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University of San Diego, School of Education COUN 508 Research Methods in Counseling (3) Summer 2010 Study Abroad Instructor: Susan Zgliczynski, Ph.D. Work Phone: (619) 260-4287

Office Hour :MRH 215D TBA email:

Course Dates are scheduled for oncampus class starting around June 20th. Travel to Australia and New Zealand is tentatively scheduled for July 9-22nd. Course Description This course examines behavioral science assumptions as they apply to research by professionals in counseling, education and psychology. The course will include an analysis of those research designs and methods used in investigating individuals and groups. Designs that can lead to offering explanations of behavior as well as those used to predict behavior would be included. The course will also include review of the legal and ethical issues involved in conducting research with human subjects. Students will design a proposal for a research study. Articles will be presented that are examples of studies done using each method we study either looking at studying cross-cultural differences, international counseling approaches or that summarize findings of studies published by the journals of international psychology and education associations. Assessments that have been designed for use with global populations and used internationally will be reviewed and evaluated by students using the standards we will study on instrument design. This course examines the required areas addressed in the 2009 Standards for Counseling Programs presented by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP). This course also prepares students in the knowledge areas tested in the Research and Evaluation section of the National Counselors Examination (NCE). During the global study portion of the trip students will attend sessions at one or possibly two international research conferences being held in Melbourne, Australia at approximately the same time - The International Conference on Applied Psychology and the International CrossCultural Psychology Conference. Each of the conferences has the opportunity for students to intermingle with researchers from other countries and with graduate students from Australia and New Zealand. We will also include the Cultural Audit data collection activity that we use in all of our Study Abroad classes to help students reflect on cultural differences. I plan to teach the standard research design course and students will write a proposal. I will bring in articles as examples of studies done using each method we study either looking at studying cross-cultural differences, international counseling approaches or that purport to represent international societies. I also have assessments that have been used internationally and we will review and evaluate them using the standards we will study on instrument design. Additional international studies and resources will be added to the references list and used in class presentations. Being able to see the types of studies done in other countries and the findings is a perfect blend of research design and internationalization activities. Proposals for poster sessions and short presentations is December 1, 2009 so there is the possibility for students and/or faculty to present at these conference. Contacts with the conference organizers have assured us that they would help us make additional interactive contact with local graduate students and professionals attending the conference we choose.

Additional course assignments and readings beyond the usually 508 assignments will be assigned and completed by students by students including the completion of the Cultural Audit data collection activity that we use in all of our Study Abroad classes to help students reflect on cultural differences. Additional travel in other areas of Australia and/or New Zealand is required for participation in this class. We plan to have interactive visits in school, college and mental health agency settings. I have professional contacts in both countries to help in planning these visits. Course Goals A. Course Objectives and CACREP Standards Students will be able to: 1. 1Examine the assumptions that serve as the basis for research. Discuss the major paradigms applied to counseling research. Explain why counseling professionals need to conduct research. (CACREP II, K8a & e) 2. Understand the ethical/legal issues in research using human subjects.(CACREP II, K8f) 3. Discuss the strengths and limitations of quantitative, qualitative, single case designs and action research as applied to research questions in the field of counseling and human services. (CACREP II, K8b) 4. Discuss the purpose behind frequently used statistical tests. Demonstrate ability to use the SPSS program to carry out simple data analysis procedures. (CACREP II, K8c) 5. Discuss psychometric requirement for choosing and constructing instruments to be used for the study. (CACREP II, K7c, d & e) 6. Understand the ways that validity of results is demonstrated for quantitative and qualitative designs. 7. Demonstrate the ability to conduct quantitative data analysis using the SPSS program, (CACREP II, K8c) 8. Discuss the difference between research and evaluation. Explain how research and evaluation studies can be used to effect program changes. (CACREP II, K8d) 9. To understand the multifaceted nature of cultures through an international experience. 10. Examine similarities and differences in areas of research focus and choice of methods in research conducted in a variety of countries outside of the U.S. B. Counseling Program Learning Outcomes Learning Outcome # 6 Research and Analytical SKills: The student acquires and demonstrates knowledge of research and evaluation methods and demonstrates skill in proposal writing including the development of research questions and in data analysis. Other Learning Outcomes addressed in the class include Learning Outcome #1 Diversity as students discuss how cultural diversity affects subject participation and researcher assumptions; Learning Outcome #3 Ethics as students learn the ethical practices needed in developing and carrying out research; and Learning Outcome #8 Assessment as students try to select or design instruments to measure variables in their studies. Knowledge of 1) research and program evaluation methods; 2) data analysis methods; and 3) ethical standards applied to research. Skills in proposal writing, data analysis and critically evaluating research studies A Disposition to see how research supports development of effective counseling practice and demonstrates accountability.

