1917 to 1921 under the direction of Harrison. Many of the Map of Demerara River showing Dutch Plantations in the 1760s deposits exploited currently, were located. Areas such as Fairs Rust, Watooka, and Noitegedacht were mined out. Dorabisi Creek deposit and Montgomery - Arrowcane deposits are some of the better known ore bodies mined. These ore bodies are overlain by blue clay beds of overburden, white kaolin, and white and brown sands varying in thickness from 5 to 60 metres or more. In 1913, Scottish geologist, George Bain McKenzie bought lands for mining on the eastern bank of the Demerara River. He bought the lands at cheap prices by claiming he would plant oranges because

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Ernesto (Ché) Guevara . It is hoped that this project would be revisited. Forestry operations on both banks of the Demerara River provide logs and processed wood products for the export and domestic markets. In 1980, the Government of Guyana established a national logging and sawmilling company known as Demerara Woods Limited based on Mabura Hill. This was subsequently divested to a foreign company and renamed Demerara Timbers Limited. Forest concessions have been awarded to the Demerara Timbers Limited, private individuals such as Messrs Nagasar Sawh, Klautky, Herzog and Charter and to syndicates comprising small chain saw loggers.

Borsselen Island

The Lower Demerara River

few people knew about bauxite and its potential. In 1915 after Mackenzie died, his lands passed to Winthrop C Nelson. In 1916, great interest was generated in the USA on the occurrence of bauxite and the Aluminum Company of America, ALCOA, in the same year incorporated the Demerara Bauxite Company DEMBA and secured leases on large areas of bauxite-bearing land in the vicinity of the area purchased by McKenzie. In 1916, mining of Bauxite commenced and hundreds of people from the coast migrated there in search of employment. A settlement known as Cockatara, which grew up in the bauxite mining area, joined up with Christianburg Plantation and became known as McKenzie. The settlement’s fortunes depended on the overseas demand for bauxite and aluminum. The slump of the early 1930s was followed by a rapid increase in demand during World War II and with infrastructure such as for production of refractory grade and abrasive grade bauxite as well as an aluminum refinery, British Guiana became the most diversified bauxite producer. On the socioeconomic side, even though facilities were established for worker’s accommodation, education, health and recreation, McKenzie was a racially stratified society.

The wonderful Demerara River has been a silent witness to the events of over 250 years as summarized in this article. It has been relatively unchanged as a river except that modern day extractive industries and agricultural run-off as well as indiscriminate 11 disposal of solid waste, especially in the middle and lower reaches of the river, pose health challenges to downstream communities and environmental stress to biodiversity, especially aquatic life. There are anecdotal reports of increasing rates of siltation. The Shipping Association is concerned at the reduced tonnage of cargo carrying vessels. Siltation has reduced the volume of fresh water discharge from the estuary into the Atlantic Ocean. Increasing salinity in the lower reaches of the river

can threaten agricultural production, fish stock and the integrity of aquifers. Climate related impacts on rainfall patterns, tidal differentials, and the health of coastal and estuarine mangrove forests, micro-climate and biodiversity, are all aspects that need to be monitored and appropriate regulatory and corrective action taken. As with the human body, the health and functional integrity of this national artery will need to receive the attention of policy makers, regulators and citizens, since the future economic, social and developmental activities that depend on this important national waterway, will only be realised through committed and sustained stewardship of this Wonderful Demerara River. Sources: 1 Rev. L. Crookhall, British Guiana or Work and Wanderings among the Creoles, the Africans and Indians of the wild country. (London: T. Lester Union Ltd.) 2 M F Young (1998), Guyana: The Lost El Dorado. Peepal Tree Press, UK 3 Richard Schomburgk: Travels in British Guiana during the years 1840-1844. Vol 1. (Leipzig: J.J. Weber, 1848), 4 Cheddi Jagan (1966): The West on Trial, Seven Seas Publishers, Berlin. 5 Dmitri Allicock (2013): Peg Leg George of Sebacabra. 6 Desrey Fox and George Danns (1993): The Indigenous condition in Guyana, (University of Guyana). 7 Cecil Clementi (1915): The Chinese in British Guiana, The Argosy Co. Ltd, Georgetown.

Overhead view of Demerara River

View from the McKenzie Bridge of the bauxite

from the East Bank.

loading facilities - right bank of the Demerara River

In the 1960/61 period a potential hydropower project at Malali Falls was the subject of discussion between then Premier of British Guiana, Dr Cheddi Jagan and Cuba’s Dr

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Riding the Rapids of the Raging Rivers An Engaging Encounter with Nature and Adventure Story By Chevon Singh


here is nothing quite like the feeling of riding the rapids, and the thrill of rushing down a river at what seems like 100 miles per hour around sharp turns and breathtaking drops! Chasing the wind and testing your limits and endurance, the challenges of the river call out with each stroke of the paddle and at the end; you will undoubtedly be physically drained but mentally stimulated by all the adrenaline coursing through your body. Run the rapids and your day will be filled with fun, thrills and spills, or simply canoe past beautiful scenery and waterfalls along Guyana’s waterways.

An 18 day nature/ wildlife / adventure canoe trip in Guyana will cater to every interest from birdwatching, adventure, and fishing or simply enjoying nature. The country’s unpredictable waterways will take you on a journey from gently floating on your back one minute to being on the brink of being tossed around a thick wall of water, realizing that there is no turning back – you are at the mercy of the river. On one such canoeing trip up the Rewa River in a remote area of Guyana, expertly lead by local experienced guides, we were full of anticipation and we had planned

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all the details: picnic lunch, sunscreen, sun hats, and the route down a clean and meandering river, in our canoe. As we proceeded along the waterway, the vessel sliced through the water effortlessly, gliding on placid waters and, at some points, it sat unexpectedly still with such balance, one could not help but feel confident. We pushed off into the current and dug in our paddles, feeling the canoe surge underneath us as our adventure began, we looked out along the river and down its path, knowing that navigating the waters was more than just looking at a map; you

had to sense the water’s speed, the flow, the direction. We had to be in control of the water. The sound of the paddles knocking against the side, each stroke pulling us further along, was a comfort and its bobbing brought us in touch with the water and made us feel close to its power; then as quickly as a slight of hand, the river, as it descended toward a rapid point got faster and more challenging headed towards Corona Falls.

Petroglyps at Dadanawa

Fishing at the Falls

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At this point, our canoe had been through pounding rapids, easy river paddles, and even dangerously low water levels where it had scraped and fussed against the boulders on the river bottom. Despite several scary moments along the waterway we were able to see wildlife, experience the wild and ride the wild rapids of the Rewa, all in one day ; now that’s an adventure!

Three Parks Initiative Exciting Plans for Re-Development of the Botanical Gardens, Zoo and National Park Story By Damian Fernandes


he Botanical Gardens, Zoological Park and National Park form the core components of Georgetown’s network of green spaces. These sites are heavily utilized by the residents of Georgetown and surrounding areas, as they are among the very few places within the city that provide large recreational spaces and the opportunity to interact with local flora and wildlife. In particular, the Zoo and Botanical Gardens play key roles in increasing environmental educational and awareness among the city’s residents, and can serve as important links between Guyana’s large urban population and our efforts to conserve our forests under the Waterbirds Exhibit - Before - Botanical Gardens Low Carbon Development Strategy.

Waterbirds Exhibit - After - Botanical Gardens

Although important, these three sites are built on infrastructure and facilities that are decades old, and that are becoming increasingly difficult and expensive to simply maintain. These areas have experienced significant erosion and land settling since they were first established, and are now prone to regular flooding. This restricts the amount of areas available to the public during rainy weather, and constrains landscaping and recreational options. The structures in these areas are also aged, and in their current state, have limited options for long-term sustainability. These parks are now managed by the recently created Protected Areas Commission, under the Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment, and are poised to benefit from a ground-breaking effort called the Three Parks Initiative. The primary objective of the Initiative is to enhance key facilities, and rehabilitate and improve infrastructure in each of these “green” spaces, in order to provide sustainable and quality services to the public.

Giant Otter - Before - Botanical Gardens

Opened in 1966 and covering fiftyseven (57) acres, the National Park is an important urban park for exercise, sporting and recreation. The Three Parks Initiative will aim to address the issues of flooding, Caiman Exhibit - Before - Botanical Gardens EXPLORE GUYANA

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Giant Otter - After - Botanical Gardens

Caiman Exhibit - After - Botanical Gardens

Garden Island - Before - Botanical Gardens

Garden Island - After - Botanical Gardens

Bell - After - National Park

security and enhanced facilities. Lights have already been installed around the full track, security guards stationed at key points, and efforts to improve drainage are underway. The Athletics track is now being raised and a number of facilities are identified for restoration, including historical features such as bridges, kokers, a national clock, and a scenic trail. The oldest of the three parks, the Botanical Gardens was established in 1879 and is spread over ninety-six (96) acres of land in the heart of Georgetown. The Gardens is home to a variety of tropical plants and animals normally found in Guyana’s interior. The Three Parks Initiative will aim to address the overall security and drainage situation in the Gardens while developing features such as fountains, landscaping, trails, and other recreational facilities. Established in 1952, the Guyana Zoological Park is arguably the most important naturebased recreational facility in Guyana. The Park sits on approximately four (4) acres of land in the Botanical Gardens and currently

Koker - Before - National Park

Bell - Before - National Park

Koker - After - Botanical Gardens

exhibits 232 animals representing 39 species. The Zoo also plays an important role as an animal sanctuary, with over 80% of the Zoo’s animals being brought in abandoned, injured, unwanted, and, in many cases, unable to survive in the wild. The Zoo is therefore ideally positioned to increase environmental educational and awareness among school children and Guyanese in general on the need for conservation. Much of the Zoo was designed shortly after the facility was opened in the 1950s, and thus in serious need of rehabilitation. In an effort to improve the facility, the Protected Areas Commission developed a full-scale Master Plan and Concept Designs for the rehabilitation of the Zoo (Figure 1). The vision of the modernized zoo is to connect Guyanese and visitors to the country with the rich natural world that exists just beyond the limits of Guyana’s urban landscape. The Zoo will be reorganised to represent the four major ecosystems in the country: Coastal Wetlands, Savannah, Mountain Highlands and the Lowland Rainforest.

