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March • April 2014

The official publication of the U.S. Canola Association and Northern Canola Growers Association

Double Trouble: Two Insects Worth Watching Blackleg Battle in Northern Plains Fueling Up for a Fight: Biodiesel Industry Under Threat

FARM BILL AT LAST: MAJOR COMMODITY TITLE CHANGES

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MARCH • APRIL 2014 VOL. 9, NO. 2

WWW.USCANOLA.COM EXECUTIVE EDITOR Angela Dansby angela@uscanola.com

features

MANAGING EDITOR Alison Neumer Lara alison@uscanola.com

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Can You Picture That?

ASSOCIATE MANAGING EDITOR Brittany Farb brittany@uscanola.com CONTRIBUTING WRITERS Barry Coleman; Sheri Coleman, B.S.N., R.N.; Molly Collins; Jon Dockter; Kris Giles, Ph.D.; Sam Markell, Ph.D.; Andrew Moore; Luis del Rio Mendoza, Ph.D.; Tom Royer, Ph.D.; Ron Sholar and Karen Sowers

Fields and Flowers Take Top Spots in Annual Photo Contest

10 14

Average of 52 Bushels per Acre Aim for 2025

PUBLISHERS Barry Coleman coleman@ndpci.com

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John Gordley john@uscanola.com

Double Trouble: Two Insects Worth Watching

SALES REPRESENTATIVE Mary O’Donohue modonohue@gordley.com

Combatting Insecticide Resistance in Winter Canola

GRAPHIC DESIGNER Melissa Rosenquist melissa.rosenquist@gmail.com PUBLISHED BY U.S. Canola Association 600 Pennsylvania, SE, Suite 320 Washington, DC 20003 tel: 202.969.8113 • fax: 202.969.7036 www.uscanola.com

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Blackleg Battle in Northern Plains 16

Northern Canola Growers Association 2718 Gateway Ave, #301 Bismarck, ND 58503 tel: 701.223.4124 • fax: 701.223.4130 www.northerncanola.com

Fueling Up for a Fight Biodiesel Industry Under Threat from Proposed Volume Limits

20

Great Plains Canola Association www.greatplainscanola.com

Grow Big or Go Home

Minnesota Canola Council www.mncanola.org

Postmaster: Send address changes to Northern Canola Growers Association, 2718 Gateway Ave., #301, Bismarck, ND 58503.

Challenge Returns for Canola Communities

19

REGIONAL AFFILIATES Great Lakes Canola Association www.agry.purdue.edu/ext/canola

U.S. Canola Digest is published four times a year in January/February, March/April, September/October and November/December by the U.S. Canola Association (USCA) and Northern Canola Growers Association (NCGA). Subscription is complementary to all USCA and NCGA members and other qualified members of the U.S. canola industry. Reproduction of contents is forbidden. Copyright 2014.

Canadian Canola Industry Sets Bar High for Next Decade

Top Canola Growers Share Their Successes

19 on the cover U.S. Canola Digest awarded first place to John Van Dam of Park River, N.D. in its 2013 photo contest. A hybrid canola seed grower, he photographed his 2,500 acres of land in Monte Vista, Colo.

departments 4 6 9 22 23

Editors’ Letter USCA Update NCGA News PNW News GPCA News

24 24 25 26

MCC News SW News Quick Bytes Canola Cooks


editors’ letter

Digging Into Canola Management and Farm Bill AFTER A LONG WINTER, it’s refreshing to think about the brighter, warmer months ahead and time in the fields. In this issue of U.S. Canola Digest, we feature expertly authored articles on blackleg in canola and insecticide resistance management. We also celebrate the successful conclusion to the 2.5-year farm bill battle! In addition, hear from some of the country’s most promising canola growers and educate yourself on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s proposed new biodiesel limits. And finally, be sure to check out the winners from this year’s reader photo contest with beautiful shots of our beloved crop.

New Farm Bill Signed Into Law

U.S. Canola Association’s (USCA) Associate Director Dale Thorenson proclaims “hallelujah!” and provides an explanation of the new farm bill, also known as the Agricultural Act of 2014. Coming in at a cost of nearly $1 trillion, the law is expected to in fact reduce the federal deficit by $16.5 billion over 10 years and up to $23 billion if cuts mandated by the sequester are included in the tally. What does the new legislation mean for you? Turn to page 6 to learn about the specifics of the bill.

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Insecticide Resistance in Canola

With canola acreage increasing at a rapid rate in the Great Plains, insect problems have unfortunately followed. Specifically, two important pests of winter canola, the diamondback moth and green peach aphid, have a long history of developing insecticide resistance. Tom Royer, Ph.D., and Kris Giles, Ph.D., of Oklahoma State University explain the situation and offer potential solutions to this detrimental issue on page 14.

Bothersome Blackleg

The pesky problem of blackleg has returned to canola communities in the Northern Plains. On page 16, Sam Markell, Ph.D., and Luis del Rio Mendoza, Ph.D., of North Dakota State University provide background on the disease, explain the “new” blackleg and describe management strategies currently available.

Biodiesel Industry at Risk

Thousands of biodiesel supporters filed comments with the Environmental Protection Agency in January 2014 to protest its proposal to reduce the 2014 Renewable Fuel Standard, a law which sets the amount of biofuels required in the U.S. fuel supply each year. Cutting back production threatens the future of the biodiesel industry and would be a blow for feedstocks such as canola, business leaders argue. Learn more about what’s at stake on page 19.

Canadian Industry Sets Lofty Targets

Our northern neighbors pledged to “keep it coming” upon announcement of its new national canola production targets in January. The Canola Council of Canada (CCC) dubs the strategy “52 by 2025,” which represents its goal to meet growing global demand for canola oil, seed and meal over the next 11 years with a bold average of 52 bushels per acre. That’s equal to 26 million metric tonnes (MMT) of canola. The USCA will consider these figures when it sets U.S. regional goals during its annual board meeting in March 2014 in Washington, D.C. To learn more about the CCC’s strategy, flip to page 10.

Photo Finish

It’s that time of year again! Take a look at the beautiful images that won U.S. Canola Digest’s fifth annual photo contest. The first place photo, taken by Jon Van Dam of Park River, N.D., appears on our cover. All the winners and their photos are featured on page 5. Thanks to all who entered.

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U.S. CANOL A DIGEST

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MARCH • APRIL 2014

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Spring is a wonderful time for fresh starts and a chance to renew resolutions for healthful living. Turn to page 26 for flavorful and healthy snacks, including “Spicy Three-Pepper Hummus” and “Chili Pecans.” Both recipes call for canola oil, which contains substantial omega-3 fat that helps protect the heart. Plus canola oil’s light flavor won’t interfere with the snacks’ scrumptious ingredients. Enjoy!

executive editor angela@uscanola.com

managing editor alison@uscanola.com


FIRST PLACE: John Van Dam of Park River, N.D.

Can You Picture That?

Fields and Flowers Take Top Spots

SECOND PLACE: Ron Sholar of Stillwater, Okla. (top)

MOLLY COLLINS

IT WAS ANOTHER beautiful year filled with canola and, luckily, U.S. Canola Digest readers were there to capture it. For the magazine’s fifth annual photo contest, photographers turned their lens on our favorite plant while at work and play. Entries ranged from a landscape panoramic of a field at daybreak to a patriotic vista of yellow fields bright and healthy under a flying American flag. First place was awarded to John Van Dam of Park River, N.D. As a hybrid canola seed grower, his 2,500 acres of land in Monte Vista, Colo., supply five different companies with seed. When he snapped this winning shot in one of his fields, Van Dam was trying to highlight the physical differences between the two parent plants he uses to create a stronger varietal. “The narrow rows are the pollinators, which are chopped down at the end of the season,” he said. “The wider rows cannot produce pollen, so they use bees. They are the only ones harvested.” Ron Sholar of Stillwater, Okla., executive director of the Great Plains Canola Association, won second place with his blooming canola picture shot while vacationing in the Normandy region of France. The former agronomy professor says he scouts out canola wherever he travels, which was not difficult on this trip as the hills were laced with the vibrant, blooming plant. “The canola flower is such a beautiful thing; it’s just natural to want to photograph it,” said Sholar, who has an interest in nature photography. Making a repeat appearance, Van Dam was awarded third place with his photo of a pickup truck in the middle of one of his Colorado fields. “It was really tight to get down that road,” he explained. “Later on, when that seed starts setting, you can’t drive down that road at all.” Van Dam often takes photos throughout the growing season for progress reports he sends to companies. “With today’s technology we can visit a field, take pictures and send them before we leave the field,” he noted. The impressively tall plants were so eye-catching in this case, he stopped to record the moment. Ah, beautiful canola, you can be pictured anytime.

THIRD PLACE: John Van Dam of Park River, N.D. (bottom)

LIGHTS, CAMERA, CANOLA! If you were unable to get in on the action in 2013, have your camera at the ready for our 2014 photo contest. We are looking for your most creative shots of canola by Jan. 1, 2015. You may submit up to three photos that depict a canola field, farm, product or canola-related machinery. Entries should be high-resolution (300 KB or higher) and sent to alison@ uscanola.com. First place is awarded $100, second receives $50 and third wins $25 and all winning photos are published in U.S. Canola Digest. For complete contest rules, visit www.uscanola.com.

MOLLY COLLINS IS A CONTRIBUTING WRITER AT INKOVATION, INC. IN CHICAGO, ILL.

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usca update

Farm Bill at Last Major Commodity Title Changes DALE THORENSON

TWO YEARS, six months and five days, totaling 920 days, is an inordinate amount of time no matter how you parse it. That was the time between the enactment of the Budget Control Act of 2011 on Aug. 2, 2011, the recognized start of writing a new farm bill, and Feb. 7, 2014, the date President Obama signed the Agricultural Act of 2014 (AA14) into law at Michigan State University. Once the logjam finally broke in late January, the bill cleared both the House and Senate in less than one week. This was almost bittersweet after the long slog it took to get a final vote in Congress, considering all the water that passed under the bridge during the previous years of gridlock. While serious divisions plagued the agricultural community during this lengthy debate, it’s a safe bet that the vast majority of those who worked on this legislation are relieved it is finished. Hallelujah! The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has geared up to implement the new law, but signing up prior to spring planting is nearly impossible, since farmers are only days away from heading to the fields in the southern growing regions if not rolling already. Implementation will require some patience given the multiple choices, updates and new programs contained within the law, coupled

with the tardy nature of its completion – four months plus a week after the expiration of the one year extension of the 2008 Farm Bill. The Congressional Budget Office estimates that the AA14 will reduce the federal deficit by $16.5 billion over 10 years and $23 billion if cuts mandated by the sequester are included in the tally. Total outlays are projected to be $956.4 billion during the 2014-23 fiscal years. What is actually contained in this new farm bill? Below are some highlights of the major titles.

