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Oilseed Stress Trials To Determine How Environmental Variation Influences Yield Under Stressed Production Conditions Dan Long, Research Leader USDA-ARS Soil and Water Conservation Research Unit Pendleton, OR

Project 

Accelerated development of commercial hydrotreated renewable jet fuel from redesigned oilseed feedstock supply chains  USDA

National Institute of Food & Agriculture  Biomass Research and Development Initiative  4-years (2013-17)  $7M

Goal 

Looking for ideal plant oils - and the ways to produce them - for making hydrotreated renewable jet fuel.

Objectives 

Determine how varying production environments affect the relative performance of Brassica napus, B. juncea, B. rapa, B. carinata, Sinapis alba, and Camelina sativa.

Three Primary Western US Wheat-Based Systems

Genotypes Evaluated for Stress 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Type Spring Spring Spring Spring Spring Spring Spring Spring Spring Spring Spring Spring Winter Winter Winter Winter Winter Winter

Species B. napus B. napus B. napus B. napus B. carinata B. carinata B. juncea B. juncea C. sativa B. rapa S. alba S. alba B. napus B. napus B. napus B. napus C. sativa B. rapa

Use Canola Canola Industrial Canola Industrial Industrial Canola Condiment Industrial Industrial Condiment Condiment Canola Canola Industrial Industrial Industrial Industrial

Cultivar DK3042RR Invigor L130 Gem SC28 ACC A110 080814EM Oasis Pacific Gold CO46 Eclipse Idagold Tilney Wichita Amanda Durola Dwarf Essex Joelle Largo

Source Dekalb Bayer UI UI Agrisoma Agrisoma Viterra UI MSU Univ. Alberta UI Coleman’s Mustard KSU UI UI PNW Landrace MSU Spectrum Seed

Stress Traits Within a Species Stress Factors

Plant Characteristics

 Water

 Heat  Insects  Weeds

(caused by drought)

Emergence  Weed Cover  Pest Damage  Leaf Area Index  Canopy spectral reflectance  Canopy temperature  Pod Count  Grain Yield  Stem Count  Soil Water Consumption

Experimental Design 

Randomized complete block with four replications  Winter:

6 cultivars from 3 species  Spring: 12 cultivars from 6 species  

Three years (2012-15) or (2013-16) Eight locations

Locations        

Ames, IA Morris, MN Mandan, ND Sidney, MT Akron, CO Temple, TX Moscow, ID Pendleton, OR

Planting  


Recommended plant populations Planting date and depth to best reflect regional practices Preplant tillage and fertilizer as appropriate

Growing Season Measurements 

Data  Phenology  Canopy

reflectance  Leaf Area Index  Canopy temperature  Soil moisture  Plant counts  Seed yield  Seed oil concentration  Fatty Acid profile

Yield Comparison, Pendleton, OR Highest 2014

Highest 2015

Pendleton, OR (2015 Weather) Early heat wave- mean temperature on June 8th was 91°F, with record high temperatures for three days. Especially hard hit were the B. carinata varieties. Many of the B. napus varieties were also adversely affected. The crops continued to grow well and develop pods but many pods were found empty. Surprisingly, the Camelina sativa flourished in the heat rising from our worst performer in 2014 to the top yielding variety in 2015. Oil content was not affected in B. napus, B. juncea, or B. rapa but was reduced in B. carinata and S. alba

Data Reporting Tool

Database Output

Questions 

 

What traits (heat tolerance and drought stress) do we observe about the individuals of each group resulting from the interaction of genetic makeup with the environment? Why does one genotype perform well in one environment, but not in another? What are the best performing genotypes for a given environment in terms of seed and oil yield? What are net economic returns from best performing genotypes when included in wheat-based rotations? What is the improvement in supply chain efficiency over conventional genotypes?

Complications 

Joelle camelina was the only winter-type that was able to survive the winter in the Great Plains. All winter-types survived at Moscow, ID. Extreme weather (hail) destroyed oilseeds prior to harvest at Sidney, MT. Flooding and water logging prevented establishment of oilseeds at Temple, TX. Extreme summer dryness prevented fall establishment of winter-types at Pendleton, OR.

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How environmental variation influences yield under stressed production conditions  

How environmental variation influences yield under stressed production conditions