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Lake - Before - National Park

Lake - After - National Park

Buddy with Salvador on the Sandbank of the Rupununi River

The Story of Buddy - The Blind Giant Otter From the Sandbank of the Rupununi River to the Jacksonville Zoo Story by: Salvador de Caires


first met Buddy on the Sandbank by the Rupununi River at Karanambu in the North Savannahs. Diane McTurk and I were walking across the sandbank toward him. Over the past 20 years or so, Diane has cared for over 50 orphaned Giant River Otters at Karanambu. The majority of which have successfully been returned to the wild. Having a large animal, (about six feet from tip of tail to tip of nose) checking you out is a little nerve wracking. But I soon realized I had nothing to fear from Buddy as he heard Diane call out “My beloved beast!� He came bounding over and almost knocked her over. Buddy was a teenager, almost fully grown

at three years old. He lost his sight, when he was much younger, in an accident, when he stepped on a long board, which flipped up and hit him across the face, blinding him instantly. In the wild, Giant Otters live to be about ten years old, living in groups of up to ten, with only the dominant pair mating. But in a zoo, with aquatic and wildlife veterinarians, they can live to fifteen. Diane also had two young orphan Giant River otters at the time and Buddy really played too rough with her, so I volunteered to take him to the sandbank twice a day, for at least two hours each time. We became very good friends. I was amazed at what Buddy could do. Not having sight

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in the murky waters of the river was not a hindrance to catching fish. He surprised us all when he caught at 86lb Arapaima and dragged up out of the river onto the sandbank. Another time he caught a huge stingray and ate most of it! But Buddy was getting big. Twice he followed a wild otter down the River and we had to go behind him in the boat to bring him back. He also had several close encounters with Black Caiman, who were thankfully not bigger than he was. Jacksonville Zoo, in Jacksonville Florida has an agreement with the Government of Guyana. Two Jaguar from Guyana are already there. Now they were looking for a Giant River Otter to add

to the gene pool. Diane agreed that he would have a much shorter life in his natural environment, but he knew the river and was very happy here. But, because he was blind, it was only a matter of time before a Black Caiman would get him. It was a question of quality of life over safety. But Diane still would not agree to send Buddy to a zoo. I tried to tell her that this would be his only chance to mate. She wavered and then the wet season came and the River came up about twenty feet. Buddy became disoriented, because the Sandbank was gone and the steps that he was accustomed to going up and down on at a great speed to the Sandbank disappeared under water. Diane relented. So a few weeks later, a charter flight landed at Karanambu and a crate was loaded with Buddy and Talia – a volunteer who had become very close to all of the otters. There were various delays at both Cheddi Jagen and Miami airports, but after 48 hours he was in Jacksonville, Florida. The experts checked his eyes, but unfortunately nothing could be done. He had a few parasites and was kept in quarantine until he had adjusted. The Jacksonville Zoo went to great lengths to recreate a huge habitat modeled closely after Buddy’s home at Karanambu. They designed under water channels, a waterfall and even a sandbank. Buddy was accustomed to catching fresh Piranha and eating them headfirst. So, when they served him his first frozen fish Popsicle, he swallowed it too quickly and got a “brain freeze”, shaking his head madly. His future partner, or as Diane called her, his “mail order bride” came from the Philadelphia Zoo and they have been together now several months. She is extremely caring towards him and even serves as his “seeing eye water dog”.

Buddy and friends at the Rupununi River Bank

Buddy at the Jacksonville Zoo Florida

Salvador De Caires at the Jacksonville Zoo, Florida

This year on our way back home to Guyana, we stopped to visit my brother Larry who just happens to live in Jacksonville! Our niece Samantha, volunteers at the Jacksonville zoo, so we went to visit Buddy. Nick Kapustin, senior veterinarian, arranged for us to meet Buddy privately, behind the scenes. I could not believe that after 3 years he recognized me. It was very emotional. Now we are anxiously awaiting the good news of Diane once again becoming a Grandmother.

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Guyana’s Natural Wonder Protecting the Area and Enhancing the Visitor Experience Story by: Treina F. Butts Photos: Paul Waldron


hen mention is made of the Kaieteur National Park, for some persons it immediately invokes images of the majestic fall, stunning vistas, unique environment, its mystique and folklore. For others, Kaieteur Falls in Guyana‘s Pakaraima Highlands, in full glory, is all there is to behold. It is the most visited attraction in the country. Most notably in 2012, the Park recorded the best numbers ever totalling of 6, 667 visitors over 2011’s total of 3,678 visitors. Arrivals for January to August 2013 totalled 4683 visitors to the Park as compared to 4940 for the corresponding period of 2012, a decline of 5.2%.

Representatives were exposed to training in Conservation and Protected Areas; Botany; Geology; Wildlife and Tourism at Kaieteur Top as well as History, First Aid, Folklore and People of the Kaieteur Area. On the final two days of the course, the trainees participated in guiding of actual tourists who were visiting the National Park. Training Participants in front of Kaieteur Visitor Centre

This training forms part of a larger effort initiated by the Protected Areas Commission and the Ministry of Natural Resource and Environment to improve the services at the National Park and upgrade accommodation for both visitors and staff.

A visitor’s experience would be incomplete without an important component, the people who guide tours through the maze of trails, share the folklore of ancient past and educate on new development in the park.

In collaboration with the World Wildlife Fund, the Protect Areas Commission aims to finalise Kaieteur’s first ever management plan, which will provide a logical framework for the development and conservation of the area.

Staffers are employed from the Indigenous communities as cooks, wardens, guides and research assistants. In most cases, guides working in the Park are the investment in the people who provide very useful services to guests interpretation create memorable visitor experiences and ensure the safety of all who visit the Park.

The best in class trainees will be engaged to offer tours to visitors to the park as well as assist in the management of the Park. The Commission hopes, as part of their future plan to incorporate the remaining guides in a rotational system working within varying capacities in the management of the park.

Park Officials have noted the need to develop a pool of persons capable of conducting guided tours at Kaieteur.

We hope that all of our visitors to Kaieteur Falls and National Park enjoy the enhanced environs and leave with fond memories after the tour of the entire area by our knowledgeable and experienced Tour Guides.

As a demonstration of the Protected Areas Commission ‘s commitment to build capacity within the Amerindian villages and communities surrounding the Kaieteur National Park, nineteen representatives; including eight females, from Chenapau, Karisparu, Paramakatoi and Mahdia and current staffers of the Kaieteur National Park received training in Tour Guiding Techniques and Communication Skills.

Please ensure that you plan and book your Tours to Kaieteur with a recognised Tour Company. Refer to the list of Tour Operators in the THAG Member Listings in this Magazine.


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Kaieteur National Park

“Mighty Kaieteur” Story by Alex Morritt

Gentle meanderings a little way upstream, The Potaro River, tranquil and unassuming, Head down river, have cause to wonder, The booming tremor of approaching thunder, Draw closer still, a deafening roar, Hints at the imminence of the mighty Kaieteur, A rising crescendo of earth trembling rumbles, As a mammoth cascade in freefall tumbles. Thousands of gallons form a giant aqueous wall, Rendering this the world’s premier waterfall, Descending several hundred metres in height, A colossus with an awesome display of might, Guiness coloured torrents of frothy tan and cream, Crashing down on boulders, billowing clouds of steam, Showering mossy banks with a fine mist spray, Caught in the crossfire of the sun’s dazzling rays. Behold the bright arc, a perfect rainbow, A befitting crown, a majestic halo, Adorning rocky outcrops perched all around, Jaw dropping vistas with true surround sound, Gaze at that deluge and be mesmerised, Humbled by Nature, her sheer power and size, Soon to reassume a far gentler pace, Vanilla swirls atop a dark chocolate surface. Snaking her way down beneath jungle clad peaks, As the rainforest echoes with all manner of speech, One last glimpse of the mighty Kaieteur Falls, Now a faint murmur that perpetually enthrals. Copyright 2013 EXPLORE GUYANA

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Unusual Images of the Jungle Images by Andrew Synder


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On a tour to Orealla

Berbice - The Ancient County Rich With History & Lots to See & Do Story by Chevon Singh


ur lives are filled with moments of brilliance often overlooked, quite often too, meaningful travel illuminates those moments, and a trip to the county of Berbice is sure to bring a sense of enlightenment and evoke a sense of longing.

Though this has traditionally been the highlight of the Region, the county also boasts innumerable tourism potential, and possesses rich pockets of historical, ecological and archeological facets; a two hour journey can transport any visitor as

far back as 175 years when the first East Indian Immigrants arrived at Highbury or further still, back 250 years at the cusp of the Berbice Slave Rebellion, led by ‘Cuffy’. More astonishingly, a group of local and international archaeologists has discovered Children playing Cricket on No. 63 Beach

The possibilities for finding adventure in this ‘Ancient County’ is endless, from Historical/ Industrial Tours, Sugar Factory Tours and Rice Mill Tours, to Fishing, Bird Watching, Shopping, Swimming, Picnicking, Nightlife (parties, fairs, shows/ expos, etc) Horseracing events and cricket. This Region, covering approximately 40,425km2, starts from the Abary River Bridge and ends at Moleson Creek Corentyne, is known as one of Guyana’s premier regions with a defined economy – also home to 125,000 people from diverse ethnic backgrounds, Berbice continues to be eyed as the breadbasket of Guyana through its expansive Agriculture base.