Mode of Instruction: This course will be meet in traditional formats for 6 sessions and will have two weeks when we will travel abroad and attend an International Applied Psychology Conference and additional online activities in place of face-to face class time. The online class environment is on the USD CE6 site. This format allows for instructor presentations, student discussions and presentations, email that goes to all the class members and instructor (listserv) or to individual persons, and connections to other Web-based resources. Students have weekly assignments and some require posting to the online class email or discussion board or use of the chat room or testing functions on the site. Required Texts and Readings Mertens, D. M. (2009) Research and evaluation in education and psychology:Integrating diversity with quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods.(3rd ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ISBN-10 141297190X Article packet tied to 1) Cultural Differences in Approaches to Research; 2)Research articles related on internationalization of counseling practice; and 3)Australia and New Zealand will be distributed Recommended or Related References American Counseling Association Website American Psychological Association Website American Educational Research Association Website American Psychological Association, (2009). APA Publication Manual (7th ed.). Washington, DC:Author American Counseling Association (2005) Ethical code and standards of practice. Alexandria, VA: Author Grading Policies: Course grade will be determined by the following: Participation in online, in-class and trip related assignments200 points Objective Examination (Passed at 45/50)50 points Cultural Audit during Travel 50 points Research Proposal and Presentation300 points B500-519 B- 480-499C+ 460-479 C 420-459

A 560-600 A- 540-559 B+ 520-539

Students who fail to fulfill the requirements of this course due to illness or unforeseen circumstances will receive an "Incomplete". If the requirements are not met by the end of the tenth week of the following regular semester, the Incomplete will revert to a grade of "Fail". Attendance: Participation in the on-campus class meetings is mandatory. If you anticipate any events interfering with this requirement, inform the instructor as soon as possible. Missing more than one class session will result in deduction of points and may affect your final grade. Academic Dishonesty Policy: Academic dishonesty is a basis for disciplinary action. Academic dishonesty includes, but is not limited to, activities such as cheating, using or purchasing ―ghostwritten‖ papers, and plagiarism (presenting as one’s own the intellectual or creative accomplishments of another without giving credit to the source[s]). The faculty member, in whose course or under whose tutelage an act of academic dishonesty occurs, has the option of failing the students for the academic hours in question and may refer the case to other academic personnel for further action. Penalties for academic dishonesty may include expulsion from the university.

Students with Disabilities Notice: Students with documented disabilities who may need accommodations, who have any medical emergency information the instructor should know of, or who need special arrangements in the event of an evacuation, should make an appointment with the instructor as soon as possible, no later than the first week of the term Course Assignments:

Weekly Assignments and Online Participation: Students are expected to complete weekly assignments and to post as indicated in the course schedule. There will be an assignment on critique of conference presentations done during weeks we are traveling. There will also be one or two specific discussion assignments with students divided into groups to discuss cases and testing use. Packet contains handouts related to weekly assignments. (200 points) Objective Examination: The instructor will prepare a 50 item objective test that covers the course content for the course and also meets the National Board of Certified Counselors Examination. The examination should be taken online in the WebCT classroom anytime between July 23 and Aug 16th.. Students must obtain 42 questions correct to get the 50 points for the exam. Students may retake the test until the desired competency is reached. Review sheets and sample questions will be distributed.(50 points) Cultural Audit Data Collection Assignment completed during travel (50 points) A satisfactory Research Paper will be a Research Proposal Design Project. Students design a study in whatever area you desire. You can write a project proposal that you might actually carry out at a work site or submit someday for funding or you can fantasize that you are a famous researcher with lots of grant money and design a project you would love to be able to do. Students will also do a short presentation of the completed proposal. Please include the following sections in your Research Design Project. (300 points) Introduction and Statement of the Problem – What is your topic and why does it need to be researched? Include some statistics from resources that show the need for the study and cite them correctly. 1. Purpose and Significance of the Study – The purpose is a short statement of what you are promising to do in your study. Then tell who, beside yourself, would be interested in the results and how they might be utilized in professional settings? 2. Research Questions -Clearly state your research questions. You should have at least two research questions; you may have up to four research questions. State the questions in a format appropriate to your methodology (Hypotheses should be included if doing a quantitative 3. Definitions of Terms - Identify what constructs you will be attempting to study. How would you define them. Cite a source if the definition comes from theory or from a previous research study. 4. Literature Review - Include a brief review of the literature. Include studies related to the topic and studies related to the methodology. A minimum of 8 citings is required. Emphasize the sample, methodology and data collection process as well as the findings. Include an introduction to the types of studies you were seeking to support your research. Include a conclusion to show how what you found (or didn’t find) contributes to the need for your study. 5. Research method - Describe what type of research method you are using. Be specific using information from the book or other source to show why this method fits your research question. Discuss limitations of the method.

