Express-April-2021

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Express APRIL 2021 - ISSUE NO: 2

Is competitio n beneficial to society?

News from USIS Is Competition Always Good? The Wings of Freedom Effects of COVID-19 on Education We Deserve A Choice Prepared by the students of United Science International School

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Special thanks to: Ms. Soz, Mr. Muhammed, and all other teachers who have provided us with much needed advice Editor&Design: M. H. Topal(11) Cover Design: A. Özyılmaz (10) Coordination&Submissions: E. Yiğit (10), M. Ş. Kılıç (10) Contributors: T. Yıldız(10), H. K. Koçman(11), E. Yiğit(10), M. Ş. Kılıç(10), M. B. Köse(11), Ş. A. Koçtaş(11), H. K. Horoz(8), Ü. Göküç(9), M. H. Topal (11), E. Toktamış(9), A. M. Çakmak(9), N. Gürbüzer(7)

News from USIS Debates

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or the improvement of students’ English and speaking abilities, debates are held in our school. Debates take place in the conference hall, which is on the ground floor of the building. Students from other grades, usually lower ones, are invited to watch and grade the debates. This allows them to experience and take lessons from a debate, and actually be involved in the process of grading. Through these debates, teachers aim to improve the critical thinking skills of the debaters, and the students in the audience. Recently two such incredible debates were held among the 10th and 11th graders. The topics of these debates were “Should death penalty be abolished?” and “Should a government have the right to mandate civilians to fight for their nation?”. A teacher remarked that: “The students’ skills were outstanding: they articulated their ideas better than I expected.” Certificates were issued for the debate participants. There is also a plan to form a debate team among students who will have debate competition more professionally.

Table Tennis

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n the USIS, sports play an important role in student life. From volleyball to chess, Students can find an activity to their liking. Table Tennis tables are also present, which is the most popular activity among students. Requiring high hand and eye coordination skills, the game has a steep learning curve, and thanks to the friendly competition present, students improve themselves significantly as they play. The students can be found playing table tennis at recess times and after school. We also have very talented table tennis players in our school, teachers have a hard time keeping up with us in our matches.

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By E. Toktamış and A. M. Çakmak


There can be no doubt that the ability to analyze, synthesize and create diverse forms of text is a skill that begins to develop from an early age. Such an ability, if learned and practiced regularly, enables students to freely and eloquently express their stances on various problems or ideas on any topic in both academia and later on in life. In this second edition of Express, once again, our creative and diligent students have placed their best efforts forward in producing argumentative essays, informative essays, as well as short stories. Also, students began practicing how to use in-text citation and reference lists to give credit where credit is due. This issue includes argumentative essays on the use of mobile phones in class, an informative essay on the pandemic’s effect on education, a short story about a soldier’s last memories, and more. With each essay submitted and checked, a clear improvement and growing enthusiasm can be seen within the texts. This simply shows that with some time, effort, and care, every student possesses the ability to produce quality and moving works of writing. We hope you will enjoy reading this issue of Express as much as the students and teachers did preparing it.

Soz Bahroz English Teacher

Tree Planting

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rees play an important role in our lives by being the source of the oxygen we breathe. Because of air pollution, caused by dust, CO2, and other greenhouse gases; some people cannot breathe well, and lung diseases become more and more common. To fight against air pollution, we organized an event, got permission from authorities, and planted hundreds of trees in suitable areas. Trees inhibit desertification, which decreases the amount of dust present in the air, and capture CO2 to produce oxygen. Satisfied with the enthusiasm of students to continue such events, teachers are also planning to make this a tradition– a tradition of love of our planet, and nature.

Book Donations

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020-2021 school year is United Science International School’s first year in education. Even though a lot of books were bought for the school library, it was not much. Libraries are not like other types of classes or laboratories, they require many years to fully develop, just like a tree. Seeing this issue, students organized a campaign to donate books from their own libraries at home. Within a couple of days, hundreds of books were raised and added to the school’s collection. A library that once was a relatively small collection now contains books in all kinds of genres and languages. All this happened thanks to the generosity of the students. Book donations still continue.

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Students were asked to take sides on a debate to defend their arguments. These two were selected.

I am Afraid to Fail?!