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Kite Flying at Easter on No 63 Beach

President, the late Dr. Cheddi Jagan, Mrs. Viola Burnham, Rohan Khanai, Sir Shridath Ramphal, J.O.F. Haynes, Edgar Mittelholzer, David Dabydeen and Sir Lionel Luckhoo among many others. Newly Constructed Berbice River Bridge

Fishing on No. 63 Beach

The Tapir – Indigenous Berbice Transport

in the Berbice area (Dubalay) a human settlement that dates back almost 5,000 years!

thoroughfares and also provides the passageway for cycling enthusiasts on any given day.

The villages are also teeming with history and are home to several historic buildings such as Mission Chapel Church, New Amsterdam Town Hall, Berbice High school, New Amsterdam and Fort Nassau. Yet another novelty to be seen while travelling through Berbice is the No. 19 Road, this stretch of road is seven miles long, and is said to be the longest straight road in Guyana and perhaps , in the entire Caribbean.

When travelling to Berbice, there is sure to be something to captivate the eclectic taste of visitors, from the enchanting cultural lure, to the Creole cuisine and the charming villages that litter the picturesque landscape; a stop at the multitude of markets in the region will most assuredly scintillate the olfactory and gustatory senses; it’s much like coming home.

This highway is one of the region’s busiest

Many now famous people have had their origins in this county and are proud to call Berbice home, including Guyana’s former Horse Racing at Bush Lot, Berbice

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Wanotobo Falls- Corentyne River

With such a diverse range of attractions and an amazing array of activities to participate in, it’s little wonder that the region is clearly one of the country’s top tourist destinations! It can easily be said too that Berbice is home to cricket in Guyana and one can easily join in a friendly match being played on a deserted strip of country road, at one of the popular venues, Albion Community Centre Ground or Rose Hall, or along the broad expanse of the No 63 Beach on Sunday.

of public transportation between Crabwood Creek and N0. 51 Villages! Whatever your choice of transportation, or the reason for visiting, a trip to Guyana’s Ancient County of Berbice will indeed become a pilgrimage of epic proportions and significance. Refer to the list of Tour Operators in the Craft Items at Orealla THAG Member Listings in this Magazine.

The No. 63 Beach is found North of Corriverton and located in No.63 Village on the Corentyne; each week more than 3000 visitors throng this area to bask in the uniqueness of the 10 miles long stretch which spans more than 12 villages, and to bathe in the refreshing waters of the Atlantic. And if a cricket match does not fit your fancy then a rousing horserace meet at several of the readily available horseracing grounds, including the Rising Sun Turf Club or the Kennard’s Memorial Turf Club among others, will be sure to stimulate and leave you wanting for more.

A Caiman in the Abary River

Guaranteed, a trip to Berbice will not be authentic without a ride in the traditional mode of transportation, the Tapir; a small homemade box shaped van that can accommodate about 8 passengers. This vehicle was carved and shaped by few men in Crabwood Creek in 1980 and after 30 years they are the traditional mode

The Canawaima Ferry at Moleson Creek EXPLORE GUYANA

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2013 Earth Expeditions Team at Kaieteur Falls

Local Wisdom for Conservation Lessons from the forest

Story by Matt Hallett and Samantha James Photos by Ricardo Stannoss


roject Dragonfly at Miami University, in a partnership with the Chicago Zoological Society/Brookfield Zoo, Iwokrama Centre for Rainforest Conservation and Development and Surama Ecolodge, have developed a Graduate-level course called Guyana: Local Wisdom and Conservation. For the last three years, 20 students from all over the United States and their instructors have come to the Rupununi to learn from local experts whoare applying their extensive knowledge to resource management and conservation. This 10-day course is designed to give students firsthand experience with applied

research in the Rupununi, environmental stewardship, inquiry-driven learning and community development. The course brings together learners from North and South, changing the perspectives of all those involved and creating new knowledge in the process. By bringing farmers, fisherman, hunters and guides together with researchers and educators, this course creates a unique environment for learning that allows both local participants and their international counterparts to develop a fuller understanding of conservation and sustainable development. Megan McCulloch, a middle school teacher from Ohio said, “The Earth Expeditions trip to Guyana provides students the opportunity to see a unique combination of traditional

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and modern ways of life. The flora, fauna and people of this country are absolutely amazing. While I was only in Guyana for a short time, this trip truly provided me with experiences, knowledge, and memories I’ll carry for the rest of my life. ” After the short plane river from Georgetown, the students were soon immersed in the rainforest, beginning their trip at Iwokrama River Lodge. Here, Dr. Raquel ThomasCaesar and her teamprovided the group with scientific technical support and context for what Iwokrama is trying to do for the world. At nearly a million acres, the forest is teeming with incredible biodiversity including jaguars, scarlet macaws, giant river otters and a wealth of tree species, but

Dr. Thomas-Caesar and her team of rangers know this place like the back of their hands. She explained how the management of the area had been developed and implemented based a combination of scientific research and local wisdom. This has allowed Iwokrama to develop its complex system for the sustainable harvest of economically viable timber species while monitoring the impact of this activity on the incredible biodiversity that the forest supports. Dr. Thomas-Caesar explained, “Iwokrama looks forward to working with our partners in the Earth Expeditions course. It’s a great example for all of us that learning is a lifelong skill.” Head Ranger Micah Davis and Tourism Coordinator, Kevin Edwards looking at bullet ants.

Samantha James, Iwokrama’s Community Outreach Manager further made the link with local knowledge building “At Iwokrama we value local knowledge very deeply and are proud to support the Junior Wildlife Clubs, provide training for local guides and rangers and to make links between local and international research and learning. We know this system works as Iwokrama was developed with the help of people from local communities and now many of the children of those original guides and naturalists have become wildlife club members, trainees, guides, rangers and are now our colleagues in conservation!” In partnership with Iwokrama, the Chicago Zoological Society applied the Career Ladder model in the Rupununi with great results. This initiative creates “stepping stones” by gradually building additional skills that complement local knowledge. As students grow, they not only have a better understanding of Makushi and Western ways of knowing, but also have increased opportunities to access better jobs related to conservation for which they are uniquely prepared. Micah Davis from Toka Village and Kevin Edwards from Kwaimatta Village are two such examples of former North Rupununi Wildlife Club members that are now working with Iwokrama. Through the wildlife club, they learned various techniques related to research and monitoring, honed their public speaking and presentation skills and gained an interest in and commitment to natural resource management and conservation. Now Head Ranger and Tourism Coordinator at Iwokrama respectively, these Rupununi born scientists patiently guided studentsup and down Turtle Mountain, on monitoring trips on the Essequibo River and along

the Georgetown-Lethem road monitoring and for night hikes through the forest. They expertly pointed out and identified wildlife along the way, as well as explained the traditional and modern day uses of plants and trees, including for which you can use for food, water, house and craft materials, commercial timber and traditional medicines. Perky Smith Hagadone, an elementary school principal from Idaho, remarked, “What Iwokrama is working diligently to showcase to the world, made my heart open with hope for our future. The partnerships between local and international scientists to discover and test ways to preserve this essential ecosystem were intricate and effective. From indigenous citizen scientist data collectors, to the children happily involved in Wildlife Clubs it became so clear that all have a common mission: preserve this treasure while using visionary foresight

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and research to use its bounty sustainably. I left feeling honored to have shared 10 days with these brilliant individuals.” A Bedford truck that was formerly a UK army vehicle(now owned and operated by Surama Village Council), carried the eager students though the Iwokrama Forestfor an early morning visit to the Canopy Walkway; there, veteran guide Leon Moore carried the group along trails both along the ground and suspended in the sky. For many students, this was their first opportunity to view the forest from the top down and the experience left them with an increased respect for the size and complexity of the rainforest. Perched atop the canopy walkway, students gazed out towards the unbroken forest between them and the IwokramaMountains at the horizon. Then looking down at the massive tree trunks to the forest floor over a hundred feet below students couldn’t help but feel like they

At the Iwokrama Canopy Walkway

were part of something that was bigger than them. A part of something rare and special in this world. Traveling onto SuramaVillage, the students spent the majority of remainder of their trip immersedin stories, practices and traditions of “Makushpekomantuiseuru,” the Makushi way of life. The Makushi have a long tradition of managing their resources creatively and sustainably by proudly embracing their traditional methods of rotational agriculture, subsistence hunting and fishing and combining this with more modern methods of low carbon development like ecotourism. Conscious of the value of indigenous and non-indigenous knowledge, Guyana’s Makushi people are becoming masters of straddling both worlds and these students from North America were here to learn from them. This local education began with a lesson from the children of Surama. The outdoor classroom can be both engaging and rigorous, as students found themselves monitoring birds with Surama’s Junior Wildlife Club along a transect line starting at 6:00 am. Despite it being school holidays and a weekend, over 25 club members turned out for a day that unfolded withstudents and club members working on inquiry-based research science projects, riotous games, competitions and even a sharing of both Northern and Southern culture through song and dance.