6. Research Design – Tell step by step what you propose to do to carry out your study and collect your data. 7. Population and Sample – Define your general population of interest. Discuss how you intend to choose your sample or get volunteer subjects. 8. Instruments – Tell what you will use to measure your variables in a quantitative study. Give reliability and validity information for tests, surveys or assessment tools or tell how you would demonstrate these concepts for a test or survey you design yourself. For qualitative research describe your data collection tools like interview guides, observation or rating sheets, etc. How can you demonstrate validity of data from the qualitative design? 9. Data Analysis and Presentation - Describe the steps you will take to analyze your data. What will your report of findings look like when you carry out what you propose? 10. Protection of Human Subjects - Describe any issues of potential harm or risk that could come to your participants, and describe what you would do to minimize the risk. The paper must be submitted to the instructor by August 16th. The online classroom site gives more specific information about the proposal assignment and outlines the number of points given to each part of the proposal. (300 pts) When submitting the research paper, students must notify the instructor if the paper is being submitted as a draft for the purpose of comment and feedback or the paper is being submitted for the purposes of grading. If no instructions accompany the paper, it will be treated as the final draft for the purposes of grading. Class 1

Class 2

Introduction to Research Design, Ethics in Research, Evaluating Research (CACREP II k8 a&f) Literature Review, Research Questions, Hypotheses and Variables (CACREP II k8 b)

Research Questions related to Internationalization Issues Experimental and Quasi Experimental Research Designs, Sampling and Sample Size (CACREP II k8 b&e) Quantitative data collection and analysis Class will have a lab meeting with Introduction to SPSS additionally scheduled Class 3

Class 4

Qualitative Designs Causal-Comparative, and Survey Designs (CACREP II k8 b&e) Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis Procedures, Sampling and Sample Size

During Trip Students will attend the conference and critique sessions, collect cultural audit data, meet with instructors to discuss research methods topics and research study and data collection related to cultural variables. Students will also interact with local graduate students and professionals during the conference and will make some school and agency visits in the cities we are visiting to do cross- country comparisons of methods and services. Students will also meet in several class sessions during the trip and discuss class topics like Design and Location of Instruments, Reliability and Validity(CACREP II k7 d,e,g). and Historical Research and Narrative Studies, Single Subject Research (CACREP II k8 a&b) Class 5 and 6 occur after Trip

Class 5

Oral Presentation of Proposals Debriefing of Internationalization course experience

Class 6

Publication of Results, Course Summary and Evaluation Oral Presentation of Proposals

Cultural Audit Assignment for Australia/New Zealand Trip The term cultural audit has been applied in a number of ways. Diversity managers use the term applied to an assessment of an educational institution or organization or its individual departments, groups or schools. Questions are raised about whether the entity is employing the policies and methods shown to be effective in providing students and/or employees with an organizational culture promoting inclusion and the valuing of all its members. The term has been used in a second way to describe an in-depth study that a researcher, consultant, company or individual worker might undertake to promote better understanding of the culture being entered. This "culture" could be a country, an organization, a community or a group sharing similar characteristics and values. The information can be used to provide individuals entering a new culture with the knowledge and skills to be more effective in interactions with members of the culture. The "picture" that is drawn of the culture can be compared with the individual's "home" culture or with the assumptions an individual has about the culture. Your cultural audit: In preparation for entering the culture the auditor should write a page or two outlining his or her worldview using the Kluckhohn model presented in class. Additionally address your preferred ways of taking in information and interacting with others and previous experiences in international travel or work with persons from countries different from the "home" country. See for a good description of the five elements of the model. Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck Model Time Orientation Past Present Future Human Activity Being Being and In-Becoming Doing Social Relations Lineal Collateral Individualistic People/Nature Relationship Subjugation to Nature Harmony with Nature