Title I: Commodities

Direct Payments (DPs) are eliminated for all program crops, except cotton which is no longer a covered commodity because its support will now come from the new cotton Stacked Income Protection Program (STAX). However, cotton will receive a portion of their DPs in 2014 and 2015 while STAX is developed and implemented. The Counter-Cyclical Program (CCP) and Average Crop Revenue Election (ACRE) are eliminated. Instead, growers will have a onetime choice on a commodity-by-commodity basis between two new but similar replacement options: the Price Loss Coverage (PLC) or Agriculture Risk Coverage (ARC) programs. Eliminating DPs, the CCP and ACRE saves $47 billion. A remaining $13.1 billion

756.4 AA14 Outlays by Title $956.4 Billion Total / FY 2014 - 2023

8.1

44.5

57.6

OTHER TITLES

COMMODITY

CONSERVATION

$ Billions

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89.8 CROP INS.

NUTRITION

is then used to fund PLC, $14.1 billion for ARC and $3.7 billion for a livestock disaster assistance program. Other major expenditures from the savings are a $912 million increase for the dairy program and $558 million for the transitional DPs for cotton. After other minor costs are accounted for, the Commodity Title ends up saving a net $14.3 billion, bringing the 10-year cost for commodity support programs down to $44.5 billion. The AA14 continues full planting flexibility that has been in place since the 1996 Farm Bill. PLC and ARC support for covered commodities will both be paid on historical base acres, regardless of what is planted in the current year, just as DPs and the CCP were paid in the past. (The only exception to this continued decoupling from current year plantings is for generic cotton base that is planted to a covered commodity, which will receive support from the program chosen for the crop to which it is planted.) Growers will have a one-time option to reallocate base acres to the simple average of planted and prevented plant acres during the crop years 2009-12, not to exceed the aggregate of current base acres. PLC will be paid on a farm’s established program yields. A farm will have a one-time option to update program payment yields on a commodity-by-commodity basis to 90 percent of the average 2008-12 yields per planted acre. Payment acres will be 85 percent of base acres. Payments will be triggered if the 12-month national average price of a covered commodity is determined to be lower than the reference price for that commodity. If a payment is triggered, the following formula would be used: 85 percent base acres x program payment yield x (reference price minus the 12-month national average market price). If the PLC program sounds rather familiar, it’s because the “CCP” and “target prices” have just been rebranded as “PLC” and “reference prices,” albeit with the option to update crop bases and program yields.


2008 CCP Target Prices vs. 2014 PLC Reference Prices COVERED COMMODITY

Producers choosing to participate in the ARC program will have a one-time option to choose either county or farm level revenue support. Producers who choose farm level coverage must enroll all crops in the ARC program. Payment acres equal 85 percent of base acres at the county level and 65 percent of base acres at the farm level. At the county level, the ARC guarantee is equal to 86 percent of the previous five years’ Olympic average of revenue obtained by multiplying the average yield times the national average price during those years. ARC payments will be triggered when the actual crop revenue during a current crop year is less than the ARC guarantee, but limited to the 10 percent band of revenue between 86 and 76 percent. Actual crop revenue for a current year is determined by multiplying the actual county yield times the national average market price during the 12-month marketing year for the crop. If a payment is triggered, the following formula would be used: 85 percent x base acres x (the difference between the ARC guarantee and actual crop revenue, but not to exceed 10 percent of the ARC guarantee). At the individual farm level, the ARC guarantee is equal to 86 percent of the sum of all the previous five-year Olympic average revenues of all the covered commodities grown on the farm. The actual crop revenue is the sum of the products of the actual yields and national average market prices for all the covered commodities grown on the farm. Generally speaking, the same formula is used at the county level except that the payment acres are reduced to 65 percent of base acres. ARC provides for a yield plug of 70 percent of a farm’s crop insurance T-Yield when the yield per planted acre or historical county yield for any of the five most recent crop years is less than 70 percent of the T-Yield. For the farm level only, ARC also provides for a price plug equal to the reference price when the national average market price received by producers for

2008 TARGET PRICES

2014 % INCREASE REFERENCE PRICES

wheat / bushel

$4.17

$5.50

32%

corn / bushel

$2.63

$3.70

41%

grain sorghum / bushel

$2.63

$3.95

50%

barley / bushel

$2.63

$4.95

88%

oats / bushel

$1.79

$2.40

34%

$10.50

$14.00

33%

soybeans / bushel

$6.00

$8.40

40%

other oilseeds / per cwt.

$12.68

rice / cwt.

peanuts / ton

$495.00

$20.15

59%

$535.00

8%

dry peas / cwt.

$8.32

$11.00

32%

lentils / cwt.

$12.81

$19.97

56%

small chickpeas / cwt.

$10.36

$19.04

84%

large chickpeas / cwt.

$12.81

$21.54

68%

a covered commodity during the 12-month marketing year for any of the five most recent crop years is lower than the reference price. Because both the PLC and ARC programs require calculations using a 12-month national average of prices, payments for a crop year will be paid on or shortly after Oct. 1 of the following crop year. In other words, if 2014 conditions trigger support payments for covered commodities, the payments will be received beginning Oct. 1, 2015. The Fruit and Vegetable (F&V) planting restriction has been modified due to the elimination of DPs. F&Vs can now be planted on up to 15 percent of a farm’s base acres without forfeiting PLC or ARC payments. However, F&V plantings in excess of 15 percent of base acres will not be eligible for PLC or ARC payments. The Marketing Loan Program was reauthorized and unchanged except for the cotton loan rate. This will be set at the simple average of the world price for the two preceding marketing years, but not less than 45 cents per pound or more than 52 cents per pound. Payment limits are combined into a single limit of $125,000 per person for the programs of the Commodity Title or $250,000 total for a producer and spouse. The USDA will be required to define “actively engaged

in farming” within 180 days of enactment. The Adjusted Gross Income cap for payment eligibility is $900,000.

Title II: Conservation

Funding for the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is cut by $3.3 billion by reducing acreage enrollment to 24 million by 2017. For reference, as of Oct. 1, 2013, 25.3 million acres were enrolled in the CRP. The Conservation Stewardship Program is cut by $2.3 billion and $596 million is saved by incorporating the Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program into the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP). These savings are then used to increase funding in several other conservation areas, including $1.2 billion for the new Agriculture Conservation Easement Program that was created by combining the Wetlands Reserve Program, Grasslands Reserve Program and Farmland Protection Program; a $497 million increase for EQIP; and a combined $454 million for several other conservation programs. Ultimately, the AA14 consolidates 23 existing conservation programs into 13 with an increased emphasis on working lands rather than land retirement. While net spending is reduced by nearly $4 billion, overall spending comes in at $57.6 billion for the Conservation

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usca update Title, outpacing the Commodity Title by $13.1 billion.

Title VII: Research

The AA14 increases mandatory research spending by nearly $1.15 billion, bringing total spending to about $1.26 billion over 10 years. The Specialty Crop Research Initiative captured the lion’s share of this funding, receiving $745 million. Another $200 million was invested in the newly formed Foundation for Food and Agriculture Research, which will be used to supplement the USDA’s basic and applied research activities. Numerous research programs that are dependent on annual discretionary appropriations were reauthorized, including the Alternative and Supplemental Crop Research competitive grant program, which funds the National Canola Research Program. Farm bill conferees also noted the importance of canola research when the following instructions to the USDA were included in their manager’s statement: The Managers recognize the importance of nationally coordinated, regionally managed canola research and education programs. In awarding grants for these activities, the Managers encourage the Secretary to seek input from stakeholders and give priority consideration to proposals that address research needs in production areas with the greatest potential to expand as well as those where canola production is established and needs to be maintained.

Title IX: Energy

The AA14 increases Energy Title mandatory spending by $879 million to $1.1 billion over 10 years. The Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, which supports outreach to fleet managers, truckers and engine manufacturers, was funded at $1 million per year for five

years. The Biobased Market Program, which promotes increased production and use of biobased products through a federal procurement preference and a biobased product label, received $3 million per year for five years. The Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels, encouraging biodiesel production, was funded at $15 million per year over five years. Among the other programs funded in the Energy Title are the Biorefinery Assistance Program, Rural Energy for America Program, Biomass Research Development Initiative and Biomass Crop Assistance Program.

Title XI: Crop Insurance

Commodity Title was extended to the Crop Insurance Title and producers will need to comply with those rules to be eligible for premium subsidies when buying federal crop insurance. However, the compliance was made forwardlooking from date of enactment for wetland conversions. Sod-saver language is also included for only the following states: Minnesota, Iowa, North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana and Nebraska. The subsidy reduction for sod-saver is 50 percentage points and in effect for four years after land is broken out of sod. This is expected to save $114 million. Premiums for catastrophic coverage are increased to more accurately reflect the cost of the coverage, which is expected to save $426 million. To mitigate the negative effects of disaster years on Actual Production History (APH) yields, producers will be allowed to drop a year of history for a crop in any year in which the yield of that crop in their county is at least 50 percent below the simple average of the county’s previous 10 years; and then divide the remaining nine years of APH by nine (instead of 10). The manager’s statement that accompanied the AA14 expressed intent that more than one year could be dropped in a 10-year period. This APH yield adjustment is projected to cost $357 million. When all the changes are tallied up, funding for the Crop Insurance Title increased by $5.7 billion, bringing the 10-year cost for the federal crop insurance program to $89.8 billion. In sum, that’s nearly $1 trillion in total spending. It was a long time coming, but at last, there is a farm bill.