Carrie Sanderson, an elementary school teacher from California, remarked, “The knowledge and awareness of the people we worked with was impressive. Even the children were dialed right into the Earth’s heartbeat!” And it was no rest for the weary, as early the next morning students were back at work; this time in a traditional Makushi farm with Dan and Paulette Allicock. Paulette is the Coordinator for the Makushi Research Unit, a group that for the past 15 years has been chronicling Makushi culture and language (they even lobbied to legalize Makushi language teaching in schools and wrote the text book for it), as well as promoting women’s rights and social well being. Paulette and Dan opened up their home to this group of 20 strangers from the other side of the world and their hospitality left everyone feeling like family as a result. Scott Lenhart, a middle school teacher from Ohio explained, “The Guyana experience helped me realize one thing; people are people no matter where you go. The traditions and environment vary but the people of Guyana still value the same things I do including family, education and tradition. The immersion in their culture was an experience you may not get on any trip to another country. Their hospitality and willingness to share enhanced all of the

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activities, including the humor they found in our struggles to complete tasks such as cassava harvesting and arrow-making!” Working with Paulette and Dan right at their house and their personal farm, they showed students how to plant and harvest staple crops like cassava, banana, eddo, yam and corn, all while sharing the traditional stories, traditions and beliefs that have helped Makushi people thrive in this environment for millennia. “Uncle” Dan displayed skills in basket weaving, arrow making and archery that he has mastered over the years as a farmer, fisherman and hunter. Without these tools, he explained, they would all go hungry. The following day, students rose early again to learn that their cassava work was far from over. At Surama’s Cassava Co-Op, students assisted residents in processing cassava into staple food products like farine, cassava bread and parakari. It was obvious to everyone that meeting daily needs is much harder here than what any of the students had experienced in their personal lives and it is only by working together with your family and your neighbors that needs for living are achieved. Erin Stotz, Community Conservation Specialist at the Denver Zoo, reflected that, “after spending timewith Makushi people, one comes to understand the importance

Yonette Sway teaches students the fine art of spinning cotton

Students learning how to grate cassava

Playing with Members of the Surama Junior Wildlife Club

of community and what is important in life.” Wrapping up their time in Surama, students were treated to a hike up Surama Mountain. Looking out over the vast stretches of forest and savanna before them, the group couldn’t help but be in awe of the way that the people of the Rupununi have utilized the region’s resources for their survival for millennia, yet they are still left with the amazing bounty that was laid at their feet by the panoramic view. A view which included scarlet macaws calling and soaring, black spider monkeys leaping from tree to tree in the valley below and red howler monkeys, and all kinds of birds and frogs joining in to make up a chorus that echoed for miles. In that place and time, everyone realized that what they had experienced was true stewardship; the responsible use of resources that bears in mind the needs of future generations. This is part of the true beauty of the Rupununi; not that this is uninhabited jungle, but rather that this is a place where people are scientists because they study the land every second of every day and make a living from their advanced knowledge and understanding that is gained as a result. On the final evening, students experienced the talents of Surama Culture Group and

everyone celebrated the fact that they made it thought the course without being bit by Bullet Ants or eaten by a Haguar and that nobody chopped themselves (or each other) with a cutlass (or machete), but more importantly that everyone had made some new friends and gained some amazing insight into science, conservation and life in general. In typical Rupununi fashion, two buckets of parakari (Amerindian traditional beverage) and a birthday cake are shared while everyone watched, listened to and participated in traditional songs and dances. A wonderful farewell and fitting after sharing a week of local Makushi culture, pride and wisdom. On the final morning, the experience culminated in a once-in-a-lifetime visit to Kaieteur Falls. This is a place that speaks for itself; the largest single drop waterfall in the world, surrounded by a river, gorge and unique natural habitat that can only be described as “otherworldly.” As the students sat in owe of the powerful force of nature in front of them, even as they watched the amazingly beautiful Cockof-the-Rock or observed the tiny Golden Rocket Frog, students couldn’t help but think back to what meant most to them about this trip. Mary Yoder, a zookeeper EXPLORE GUYANA

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at Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, summed it all up by saying, “Guyana is truly a special place not only because of the bountiful and diverse wildlife that can be found in the amazingly pristine forests and rivers, but because of the people that take care of the land and call it home.” Interested in taking part in an experience where local wisdom is the backbone for conservation in Guyana? See http://www. and http://

Daniel Allicock demonstrating how to use a bow and arrow

The Frog That May Be Lost

Another New Species Endemic to the Iwokrama Mountains of Guyana! Story By Philippe J.R. Kok, Monique Hölting, and Raffael Ernst


he Guyana based organisation Iwokrama International Centre for Rainforest Conservation and Development is an international not-forprofit organisation that was established by the Government of Guyana and the Commonwealth Secretariat. The organisation manages nearly one million acres (371,000 ha) of intact rainforest with the aims of testing the concept of a truly sustainable forest, where conservation, environmental balance and economic use can be mutually reinforcing. This concept includes sustainable forestry (e.g. Non Timber Forest Products, selective logging) as well as ecotourism. The latter is often hailed as one of the few indisputable examples of sustainable development at work because it is not only compatible with biodiversity conservation but it also generates economic revenue from land set aside for nature protection. Moreover,

ecotourism helps to educate the general public on conservation issues and thereby supports a better management of protected areas. It is therefore not surprising that there is a growing interest in broadening the ecotourism portfolio of Iwokrama by exploring and developing new and attractive sites within the Iwokrama Forest boundaries. One of these sites that has been identified as having a high potential for attracting ecotourists are the so-called Turu Falls. The area is very peculiar and exceptional compared to other sites within the Iwokrama Forest ecosystem, not the least due to its spectacular topography that features small waterfalls and creeks with pools and cascades. Situated at the foothills of the scenic Iwokrama Mountains it harbours an extraordinary flora and fauna that has only insufficiently been investigated in the past. EXPLORE GUYANA

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Tw o n e w vertebrate species have recently been described from the Iwokrama Mountains, a region recently assumed to be an “area of endemism”: one amphibian (the caecilian – a legless amphibian – Caecilita iwokramae in 2009), and one reptile (the lizard Gonatodes timidus in 2011). Endemism is a term used in biogeography (the study of the geographic distribution of organisms) to characterize the uniqueness to a defined geographic location. In other words, a species that is said to be endemic to the Iwokrama Mountains occurs only there, and nowhere else in the world! These so-

surveys conducted in Iwokrama during the late nineties, further suggesting that the new species is geographically extremely restricted, and rather uncommon. What makes endemism in the Iwokrama Mountains so exciting is that it concerns species that are distantly related (lizards for instance are evolutionary closer to humans than to frogs), and researchers are currently trying to understand the historical biogeographical processes involved in that very localized endemism, also called microendemism.

called endemic species are thus of primary importance in terms of conservation, especially when they are highly restricted, but also as flagship species for the areas concerned. When a peculiar region harbours at least two endemic species, it can generally be assumed that their distribution has been affected by the same historical biogeographical factors, and the area is called an area of endemism. Allobates amissibilis, literally the “rocket frog that may be lost” according to the etymology of its Latin name, is a recent new addition to the list of endemics to the Iwokrama Mountains. This tiny frog (less than 18 mm long) belongs to the family Aromobatidae, which was formerly included in the family of the poison frogs (Dendrobatidae). Frogs of the family Aromobatidae, which also includes Anomaloglossus beebei, the wellknown golden frog of Kaieteur National Park, notably lack the toxins secreted by “true” poison frogs. The new species has been discovered at two locations in the Iwokrama Mountains, the first sighting dating back to May 2010, when one of us (Monique Hölting) secured a specimen from Turu Falls while performing preliminary investigations on the potential impact of ecotourism on conservation. About a year later, a second specimen was collected by Philippe Kok (Free University of Brussels and Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Belgium) on the summit of one of the highest unnamed peaks of the Iwokrama Mountains, and finally in 2012 additional specimens were recorded at Turu Falls during the field herpetology course taught by Philippe Kok to international

master students studying herpetology at the Free University of Brussels, Belgium. The new species is diurnal and terrestrial, males calling during rainy days to attract females and defend their territory. What is really surprising is that no one noticed this species during the extensive faunal

Because it is geographically highly restricted, Allobates amissibilis may face threats in the near future as a result of increasing human pressure due to the aesthetic attractiveness of the locality where it occurs. Indeed, development of Turu Falls as an ecotourism site, which, if not planned carefully, could alter this ecosystem substantially and put the longterm viability of these populations at stake, hence the choice of the species Latin name. Another conservation challenge to face!

What exactly is a new species, and why a Latin name? Actually the term “new species” may be misleading for the general public because these “new” species may have existed well before the emergence of modern humans. They are considered “new” because they were never noticed by scientists before, and therefore were still not scientifically named. Sometimes these species are already known by local populations, and already have a local name, but nowadays they are often discovered in remote areas that are not, or scarcely, populated by humans. Scientific convention is to use binomial Latin, or Latinized, names to designate species (a genus name and a species name), which allows proper identification and classification. Scientists who describe new species are allowed to decide the species name.

About the Authors Dr Philippe J. R. Kok works at the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences and at the Free University of Brussels, Belgium. He has been working in Guyana (mostly in Kaieteur National Park and the Pakaraima Mountains) for over a decade, mainly on the systematics and evolution of amphibians and reptiles. Dr Raffael Ernst and PhD student Monique Hölting work at the Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden and at the Technische Universität Berlin, Germany. Both have been working in Guyana (mostly in Mabura Hill and Iwokrama) for over a decade, mainly on the impacts of logging on amphibians.