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ey, why are you crying? Don’t you want to enter the writing competition? Ohhh you are scared of failing! Failing teaches you a lot by feeling disappointed. It teaches you that failure is an opinion too: you can still win even in failure. Failure teaches you the steps to success. One important benefit of competition is a boost to innovation. Competition among companies can increase the invention of new or better products or more efficient processes. Firms may race to be the first to market a new or different technology. People are always looking for products with more features and capabilities, or products that cost less but can do more, and products that just plainly solve their needs/wants better than any other product can. Competition has a positive impact, not only on the well-being of consumers, but also on a country’s economy. Competition supports the productivity and international competitiveness of the business sector and promotes dynamic markets and economic growth. Meanwhile, those who embrace competition as a fact of life believe that a little healthy competition might be good for kids. Preparing children and teenagers for wins and losses for their adult life can be the best skill you can give to a child. Competitive activities help them develop important skills like resilience, perseverance, and tenacity. They also learn how to take turns, encourage others, and develop empathy. What is more, many coaches may feel that parenting is not

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The Affirmative Argument by M. Ş. Kılıç just about safety and security, but also about expanding a child’s comfort zone. When a child is allowed to fail, they discover that they can recover from it, learn from it, and move on from it. Failing, or losing a competition, does not have to define them. In other words, it is important for kids to get used to the frustration that comes from competition. More importantly, though, it helps them to suppress the desire to give up when things get tough. But some think that fear can “When prevent kids from trying things that a child is are hard. When this happens, it allowed to fail, can reduce their opportunities they discover that to grow as well as the opportunities for success. Failure kills they can recover enthusiasm they say. What!! from it, learn from One of the biggest mistakes it, and move on some parents make is protecting from it.” their kids from failure. As odd as it might sound at first, allowing a child to fail is one of the most important points of competition. Failure is not a bad thing. It might feel uncomfortable, but it is a wonderful opportunity to learn. In fact, learning from failures not only motivates kids to work harder and improve a skill, but it also can help them become more capable adults that do not break apart the first-time things get tough. Kids can learn how to lose and still feel good about their efforts. Unfortunately, many children today are afraid of failure. They are afraid of disappointing their parents, or that they will be bullied and made fun of. Whatever the reason, you should not be afraid of failure instead, you should be proud of the effort you spent to win and learn. All in all, healthy competition can teach kids that it is not always the best that are successful, but those who work hard and stick it out are the real winners in the end. The key is to find healthy ways for the kids to compete.


Topic of Debate: Is competition always good?

The Cause of

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The Negative Argument by T. Yıldız

ompetition brings the best in products and the worst in humans, said David Sarnoff. It actually does. It actually did. Since the beginning of humanity, it has caused harm to almost everything, just to be better than others. This is the definition of rapacity, which comes with competition. It caused carnage, to the chagrin of many, and encouraged cheating throughout history. Competition has caused more harm than you can imagine. All you need to do is look at the past. There were around 208 dictators, 61 colonial countries, and hundreds of wars that happened (including WWI and WWII) because of competition among countries. More than 100 million died in the wars alone. Most of them were civilians who died of massacres, mass bombings, and torture. This all happened because of the competition for superiority. Clearly, it didn’t end up being held highly in history. Nowadays, the situation is not different at all. Because competition comes with just “a” winner, others will lose, and nobody wants to lose. Failing on something can cause lower self-esteem, which can also cause mental illnesses later on, such as anxiety, trauma, bipolar disorder. A competition with 999 losers means that, potentially, 999 competitors don’t like that activity anymore. Even I don’t want to attend any type of activity in which I have lost before. You may gain one good product with competition, but you will lose a lot of average products. Moreover, all humans have the ambition to be the best. No matter how simple the competition is, we

“When children cheat and get the prize, they will just code it want to win. Sometimes parents in their brains as and teachers may compete child“cheat=win ren as an encouragement. Howe=good”.” ver, when children cheat and get the prize, they will just code it in their brains as “cheat = win = good”. In a research made by John Bowlby, only 2 of the 44 thieves had normal personalities. Others all had problems from childhood, which shows that cheating, stealing, and lying are learned as a child and then it becomes a characteristic. On the other hand, some may claim that competition is a useful way to encourage people, but actually, it is not. It might cause a boost of energy at first, but when most of them realize that there are only one or two winners, they will stop working. Even for the winners themselves, they might not like the prize, or they could get bored when he sees others are not competing anymore. Instead, they can find other encouraging solutions that don’t have harmful impacts as competition has. In conclusion, competition is harmful. It sure brings the worst in humans. It has made people ruthless dictators, thieves, and caused mental disorders, psychological problems, and even death. All because of ambition to be the greatest: all because of competition. If we don’t try to stop it, the painful future is inevitable. Now imagine, a world where everyone is respectful and generous because no one is trying to be superior. Imagine a world where there is no competition with others, a world where everybody tries to improve themselves.