The AA14 creates two new major crop insurance products: the STAX and Supplemental Coverage Option (SCO) at $3.3 billion and $1.7 billion, respectively. The STAX policy will be available only for cotton. A 90 percent coverage level will be offered with 80 percent of the premium subsidized by the federal government. The SCO policy will be made available to all covered commodities and cotton acres not enrolled in STAX beginning with the 2015 crop year. However, covered commodities enrolled in the ARC program are not eligible for SCO coverage. SCO will provide county-wide coverage on top of individual farm level coverage policies up to 86 percent. Producers must buy, at a minimum, catastrophic crop insurance coverage. The federal government will subsidize 65 percent of the SCO premium cost. The Enterprise Unit subsidy is made permanent and these units will also be allowed to be split by irrigated and non-irrigated acres. DALE THORENSON IS ASSISTANT DIRECTOR Also, different crop insurance coverage levels OF THE U.S. CANOLA ASSOCIATION IN by practice will be allowed on individual units. WASHINGTON, D.C. The latter two changes cost $700 million. Conser vation compliance from the 5,722

AA14 Changes in Spending by Title

-14,307

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HORTICULTURE

FORESTRY

953

MISCELLANEOUS

694

CROP INSURANCE

879 10

RESEARCH

228

RURAL DEVELOPMENT

-8,000

0

CREDIT

NUTRITION

CONSERVATION

-3,967

TRADE

139

COMMODITY

$Millions

1,145

ENERGY

-$16.5 Billion Total / FY 2014 - 2023


regional news

Canola Yields Up, Production Down Wet Conditions Result in Unplanted Acres BARRY COLEMAN AND SHERI COLEMAN, B.S.N., R.N.

THE U.S. DEPARTMENT of Agriculture (USDA) reported in its January 2014 Annual Production Report that national canola yields were up in 2013, but total production was down from 2012. At 1,748 pounds per acre, the yield is up 335 pounds from 2012. However, last year’s production is estimated at 2.21 billion pounds, down 9 percent from the previous year. Harvested acres, at 1.26 million, are also down. Production in North Dakota, the leading canola-producing state, is estimated at 1.67 billion pounds for 2013, down 18 percent from 2012. Planted area in North Dakota was also down 37 percent. Planting conditions last spring were very wet and resulted in many unplanted acres in the northern part of the state, where the majority of the crop is grown. Average canola yields reported by the USDA for North Dakota are 1,820 pounds per acre, below estimates of canola industry watchers. The Northern Canola Growers Association (NCGA) expects final yield estimates for North Dakota to be close to 2,000 pounds.

NCGA Hosts Annual Meeting

More than 300 people attended the 17th Annual NCGA Canola Expo in Langdon, N.D. in December 2013. Speakers from North Dakota State University (NDSU) provided new information on weed resistance, oilseed markets and oil products. Mike Jubinville of Pro Farmer Canada was the keynote speaker. He gave a detailed presentation on world oilseed markets and the outlook for oilseed production, supply and prices this marketing year. Ron Beneda of NDSU presented canola production challenges in 2013, such as blackleg, clubroot and Sclerotinia. He said the 2013 canola crop was

the largest yielding one he has seen in his 35 years as a county agent. Murray Belyk of Bayer CropScience gave a report on bees in agriculture and their role in production agriculture. The NCGA also held its annual membership and board meetings during the Expo. North Dakota growers Jon Wert of New England, Ryan Pederson of Rolette and Pat Murphy of Minot were all re-elected by the membership as producer directors on the NCGA board, and Tim Mickelson of Rolla, N.D., was elected to his first-term as a producer director. Keith Peltier of Proseed was also re-elected to the NCGA board as an industry member. The by-laws of the NCGA were also modified at the annual meeting to include a crop insurance advisor on the NCGA board as an ex-officio member.

2014 NCGA to Hold Summer Tours

The NCGA is once again teaming up with the North Central Research Extension Center in Minot, N.D., and Langdon Research Extension Center this year to give canola growers in-depth tours of canola research projects. The Minot tour will be on June 25 from 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. Topics will include canola desiccant research results, volunteer canola control strategies, and resistance and disease management. The Langdon tour will be on July 17 from 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. in conjunction with the Annual Langdon Research Center Field Day. Topics will cover disease research and other agronomy updates. Lunch will be provided for both tours.

Worlds of Healthy Flavors

The NCGA again sponsored the “Worlds of Healthy Flavors” conference at The Culinary Institute of America (CIA) in St. Helena, Calif. This program brings together the CIA,

Harvard School of Public Health and key foodservice and culinary organizations to discuss making menus healthier.

Frozen Feat

Frozen Feat, a running race in Grand Forks, N.D., was again sponsored by the NCGA on Feb. 8. Mascot Cami Canola “Fit” made an appearance to promote a healthy lifestyle with canola oil and exercise.

KMOT-TV Ag Show

The annual KMOT-TV agriculture show in January in Minot is the largest agricultural show in the region, with thousands attending each day from North Dakota, Montana, Minnesota and Canada. This show gives the NCGA three days to showcase its latest research, education and relevant crop information. Each day this year, the NCGA showcased different products made with canola oil, such as herb-infused oils and popcorn, as well as distributed copies of the book “Canola Gourmet.”

Purses and Pearls

Also in January, the NCGA sponsored the American Cancer Society Cancer Action Network’s “Purses and Pearls” fundraiser in Bismarck, N.D., for breast cancer awareness and education. It was an opportunity to share promising results of research on canola oil and breast cancer by Dr. Chung Park at NDSU. The NCGA donated a “purse” with canola oil-related items to help raise money for the cause. BARRY COLEMAN AND SHERI COLEMAN, B.S.N., R.N., ARE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR AND ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR, RESPECTIVELY, OF THE NORTHERN CANOLA GROWERS ASSOCIATION IN BISMARCK, N.D.

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Canadian Canola Industry Sets Bar High for Next Decade Average of 52 Bushels per Acre Aim for 2025 BRITTANY FARB

CANADA’S CANOLA INDUSTRY plans to “keep it coming,” according to the Canola Council of Canada (CCC), which announced new national production targets in January. The strategy, dubbed “52 by 2025,” is focused on meeting growing global demand for canola oil, seed and meal over the next 10 years with a bold increase to an average of 52 bushels per acre. That’s equal to 26 million metric tonnes (MMT) of canola. Terry Youzwa, chair of the CCC board of directors and a canola farmer in Saskatchewan, said the plan is designed to increase the profitability of canola across the entire industry in Canada. Currently, canola contributes $19.3 billion to the nation’s economy and about 250,000 jobs, including 43,000 canola growers. The CCC sets national targets to encourage the industry’s growth, signal investors and prompt demand.

“These are bold targets,” said Youzwa. “But we believe that it can be done, and it can be done responsibly and sustainably. The world is telling Canada’s canola industry to ‘keep it coming,’ the world is demanding more healthy canola oil.” The CCC adopted “keep it coming” as the program’s marketing slogan, a nod to the industry’s sustained increase in canola production in recent years. Youzwa said the industry met its previous production targets of 7 MMT by 2007 and surpassed its 2015 target of 15 MMT two years early. In fact, Canada’s canola growers produced an estimated 18 MMT in 2013, a 29 percent increase from 2012, according to Canadian government statistics. “Because we reached our goals early, we have to look at what’s happened in the market over the past few years, where our world demand is and what our capacity is to meet

that demand,” said CCC President Patti Miller. “The canola industry will move forward and thoughtfully. The board has given us very clear direction.” Dale Thorenson, assistant director of the U.S. Canola Association, says his organization will consider these figures when it sets U.S. regional goals during its annual board meeting in March 2014 in Washington, D.C.

Nod from Government

The Canadian government has consistently supported the canola industry’s goals and again expressed its willingness to provide growers with the tools they need. “Our government is proud to stand shoulder-to-shoulder with the canola sector in its pursuit of higher productivity and market growth,” said Canada’s Agriculture Minister Gerry Ritz in a released statement.

TARGETS

2011 & 2012 AVG.

2013

2025

Exported Seed

8.11 MMT

8.5 MMT (2012/13 Crop Year)

12 MMT

Domestic Processing

6.87 MMT

7.5 MMT (2012/13 Crop Year)

14 MMT

Acres

20.2 million

19.8 million

22 million

Yield

31.2 bushels/acre

40 bushels/acre

52 bushels/acre

Production

14.24 MMT

18 MMT

26 MMT

Oil Quality

*13% high-oleic and specialty oil acres

*15.5% high-oleic and specialty oil acres

High-oleic and specialty oil attracts 1/3 of canola acres

7% saturated fat

7% saturated fat

Global leadership position in oil saturated fat content Maintain global competitiveness in oil content

Meal Quality

Increase protein availability by target species

Trade Environment

Tariff free and non-tariff barrier free access to top markets

* Estimated

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STRATEGIC PRIORITY 2025 MEASUREMENT 52 bushels/acre 22 million acres = 26 MMT

Canada’s canola growers produced an estimated 18 million metric tonnes in 2013, a 29 percent increase from 2012.

Oil Quality: SUSTAINABLE, SUSTAINABLE, • 1/3 high-oleic and specialty oil acres RELIABLE RELIABLE SUPPLY SUPPLY • 7% or lower saturated fat

Meal Quality: • Increase protein availability by target species 26 MMT of demand

DIFFERENTIATED DIFFERENTIATED VALUE VALUE

Increase share in key markets for vegetable oil by 1% per year Increase secondary markets to represent 20% of demand Increase meal value to narrow value gap between oil and meal Positive trade environment in top markets Market access issues are dealt with efficiently and effectively

STABLE STABLE AND AND OPEN OPEN TRADE TRADE “The outlook for Canadian canola remains bright, and our government commends the Canola Council of Canada for its vision that will grow demand for canola and boost the Canadian economy." In order to meet the programs goals, the CCC outlined three priorities for the canola industry: sustainable, reliable supply; differentiated value in the marketplace; and stable and open trade.

Sustainable, Reliable Supply

According to an analysis commissioned by the CCC, global vegetable oil demand is expected to grow by 150 MMT in 2015 to 250 MMT by 2025. Additionally, the demand for healthier oil such as canola could rise even faster. The CCC’s program aims to profitably increase annual canola production to meet this growing demand, while remaining faithful to sustainability and preserving Canada’s natural resources. The bottom line: Farmers will need to increase yields on the same amount of acres. Canadian growers are up for the challenge, many say. CCC board member Neil Arbuckle, who manages Monsanto’s Canadian canola business, is confident that Canadian canola growers are able to meet the target goals, notably 52 bushels per acre.