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Image of the Atkinson Airport

all Capt. Lloyd Marsh

100 Years of Aviation In Guyana Story by Capt. Lloyd Marshall


n Dec. 1903, Orville Wright piloted the first powered, controlled and sustained flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Just over nine years later, on the 24th. March 1913, a young German American by the name of George Schmitz made the first flight in British Guiana on a heavier- thanair machine. The flight originated from the Bel Air Park Race Course also known as Canon Race Course which is today, the area just East of the present service stations on Vlissengen Road.

his partner Harry Wentd, he commenced regular flights into the interior using his Wasp Ireland floatplane. On the 27th May 1938, Art Williams associated with John Henry Hunter M.B.E. , registered a private company known as British Guiana Airways Ltd. By 1945, the company had acquired an amphibian Grumman Goose and relocated its operations to the Ruimveldt ramp. In 1947, two DC-3 (Dakotas) aircraft were

added to the fleet and these aircraft were operated from Atkinson Airport. A Director of Civil Aviation was appointed in 1948 and in Oct.1949, Air Traffic Control Service and Aeronautical Communications were introduced. Several airstrips were constructed to accommodate the DC-3, while the Grumman Goose amphibian service continued. Coastal airstrip

After WW1, other pioneer aviators visited British Guiana. These airmen planned and operated various flight missions thereby demonstrating the usefulness of the aircraft in aerial survey and transportation. In 1925, Seaplane Legislation was enacted in keeping with the Air Navigation Order of 1923. In September 1929, the famous Charles Lindberg flying a Sikorsky S38 seaplane arrived in the colony and moored his large flying-boat in the Demerara River. The first airmail service out of British Guiana commenced when that flight departed. However, air transportation in British Guiana really took off with the arrival of Major Arthur(Art) Williams in 1934. With

Crop Dusting Exercise at the Old Booker’s Terminal, Ogle

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Recent Overhead View of Expanded Ogle Airport

development became a reality in order to facilitate transportation to the Bookers sugar estates and also to support agricultural flight operations ( Crop Dusting). Airstrips were constructed at Ogle, Enmore, Wales, Uitvlugt, Rosehall, Albion and Skeldon. On 15th. July 1955, the Government of British Guiana purchased British Guiana Airways from the holders, and after twenty -one years in British Guiana, Art Williams returned to the United States. The company was incorporated as Guyana Airways Corporation in 1966 and continued operation until 1999 when its operation was terminated. Aircraft flown by Guyana Airways include the amphibian Grumman Goose, the venerable DC-3,the Cessna 310G, the De Havilland Dhc-6 (Twin Otter) the De Havilland Dhc-4 (Caribou) The Hawker Siddley 748 (Avro), the Shorts SC-7 (Skyvan), the Boeing 737-200, theTU-154, the Boeing 707 and the Boeing 757. British Guiana Airways and Guyana Airways Corporation were always involved in international charter operations. However, international scheduled operations commenced in the late 70’s with the addition of the HS-748 to the GAC fleet. In 1980, the 748 service to Boa Vista, Trinidad and Barbados was upgraded to the Boeing 737 service to the two Caribbean Islands,

A Busy Apron of the Cheddi Jagan International Airport

Suriname , Miami and New York. The Tu 154 was in service with GAC from 1985 to 1987 after which a Boeing 707 was leased and non-stop flights to New York and Toronto were introduced. In 1993 Guyana Airways acquired a Boeing 757 aircraft and offered scheduled services to Trinidad , Curacao, Miami New York and Toronto.


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The private sector Domestic Aviation Business also developed and was operated mainly from the Ogle aerodrome. Anthony P. Clavier was an outstanding private sector aviator during the late 50’s to the mid 70’s. Clavier piloted the aircraft he owned. He maintained the aircraft he flew. He also managed the business he established. There were other aviators/entrepreneurs

who rendered sterling contributions to the business of commercial aircraft operations from the Ogle aerodrome. Consequently, this aviation sector emerged to be very vibrant and thriving and presently, it is the main provider for domestic commercial aviation services in Guyana. Over the years, this ever increasing aviation activity resulted in the development of the Ogle Airport, to the extent that it has been upgraded to the status of a Regional International Airport.

to the mid-day sun. They have vivid memories of rivers and rivulets, hills and valleys, canyons and gorges, rapids and waterfalls and the mighty Essequibo --- 500 miles from source to estuary, meandering its course to the Atlantic, and along the way gracefully accepting the flows from the estuaries of its four main tributaries : the Rupununi , the Potaro, the Mazaruni and the Cuyuni.

IT has been an exciting period of One Hundred Years Of Aviation In Guyana and my love for my homeland is reflected in the poem “Guyana My Homeland”. This poem was composed in Ulyanovsk, USSR in 1985(Aug-Dec) while attending a TU154 pilot training course. I missed Guyana and lovingly thought of my homeland in this way.

From the early pioneer aviators to the local flyers of today, all pilots, past and present, who have flown into the interior of Guyana have been privileged to appreciate the beauty of the country from a front seat vantage position. They have all experienced the grandeur of the sun rising over Mt. Makarapan and showering morning sunlight on the North Savannahs. They have witnessed the splendour of the sun setting beyond the Paruima Hills. They have observed the parched savannahs in the dry season changing to lush grasslands as adjacent rivers overflowed their banks in the rainy season. They have taken pictures of the Kanaku Mt. covered with a robe of cloud and mist in the early morning and then later they have admired the Kanaku disrobed, with its natural beauty exposed

2 DC3 parked in front of the old control tower

Guyana My Homeland by Capt. Lloyd Marshall

In silent moments Pleasant thoughts of you Softly enfold me With a divine tenderness Only the warmth of your nearness Can surpass.

Today I recall your living rapids And Kaieteur cascading and rushing And foaming and tumbling, Forever I will remember your mountains and hills Bold and erect as sentries to protect Your stretching coastal plains. And how can I forget your thirsty savannahs Growing green with the seasons rains?

I think of you and my heart Beats strong and loud Like a newly strung Congo drum Sending messages of love Oh listen! Here they come If living with you means dancing We’ll dance through life In a rapturous embrace that knows no end If living with you means walking We’ll walk your length and breadth From inland to coast With arms wrapped snugly around waists Last night I dreamt of the Essequibo Running long and smooth and silent Like a serpent, Flowing with its secrets to the sea


I live loving your freshness The nourishing freshness of your fruit The unbridled freshness of your freedom The air after rain freshness Of your laughter and friendship I live knowing your poverty And I share your adversity But I kneel to your ground And l feel your abundant wealth, Your diamonds unearthed, exposed Shining bright and unbreakable hard Reflecting always: Freedom! Freshness! Friendship.

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Deepavali The Festival of Lights


estivals contribute to the cultural tapestry of all countries. Each festival brings with it a unique blend of customs and traditions and acts as a harbinger of good-will, peace and fraternity. Centuries ago, Deepavali was celebrated in the confines of the logies (primitive homes)

Story by Dr Vindhya V Persaud

in villages. Our forebears, the indentured immigrants strove to maintain their culture and religion with whatever limited facilities were available in those times. Diyas were lovingly crafted out of mud and the radiance given off from these little lights served as a beacon of hope to them as they toiled under the most horrendous conditions.

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Deepavali, which literally means ‘a row of lights’, is celebrated on the 15th day of the Hindu month of Kartik. It is the darkest night of that month and is conducive to the twinkling lights that illuminate every nook and cranny. Worship of the goddess Maha Lakshmi is the main focus of Deepavali. The aspirant performs Lakshmi puja and

Home Decorated with Lit Diyas

seeks her blessing for material and spiritual fulfillment. The festival encourages the participation of the entire family and it has long been the custom in Guyana for everyone in the home to gather in front of their Lakshmi murti at dusk chanting prayers and mantras before emerging to light their first diya. Prior to the day itself the home and mandirs would be thoroughly cleaned and decorated in preparation for the Goddess of light, Maha Lakshmi. The ladies of the home would in recent times design elaborate rangolis ( coloured tracings on the floor) and be absorbed in making sweet delicacies for family and friends. At this time, the household would be sanctified as vegetarian fasts are the norm. Hindus would also abstain from alcohol. Over the last 3 decades the festival has gained prominence, and features on Guyana’s list of national holidays.

but those professionally made from clay can be purchased from stores and vendors. Novel innovations to the once simple mud diya filled with ghee and lit with a cotton wick include wax filled diyas and electrical diyas. The humble diya has certainly withstood generations and in spite of all the new- fangled techniques it still reminds the

Deepavali has emerged from homes and mandirs and presently many commercial entities and public building are decorated with lights to welcome the goddess Maha Lakshmi. The trend of using electric lights has increased and more persons are supplementing their diyas with these creating an aesthetically appealing look that has passers by gasping in awe. Diyas are hardly made by individual householders,

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Hindu to rekindle that inner light within and to extend to all those he or she comes in contact with. The Guyana Hindu Dharmic Sabha’s Countrywide Motorcades have become synonymous with the celebration of Deepavali in Guyana. Thousands of

Intricately Designed Float in Annual Motorcade

Guyanese of every stratum of society and cultural belief throng the roads to witness the processions of beautifully decorated and illuminated vehicles depicting the theme of Deepavali. In the olden days it wasn’t unusual to see horse-drawn carts gaily bedecked for the motorcade. With the advent of advanced technology, vehicles ranging from low-bed trucks to sleek cars are carefully designed with sophisticated lights and mobile parts. The Dharmic Sabha’s motorcades are major tourist attractions. Deepavali in its many dimensions addresses questions which are not only philosophical, but also economical and social in orientation. Deepavali threatens darkness in all its dimensions and influences the emergence of an illuminated society in which there exists understanding, tolerance, love and cordiality. Societies are built and sustained on foundations such as these. Festivals like Deepavali serve to rekindle hopes and expectation, and influence society in a positive direction. Deepavali renews the spirit of optimism from which a new beginning can be constructed, based on equity and noble intentions.