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Illustration by H. K. Koçman

The Wings of Freedom B

uzz… My ears were ringing too loudly. ‘Someone stop it.’ My head felt like the clapper that rang a church-bell. Make it stop. I wish to sleep; I am exhausted. It was as if I was in an incubus. Lord, just let me slumber. “MY SOLDIERS, DEDICATE YOUR HEARTS!” Soldier? Let me rest. This feeling— what I felt, did not feel real. My head felt like a leaf: a leaf floating — uncomfortably— from here to there, never landing. “MY SOLDIERS, CHARGE TO YOUR DEATHS!” Soldier. My cons-

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Narrative by H. K. Koçman

ciousness came back to my body although I did not feel my body, not yet, and I was not sure if I should. I remembered; a loud burst of explosions from the inferno brought back my memory. I felt— pain. Pant, pant, panting. The air was suffocating: my lungs on fire; my nostrils burning. As if my head was submerged underneath boiling water; breathing was arduous. Smoke. Dust. Fire. Blood. Everything was blurry. There was a bad taste in my mouth: a metallic taste and smell too. My vision became clearer, I could


see: an apocalypse. Shouts. Screams. Cries. My brothers and sisters—my comrades—sleeping peacefully: some without their legs; some only with their torsos. They lay in the ground, asleep; their blood watering the ground, watering our country. Those who were awake were uprooting the weeds, and I was the observing, silent, and ineffective scarecrow; I did not scare the crows away. I was the scarecrow that watched the crows feed on my country’s seeds. “Captain..” you thought. You could not hold back your eyes from watering. You were weak. “Surely, the captain is still alive…” a tear escaped your eye down to your cheek. It was funny how a single drop of tear hurt more than the never-mending wounds. “Is the captain okay?”, you wondered helplessly. As you were occupied with your thoughts, the shouts got louder, and each shout got more and more brutal. Your comrades were falling down. “Zack has a mother waiting for him. Oliver has a lover waiting for him. Ally has a father waiting for her.” And you— you have a captain to wait for. The captain did not have anybody waiting for him nor was there anybody he was waiting for. Perhaps, that was what gave him his strength. Shouts. Screams. Cries. You shut your eyes close waiting to fall into the hands of sleep; though, it would nearly be impossible to sleep with these whimpering sounds. …Cheers. “The skirmish squad arrived for assistance!” The shouts were no more of your comrades. Craw. Craw. Craw. It was now the crows screaming. “Don’t you dare die on me, soldiers!” Captain? “Lieutenant!” Captain. You did not know if you said it out loud or just thought about it. You felt light and at peace, as if you were not on the verge of death. Your lips formed a faint smile. He was alive. Of course, he was alive. They called him the wings of freedom. They called him the strongest soldier— humanity’s strongest soldier. He undoubtedly deserved those titles. He deserved those titles not merely because he is physically strong but because how he stands still with his wounded wings, without ever regretting or giving up, even after what he has gone through. He was a broken man. You respected him, more than anyone else; you admired him, more than anyone else. He was a bit short, a little sassy, too. He liked tea, and held cups in a very… peculiar way, and he was a cleaning freak. If these were a characteristic of any other man, it would have sounded amusing; however, with him, everything came with pain and history. “Lieutenant, can you hear me?” You gave the captain a small nod. “Hold a little longer back-up will arrive soon.” You forced a longing question from