Mastery over Nature

Nature of Humans Humans are basically good Good and bad persons are present in all cultures Humans have inherent bad traits and can’t be trusted

The auditor should write up to a page on the expectations, assumptions or possible biases he or she has about the culture being entered. What knowledge and experiences do you have pertaining to history and culture of Australia and New Zealand populations particularly for the countries being visited, media portrayals of this culture, experiences with persons from this country and culture? Complete 1 and 2 before July 6th, and plan to share in course meeting. Take the concept of worldview and the characteristics that we talked about that are assumed to describe Anglo-Saxon or U.S. culture. In 1-2 pages discuss the similarities and differences you see and perceive as you enter into and participate in this new culture. As we perform the audit we will use the Elements of Culture as outlined by Don Locke which include: Degree of Acculturation - Is there one national culture that the majority of persons ascribe to or is there diversity across the residents? Poverty - Does it exist? What groups are more highly represented? Is it possible to more easily up the socioeconomic ladder? What programs are addressing this issue? What is the state of the economy and what is its effect on personal and professional life? History of Oppression/Racism and Prejudice- What has been the way that the culture has dealt with indigenous peoples, immigrants, and non-residents? What characteristics of individuals might put them at risk of oppression or discrimination in this culture. Language and the Arts - Is there a diversity of languages used in the culture? Are there unique ways language is used? Look at the art forms that are valued in the culture and reflect on how they contribute to the identity of this culture. Sociopolitical Factors - How does the political system influence the culture? What are the rules and expectations for education, worklife, leisure and group and individual activities. Child-rearing Practices/ Family Structure - This could include information about gender roles, types of family units, family size, rules and discipline and general perceptions of family member interaction. You can also look at child abuse and domestic violence - how perpetrators are treated and what services are provided to victims Religious Practices - Is there a diversity of religious practice? Is there bias or prejudice against any religious group? Values and Attitudes - What else do you see or experience? You should write about a half-page on each of the eight elements listed above. You can collect the data through observation; interviews and conversations; watching tv or movies; reading local papers; reading documents or public policies; researching the Internet, etc. You can go completely qualitative using your observations and impressions or you can be more quantitative and develop some questions and ask a sample of members of the culture for their responses. Each student will also keep track in journal format the peak experiences occurring throughout the trip. Each of these experiences is to be accompanied by a photo or other remembrance related to the experience and simply named. Ah Ha moments will be discussed in class meeting during the trip and collected as a photo/journal part of the cultural audit paper.

Write at least 2 pages summarizing what you learned doing the audit. Did you get information which provided a picture of the cultures you studied which was different than first expected? In what way are the cultural groups in the countries we visited similar to and different from each other? How do they compare to the US - more similar or different? Any advice you might give to a potential temporary worker or professional immigrant? How were you affected by the Ah Ha experiences? During pre-entry, persons find information in categories of the cultural audit by using published and web sources and speaking with individuals who have lived in these countries. Continuation of learning after arrival occurs with specific information lectures, tours, and use of local hosts during the beginning months of the assignment

Proposed Dates Australia-New Zealand Study Abroad Trip June 16-25 Pre- trip course meetings at USD (probably introductory class on course requirements will be held in May so students can get a start on Study Abroad course requirements. Jun 30 -Tues Depart LAX late evening for NZ July 1 - in transit July 2 Arrive Auckland. Depart for Rotorua with touring during transit.. July 3 depart for Rotorua. Visit to Museum. Thermal Pools. Aboriginal Village. Evening a traditional Maori concert and Hangi `at the Maori village of Te Tawa Ngahere Marae Pa. July 4 Return for additional activities in Auckland including celebrating July 4th July 5—7 Sydney July 7 Fly to Melbourne Opening Ceremony of International Cross-Cultural Psychology Conference in evening July 8-11 Conference activities plus local visits and interactions with other graduate students at conference July 12 Fly Home Arrival Same Day (or students have option to individually extend visit in Australia) Aug 2 – 14 Post-trip Course Meetings at USD