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GUYANA PASTRY RECIPES Courtesy – Carnegie School of Home Economics

Pine Tarts Ingredients

Cheese Flaps

• • •

Ingredients • • • • • • • • •

½ lb Short Crust Pastry 1 cup local Pineapple Jam 1 egg


4 ( 8 g ) packets of yeast 2 cups warm water 6 cups flour 2 ozs sugar 4 ozs margarine 1 tbsp salt 2 eggs 4 oz margarine (for basting) 1 lb cheese, grated mixed with 2 tbsps mustard

• • • • •

8 oz (1/2 lb) Flour 2 oz Lard 2 oz Margarine A good pinch of salt 4 tbsp cold water


Preparation 1. Mix dry ingredients, that is, yeast, sugar, half of the flour and salt in a large bowl. 2. Melt margarine and water in microwave oven on low and set aside. 3. Beat eggs and to margarine and water. 4. Add liquid ingredients to dry ingredients .. 5. Beat the mixture until smooth. Beat in the remainder of flour and knead to obtain a smooth silky dough. 6. Place in a greased bowl and leave for 1 hour or until mixture doubles in size. 7. Turn out on floured board. Divide into 24 pieces, knead into balls, cover and leave for 20 minutes. 8. Roll out very thinly to about 8 inches in diameter, and brush with melted margarine. Fold in half and add I heaped tablespoon cheese mixture on one quarter. Fold in half again, covering the cheese and making into a triangular shape. 9. Seal edges and prick with a fork. Place on greased cookie trays. Bake in a moderately hot oven for 25 minutes, then change shelves & increase heat to 375°F. Bake for another five minutes or until golden brown. Remove the oven and brush with melted margarine.

1. Sieve flour and salt 2. Add fat and shop in using the blade of a spatula 3. Rub in with finger tips until mixture resembles like fine bread crumbs 4. Sprinkle in water and mix carefully with spatula without pressing too hard 5. Roll out lightly and shape for desired use

Pine-apple Jam • • •

1 large green skinned pine-apple 1 lb brown sugar 1 small stick cinnamon spice


Carefully peel the pine-apple to remove all the brown spots. Shred the pine and combine with sugar and spice in a saucepot. Boil until thickened. Remove spice and bottle jam.

Method for Tart 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.


Roll out short crust pastry, cut into 5” rounds Place 2 teaspoon jam in middle of pastry round Damp edges and fold to form a triangle Brush tart with beaten egg Bake in moderately hot oven until golden brown. Remove from oven and cool on a rack

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About Guyana Country Facts

EMERGENCY NUMBERS Police: 911, 564 Police: Emergency Response Unit: 225-6411 Fire: 912 Ambulance: 913

There is a risk of malaria in certain parts of the interior. Consult your doctor for the required precautions if you intend to travel there. Georgetown and coastal areas are Malaria-Free. Municipal Hospitals and Health Care Centres exist within rural and outer lying communities with medivac services available in cases of emergency.

TIME ZONE GMT - 04:00 LOCATION Guyana is located on the North East Coast of South America and is its only English speaking country. Between 1o & 9o North Latitude and 57o & 61o West Longitude, bordering Venezuela to the West, Brazil to the South, Suriname to the East. GEOGRAPHY Guyana is the third-smallest country in South America after Suriname and Uruguay; it has four distinct geographical areas: the Low Coastal Plain; the Hilly Sand and Clay Belt; the Highland Region and the Interior Savannahs. The area is 214,970 Approximately 75% of the land area is still intact forest, and 2.5% is cultivated. The coastline is 1 metre to 1.5 metres below sea level at high tide necessitating an elaborate systems of drainage canals. The most valuable mineral deposits are bauxite, gold, and diamonds. The main rivers are the Demerara, Berbice, Corentyne and Essequibo. CLIMATE Guyana is a tropical destination that is pleasant and warm for most of the year, humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; two rainy seasons (May to mid August, November to January). Mean temperature of 27 ° C and the average temperature range from 24 ° C to 31 ° C. Rainfall is approximately 2,300mm a year in Georgetown. CLOTHING Lightweight, causal clothing can be worn throughout the year. However longs are recommended for the evening along with mosquito repellent to safeguard against mosquito bites. HEALTH

Further information can be obtained from the Ministry of Health on Telephone Numbers: (592) 226 7338 or (592) 226 1366. INTERNET For most customers, internet service is available nationally through independent providers. Service is also available in most hotels and at many internet cafés which have been established across the country. Some hotels and restaurants provide Wi-Fi at no charge to patrons using their laptops. The informative home pages of these service providers have useful links to other sites. The sustainable development programme site, has links to several NGOs, conservation groups, and international organizations as well. There are four daily papers; Kaieteur News, Stabroek News, Guyana Times Newspaper and the national paper; Guyana Chronicle Newspaper. There are over twenty (20) Television Stations and five (5) privately owned radio station and one (1) government operated radio station LANGUAGE The official language is English, often spoken with a Caribbean Creole flavour. Guyana is also the only English speaking country in South America. PLACES TO WORSHIP The predominant religious groups are Christians, Hindus and Muslims. Each is well represented with its own churches, temples, mosques. They are found across the country where the major landmarks featuring traditional architecture may be seen. POPULATION Guyana’s population is approximately 751,223 (Census 2002) of whom 90% live along the coastal strip and banks of major rivers.


Guyana became independent from Britain in 1966 and a Co-operative Republic in 1970, when a non executive President replaced the Governor-General. A new constitution in 1980 gave the President wide executive powers. The Cabinet is headed by the President, and there is a 65-member National Assembly elected by proportional representation.

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ENTRY REQUIREMENTS What you need to know before you travel • All visitors to Guyana are required to have a valid passport to enter and depart Guyana. • All visitors to Guyana should ensure that their passports have at least six months of remaining validity. Those arriving by air require an onward plane ticket. Visa Exempt Nationals • Visas are necessary for all visitors except nationals of the following countries : Commonwealth Countries, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and United States of America. • The maximum duration of stay any visitor will be granted by Guyana Immigration, will not exceed thirty days. Non Exempt Nationals • All visitors to Guyana who require a visa for travel should visit the Ministry of Home Affairs website: http://www.moha. prior to making their travel arrangements. All details regarding the Visa Application Process might be found on the Homepage of the Website under the subheading Immigration Services. • Applicants are encouraged to apply three (3) weeks to (1) one month in advance of travel. • The process period is one (1) week however this varies depending upon the nature of the case • A letter notifying the applicant of the visa being granted will be sent to their address provided in the application. Visitors must have in their possession the original/ or copy of the document stating the visa has been granted to show to Immigration upon arrival at Cheddi Jagan International Airport -Timehri. • Payment for the visa might be made to the Ministry of Home Affairs, Guyana or upon arrival at Cheddi Jagan International Airport – Timehri. • Visitors who wish to extend their stay must contact the Ministry of Home Affairs in advance of the date he/she is expected to depart Guyana. The Ministry of Home Affairs is located at 60 Brickdam Street, Georgetown. Guyana. The Central Office of Immigration, where the extension

is granted, located on Camp Street, Georgetown, must also note the extension in the visitor’s passport. Travelers for purposes other than tourism should check with the Ministry of Home Affairs for information about requirements for work permits and extended stays.

For further information, visitors are encouraged to contact the Head of Immigration Support Service, Ministry of Home Affairs, Guyana on Tel : (592 ) 223 7867 or contact the Guyana Foreign Office nearest to you . TRANSPORTATION DRIVING IN GUYANA Traffic drives on the left. Seat belts are necessary by Law. If travelling to Guyana and wish to rent a vehicle during your stay, please enquire with the Customs Officer at the Airport, upon arrival into Guyana. The permit will be immediately issued to you provided you have your international driver’s licence with you. So be sure to remember to walk with it. The permit is issued free of charge. TRAVEL VIA TAXIS FROM THE CHEDDI JAGAN INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT-TIMEHRI Tourists should ONLY use the official taxi services registered to operate at CJIA. They can be identified by their uniforms (Crème ShirtJackets, Black Pants and ID Badges. Fares are listed at the Airport and are fixed). If a decision is made to use one of the other taxis, please agree upon the fare for the trip into Georgetown before entering the vehicle. Fares charged from Airport to Georgetown rate between US$20.00 and US$25.00. TAXIS AND BUSES Georgetown is well served with taxis, operating throughout the city and to and from other urban centres. Before embarking, do enquire of the rates for travel to destination of interest. Use only recognized yellow taxis bearing the logos of respective taxi services. Alternatively, do seek the guidance of the front desk staff in your selection of those that are already contracted to the facility. There are also ultra –cheap minibus running around town and along the coast, or to the Cheddi Jagan International Airport and Linden. EXPLORE GUYANA

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Check and confirm the fares before entering the vehicle. Transportation around the city is provided by privately owned mini buses which operate in allocated zones for which there is a wellregulated fare structure. This arrangement extends to all mini bus routes throughout the country. Taxis afford freer movement around the city. Travel around Georgetown by Bus: Short stops within the limits of the city are approximately G$60.00 and longer stops G$80.00. Travelling by taxi for short distances: approximately G$300- $GY400.00; longer drops G$500.00 and upwards determined by the distance and destination. Prices will vary from location to location. Rented cars are also available. RIVER BOATS & FERRIES With the opening of the Berbice Bridge between East and West Berbice, travelling time is lessened for commuters from Georgetown to Berbice and onward travel to Suriname via the crossing at Moleson Creek. A toll is charged for the Berbice Bridge based on vehicle capacity. The fee per passenger crossing with the Canawaima Ferry at Moleson Creek travelling to Nickerie, Suriname is US$11.00 one way and US$15.00 return. Commuters to West Demerara have a choice of road transport via the Demerara Harbour Bridge or by the Demerara River Ferry from the Stabroek Stelling to Vreed-en-Hoop which is obliquely opposite each other. Be sure to check the bridge opening schedule one day prior to travel. The highway which begins on the West Coast of Demerara is heavily trafficked since it provides a link to Parika on the East Bank of Essequibo River which has become an important centre of economic activity in the Essequibo region. For example, speed boats or other types of transportation can be hired to take passengers as far as Bartica or other hinterland resorts and back in a single day. TRAVEL TO GUYANA’S INTERIOR Travel arrangements may be made with local busing service, jeeps, chartered planes and speedboats. A guide is advisable for longer distance travel to interior locations.