your soul, panting: “Tell me, captain. Was I a use to our country?” Your consciousness about to leave you. You saw his chin tremble. Boom. “Captain, air forces have bombed the enemy territory. No enemy approaching. We seem safe for now.” you heard your comrade say. At that moment, no word could describe the relief you felt. The suffocating air was not suffocating anymore; breathing was not arduous anymore. Or, it did not matter anymore. You felt at peace. You saw the corners of the Captains’ lips curve up very slightly. “What a sad smile,” you thought. “Captain, the Commander ordered the able-bodied to leave immediately. Air forces will be bombing the whole area.” So, it was time. “Captain. Did this— did this make a difference? —Was I— was I helpful? Was I a use—to our country?” you repeated panting as you slightly raised your hand covered with blood and dirt. You felt a warmth against your hand. The captain. “We made a great strive today, soldier, and tomorrow, too. Your strength will not leave with you; the torch will be carried on— by me. This, I swear on my life. You may rest, Lieutenant.” Said the captain as he grabbed your hand. You were smiling like a little kid, who was praised by his/her parents; this caused the captain to harden his grip on your hand. This feeling you had was peculiar: Safe. You felt safe. Tears left your eyes. Now you were crying, and smiling. You were smiling because you had no regrets, because you won, and because the person you were waiting for arrived. You were crying because of the grip on your hand— on your dirty hand. Whenever the captain had blood or any kind of dirt on his hands, or anywhere basically, he would immediately clean it up with a piece of cloth he always carried around. But he did hold your filthy hands and that meant the world. “Captain, we have to leave, now.” said your comrade in a whisper. “Damn it…why?”, he replied bitterly. It was okay. You did not mind it. With your last strength you saluted your captain one last time. A moment later, the captain saluted the wounded soldier back “Dedicate your heart” he said. But he was late. “Captain, she is dead.”

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Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic on Education Article by M. H. Topal

1-Introduction

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n the 31st of December 2019, Chinese officials reported a cluster of pneumonia cases in the city of Wuhan(1). Identified as COVID-19, the virus probably originated from bats, but it’s still not certain how it was transmitted to humans(2). COVID-19 is a coronavirus, which means that it transmits from human to a human by droplets of saliva that comes out when coughed or sneezed. Accordingly, by its nature, the virus is very contagious. Little did anyone know, this then-unknown virus would cause the death of 2.3 million, usually elderly, people (and still counting)(3). On the 13th of January 2020, Thailand announced its first case of COVID-19: the first country outside of China to do so. Just two months later, WHO (World Health Organization) declared it a pandemic. Today, only a handful of island nations in the pacific don’t have COVID-19 infected residents(4). Governments have been scrambling to curb the spread of this novel virus. Lockdowns, travel bans, mask mandates, and new restrictions were enforced; citizens were informed, and new financial support funds were introduced. All these have temporary effects, but one other measure will affect our future for a long time: the closure of schools. Adults can be cautious, and understand the importance of sanitation, masks, and distancing. On the other hand, young pupils cannot be expected to abide by these rules. Even if they abide, cramming thirty kids in a closed, crammed environment for hours per day cannot be accepted. As such, governments have shut down schools for the public good(5). However, because of the importance of education, they also couldn’t just cancel education for a year(6). Some struggling countries had no choice but to cancel, but the solution for most countries was online school. However, online schools proved to be less effective than in-person education(7). It was psychologically deteriorating for students(8–10) and, because of the digital divide, poor

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countries and poor students were disproportionally negatively affected(6). In addition, the economic crisis that came with COVID-19 has had a devastating effect on many families: consequently, on students(6).

2-Inferiority of Online Lessons

Even though it is theoretically possible to teach everything online as well as normal, realistically, online education is hindered by network problems, electric outages, inability to distribute lesson material and, lack of technological literacy on the side of teachers, students, and parents(7)(6). Additionally, normally if a student doesn’t understand a particular topic, he/she can ask for help from friends. However, in online schools, this is not as easy to do. Besides, home isn’t an optimal place to learn for most. Many kids share their rooms with their siblings who also have online lessons. Even if they don’t, disturbances to the learning environment frequently happen. Likewise, given devices with internet connection on, students get distracted with social media or video games. The reasons that I have listed in this paragraph are first-hand experiences from me and my friends, and these same disturbances add up to an inferior education experience.

3-The Poor Suffer the Most

Low-income countries don’t have enough resources to spare for education in this economic and humanitarian crisis. For instance, only 55% of high schoolers in Africa have access to online education. On the other hand, this percentage is almost 100% in Europe. Additionally, access and ability to attend are different from each other: in low-income countries, a mere 50% of students with access to online education could attend, 35% less than high-income countries (6). This is the digital divide. The UN report states that 99% of poor students around the world are disproportionally negatively affected by COVID-19. Also, many students who depended on the food that school offered now lack that support. In the report, it also mentions that such hardships correlate with a sharp increase in dropouts.


7-References

COVID-19 has certainly harmed everyone, but the poor were especially affected, in education, and beyond.