Canola priorities are reflected in governmental policy and process Governments in major markets appreciate the contribution of canola to food quality and security No trade impediments resulting from non-science based regulation

“They are early adopters of the latest agronomy and have shown that they are very willing to partner with the rest of the value chain,” he said. “Their willingness to innovate gives us confidence.” Both the Canadian government’s and canola industry’s consistent investment in the canola sector also drives growth. “We set targets for 2007 and the investments in infrastructure happened,” noted Youzwa, referring to the industry’s support. “We set targets for 2015 and again the investments in infrastructure happened. There has been a huge investment in processing here in Canada. This has added value at home.”

Differentiate Value in the Marketplace

In order to meet the market’s demand for canola, the CCC’s strategy also aims to build and improve upon past marketing approaches, while meeting new and existing customer requirements at a competitive price. “As we differentiate canola in the international marketplace, we will take a more

targeted approach based on solid analysis,” said Neil Sabourin, Cargill’s farm management services manager and CCC board member. “We will have better knowledge of exactly what we need to do in various markets to meet specific customer needs.” Canola oil’s benefits, such as its low saturated fat and high omega-3 fat content, have increased its popularity among healthconscious consumers globally – a trend that’s likely to continue, Youzwa predicted. “As populations earn more and learn more about healthy eating, the demand for healthy oil will increase,” he said. “Canola oil is part of the solution to disease,” added Sabourin. “The need to address global health presents us with major opportunities here and in other markets.” According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, there is also a growing demand for protein in animal diets, which is promising for canola meal. ❰ CONTINUED ON PAGE 12

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❰ CONTINUED FROM PAGE 11

“The opportunities to boost sales of Canadian canola are in places where meat consumption is on the rise and in biofuels,” said Sebourin, who emphasized the importance of “actively exploring” these new prospects.

Stable and Open Trade

The CCC’s third goal is to create a competitive, stable and open trade environment that consistently allows the industry to attain the maximum value for canola and its products, free of tariffs and non-tariff trade barriers. To this end, the CCC will oppose non-sciencebased regulations and enforce canola-friendly government policies that reflect the crop’s contribution to food quality and security.

A new peak in contracts.

Even with a stable market like the United States, borders can temporarily close. For example, in 2010, non-pathogenic strains of Salmonella were detected in Canadian shipments of canola meal and the U.S. government stopped the meal from entering the country until a risk analysis system could be put in place. Canadian suppliers were put on import alert, disrupting distribution of $2.6 million in canola meal for about a year. The situation hurt both countries but its resolution should prevent a repeat of this trade issue. While trade issues remain an ongoing challenge for any commodity and require continuous vigilance, they can be overcome, said Pat Van Osch, vice president at Richardson International and CCC board member. “The trend we see in the global trade environment suggests that we have more opportunity than ever to move in the direction of freer

trade,” he said. “We believe fundamentally that our product competes well on a level playing field, so a level playing field is our goal.” Canada currently exports $3 billion of canola to the U.S. and China annually. Other top markets include Japan and Mexico, importing $1.5 billion and $1 billion, respectively. “About 85 percent of [Canadian] canola is exported to markets worldwide,” said CCC President Miller. “Trade is critically important to the success of our industry and our ability to make a difference in the world.” Fortunately for Canada’s canola industry, the world is hungry for more and supply can match the appetite. For more information, go to keepitcoming.ca. BRITTANY FARB IS ASSOCIATE MANAGING EDITOR OF U.S. CANOLA DIGEST.

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Double Trouble: Two Insects Worth Watching Combatting Insecticide Resistance in Winter Canola TOM ROYER, PH.D., AND KRIS GILES, PH.D.

PHOTO COURTESY OF CLEMSON UNIVERSITY, USDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SLIDE SERIES.

ALTHOUGH HARD RED winter wheat remains king of the crops grown in Oklahoma, winter canola acreage is rapidly increasing. Canola provides wheat producers with a rotational crop option that is profitable and allows for long-term weed control in winter wheat. But as canola acreage has increased over the last 10 years, unexpected insect problems have followed. Rule No. 1 is new insect problems in winter canola should never be ignored. Winter and spring canola are two different crops when it comes to insect pests. Those deemed important in winter canola are of less concern in spring canola. The Canola Council of Canada’s “Canola Growers Manual” states aphids (cabbage, green peach and turnip) are key pests of winter canola, but considered minor ones in spring canola produced in

Diamondback moth caterpillar.

Canada. In Oklahoma, it’s recommended that all canola seed be treated with a neonicotinoid insecticide to delay fall aphid buildup. This should be coupled with regular field scouting to monitor rising aphid pressure. Also of concern are fall infestations of army cutworm and diamondback moth, which may feed in the crown and reduce plant stands.

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Weed resistance is a major concern with herbicide-tolerant crops and problematic for canola growers (see the article authored by Dr. Brian Jenks in the March/April 2013 issue of U.S. Canola Digest). Similarly, entomologists are very familiar with the resistance issue. They have battled resistant insects in various crops for decades. Coincidentally, two important pests of winter canola, the diamondback moth and green peach aphid, have a long history of developing insecticide resistance.

The Pests

The diamondback moth is a pest of many Brassica crops, including canola. It also attacks several weed species such as yellow rocket, Sheppard’s purse, hare’s ear mustard, flixweed, Dame’s rocket, poor man’s peppergrass, stinkweed, wild mustard and volunteer canola. These weeds may allow moths to maintain themselves before canola becomes available. Diamondback moths attack canola in the fall after it germinates. The caterpillars feed on foliage and the growing point. After a killing frost, many caterpillars die, but some crawl into the crown of dormant canola plants and seem to survive, especially if the winter is mild. How much survival occurs or damage they cause to the growing point is unknown, but researchers are working to get more data on the effect of caterpillars on canola winter survival and yield. They can also attack canola in the spring as the plants flower and produce seed pods. The green peach aphid has a worldwide distribution. It can feed on plant species from over 40 plant families, ranging from peach and apricot trees to vegetable crops and flowers. It is also known to carry and transmit more than 100 plant disease-causing viruses. This aphid has several characteristics that allow it to become a pest. During most of its seasonal cycle, green peach aphids give birth to live young. They reproduce through a process called “parthenogenesis” which allows them to

produce all females. Each new-born aphid can grow to an adult in seven to nine days. One aphid can give birth to 30 offspring in its short life. Together, these characteristics mean that green peach aphid numbers can explode and fields need to be regularly checked. Green peach aphids feed on the leaves and other parts of plants. They extract plant sap with their needle-like sucking mouths. This feeding can weaken plants or even kill small ones. During flowering, aphid feeding can cause flowers to abort or reduce pod fill. Aphids also produce a sticky excretion called honeydew that can make leaves sticky and provide “food” for a fungus called sooty mold that grows on the leaf surface and can reduce the plants’ ability to capture sunlight.

The Issue

The diamondback moth and green peach aphid are two of the most difficult pests to control due to insecticide resistance worldwide. To date, diamondback moth populations have been found with known resistance to nearly all insecticides with some populations showing a 1,000-fold resistance to multiple insecticides. Green peach aphid is known to be resistant to many insecticides as well. Fortunately, neonicotinoids have remained effective for green peach aphid control. See Table 1 for a list of insecticide classes that these pests have developed resistance against.

The Challenge

Most canola varieties grown in Oklahoma are tolerant to glyphosate. The typical weed control practice is to spray weeds in the fall. In order to save a trip across the field, many producers include a pyrethroid insecticide as a tank mix. From a practical viewpoint, this makes sense – take care of any resident aphids and diamondback moths while spraying for weeds. In addition, this practice can nearly eliminate the potential for army cutworms


PHOTO COURTESY OF WHITNEY CRANSHAW, COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY.

Table 1. Registered Insecticides for Use in Canola for Green Peach Aphid and Diamondback Moth Green Peach Aphid CLASS (IRAC NUMBER)

DOCUMENTED RESISTANCE

bifenthrin

pyrethroid (3A)

yes

Green peach aphids (winged adults, wingless adults and nymphs).

lambda cyhalothrin

pyrethroid (3A)

yes

gamma cyhalothrin

pyrethroid (3A)

yes

to cause a problem. However, there are several circumstances regarding this practice that raise concerns. Up until recently, pyrethroid insecticides (classified as Group 3A by the Insecticide Resistance Management Committee) were nearly the only class of insecticides registered for use in canola. Also, most of the insecticides applied in this tank mix are pyrethroids because they are inexpensive and relatively safe to apply. However, both the diamondback moth and green peach aphid have developed resistance to pyrethroids. Resistance arises when an insect population is regularly exposed to the same insecticide so that susceptible insects are eliminated and resistant ones are left to repopulate. Diamondback moths utilize multiple mechanisms that allow them to develop up to a 1,000-fold resistance to pyrethroids. Green peach aphids reproduce through parthenogenesis, meaning they are clones of one another. Once resistance is selected, they can literally copy themselves so that the majority of a population has the resistance gene.

zeta cypermethrin

pyrethroid (3A)

yes

imidacloprid

neonicotinoid (4A)

yes

thiamethoxam

neonicotinoid (4A)

yes

clothianidin

neonicotinoid (4A)

yes

sulfoxaflor

(4C)

no

flonicamid

(9C)

no

The Solution

There are several practices that can be used to reduce the chance of generating a resistant diamondback moth or green peach aphid population. • C ontrol volunteer canola plants and weedy host plants. They serve as a reservoir for aphids and diamondback moths. • Take full advantage of insecticide seed treatment as a control for aphids. Scout the field before deciding to include an insecticide with the fall glyphosate application. If diamondback moths or army cutworms are found in the field, they should be treated. If not, simply don’t include the insecticide. •  Select the most target-specific insecticides available to control the target pest. Several registered products are now available that are either “caterpillar insecticides” or “aphid insecticides.”

CHEMICAL

Diamondback Moth CHEMICAL

CLASS (IRAC NUMBER)

DOCUMENTED RESISTANCE

Azadirachtin

botanical (Neem)

yes

Bacillus thuringiensis

microbial CrY1A

yes

bifenthrin

pyrethroid (3A)

yes

deltamethrin

pyrethroid (3A)

yes

lambda cyhalothrin

pyrethroid (3A)

yes

gamma cyhalothrin

pyrethroid (3A)

yes

zeta cypermethrin

pyrethroid (3A)

yes

chlorantraniliprole

diamides (28)

yes

Source: Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC)

•  Apply insecticides at the full registered rate. Make sure the application fully covers the plant to ensure that insect populations are controlled. •  R otate insecticide groups (modes of action) if multiple applications are made. This will control any insecticide escapes so they don’t continue to contribute to the gene pool. •  Choose canola varieties wisely. While currently there aren’t many varieties that are resistant to insect pests, efforts are moving forward to develop them. As they become available, consider them.