DOMESTIC AIR SERVICE Air transportation is readily available for traveling to several parts of the hinterland, whether for business or for pleasure. Several local airlines depart from Ogle Aerodome on the East Coast of Demerara and from Cheddi Jagan International Airport, Timehri. Information on their availability and movement is easily obtainable from their office and from tour operators. Private charter companies operate flight into the interior from soon to be completed Ogle International Airport. (For further information please see THAG Membership Listings) INTERNATIONAL & REGIONAL CARRIERS Guyana’s international airport, named after the late president, Cheddi Jagan is located at Timehri, 25 miles south of Georgetown. Flights from Europe are routed through Antigua, Barbados, or Trinidad. There are direct flights from Miami, New York, Toronto, Brazil, and Suriname.


These are licensed currency exchange houses. Most cambios are open from 8am to 5pm, and on Saturdays from 8am to 12pm, sometimes to 2pm. keep your cambio receipts, you will need to produce them in order to change Guyanese dollars on departure. MONEY & BUSINESS GUIDE ATM Machines are accessible to persons with ATM Debit Cards. Persons in possession of international CIRRUS credit cards that is Master Card and Visa Card might utilise the ATMs at Scotia Bank for cash advances when in Guyana. Further assistance might be offered at the counter if unable to do so.

BANKING HOURS 08:00 and 14: 00 hrs on Monday to Thursday and 08:00 and 14: 30 on Friday BUSINESS ATTIRE Men wear long or short sleeved shirts, a Jacket is optional. Shirt and tie attire is common in most offices. Females are expected to dress conservatively. CURRENCY The Guyana dollar is the only legal tender accepted in this country. It is a floating currency and the value fluctuates in accordance with the changes in the value of the US$. Visitors may exchange their currencies at banks, cambios and most hotels. The rate of the dollar fluctuates and the exchange is approximately US$1 – GY$202.00. Major credits cards and traveller’s cheques are generally accepted at many resorts, hotels, gift shops, restaurants and tour operators.

TAXES DEPARTURE TAX There is an exit tax of G$2,500.00 plus a security charge of G$1,500 (being a total of G$4,000). This is paid at the airport at the GRA booth. (The US dollar equivalent for this exit tax may vary with exchange fluctuations.) Please note that this is payable in GY$ or foreign currency. VALUED ADDED TAX Valued Added Tax (VAT) is charged to a value of 16% on most items save those that are 0-Rated or VAT exempt. ECONOMY The agricultural sector accounts for half the national GDP, producing sugar and rice for export, with extensive timber operations and


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a range of other products, from coffee to fish and fruits, and fresh vegetables well –respected brands of rum. Gold, bauxite and diamonds are mined. INFORMATIVE SITES ON GUYANA Travel and Tourism: • Guyana Tourism Authority- • Tourism & Hospitality Association of Guyana- • Iwokrama International Centre – • Kaieteur Park and Investing in Guyana: • Guyana Office for Investment • Guyana Lands & Surveys • Private Sector • Georgetown Chambers of Commercewww.georgetownchamberofcommerce. org • Guyana Manufacturer’s & Services Association - Non Governmental Organizations (Conservation): • Conservation International Guyana • World Wildlife Fund ( Guyana) • Iwokrama International Centre • Kaieteur Park and Falls



Major credits cards and traveller’s cheques are accepted by most hotels, restaurants, car rental agencies and tour operators. International VISA, Mastercard, Maestro and Cirrus credit and debit cards can be used to obtain cash from Scotiabank in Branch during banking hours or at ABMs. A similar service is also available at the Guyana Bank for Trade and Industry (GBTI) at their branches and at select ATM locations.

BUSINESS CONTACTS & ORGANISATIONS Berbice Chamber of Commerce and Development

12 Chapel Street, New Amsterdam, Berbice • Tel: 333 3324

Consultative Association of Guyanese Industry

157 Waterloo St, Georgetown • Tel: 225 7170, 226, 4603, Fax: (592) 227 0725, P.O.Box # 10730 Email:,

Guyana Rice Millers’ and Exporters’ Development Association

216 Lamaha St, Georgetown • Tel: 225 5353

Guyana Rice Producers’ Association

104 Regent St, Georgetown • Tel: 223 7248

Guyana Tourism Authority

National Exhibition Centre, Sophia, Georgetown Tel: 219-0094-6 • Fax: 219 0093 Email: Website:

Institute of Private Enterprise Development

253 South Road, Bourda, Georgetown • Tel: 225 8949

Linden Chamber of Industry and Commerce

84 Riverside Drive, Watooka, Linden • Tel: 444 2901

Forest Products Association of Guyana

Ministry of Tourism Industry & Commerce

Georgetown Chamber of Commerce & Industry

CARICOM - The Caribbean Community Secretariat

GO-INVEST(Guyana Office for Investment)

Private Sector Commission

157 Waterloo St. Georgetown, Tel: (592) 226 9848, 226 2821 Fax: (592) 226 2832 Email: 156 Waterloo St, Georgetown • Tel: 225 5846 Website: 190 Camp & Church Sts, Georgetown Tel: 225 0658/227 0653 • Fax: 225 0655 Website: E-mail:

Guyana Association of Travel Agents

Wm Fogarty Building, 34-37 Water St., Georgetown Tel: 227 7225 • Fax: 225 2513

Guyana Manufacturers & Services Association 157 Waterloo Street, Georgetown • Tel: 223-7405/6 •

229 South St., Lacytown, Georgetown Tel: 226 2505 • Fax: 225 9310

Turkeyen East Coast Demerara Tel: (592) 222 0001-75 Fax: (592) 222 0172 Email:, Umbrella organization for more private sector business and employer’s organizations. More major companies are also members. 157 Waterloo St, Georgetown Tel: 225 0977 • Fax: 225 0978 E-mail: Website:

Tourism and Hospitality Association of Guyana (THAG)

157 Waterloo St, Georgetown Tel: 225 0807 • Fax: 225 0817 E-mail: / Website: EXPLORE GUYANA

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ACCOMMODATIONS Georgetown and Environs

All of these properties are members of the Tourism and Hospitality Association of Guyana, and offer the quality service we know will meet your satisfaction.





No Smoking




Wheel Chair Access

















3. Cara Lodge 249 Quamina Street. P.O.Box 10833, Georgetown. Tel: (592)225-5301-5 Fax: (592)225-5310 Email: Website:

1. Ariantze Hotel

4. Grand Coastal Hotel

176 Middle Street, Cummingsburg, Georgetown Tel: (592)226-5363/ 225-0634/ 225-4644 Fax: (592)227-0210 Email: Website:

1 & 2 Area M Le Ressouvenir, East Coast Demerara Tel: (592)220-1091/ 220-1288/ 220-2046 Fax: (592)220-1498 Email: , Website:

5. Herdmanston Lodge

2. Aracari Resort 160 Versailles West Bank Demerara, Guyana, (1 Mile North of the Harbor Bridge, WBD) Tel: (592) 264 2946-8 Fax: (592) 264-2949 Email : Website:

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65 Peter Rose & Anira Street, Queenstown, Georgetown. Tel: (592)225-0808/ 0811 Fax: (592)231-7904 Email: Website:

8. Roraima Residence Inn

6. Palace De Leon Suites & Apartments

8 Eping Avenue, Bel Air Park Georgetown. Tel: (592)225-9647-8/225-9650, Fax: (592)225-9646 Email: Website:

71 Croal St. Stabroek, Georgetown Tel; (592) 227-7019/226-6374 Email:

7. Princess Hotel and Casino

9. Roraima Duke Lodge

Providence, East Bank Demerara Tel; (592) 265-7001-30 Fax; (592)265-7002 Website:

94-95 Duke Street, Kingston, Georgetown Tel: (592) 231 7220, 227 2213 Fax: (592) 227 3816 Email: Website:


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Eco-Resorts, Interior Lodges & Attractions

Atta Rainforest Lodge (CATS)

Adel’s Rainforest Resort Akawini Creek, Pomeroon River Tel: 771 5391 / 301-384-2396 Email: Website:

C/o Wilderness Explorers 176 Middle Street, North Cummingsburg, Georgetown Tel: (592) 226 2085, 227-7698 Fax: (592) 226 2085 Email: Skype: iwokramacanopywalkway Website:

Baganara Island Resort

Iwokrama Eco Lodge

Essequibo River, Guyana Head Office: Ogle International Airport, E.C.D Tel: (592) 222-8050/222-8055 G/town: 225-4483/4 Peg Off: 225-4483-4 US Off: (310) 929-7460 E: W: Facebook: Baganara Island Resort

Arrowpoint Nature Resort R8 Eping Avenue, Bel Air Park, Georgetown. Tel: 261-9286/ 225-9647-8 Fax: 225-9646 Email: Website:

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77 High Street, Kingston, G/Town, South America. Facility Location: Upper Essequibo River, Potaro -Siparuni. Tel: 225-1504/225-1186 Fax: 225-9199. Email: Website:

Caiman House Field Station and Lodge Delene Lawrence - Fernando Li - or Yupukari Village. Phone: (592) 772-9291 Website:

Hurakabra River Resort

Karanambu Lodge Inc.