4-Economic Calamity’s Side Effects

With this novel coronavirus pandemic, came an economic decline around the globe. Estimated global GDP (gross domestic product) decrease by the end of 2020 was 4.5%(11). Consequently, many governments have taken austerity measures. The main priority is/was medical services and infrastructure, and governments desperately needed funding; in the end, human lives were at stake. Most were forced to cut an already insufficient education funding, and even if the funding was increased, it was not enough for most countries. According to the same UN report, before the pandemic education had been 11% underfunded; during the pandemic this percentage was projected to rose to 29% (fig. 1) by the end of 2020(6). This was August. Since then, our state has only got grimmer.

5-Psychological Effects

This pandemic has certainly affected everyone negatively, but it has especially scarred students. According to the studies, this time of “stay-at-home” has resulted in more cases of OCD (Obsessive-compulsive disorder), which means that they are over-obsessed with a task they do -like cleaning or needing symmetry(10). Besides, a study of Japanese college students found that more students were depressed compared to pre-pandemic levels(9). Likewise, the

1. World Health Organization. Archived: WHO Timeline – COVID-19. 2020 https://www.who.int/news/item/27-04-2020-who-timeline---covid-19 2. Mallapaty S. Where did COVID come from? WHO investigation begins but faces challenges. 2020. https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-03165-9 3. Worldometer. COVID-19 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC. 2021. https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/ 4. Hubbard K. Places Without reported COVID-19 Cases. 2021. https://www.usnews.com/news/best-countries/slideshows/countries-without-reported-covid-19-cases 5. Fang Y, Nie Y, Penny M. Transmission dynamics of the COVID-19 outbreak and effectiveness of government interventions: A data-driven analysis. J Med Virol. 2020;92(6). 6. UN. UN August 2020 Policy Brief: Education during COVID-19 and beyond. 2020. 7. Impact of Coronavirus Pandemic on Education. J Educ Pract. 2020; 8. Kibbey MM, Fedorenko EJ, Farris SG. Anxiety, depression, and health anxiety in undergraduate students living in initial US outbreak “hotspot” during COVID-19 pandemic. Cogn Behav Ther. 2020; 9. Horita R, Nishio A, Yamamoto M. The effect of remote learning on the mental health of first year university students in Japan. Psychiatry Res. 2021;295. 10. Ji G, Wei W, Yue KC, Li H, Shi LJ, Ma JD, et al. Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on obsessive-compulsive symptoms among university students: Prospective cohort survey study. J Med Internet Res. 2020;22(9). 11. Statista Research Department. Impact of the coronavirus pandemic on the global economy - Statistics & Facts. 2021. https://www.statista.com/ topics/6139/covid-19-impact-on-the-global-economy/

same pattern was observed on college students in U.S.A., 71% of students reported higher levels of stress and anxiety, over their own health, or their loved ones’(8). Meanwhile, they can neither turn to their family nor their friends for solace. The pandemic has turned an already exhausting education into a lonely, almost depressing form.

6-Conclusion

Ending on a good note, there are already multiple vaccines developed around the world, which are being distributed starting from the elderly, to end this novel virus for good. This pandemic was a test of human civilization, and through this test, we saw the importance of education: many uneducated people refused to socially distance themselves from others or to wear masks, causing unnecessary loss of life. Like every order we have set on our societies, COVID-19 devastated education, but it also reminded us of its importance. Although now the teachers and students are worn and weary of this prolonged process of “back-to-normal”, from online education to in-person classes, to my observation, they are not discouraged from doing their best. However, there is no denial of the harms it has caused, and kids from low-income families and countries were especially affected by them. This pandemic has provided us with tons of data, from education to policy-making, that will be needed against inevitable future epidemics and pandemics. We have lived through what we have lived through; what matters is the lessons we take from it.

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We Deserve a Choice Article by Ş. A. Koçtaş

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he pen that writes your life story must be held in your own hand,” said Irene C. Kassorla. Many students feel that the classes they are taking in high school are not relevant to the field of study they would eventually major in at a higher level of education. Students should have full control over their classes in high school. They should have the freedom to choose what they want to learn to attain the knowledge and skills necessary for their future careers. Before anything else, when students are able to learn subjects that they are curious about, it increases their desire to study and makes them more successful. Curiosity is critical to success because it feeds a hungry mind. If students are inquisitive, they are open to new experiences. They can generate more original ideas and produce simple solutions to complex problems. Studies show that students’ grades are, on average, ten percent higher in the subjects that they are innately curious about. Secondly, students have different minds and interests. It is not fair to follow the same lesson schedule for all students. If a student does well in and has a passion for math and science classes but struggles in English classes, that student should have the freedom to take more math and science classes, so he or she can thrive, and learn about the subjects that he or she loves. For instance, my best friend and I have very different minds and interests, but we have to take the same classes. I do well in classes that she does badly in, and she does well in classes that I do badly in. The classes that we do badly can sometimes turn into torments. So, instead, why don’t we both take the classes we want and happily study and succeed in them? Finally, yet importantly, students fail when they take classes that they are not interested in; this causes them to be labeled as “unsuccessful students,”