Fighting insect resistance is no easy feat and sometimes a losing battle, but with vigilance and smart tactics, these two insects can be managed in winter canola. TOM ROYER , PH . D., IS E X TENSION ENTOMOLOGIST AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT COORDINATOR IN THE DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT PATHOLOGY AT OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY (OSU) IN STILLWATER, OKLA. KRIS GILES, PH.D. IS PROFESSOR IN THE DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY AT OSU.

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Blackleg Battle in Northern Plains Challenge Returns for Canola Communities SAM MARKELL, PH.D. AND LUIS DEL RIO MENDOZA, PH.D.

MORE THAN 20 YEARS AGO, when canola was just getting a toehold in the Northern Plains, growers faced a significant threat with the fungal disease blackleg. It was at this critical juncture in North Dakota, with less than 20,000 acres planted in the early 1990s, where that threat could have reduced the canola crop to memory. However, that challenge was met and more than 1 million acres of canola are typical in the state today. But blackleg has returned with new twists that are forcing scientists and growers alike to revisit old management strategies and develop new ones. The canola community will need to meet this challenge head-on to once again manage blackleg.

Looking Back

In 1991, George H.W. Bush was president, the price per gallon of gas was about $1 and North Dakota was producing almost 14 million acres of cereal crops annually. But a small number of growers began planting a relatively new crop, canola. At the time, most of the canola acreage was planted to an Argentine type variety named ‘Westar.’ This variety had done well in other production areas and was a logical fit for the region. However, at the same time, a new disease to the state was being observed in high numbers. Blackleg, a disease caused by the fungal pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans, can be devastating if left unchecked. The pathogen overwinters in canola residues or seeds and when

there is ample moisture and moderate temperatures in the spring, it releases spores that can infect canola cotyledons and leaves. Those infections progress from the leaves to the stem, where they can produce lesions that girdle or rupture the young tissue (Figure 1). Young stems are the most susceptible and infections that occur before the four- to six-leaf stage can cause significant damage on the plant, resulting in death and yield loss. North Dakota State University (NDSU) Extension plant pathologist H. Art Lamey, Ph.D., began a disease survey in the 1990s that would last for two decades. In 1991, data from his survey showed that 28 percent of plants in North Dakota experienced some level of blackleg infection. Something had to be done to manage the disease. At the time, management relied heavily on genetics. Within two years of the 1991 outbreak, the majority of growers had replaced ‘Westar’ with varieties that were resistant to blackleg. By 1993, Lamey’s survey showed blackleg incidence had been reduced tenfold. In the next decade, the disease was reduced to just a minor problem, showing up periodically but never being found with incidence levels higher than single digits – until 2005. Figure 1: Blackleg lesions girdle or rupture young plant tissue. Inset: A blackleg foliar lesion with fruiting structures.

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Figure 2: From 2004-2009, the old common type of blackleg was replaced by a new type able to overcome common resistance in canola hybrids.

Young stems are the most susceptible and infections that occur before the four- to sixleaf stage can cause significant damage on the plant, resulting in death and yield loss.

Inset: Evidence of blackleg resistance.

A ‘New’ Blackleg

By 2003, the pathogen causing blackleg was resurfacing with a new twist. The populations of all pests, whether weeds, insects or pathogens, are genetically diverse and can adapt in response to changes in the environment. A classic example is glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup®. When Roundup® was developed, it revolutionized weed control. The technology was so successful that the herbicide is applied on tens of millions of acres every year. Initially, Roundup® knocked out every weed in the field, leaving only weed reservoirs in unreachable areas. But those survivors are not all created equally. For example, a single waterhemp plant produces millions of seeds and each one can be genetically different. By sheer odds, it is possible that one of those seeds might have a random mutation that could allow it to survive even if it is exposed to an application of glyphosate. When that plant survives an application, it will produce many thousands of seeds that also survive glyphosate. Pretty soon that single weed generates a “hot spot” of resistant weeds and if the waterhemp population is not eliminated, there will be a field of resistant weeds. And just like that, the pest population has completely changed. The same process of change occurred with the blackleg pathogen. In 2003, two new “PG types” (similar to races) of the pathogen were found in North Dakota. These PG types (3 and 4) had occurred in the population randomly, but because they were able to attack the genetic resistance in canola, they quickly flourished and became the ‘new’ blackleg. Between 2004 and 2009, the old common PG type 2 was all but replaced by new virulent PG types

(3, 4, T and others) that are able to overcome the common resistance growers use in their canola hybrids (Figure 2). In 2005, the incidence of blackleg in North Dakota exceeded 10 percent for the first time since 1991. In 2007, the incidence across the state was approximately 14 percent and in the Northeastern region, where the majority of canola is produced, the incidence was over 33 percent. Conversations about the disease were happening in academic circles and coffee shops alike, yield loss was observed and there were more questions than answers. Blackleg had come roaring back to life.

Fighting Back

With the available genetic resistance being challenged, it was time to take a new look at management strategies. Many groups have since been rising to the challenge presented by blackleg. Seed companies are aware of the need for resistance to the new PG types, chemical

companies have provided funds and products to evaluate timing and efficacy against blackleg and importantly, the Northern Canola Growers Association took on blackleg as a challenge. The association has provided significant funding to universities to develop new tools to manage this disease.

Genetic Advancements

Finding resistance to the new blackleg PG types became the most critical long-term need for managing the disease. As of 2006, more than 200 advanced canola breeding lines and 800 plant introduction materials from canola relatives have been evaluated. By 2015, the screening of an additional 400 plant introduction materials will be completed. Pathologists at NDSU have identified 15 lines resistant to PG-2 and PG-3, of which six are resistant to both, and nine lines resistant to PG-T and PG-4. Of the latter group, two lines were also resistant to PG-2 and PG-3. Many of

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Left: Roots damaged by blackleg. Above: A blackleg lesion that caused plant rupture.

protection is obtained when spraying plants at the two- to four-leaf stage. At this time, the young stem is very sensitive to infection and it usually results in heavier damage to the plant. While fungicide application alone is not as effective as genetic resistance, it can be useful when genetic resistance is unreliable or overcome by the new PG types. these lines have already entered breeding programs and could lead to genetic resistance in the future. At the same time, NDSU researchers are busy characterizing the genetic diversity of the blackleg pathogen. By knowing the variability of the pathogen population, scientists will be able to develop better strategies to manage the disease. This includes making better use of the adult plant resistance already available in commercial canola hybrids.

Improved Fungicides

While the blackleg pathogen was changing in the last two decades, so was the world of fungicides. The first fungicide registered for blackleg control in North Dakota, Quadris®, entered the market in 2001. Since then, field trials conducted by NDSU researchers helped register four new compounds. Similarly, timing is very critical when managing blackleg. Field trials show that optimal

Press your own extra virgin canola oil. It tastes great and is even healthier than olive oil.

Rotating Hybrids

Like many crops across the country (for example, corn and soybeans in the Midwest), canola is often planted in a two-year rotation such as with wheat. While such rotations are not ideal for disease management, the simple effort of planting different hybrids each time you plant canola may challenge blackleg and reduce the speed at which it can adapt. In the last several years, the highest blackleg pressure and subsequent yield loss has been frequently observed when a grower plants the same hybrid two cycles in a row. While there is not likely much resistance to the new PG types in commercial hybrids, there may be enough genetic variability among hybrids that makes it well worth the effort to continually try new hybrids.

Looking Ahead

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The colloquialism ”the only thing constant in life is change” is just as true in disease management as any other factor in agriculture. It is likely that new genetic resistance will be deployed to reduce blackleg. It is equally likely that the pathogen will develop resistance again and reemerge as a “new” threat. Thus, the best strategy would be to develop an integrated approach that includes good crop and hybrid rotation strategies, planting new resistant hybrids and using fungicide in favorable environments. Although canola farmers may still lose some battles, they can ultimately win the war against blackleg. SAM MARKELL, PH.D., IS ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR AND EX TENSION PL ANT PATHOLOGIST AT NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY (NDSU) IN FARGO, N.D. LUIS DEL RIO MENDOZA, PH.D., IS ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR AT NDSU.


Fueling Up for a Fight Biodiesel Industry Under Threat from Proposed Volume Limits ALISON NEUMER LARA

THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL Protection Agency’s (EPA) proposal to reduce renewable fuel volumes is a major setback to the growing biodiesel industry and a blow to feedstocks such as canola, according to biodiesel producers. In January, thousands of biodiesel supporters filed comments with the EPA, urging the agency to reconsider. They warned that the new policy would destroy businesses and jobs in a sector experiencing explosive growth, damage vegetable oil markets and ultimately, hurt farmers. “All of agriculture wins with biodiesel and this proposal means that all of agriculture loses,” said Joe Jobe, CEO of the National Biodiesel Board (NBB). “We doubled the size of the industry in a year and the president should be standing on tables shouting about it. Instead, the administration is rewarding that success by crushing us. It’s so uncalled for.” Pointing to reduced U.S. demand for gasoline overall, the EPA said the proposed rule is meant to address excess production of renewable fuels, which must be blended into the country’s fuel supply under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). The EPA’s proposal sets the 2014 RFS volume for biodiesel, an “advanced biofuel,” at 1.28 billion gallons – the same as 2013 – and reduces advanced biofuel volumes overall to 2.2 billion, further limiting biodiesel production. In fact, the actual 2014 biodiesel volume limit could be as low as 1 billion gallons as the agency may take into account some of the excess 2013 production in calculating 2014 capacity. The industry produced almost 1.8 billion gallons in 2013, according to EPA estimates, of which 6 percent was canola-based.

Damage Done

The EPA’s proposal alone may be enough to stall the biodiesel industry by introducing uncertainty across the value chain, said Todd Ellis, vice president of sales and development at Hoquiam, Wash.-based Imperium Renewables. “If the EPA continues to signal this kind of backsliding, it’s going to impact us,” he said. “The message that’s being sent is that biodiesel is not as important as it used to be and that’s not the message we want send to growers.”

