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start learning the triple back salto. On what basis should this decision be made? The gymnast should be able to perform a double with control as well as a triple on or off the trampoline. However, the basic salto should be performed with such height and rotation as to give potential possibility of mastering more complicated saltos.

Table of Characteristics of the Triple Back Saito Name of Phase

Contents of Phase

Time of Speed of RotPhase (sec) atlon (Radlsec)

Snapdown of Backhandspring

0.04

Take off

0.08

I Rotation

0.68

9.61

II Rotation

0.4

15.7

III Rotation

0.24

11.62

Preparatory

Principal

Finishing

Opening and Landing

0.24

11.25

Possible tests of readiness could be: • Double back with opening at the apex of the height. • Double back landing on an elevated surface. • 2 1/4 back salto landing on a soft surface. Of course, all of these tests are effective only if performed with correct technique. Standard training methods for the triple salto employ the use of various auxiliary apparatus as well as spotting assistance. Some methods are trampoline-pit system. Tumbling strip pit system, spotting belts over trampoline and tumbling strip, and hand-spotting assistance for take-offs and landings. The sequence of learning the triple back on the floor depends a lot on what kind of equipment you ha ve in your gym. The most popu lar and effective sequence for learning is: • Triple back from tumbling strip to pit with spotter. • Triple back from tumbling strip to pit with no spotter. • Triple back landing on floor or extra mat with spotter. • Triple back landing on floor no spotter. • As soon as the gymnast has mastered the triple back salto he should start to perfect and polish his skill.

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At this stage, the following methods can be used: • Triple back with smaller run. • Triple back landing on an elevated surface. • Performing the triple at the end of practice when the gymnast is tired. While learning and perfecting the triple back salto, it is necessary to constantly take measures to improve technique. While doing this, the gymnast should use all previously mentioned systems while performing both double and triple saltos. Continuously strive to make the conditions more difficult, for example, decrease the number of bounces or use a harder bed on trampoline. At this level of perfection of the triple it is very helpful to do a standing double back from the floor into the pit or back handspring double back (spotting can be used). The use of the standing double back is very helpful because of the extremely difficult conditions. There is no lateral momentum from the back handsprings, and very little height and time for execution. To perform a double this way, the gymnast must make a maximum effort and maintain all details of technique with a maximum of accuracy. The triple back salto is the most difficult tumbling element in the somersaulting category. All techniques used for the triple are also important for easier skills such as a double back variations and even single back saltos. When the gymnast is trying to increase his difficulty he should pay particular attention to correct body position during the whole tumbling pass. He should try to keep his whole body tight especially the arms and legs and also he should develop quickness of movement.

References 1. Burakov, B. Triple salto of Va dim Bindler. Gymnastica. Collection of Articles, Moscow, Physical Culture and Sport 1975. Issue I , 36. 2. Gaverdovsky, Y., Mamzin, V. Basic gymnastics exercises. Gymnastica, Collection of Articles, Moscow. Physical Culture and Sport 1975. Issue pages 17-20. Kuris,Y., Smolevsky, V. Tumbling elements of high 3. complication, Moscow. Physical Culture and Sport 1985, 113. 4. Kuris, V. Triple salto with full twist-it is realistic. Gymnastica, Collection of Articles, Moscow. Physical Culture and Sport 1981. Issue 2 pages 49-53. 5. Smolevsky, V., Kuris, V. Floor exercises for men, Moscow. Physical Culture and Sport 1976, 52, 63.

May 1992 TECHNIQUE

Technique Magazine - May 1992