and because of these kind of labeling students also lose their motivation towards the classes that they are actually interested in and can be successful at. Albert Einstein said, “Everybody is a genius. But if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live its whole life believing that it is stupid.” This statement led to this oft-shared image of our education system. While a bird, a monkey, a penguin, a fish, a seal, and a dog line up, an official says, “For a fair selection everybody has to take the same exam. Please climb that tree.” It is foolish to judge everybody by the same set of metrics, while not taking into account their individual strengths and weaknesses. Adults may think that students don’t know what is good for them. But everyone knows themselves better than anyone else does. Students know what they are passionate about and good at, so they should be given an opportunity to do exactly that. This can only be done by allowing them to choose the classes they are good at and interested in. They may say that high school students are immature and will make wrong choices about the classes they choose. However, if students make wrong choices, they will learn through trial and error. This is how we all grow: making mistakes and learning from them. To conclude, students should be able to choose their own classes in high school. They know their interests and curiosities, and curiosity increases success. Students should get the chance to choose the classes that they are interested in, and they should not be forced to attend those they are not. Since everyone has different minds and interests, it is unfair to “universalize” the classes that every student at a school has to take. Failing in the classes that students are not interested in demotivates them, even in the classes that they are interested in and have the potential to be successful in.


Acid Rain Most of us have heard it, but what do we know about it?

Article by N. Gürbüzer

What is Acid Rain?

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cid rain, or acid deposition, is a broad term that includes any form of precipitation with acidic components, such as sulfuric or nitric acid that fall to the ground from the atmosphere in wet or dry forms. This can include rain, snow, fog, hail, or even dust that is acidic.

Acid rain results when sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NO) are emitted into the atmosphere and transported by wind and air currents. The SO2 and NO react with water, oxygen, and other chemicals to form sulfuric and nitric acids. These then mix with water and other materials before falling to the ground. While a small portion of the SO2 and NO that cause acid rain is from natural sources such as volcanoes, most of it comes from the burning of fossil fuels. The major sources of SO2 and NO in the atmosphere are: •Burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity. Two-thirds of SO2 and one-fourth of NO in the atmosphere come from electric power generators. •Vehicles and heavy equipment. •Manufacturing, oil refineries, and other industries. Winds can blow SO2 and NO over long distances and across borders making acid rain a problem for everyone and not just those who live close to these sources.

Negative Effects of Acid Rain

Acid rain can be extremely harmful to forests. Acid rain that seeps into the ground can dissolve nutrients, such as magnesium and calcium, that trees need to be healthy. Acid rain also causes aluminum to be released into the soil, which makes it difficult for trees to take in water. Trees that are located in mountainous regions at higher elevations, such as spruce or fir trees, are at greater risk because they are open to acidic clouds and fogs that strip vital nutrients from their leaves. This loss of nutrients makes it easier for infection, insects, and cold weather to damage trees and forests.

The Solution for Acid Rain

A great way to reduce acid rain is to produce energy without using fossil fuels. Instead, people can use renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power. Renewable energy sources help reduce acid rain because they produce much less pollution.

What Causes Acid Rain?

This image illustrates the pathway for acid rain in our environment: (1) Emissions of SO2 and NO are released into the air, where (2) the pollutants are transformed into acid particles that may be transported long distances. (3) These acid particles then fall to the earth as wet and dry deposition (dust, rain, snow, etc.) and (4) may cause harmful effects on soil, forests, streams, and lakes.

Conclusion

So now we know what is acid rain, its negative effects, and its solutions. However, we all have to work together to decrease these toxic chemicals in the air and improve our environment.

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Students were asked to take sides on a debate to defend their arguments. These two were selected.

“Cell phones improve communication, provide learning resources, and encourage appropriate usage of technology.”