Imperium’s primary biodiesel feedstock is canola and the company has helped build a canola industry in the Pacific Northwest region. Establishing a 2014 volume limit lower than 2013 production will have wide repercussions, he added. “If these guys hear the EPA doesn’t support it, they won’t want to grow it,” Ellis said. “It really goes back to the farm.” The RFS and biofuels industry IN REVISING THE Renewable Fuel Standard, which benefit growers by linking energy affects all categories of renewable fuel – cellulosic prices to commodity prices, explained biofuel, biomass-based diesel, advanced biofuel Alan Weber, a senior advisor to the and total renewable fuel, the U.S. Environmental NBB and farmer in Missouri. Protection Agency (EPA) cited the “ethanol blend “To me, as a producer, it’s helped well,” the point where ethanol exceeds 10 percent to create a hedge against energy inflaof the total fuel supply and the level approved for tion,” he said. “If energy prices go up, all vehicles. our input prices go up, but our comSince overall gasoline consumption is going modity prices go up, too … it trades down, while renewable fuel volumes are going up, at its energy value.” the production levels must be addressed, accordLower the RFS and it’s a chain ing to the EPA. The agency proposed a target of reaction, biofuel supporters argue. 15.2 billion gallons of renewable fuel to be blended Entrepreneurs will be less likely to into the U.S. fuel supply, reducing the mandate by launch a business and investors will almost 3 billion gallons. be less likely to pony up capital. Renewable fuel producers and some lawMoreover, existing biofuels processors makers now argue that this proposal violates the and producers, many of whom own Clean Air Act because the agency is factoring in small and medium-sized businesses reduced market demand as a reason to lower the and already made large investments, mandate, rather than inadequate supply, as outcould be crippled.

EPA PROPOSAL EXPLAINED

Shrinking an Industry

lined by the law. Advanced biofuels (including biodiesel), they argue, are caught in the crosshairs of these across-the-board cuts and their production mandate should not be rolled back. The EPA is expected to make a decision in the next few months. Meanwhile the industry remains hopeful it will not put the brakes on biofuel production.

Reducing biodiesel production to the proposed levels could eliminate more than 10 percent of industry’s 62,000 jobs, according to the NBB. Northstar Agri Industries operates a canola processing and refining facility in Kittson County, Minn., and plans to build another plant in Oklahoma. A reduced RFS, however, would certainly dampen enthusiasm for the expansion project as well as endanger the 55 fulltime jobs in rural Minnesota, said company President Neil Juhnke. “Smaller amounts of canola are sold for biodiesel, but it’s the overall oils and fats sector that’s helped by biodiesel and if you remove that demand, these other, lower grade oils will have to find a place in the food chain somewhere and it would have a tendency to

soften vegetable oil prices,” he said. “It’s disappointing for the government to enact legislation like the RFS and then create uncertainty in the industry that has invested such large amounts in meeting those expectations. They’re tweaking the numbers unnecessarily.” And for producers, it’s a change with potentially devastating implications. ALISON NEUMER LARA IS MANAGING EDITOR OF U.S. CANOLA DIGEST.

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ZACH JACOBSON

JIMMY EMMONS

Grow Big or Go Home Top Canola Growers Share Their Successes BRITTANY FARB

CANOLA GROWERS AROUND the country know it all too well: Disease, Mother Nature, timing and other tricky elements have a mighty impact on yields. U.S. Canola Digest spoke with several exceptional growers about strategies for success and lessons learned over the course of their careers. ZACH JACOBSON started growing canola on his father’s farm in Langdon, N.D., at a young age. In fact, the family started growing canola as early as 1980, the farm’s very first year of operation. In 2006, Jacobson began farming on his own and decided to expand canola acreage. Currently, his farm is composed of 40 percent wheat, 40 percent canola and 20 percent soybeans. Jacobson is considered a top producer by other farmers in the community. JIMMY EMMONS is embarking on his sixth season of growing canola on his 2,000acre farm in Taloga, Okla. Since 2008, he has devoted about 600 acres to canola and hopes to steadily increase that number in upcoming seasons. In addition to canola, Emmons grows wheat and alfalfa. He is considered a passionate and knowledgeable canola grower by specialists in the Great Plains region. MIKE MUHS grows canola on his 5,000acre farm in Langdon, N.D. Today, approximately 2,000 acres are devoted to canola. He began growing canola in 1993 as an alternative to wheat and he remains pleasantly surprised about how well it fits into his rotation. Also considered a top canola producer in North Dakota, Muhs has shown consistently high yields for two decades. ANDY JURIS returned to his family’s 4,800-acre farm in Berkleton, Wash., in 2008 after a 10-year career as a commercial pilot with American Airlines. Coming back to Washington was an easy choice for Juris who

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no longer wanted to spend lengthy amounts of time away from his family in the air. As for canola, the crop was introduced in 2011 in a continuous wheat rotation to control wild oat. Although a relatively new canola producer, Juris has already achieved impressive yields. JEFF NEWTSON grows about 1,200 acres of canola on his 7,000-acre farm in Pendleton, Ore. After graduating from Kansas State University in Manhattan in 1995 with his master’s in economics, Newtson and his wife moved to the Pacific Northwest to start their own farming operation. What began as a simple goal to put a “decent amount” of canola acres into the farm’s wheat rotation has become a major focus of the business. Newtson’s surprising success with canola and commitment to increasing acreage sets him apart from others. U.S. CANOLA DIGEST: What lessons have you learned growing canola? JACOBSON: Don't make piles with the

swather. It makes everyone's life in the field miserable. Instead, focus on making a smooth swath. EMMONS: I first started growing canola solely to rotate with wheat to control disease. But it has proven to be a resilient and revenueboosting crop. MUHS: Don’t swath canola too early. When I first started growing canola, I was cutting it too early, immediately after it turned green. Unfortunately, we also have learned that Mother Nature can throw you a bunch of curve balls! JURIS: It’s important to understand the demands of the region. The Pacific Northwest has a feast or famine relationship with water – hot and dry summers, cool and wet winters. NEWTSON: Canola is a better-thanexpected rotational crop. It really helps with

disease and pest cycles. With wheat, we have seen anywhere from a 5 to 20 percent bump in yields when rotating with canola. U.S. CANOLA DIGEST: What new technologies have made a big difference in how you farm? JACOBSON: The auto steer has made appli-

cations like seeding, spraying and combining very efficient operations. Our most recent technology has been a variable rate fertilizer combined with yield mapping and zone soil sampling. We have collaborated with a neighboring farm and purchased a soil probe and a variable rate technology software system. Starting this year, we are going to test variable rating canola seed according to plant population. After attending a class about new farm technology, I am now writing fertilizer maps using satellite imagery and yield mapping. JURIS: While we have been heavily invested in precision agriculture for the past six years, we have recently changed our physical farming practices with additional moisture and soil conservation in mind. We have been no-till since the mid-1990s, and recently, we purchased a cross slot air seeder from New Zealand. The addition of this drill has been key to a minimum disturbance seeding program that has allowed us to conserve moisture at seeding while increasing our emergence. This drill also has the ability to apply variable rate fertilizer and seed. We also have recently added a stripper header to our combine that hopefully will help us capture additional winter moisture and provide shade for crops during our hot, dry summers. We have already seen increased snow capture in our tall straw and now can seed through this heavy residue with the drill. NEWTSON: As with many farms, GPS


NEWTSON: One setback we have is getting a stand established in the hot summer months of August and September. Research from Oregon State University's extension specialist Don Wysocki shows that winter varieties of canola grown in the Pacific Northwest could be planted in June and July when conditions are more favorable for plant establishment. Moisture levels in the soil are still near the surface during this time frame and soil temperatures are not too high to cause cotyledon death. This has allowed us to plant canola where and when we want, versus planting canola only on years when a rare August rain surprises us.

JEFF NEWTSON

technology has increased our productivity by reducing our overlap of chemical and fertilizer applications, by giving us the ability to apply variable rate fertilizer in our fields. GPS also reduces the amount of time it requires to farm an acre of ground through the reduction of overlap and increased speeds in the field. The software tied into the GPS, including the boom and auto steer, and the use of sensors has helped our farm increase productivity. U.S. CANOLA DIGEST: Tell us about a setback or challenge you have had with canola. How did you manage it? JACOBSON: There have been a few times

throughout the years that we have seeded the crop, then had either just a cold stretch of weather or a frost right when canola sprouts were coming out of the ground. We stuck to the crop insurance recommendations – if you have three plants per 9 square feet, that is enough to raise a crop. This has turned out to be true. Also, nine times out of 10, leaving a marginal stand that was seeded earlier has turned out the best. EMMONS: This year’s freeze has dealt us several tough situations. However, we are

still doing alright. I credit this to no-till stand establishment and careful daily management. JURIS: One challenge that has stood out above the rest has been trying to remain a viable, healthy business in marginal farming country. In the Pacific Northwest, we have shallow soils (24-inch average), a short growing season and low rainfall (about 6-12 inches). Managing these factors when Midwest corn dictates the price of our inputs has been difficult. We also face the challenge of rising equipment costs while trying to keep our equipment line modernized. Part of the solution to this problem has been custom work. It allows us to spread the cost of our equipment over more acres and help make payments. We currently custom seed and harvest between 3,000 to 5,000 acres a year. In order to do this, we seek out custom farming opportunities outside of the immediate area. We have also developed equipment-sharing relationships with some of our customers that have proved valuable and profitable for both of us. While all of this may be a common practice in other parts of the country, it is virtually unheard of in our region. At the very least, it has provided our neighbors with a variety of conversation topics at the local café.

U.S. CANOLA DIGEST: What advice do you have for new canola growers? JACOBSON: Fungicide has paid for us;

spend the money and put on fungicide. I also advise not to seed too deep. EMMONS: Be patient and understand canola takes more management than other crops such as wheat. MUHS: Give canola a chance. The high demand for canola oil is not going away anytime soon. It will continue to bring solid net returns and fits into the rotations quite nicely. JURIS: Understand the demands of the crop. Wheat tends to be easy for us, but canola takes intensive management. NEWTSON: No-till works well. Based on the Pacific Northwest’s weather, seed in June and apply fertilizer in September and March. You have to set a yield goal that’s practical while watching your expenses. BRITTANY FARB IS ASSOCIATE MANAGING EDITOR OF U.S. CANOLA DIGEST.