Essequibo River 168 Century Palm Gdns, Durban Backlands, Lodge Tel: 225-3557/226-0240/ 624-8694/640-4497 Fax: 226-0240 Email:

Karanambu North Rupununi Guyana or A102 Issano Place, East Bel Air Park G/town, Guyana Tel: (592) 226-5180. Fax: 226-2085 Andrea and Salvador de Caires Lodge cell phone - (592) 613-0544 Website:

Ori Hotel

Moco Moco Village

Lot 118 Lethem Rupununi,Guyana Tel: (592) 772 2124, Mobile: (592) 641 3764 / 654 6317 Email: Web:

Alton Primus, Tel: (592) 675-1921 Shirley Melville of Rupununi Adventures, Tel: (592) 669-4513 Email:

Jubilee Resort

Rewa Village

Dakara Creek, Timheri C/O 106-107 Lamaha & Carmichael Street Georgetown Tel: 225-48915/ 626-4263/ 691-7313 Fax: 226-5340 Email: Website:

Contact Information for Reservation: Rudolph Edwards Dicky Alvin Russian Dorrick Website:


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Rock View Lodge

Rupununi Eco Hotel and Resort

Annai, North Rupununi, Region 9 Email: Website: Tel: 592.645.9675 (Colin) / 592.614.1060 (Office)

Tel: (592) 227 4265, Mobile: 623 3060, 692-6951 Email:

Surama Eco-Lodge, Surama

Savannah Inn

Surama Office Contact Information for reservation Info Websites:

Lethem, Region 9 Tel: (592) 772-2035 Email:,

North Rupununi District Development Board (NRDDB) C/o Wilderness Explorers, Cara Suites Address: 176 Middle Street, North Cummingsburg, Georgetown Tel: (592) 226 2085, 227-7698 Fax: (592) 226 2085 Email: Skype: wildernessguyana/tonywildex Website: www,

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Timberhead Rainforest Resort 8-10 Providence, East Bank Demerara Tel: 233-5023 Fax: 225-0459 Email: Website:

Splashmin’s Resort Eco Adventure Tours

Facility: Madewini Creek, Linden Soesdyke Highway Office: 48 High & Hadfield Sts., Werk-en Rust Georgetown Tel: 223-7301 - 4 Email: Website:


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TOURISM SERVICE PROVIDERS Fax: (592)220-1498 Email: , Website:

AIRLINE COMPANIES Air Services Domestic Charter & Cargo Ogle Aerodrome, E.C. Demerara Tel: 222-4368, 222-4357 Fax: 222-6739 Email: Website:

Savannah Inn Restaurant & Bar Lethem, Region 9 Tel: (592) 772-2035 Email:, Website:

Roraima Airways Charters Ogle Aerodrome. Ogle E.C Demerara Tel: 222-2337 Fax: 222-4033 Email: Website:


ADVERTISING & PUBLISHING COMPANIES Advertising & Marketing Services 213 B Camp Street P.O.Box 101582, Georgetown Tel: (592) 225-5384. Fax: (592) 225-5383 E: W:

Trans Guyana Airways Ogle Aerodrome, East Bank Demerara Tel: 222-2525/2861. Fax: 222-5462 Email:, Website:


Wings Aviation Ltd. Ogle Aerodrome, Ogle, East Coast Demerara Tel: (592) 222-6513, 226-9098. Fax: (592) 226-9098/222-5361 E: / W:

BARS AND NIGHTCLUBS The Rock Bar – Roraima Residence Inn R 8 Eping Avenue, Bel Air Park Georgetown. Tel: (592)225-9647-8/225-9650, Fax: (592)225-9646 Email:, Website:

Demerara Distillers Limited Diamond Estate , East Bank Demerara Georgetown Tel: (592) 265-5019 W: Guyana Telephone & Telegraph Company Ltd 79 Brickdam, Stabroek, Georgetown Tel: (592) 225-1515 Fax: (592) 231-7637 W: Iwokrama International Centre for Rainforest Conservation CIDA Building, 77 High St., Kingston, Georgetown Tel: (592)225-1504/7144. Fax: (592)225-9199 E: W:

RESTAURANTS Bottle Bar & Restaurant - Cara Lodge 249 Quamina Street. P.O.Box 10833, Georgetown. Tel: (592)225-5301-5 Fax: (592)225-5310 Email:, Website:

National Parks Commission Thomas Road, Thomas Lands, Georgetown Tel: (592)225-8016/(592)226-7974. Fax: (592)223-5379 E: W:


Café Tepuy – Roraima Residence Inn R 8 Eping Avenue, Bel Air Park Georgetown. Tel: (592)225-9647-8/225-9650, Fax: (592)225-9646 Email:, Website: Caribbean Soul Restaurant -Grand Coastal Hotel 1 & 2 Area M Le Ressouvenir, East Coast Demerara Tel: (592)220-1091/ 220-1288/ 220-2046

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Public Communication Consultants Ltd. 168 Century Palm Gdns Durban Backlands, G/town Tel: (592) 225-3557, 226-0240, 640-4497 Fax: (592) 226-0240 E: W: EXPLORE GUYANA


Timberhead Tropical Adventures Ltd. 8-10 Providence, East Bank Demerara Tel: (592) 223-5179/223-5023 E: / W:

Adventure Guianas Mickel Plaza, 53 Pere Street, Kitty, G/Town. Tel: (592) 227-4713 Fax: (592) 225-9646 E: W:

Wilderness Explorers Cara Suites, 176 Middle St., Georgetown Tel: (592) 227-7698. Fax: (592) 226-2085 E: W: Skype: wildernessguyana or tonywildex

Air Guyana Tours Ogle Aerodrome, Ogle, East Coast Demerara Tel: (592) 222-6513, 226-9098. Fax: (592) 226-9098/222-5361 E: / W:

Wonderland Tours 85 Quamina & Carmichael Sts Tel: (592) 225-3122/225-9795 Fax: (592) 223-5338 W:

Bushmasters Inc 40 Beverly Hills Drive, Lethem. E: W:


Dagron Tours Guyana 91 Middle Street, Georgetown, Guyana Tel: 223-7921/227-1174 Fax: 227-1166 Email: Website:

Angellina’s Travel Agency 1995 Parika Highway, East Bank Essequibo Tel: (592) 260-4536/7 Fax: (592) 260-4536 E: W:

Evergreen Adventures Ogle International Airport, East Coast Demerara Tel: 222-8050/222-8055 Georgetown: 225-4483/4 Email: Website: Facebook: Evergreen Adventures

Roraima International Travel Agency R8 Eping Avenue, Bel Air Park, Georgetown Tel: (592) 225-9648/225-6950 Fax: (592) 225-9646

Hurakabra Tours 168 Century Palm Gdns. Durban Backlands, Lodge, G/Town Tel:(592) 225-3557, 649-4497 Fax: (592) 226-0240 E: W:

Connections Travel 6 Avenue of the Republic Georgetown Tel: (592) 227-2999. 227-2810, 227-2832 Fax: (592) 227-2999 E: W:

Old Fort Tours 91 Middle Street, South Cummingsburg Georgetown Tel: (592) 225-1035, 592 225-1037 E: W: Roraima Tours R 8 Eping Avenue, Bel Air Park Georgetown. Tel: (592) 225-9648 Fax: (592) 225-9646 E: W: Savannah Inn Tours Lethem, Region 9 Tel: (592) 772-2035 E:,, W:


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Events2014 calendar of

Special Events & Public Holidays

December 31 January 1

Kashif & Shanghai Football Finals in Linden and Georgetown New Year’s Day

Kashif & Shanghai Football Finals at the Providence Stadium January 14 Eid ul Adha February 22 Masharama Street Party in Brickdam between Sendall Place and Camp Streets February 23 Flag Raising Ceremony at the Public Buildings in Georgetown MASHRAMANI Road March See for updates March 17 Phagwah April 12 - 20 Pakaraima Safari Cross-Country April Roraima Airways Inc : Annual Wedding Expo – Bridal Festival by the Roraima Duke Lodge April 18-21 Easter Weekend Celebrations April 19-21 Bartica Easter Regatta April 19-21 Rupununi Rodeo April Motor Racing – National Race of Champions April Linden Town Day May 1 Labour Day (National Holiday) May 5 Indian Arrival Day (National Holiday) May 26 Independence Day (National Holiday) May Moruca Expo May 31- June 5 Environmental Awareness Week June 5 Environmental Day June 16 Enmore Martyrs’ Day (Day of Commemoration) July Caricom Day July 7 (First Monday) July Berbice Expo July Madhia Expo July Motor Racing – National Race of Champions July 1-30 El Dorado Heritage Month July 27 Bartica Summer Regatta August 1 Emancipation Day (Day of Commemoration/National Holiday) EXPLORE GUYANA

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August JamZone Week of Events Aug 10 Lake Mainstay Regatta August(3rd Week) Mining Week August 28 Porkknocker’s Day September 1-30 Amerindian Heritage Month September Amerindian Pageant September The Guyana/Brazil Cultural Festival September 20 Ms Guyana Renaissance Pageant September 21 - 27 National Trust Heritage Week September 27 World Tourism Day September GTT Jingle Competition October 5* Eid ul Fitr (tentative date) October 26-27 Rockstone Fish Festival October 1- 31 Agriculture Awareness Month Car & Bike Show Canje Nite, Berbice Essequibo Nite, Anna Regina , Essequibo Coast October 23 Diwali – Festival of Lights November 1-30 Tourism Awareness Month Sunday, November 23 to Sunday November 30

South Rupununi Safari (SRS)


Ministry of Tourism Christmas Tree Light up

November International Motor Racing November New Amsterdam Town Day November Main Street Lighting Up (Courts) November 29 & 30 Rupununi Expo November 30 Rupununi Day November Guyana Open Golf Tournament December 1 The Flame and the Ribbon (World Aids Day Dramatic Production, National Cultural Centre) December 25 Christmas Day December 26 Boxing Day December 26 Main Big Lime December 31 Old Year’s Day

Share the excitement when in Guyana

Annually Guyanese celebrate a number of special occasions based on its rich cultural heritage and diverse ethnic population. Many of these activities are celebrated across Guyana or staged in specific parts of the country. Be sure to plan your vacation to visit Guyana whether it be to celebrate Mashramani our local carnival, Phagwah the Hindu Spring festival, motor racing or all the thrills of International Cricket, the nation’s number one sport. *Dates subject to change. Please visit our website for confirmed dates.

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Congratulations on the Launch of EXPLORE GUYANA 2014 Featuring, Carib Media Corp.

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