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ho doesn’t have a cell phone these days? The amazing thing about cell phones is that they are no longer just used for calling or texting. Technology plays a great role in our lives, which brings up the following question: should students be permitted to use cell phones in school? The use of mobile phones in learning institutions, especially schools, has elicited debate and bitter arguments. While part of society has supported the use of cell phones in schools, the other part has opposed their use bitterly. I believe they should not just be permitted to use cellphones; they should be required to use them. Cell phones don’t just allow students to stay connected with family and friends, they are also an excellent learning resource, and they encourage the responsible use of technology. First of all, cell phones allow students to stay in touch with family and friends. For example, once I forgot my project at home and my old school didn’t allow students to use cell phones at school; as a result, I couldn’t communicate with my parents. Cell phones allow parents to keep track of their children anytime, and vice versa. Additionally, students can connect with friends, and this can have benefits to the quality of education. For instance, my teacher asks us to text or email our friends when they are absent, so we can tell them what is happening in class. When used responsibly, a cell phone can be an excellent communication tool. Also, cell phones are fabulous learning resources. Students can use tools such as calculators and calendars just in one device. It is also easier to keep track of homework on the phone thanks to apps like Edupage– an app that provides teachers with basically every education-related tool they may want to enhance students’ progress. There are also lots of learning websites we can use to supplement the learning in class. Cell phones are a quick and easy way to incorporate technology into the classroom. Finally, cell phones encourage the responsible use of technology. Students can learn when and how to use their cell phones to enhance their learning. They will become more independent in their work

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Mobile Phone’s Contributions to Students The Affirmative Argument by E. Yiğit and more motivated to learn. Students like being allowed to make choices. If a student is texting when he/she should be paying attention to the teacher, the teacher should take the cell phone temporarily away. No big deal. To avoid cheating, before a test, all cell phones can be placed on the teacher’s desk. Again, no big deal. By allowing the use of cell phones, students will feel like they are being treated as responsible young adults. If teachers are patient, understanding, and consistent, students will surely become responsible users of technology. It has proven that Finland is one of the countries that have the best education all over the globe. They claim it’s because students love going to school. They see school as a fun place, not a PRISON that has formidable rules. Conversely, people who oppose the use of cellphones in school do it because of the disruptions and distractions cell phones can cause. But we must accept that we live in an age of technological advancements and that cell phones are an important and very useful part of our lives. All in all, cell phones improve communication, provide learning resources, and encourage appropriate usage of technology. Teachers and administrators must find ways to incorporate this excellent multi-tool in our schools to enhance education and love of learning.


Topic of Debate: Should mobile phones be allowed in school?

Students Should Not Bring Smart Phones to School

S

martphones make up a large part of our lives. I hardly know someone who does not have a smartphone. We are all aware of the benefits of smartphones. But do students really need to bring them to school? I do not think so. Firstly, smartphones cause distraction. Even when I am at home doing my homework, if my phone is next to me, I cannot focus at all. I cannot imagine what would happen if we were allowed to use smartphones in class. Even if you look at your phone once, it takes at least 5 minutes to refocus. I do not think anyone would be able to focus on a teacher’s lesson. Secondly, as I have mentioned, mobile phones prevent students from focusing, and if you cannot focus on what the teacher is teaching, you cannot understand anything from the topic. Eventually, when the time comes your teacher will make a quiz, give homework, or ask you to prepare a presentation; then what will you do? You cannot do anything if you do not know anything. As a result, you will most probably get a low grade or possibly– even fail. If this goes on for every class, you will fail and repeat the year. Mobile phones distract students in the lessons; this can even result in F’s. Finally, even teachers agree that students should not be allowed to use phones in school. A parent conducted a survey at her kid’s school, where she interviewed 10 teachers from different departments. 70% of the teachers were against allowing the students to carry their mobile phones into their classrooms. First of all, they said that when students were allowed to bring their phones to class, they spend most of their

The Negative Argument by Ü. Göküç time playing video games in class. Second, whenever someone’s cell phone rings, it would distract the whole class. Third, texting on its own was a major distraction. Finally, cheating couldn’t be controlled since it’s not possible to know if students are sharing answers. Yes, smartphones have many benefits in our lives such as talking to our relatives or setting an alarm. But do we need to take them with us to school? Yes, you may need to use your phone when you are at school to call your parents maybe, but for that, you can always use the school phone, if there is a problem you can also ask one of your teachers to lend their phone. Bringing phones leads to more problems, so I do not think that bringing phones to school would have any benefits for students.