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regional news

Growing Regional Acres

Oilseed Conference Marks Increased Interest KAREN SOWERS, M.S.

WHAT BEGAN IN 2011 as a few smalltown, one-day meetings evolved this year into a three-day event at a convention center with 45 vendors, more than 40 research posters and nearly 50 speakers. More than 500 attended the 2014 Pacific Northwest Oilseed and Direct Seeding Conference this January, jointly hosted by the Washington State University (WSU) Oilseed Cropping Systems Project and Pacific Northwest Direct Seed Association (PNDSA) in Kennewick, Wash. Participants and speakers hailed from Australia, Canada and 16 U.S. states, providing a wide variety of perspectives and discussion about oilseed production and direct seed cropping systems. John Kirkegaard, research scientist with the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Plant Industry in Canberra, Australia, kicked off the opening general session of the conference with a question and answer that set the tone for the next two days: “Why invite an Aussie to Washington state to speak about oilseeds and direct seeding? Two things: Canola is the most important noncereal crop in Australia and 95 percent of canola is direct-seeded!” Kirkegaard explained how canola production and direct seeding go hand-in-hand in most areas of Australia. The benefits they have observed with that combination, particularly with poor soils, are very similar to those documented in the Pacific Northwest. With well over 5 million acres of canola in Australia, it may seem that most production constraints have been solved, yet Kirkegaard discussed several that have not, such as disease and residue management, soil salinity and herbicide-resistant weeds. He also addressed the extent and benefit of utilizing canola as a dualpurpose crop for grazing livestock in the fall and harvesting the grain the following year without a yield penalty. Kirkegaard presented a second keynote address about root and soil biology research and the application to direct seed and canola production systems.

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Australian research scientist John Kirkegaard opened the conference. More than 500 people attended.

While planners initially hesitated combining the two conferences – oilseed and direct seeding – attendees confirmed the decision was the right one. “In my book, combining direct seed and oilseed was great because we try to direct seed all of the crops we raise on our farm,” said Randy Emtman, who farms near Spokane, Wash. “I have told several people that I felt it was the best conference I have attended in years. I usually hope to come home from a conference or meeting with one or two things that I feel are beneficial but, this conference gave me many times more than that.” Jim Nollmeyer, who grows direct-seeded winter canola near Reardan, Wash., agreed. “Attending this conference confirmed my belief that things we’re doing [with canola] are worthwhile,” he said. “You don’t get that sitting at home!”

Speaking of Success

In addition to Kirkegaard, other names familiar to many in the canola industry in North America gave keynote presentations, including Phil Thomas, Ph.D., of AgriTrend, who explained plant signaling systems and

micronutrient management; Professor Jack Brown, Ph.D., who provided an entertaining walk down memory lane with the history and future of oilseed research at University of Idaho; Dale Thorenson, of the U.S. Canola Association, who discussed the renewable fuel standard and farm bill; Raj Khosla, Ph.D., of Colorado State University, who explained precision agriculture management strategies; and Brian Voth of AgriTrend, who gave a market update and outlook of spring canola production in Manitoba, Canada. Other speakers included Dwayne Beck of Dakota Lakes Research Farm; Steve Groff of Cover Crop Solutions; Mary Beth Lang of the Washington State Department of Agriculture; Tai McClellan Maaz and Jim Moyer of WSU; Dave Paul of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Risk Management Agency; and Dick Wittman of the PNDSA. Nine oilseed and nine direct seed breakout sessions covered a wide range of topics, including how and when to seed canola, Conservation Reserve Program take-out strategies, mustard and camelina production, and managing rattail fescue and Italian ryegrass. Pacific Northwest farmers, industry representatives and university researchers led oilseed breakout sessions to provide more in-depth discussion of production issues relevant to the many precipitation zones of the PNW. “I was impressed by the attendance and diversity of topics offered in both the oilseed and direct seed breakout sessions,” said Randy Kuster, an industry representative based in Cheney, Wash. “As a vendor, we’ve only attended direct seed conferences in the past, but now we have even more of an interest in the oilseed production systems.” Kuster took part in the demonstration and diagnostic sessions, which were new additions to the conference. In other sessions, WSU faculty showed live canola plants with residual herbicide damage symptoms, several types of seedlings and mature plants, and a canola root


regional news

Canola Veterans Join GPCA Board monolith. Drill openers and GPS demos were featured in vendor booths. “Th is was the best and most useful ag production conference in the past decade.” said Don Wysocki, Ph.D., extension soil scientist at Oregon State University, noting a “well-balanced program of growers, researchers, industry, and agency people. There was plenty of practical, take-home information for new and veteran oilseed and direct seed producers with thought- provoking messages from keynote speakers.” These messages were indicators of promise for canola in the region, several observed. “A positive for the future of both canola production and direct seeding in the PNW was seeing the large number of young farmers in the audience and among the vendors,” said Dennis Roe, Ph.D., WSU faculty and conference planning committee member. “I have definitely seen a momentum shift of acres and attitudes towards canola from the last time I was out in the PNW,” added Heath Sanders, a speaker and canola field specialist from Oklahoma. “Just walking around the vendor booths, I could overhear producers talking about canola production. Canola acreage has doubled since the last time I was here and my overall impression from the oilseed conference is they are going to grow acres in the PNW!” Research posters and conference presentations are available on the WSU Biofuels Cropping Systems website: http://css.wsu.edu/biofuels/. KAREN SOWERS, M.S., IS AN EXTENSION AND OUTREACH SPECIALIST IN THE DEPARTMENT OF CROP AND SOIL SCIENCES AT WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY IN RICHLAND.

Pioneer John Haas Retires from Service RON SHOLAR

THE GREAT PLAINS Canola Association (GPCA) named two new members to its board of directors in January 2014: Cody Daft of DuPont Pioneer and canola grower Tyson Good. Daft will represent DuPont as a new industry member. He is an agronomist working in the southern Great Plains, who provides agronomic and product support, education and training to field sales staff and customers. Daft began working with winter canola in 2003 as a research assistant for Dr. Tom Peeper and Mark Boyles. He earned his bachelor’s degree in animal science and a master’s in plant and soil science from Oklahoma State University. “Canola has so many beneficial characteristics to offer our farmers, industry, economy and the productivity of our land,” Daft said. “This crop fits in extremely well as a sustainable and profitable crop in rotation with our winter wheat … it’s no secret why we’ve seen several hundred thousand acres planted over the last few years in the southern Great Plains. “DuPont Pioneer is extremely committed to the success and sustainability of production agriculture in the southern Great Plains and we believe that the canola industry will be an increasingly important part of that sustainability.” Good and his family reside on a 5,000-acre farm near Montezuma, Kan. They mainly farm dryland acres, rotating wheat with milo and summer fallow. They have some irrigated acres where they grow continuous corn or rotate corn and soybeans. “We’ve been looking for an alternative crop to follow wheat in our low-water irrigation system,” Good said. “Canola was the best option that we found to rotate with wheat.” He is also very optimistic about the future

of canola in the southern Great Plains. “In our area, the Ogallala Aquifer is being depleted at a rapid rate,” Good noted. “Most wells in our area can’t support growing fullseason corn anymore. Therefore, the alternative is growing shorter season corn or another alternative crop, such as canola. We believe canola is here to stay.” GPCA President Jeff Scott welcomed the additions to the leadership team. “It’s critical for any organization to add new members who bring different experiences and ways of dealing with challenges,” he said. Good replaces long-time board member John Haas who represented Kansas growers since the GPCA was officially founded in 2007. During its January meeting, the GPCA board of directors recognized Haas’s contributions to the GPCA and Great Plains canola industry with a plaque. “John has provided incredible service to the canola industry in our region,” Scott said. “He was one of the early innovators who saw the potential for canola here in the southern Great Plains. This industry would not be where it is today without John’s contributions.” RON SHOLAR IS EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF THE GREAT PLAINS CANOLA ASSOCIATION IN STILLWATER, OKLA.

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regional news

Reigniting Minnesota’s Canola Interest Annual Meeting Attracts Growers and Professionals

REDISCOVER CANOLA CONFERENCE TOPICS AND SPEAKERS

New Innovations in Canola Production Jack Brodshaug, Dekalb, Jamestown, N.D. Kyle Rollness, Bayer CropScience, Langdon, N.D. Marc Cartwright, DuPont Pioneer, Grand Forks, N.D. Maximize Sustainable Canola Yields Through Precision Ag Wade Barnes, Farmers Edge, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Growing World Demand for Oilseeds – Where Does Canola Fit? Mike Krueger, The Money Farm, Fargo, N.D.

JON DOCKTER

NEARLY 200 PRODUCERS, university faculty and industry representatives participated in the Minnesota Canola Council’s annual winter meeting in Roseau, Minn. The intent of the conference, entitled “Rediscover Canola: The Game Has Changed,” was to remind producers of the benefits canola provides in rotation with other crops and to reignite interest in growing canola in northwestern Minnesota. The meeting included educational sessions focused on new innovations in the canola industry, using precision agriculture to increase yields, world market demand for oil, disease management and the benefits of planting canola. A producer panel discussed the economics of growing canola. The event also featured a number of exhibitors promoting their products and services for the 2014 crop year along with prize giveaways. Northstar Agri Industries awarded an Arctic Cat Sno Pro 500 and a Polaris Ranger. Bayer CropScience, Winfield Solution’s Croplan, DeKalb, DuPont Pioneer, Proseed and Star Specialty Seed each gave away eight bag lots of canola seed to get a jump-start on 2014 production. JON DOCKTER IS ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR OF THE MINNESOTA CANOLA COUNCIL IN ST. PAUL, MINN.

2013 CPC Trials: Variety and Systems; Fungicide Rate/Timing; Fertility Rate/Timing, Desiccants/Straight Harvesting Dave Grafstrom, Northland Community & Technical College, Roseau, Minn. Increasing Canola Yields Through Effective Disease Management Madeleine Smith, University of Minnesota, Crookston, Minn. Let’s Make Money! Soybean Yield Boost Following Canola Kevin Waslaski, Langdon, N.D. Why Grow Canola? Why Not! Ron Beneda, North Dakota State University Extension, Langdon, N.D. Canola: Profitable Choice for Northern Minnesota Rick Netterlund, Northern Resources Co-op, Roseau, Minn. Randy Jenson, Roseau County Co-op Association, Greenbush, Minn. Jim Rinde, CHS Ag Services, Roseau, Minn. For the agenda and more information on speakers, visit mncanola.org.