If you cannot focus on what the teacher is teaching, you cannot understand anything from the topic. Do not get me wrong, I am also a tech geek myself and have nothing against the usage of smartphones for schooling, but bringing them to school can cause numerous problems. Even parents cannot control themselves, so you cannot expect students to control themselves. Students already spend most of their time online; imagine what would happen if they were also allowed to use phones at school. Schools are places where you are sent to get educated. Not to spend time on your phones.

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Cool software of the month: Audacity

By M. H. Topal

A

udacity is a free audio editor that you can use to record, edit, clean, normalize, and manipulate audio files. First published in the year 2000, it is one of the most reliable and successful audio tools that stood the test of time; its awards and reputation speak up for it. First of all, you can use it to record audio, crop the unnecessary parts, or speed the audio up or down. Then, you can get that audio and make it much more pleasant to the ear. For example, you can clean out any fan noise or static noise present in the audio. You can normalize those very loud or very silent sounds, like when recording a text some parts of the sentence are louder than normal, it can automatically fix them for you. Also, if the microphone was too far away or too close so that everything ends up too silent or too loud, you can increase or decrease the sound levels. Of course, like the previous software of the month, draw.io, Audacity is open-source as well. Open-source code means that all the codes that make up the app are publicly accessible, which makes it very safe. I use it personally and recommend it highly.

How to draw a simple portrait in anime By H. K. Horoz

Step 1

Step 4

Step 2

Step 3

Step 5

Final Product

Step 1: Draw a circle to locate the head Step 2: Draw 1 vertical, 2 horizontal lines as shown; •1 straight vertical line in the middle to draw the face more symmetrical. •2 straight horizontal lines to locate the eyes and eyebrows Straight lines will help to draw the face more easily. Step 3: Draw the hair as you like. Do not forget to add shade and lightning. You can use lighter colors to add lightning to the hair. You can always look at my YouTube channel Anime Omiru for extra information. Step 4: Draw the neck and the eyes. Use the lines to make it symmetric. Step 5: Erase the lines. Draw nose and mouth as you like. You can also get some help from lines while drawing the nose and mouth. :)

Cool Recipe of the Month: Coffee Bean Cookie

By E. Yiğit

Ingredients: 1 egg/ 125 g butter (at room temperature)/ 1 cup (glass) of powdered sugar *200 ml/ Half a cup (glass) of starch/ 1.5 tablespoons instant coffee (dissolved in hot water)/ 1.5 tablespoons of cocoa/ 3.5 cups flour (approx.)/ 1 baking powder/ 1 vanilla (optional) How to make it: 1.First of all, we add eggs, butter, powdered sugar, starch, cocoa and coffee then knead. 2.Then we add flour, baking powder and vanilla and knead again. 3.We continue to knead until it reaches consistency. * if you are not sure ask your mom for its consistency :) 4.Give it an oval shape and place it on the greaseproof (oily) paper on the baking tray. 5.Make deep scratches on the cookies with the back of a knife. 6.Bake the cookies in a preheated (180 degree) oven.

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A Road Trip Game

By E. Yiğit

Games and Puzzle

This is a memory game. You begin saying “I’m going on a picnic and I’m going to bring….” and then lists an item. The next person must start by saying, “I’m going to bring...” and then mention the first person’s item before saying their own. The list expands and grows, and the loser is the first one who cannot correctly list all of the objects. Game 24 1-Easy:3,3,2,6 2-Medium: 3,7,4,1 3-Hard: 6,6,11,3

4-What 4-letter word can be written forward, backward or upside down, and can still be read from left to right?

s

5-If you have me, you want to share me. If you share me, you haven’t got me. What am I? 6-What starts with a T, ends with a T and has T in it?

1-as much or as good as necessary for some requirement or purpose

2-to quote a passage, book, author, etc. 3-something that one’s efforts or actions are intended to attain or accomplish 4-occurring or returning once a year 5-a wise and trusted counselor or teacher 6- (1) worked out with great care and nicety of detail (2) to add details to By M. H. Topal

By M. B. Köse

1- The letter m Answers of the puzzles of the previous edition 2- Footsteps 3- ((2x4)+4)x2=24 4- (3x5)+3+6=24 5- 6/(1-3/4)=24 6- Switzerland has no official capital city, although the beautiful city of Bern acts as a de facto capital. 7-663- Write it on a calculator and hold it upside down!

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Express “Success does not come from physical capacity. It comes from an indomitable will.” –Mahatma Gandhi

Contact USIS at: United Science International School or @USIS2020

+964 07700459000

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usis@uscolleges.org

Website: usis.online


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