Winter Chill Blasts Southeast ANDREW MOORE

THE SOUTHEAST’S WINTER canola started strong in October, but then a brutal winter hit. Sub-zero wind chills, 30 mph winds and eight inches of snow came as an

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unwelcome surprise to area farmers. The cold weather was unexpected for a region that typically enjoys highs in the upper 40s to lower 50s during the winter months. Across all

southern states, winter kill is common among canola that was planted late, emphasizing the importance of earlier planting. Producers also sprayed for ryegrass and applied liquid nitrogen to salvage the winter canola. ANDREW MOORE IS SALES MANAGER AT RESACA SUN PRODUCTS IN RESACA, GA.


quick bytes

capitol hill A s of Jan . 13 , funding for Supplemental & Alternative Crops research under the National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) was slated at $825,000. The current total FY2014 budget for NIFA is nearly $1.28 billion, up $107 million compared to FY 2013 and $69 million compared to FY 2012. On Jan. 27, farm bill managers stated that they “recognize the importance of nationally coordinated, regionally managed canola research and education programs.” In awarding grants for these activities, they encouraged the Secretary of Agriculture to “seek input from stakeholders and give priority consideration to proposals that address research needs in production areas with the greatest potential to expand as well as those where canola production is established and needs to be maintained.”

Oklahoma grew 140,000 acres in 2012 and 250,000 in 2013.

Mayo Clinic News Network, found in ingredients such as canola oil.

Winter canola acres are up in the Great Plains, reported the Southwest Farm Press. Oklahoma has 350,000, Kansas has 40,000 and Texas has 35,000 acres. But Texas didn’t reach its full potential, a local expert noted, due to uncertainty of crop insurance with the government shutdown during planting season last fall.

For some, canola oil’s advantages may come as a surprise. The Huffington Post, citing a number of foods with “unexpected” cardiovascular benefits, touted canola oil as a heart-healthy oil that is very versatile due to its neutral taste and light texture. Importantly, the dietitian author noted, canola oil has the least amount of saturated fat among common cooking oils and may reduce the risk of heart disease when used in place of saturated fat.

Canola meal offers better quality protein to dairy cows compared to other types of meal, according to French and Canadian researchers in the December 2013 Journal of Dairy Science. In a recent study, researchers replaced soybean meal and high-protein corn distiller grains with canola meal in dairy cow rations. Canola meal was superior nutritionally as it did not present any essential amino acid deficiencies unlike the other two types of meal.

nutrition agronomy T h e U. S . Fo o d a n d D r u g Administration’s (FDA’s) recent move to ban partially hydrogenated (PH) vegetable oils – the major source of artificial trans fat in the U.S. food supply – is good news for canola farmers, reported the Associated Press. Food companies are switching from the unhealthy PH oils to alternatives like hearthealthy canola oil, which is driving up the price of canola. Farmers who earn $6 to $7 per bushel of wheat could earn $10 per bushel for canola. As a result, farmers continue to increase canola production to meet the growing need for canola oil, almost doubling their acres in some states. For example,

The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics recently advised increasing consumption of omega-3 fats from sources like canola oil, fatty fish, chia seeds, walnuts and flax seeds. It also recommends consuming monounsaturated fat, found in canola oil, avoiding trans fat and limiting saturated fat. Canola oil is trans fat-free and has the least saturated fat out of all common cooking oils. Although saturated fat has a bad reputation, trans fat is considered by many doctors and researchers to be the absolute worst because it raises “bad” (LDL) cholesterol and lowers “good” (HDL) cholesterol. This harmful combination increases the risk of heart disease. Consumers should opt for monounsaturated fat instead, said the

oil products Canola oil sales surpassed soybean oil as the best-selling cooking oil in Korea for the third year in a row, according to CJ CheilJedang, a South Korea-based food and biobusiness holding company. Canola oil’s popularity is due to its versatile cooking uses and low price – half that of grapeseed and olive oils. Cold-pressed canola oil is available to U.S. consumers: Michigan-based Grand Traverse Culinary Oils offers canola oil mechanically extracted from non-biotech canola seeds. (Owner William Koucky is also the founder of Northwest Michigan Biodiesel, which produces biodiesel from canola oil as well.) This is the second cold-pressed oil out of Michigan; U.S. Canola Digest reported on Dan Blackledge and his Pure Michigan canola oil in the June/July 2013 issue.

Each of the new InVigor® varieties will contain the LibertyLink® trait, which allows growers an alternative to glyphosate-resistant systems. The first variety, L252, will offer high oil content as a mid-season variety with high yield potential. L140P, another variety, has pod shatter tolerance built into the genes to keep the pod intact against weather conditions and allow growers to delay harvesting. The third variety, L160S, is resistant to Sclerotinia stem rot. Warden, Wash.-based Pacific Coast Canola (PCC) entered into a six-month contract to truck a portion of its super degummed canola oil to biofuel producer Imperium Renewables in Seattle, reported the Wall Street Journal. Matt Upmeyer, PCC’s chief operations officer, said Imperium will benefit from PCC’s “close proximity and load-out capabilities” that will allow PCC to ship multiple types of oil to meet customers’ specifications. Farmers in the Pacific Northwest have an opportunity to produce canola to fill the needs of regional crushing facilities, which will offer a reasonable price, reported the Capital Press. Farmers will benefit from a higher price for canola compared to wheat and a yield increase in wheat that follows canola, noted a local expert. Canola is about 19 cents per pound, while wheat, at $6.80 per bushel, is roughly 10 cents per pound. The region is wellpositioned to support increased canola production.

about USCA

latest industry news Bayer CropScience announced three new canola varieties for 2014.

Calling all Facebook users! “Like” the USCA Facebook page at www.facebook.com/uscanola and get weekly canola news you can use. This is an easy way to stay on top of what the media says and the industry does.

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canola cooks

NEW SEASON: New Resolutions Boost Health with Unique, Flavorful Snacks SHERI COLEMAN, B.S.N., R.N.

REMEMBER THOSE NEW YEAR’S RESOLUTIONS? They’re ancient history for many of us, unfortunately. But spring is another time for new beginnings and a great opportunity to make lasting change. Start by making the healthy choice the easy choice. Replacing other cooking oils with canola oil, which contains substantial omega-3 fat critical for heart health, is a simple way to improve your nutrition. Another is to put the candy and chips on high shelves so you need a stool to get them and keep healthy snacks handy, preferably at eye level in the pantry or fridge. Health pros frequently suggest stocking up on ready-to-eat fresh vegetables such as cherry tomatoes, baby carrots or broccoli florets. Spicy hummus made with canola oil is a great dip for a crunchy veggie snack that’s nutritious as well as relatively low-calorie. As a bonus, consuming healthy fat from canola oil helps your body absorb the vegetables’ nutrients. Nuts are another power snack idea. They make a great addition to lunch or a quick graband-go option. While delicious plain, nuts also pair well with a variety of spices. Canola oil helps the spices stick to the nuts and it has such a light flavor that it won’t interfere with the taste of delicate herbs. Instead of regretting unfulfilled resolutions, let a new, healthy lifestyle blossom this spring. SHERI COLEMAN, B.S.N., R.N., IS ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR OF THE NORTHERN CANOLA GROWERS ASSOCIATION IN BISMARCK, N.D.

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SPICY THREE-PEPPER HUMMUS Recipes from Canola Gourmet

2 cans (16 oz each) garbanzo beans, drained 2 Tbsp canola oil ¹⁄8 cup freshly squeezed lemon juice 2 Tbsp tahini 2 garlic cloves, minced 2 slices jarred jalapeño pepper, chopped 1 tsp liquid reserved from the jar of jalapeño peppers

CHILI PECANS

½ tsp freshly ground black pepper 1 ½ tsp cayenne pepper

3 cups pecan halves

½ tsp ground cumin

2 tsp canola oil

¾ tsp dried oregano

2 tsp chili powder

In large bowl, with electric mixer on low speed, combine beans, canola oil, lemon juice, tahini, garlic, jalapeño and reserved liquid until just blended. Season with pepper, cayenne, cumin and oregano and mix on medium to desired consistency. Cover and refrigerate overnight to allow flavors to meld. Yield: 3 cups.

1 ½ tsp salt Preheat oven to 375 °F. Toss all ingredients together and place on baking sheet, spreading into one layer. Bake, stirring once, until toasted, about 10 minutes. Let nuts cool completely. Mixture can be stored in plastic bag for up to one week. Yield: 3 cups.


Grow more. Share more. The InVigor More For Everyone program has made a lot of people happy. You can help us reward even more rural communities by nominating a deserving, non-profit group for a More For Everyone cash award. For details, go to www.moreforeveryone.com

The Rural Fire Protection District in Sarles, ND, benefits from a More For Everyone award. Bayer CropScience LP, 2 TW Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Always read and follow label instructions. Bayer, the Bayer Cross and InVigor are registered trademarks of Bayer. InVigor is not registered in all states. For additional product information call toll-free 1-866-99-BAYER (1-866-992-2937) or visit our website at www.bayercropscience.us. BAYER CROPSCIENCE RESERVES THE RIGHT TO MODIFY OR WITHDRAW THIS PROGRAM OR ANY PORTION THEREOF WITHOUT PRIOR NOTICE. CR1113INVIGOA091V00R0


To increase your canola potential, send disease packing. The Pioneer Protector® sclerotonia resistance trait is built into every seed to reduce disease severity. You can choose products with Clearfield® or Roundup Ready® traits too. Your local Pioneer sales professional will be with you from the word go to help make sure your canola grows up strong and productive.

Pioneer® brand canola offers strong disease resistance for more muscular yields.

Roundup Ready® is a registered trademark used under license from Monsanto Company. The unique Clearfield symbol and Clearfield ® are registered trademarks of BASF. The DuPont Oval Logo is a registered trademark of DuPont. PIONEER® brand products are provided subject to the terms and conditions of purchase which are part of the labeling and purchase documents. ®, TM, SM Trademarks and service marks of Pioneer. © 2013 PHII. DUPPCN13003VA_090113_USCD


U.S. Canola Digest March/April 2014