Page 1

u.s. Gymnastics

Psychological Demands of Women's Training



Flexibility For The Stiff Jointed Gymnast Gymnastics In The P.E. Curriculum Congress Reports

Cover Ill ustration By Ron Foster



TAPES W 0 MEN'S TAP E S #2105 1989-92 LevelI-IV Compulsory VHS - the new developmental exercises for your class and recreational students. The Levels include individual skills and skill sequences. (A+) ............. .......................................... $ 79.95 #2106 1989-92 Level 5-7 Compulsory VHS - these are the new compulsory routines that will be utilizedfor the next three years period. (A+) ...... .................................. $ 89.95

entation from the 1989 USGF Congres. GEREAT tape! ........... .... ......... ................. $15.95

#2150 1989 Women's American Classic Optiona Is (B) ................................................. $l9.95 #2151 1989 Women's American Classic Compulsories (B) ...... .............. ......... .. ..... ........$19.95 NEW! #2160 1989ChampionshipsoftheUSA - Women's Compulsories (B) .. ............... $15.95

NE W! #2161 1989 Championships ofthe USA - Women's Optionals (B) ........................$15.95

#2107 1989-92 Level 10 Compulsory VHS - This Level is adapted from the 1989-92 Elite Compulsory routines. (A+) .... $ 49.95

NEW! #2170 International Protocol Meeting from 1989 USGF Congress. This tape is required for any coach / judge attending USGF international competitions (B) ................ $10.95

#2108 Special price for purchasing all three of the 1989-92 Compulsory Levels above. (A+) ................................................ ... ...$189.95


NEW! #2127 "Dance Levels 1 & 3 Explained, Explored and Expanded". This was presented at the 1989 USGF Congress. An excellent video for the gymnastics coach seeking additional information on the new dance requirements. Includes an audio cassette! ...... ....................................... ...... $15.95 NEW! #2141 1989 McDonald's USA / USSR Challenge, Women's Optional sessions(B+) .................................... ...................... $19.95

#2225 1989 Moscow News Invitational Men's prelims, Event Finals and top Soviet Junior competition. 1:20 (A) ............. ... $ 15.95 #2240 1989 Men's American Cup - Men's Prelims and Finals. 2:00 (A+) .............$ 19.95 #2242 1989 McDonalds's USA / USSR Challenge, Optional competition (held in Columbus, OH 4/ 30/ 89) - (A+) .................... $ 19.95 NEW! #22431989 "Future Trends in Men's Gymnastics" - Mas Watanabe's 2 hour pres-

NEW! #2250 Calisthenics, Warm-up & Conditioning. (Roberto Pumpido) ..... ......... $15.95

OTHER TAPES #2601 USGF Gymnastics Safety Video "Gymnastics Safety, First, Second, Always" USGF Pro-members ............................... $29.95 Non-members.......................................... $39.95 NEW! #2270 - Jeff Metzger's Business presentations from the 1989 USGF Pre-Congress Business Seminar. Three tape set. ..... ......$39.95 NEW! #2244 - Basic Power Tumbling with World Champion Steve Elliott - progressions up through double twisting saltos (NOTE: no audio track) ......................................... ..... $15.95 ~OMING IN NOVEMBER! #2128 "Sequential Gymnastics ...the Video" - This video accompanies the Second Edition of the Sequential Gymnastics Grades 3-6 book which is now available. Video alone (#2128) ..................... ........ $15.95 Indi vid ual books (#3604) .................... $19.95 Video with book (#2129) .................... $34.95

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Inside This Issue

April-June, 1989, Volume 9, No.2

Sports Psychology Publisher Mike Jacki Director of Educational Services Stephen W. Whitlock Production Luan Peszek United States Gymnastics Federation Board Of Directors Executive Director: Mike Jacki; President: Mike Donahue; President Emeritus: Bud Wilkinson; Athlete Representatives: Brian Babcock, chair; Kathy Johnson, vice chair; Linda Ka rdos Barnett, sec; Kelly Ga rrison-Steves; Wendy Hilliard; Tim Daggett; Jim Ha rtung; Peter Vidmar; USOC Athletic Advisory Council; Amateur Athletic Union: Julie Sickles;

American Sokol Organization: Norma Zabka; American Turners: Bruno KJaus; Junior Boys Gymnastics Coaches Association: Rich Boccia; Men's Elite Coaches Association: Jim Howard; National Association for Girls and Women in Sports: Dr. Mimi Murray; National Association of Collegiate Gymnastics Men: Fred Roethlisberger; National AssociatIon of Collegiate Gymnastics Women: Judi Avener; National Association of Women's Gymnastics Judges: Dale Brown; National Collegiate Athlebc Association: SylIvia Moore, Gail Davis, Na ncy Latimore, Dave Mickelson; National Federation of State High School Associations: Sharon Wilch, Susan True; National Gymnastics Judges Association: Harry Bjerke; National High School Gymnas路 tics Coaches Association: John Brinkworth; National Jewish Welfare Board: Courtney Shanken; Rhythmic Coaches Association: Pauline David; Special Olympics, ]nc.: Kate Faber; U.S. Association of Independent Gym Club: Lance Crowley; U.S. Elite Coaches Association for Women: Roe Kruetzer, Don Peters; U.S. Sports Acrobatics Federation: Thorn Blalock; Young Men's Christian Association: CliffLothery

United States Gymnastics Federation Executive Committee President: Mike Donahue; Secretary: Judi Avener; Vice President-Women: Sue Ammerman; Vice President-Men: Jim Howard; Executive Director: Mike Jacki; F]G Women's Technical Committee: Jackie Fie; FIG Rhythmic Technical Committee: Andrea Schmid; FIG Men's Technical Committee: Bill Roetzheim; Members-At-Large: Mike Milidonis, Roe Kruetzer; Athlete Representatives: Kathy Johnson, Peter Vidmar, Wendy Hilliard, Brian Babcock; President Emeritus: Bud Wi lkinson.

Associate Content Editors SPORTS MEDICINE COMM ITTEE: Merrill A. Ritter, M.D. Frank A. Pettrone, M.D. James J. Ca mpbell, M.D. SAFETY COMMITIEE: Dr. Gerald S. George EDUCATION COMMITIEE: Susan True BIOMECHANICS COMMITIEE: Dr. Marlene Ad rian, Director SPORTS PSYC HOLOGY COMMITTEE: Dr. Keith Henschen, Ph.D. EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY COMMITIEE: Dr. Pa t Eisenman, Ph.D.

Unless expressly identified to the contrary, all articles, statements and views printed herein are attributed solely to the author and the United States Gymnastics Federation expresses no opinion hereon and assumes no responsibility thereof.


Psychological Demands Of Women's Training ....................... 4 Exercise Physiology

FlexibilityFor The Stiff Jointed Gymnast. ......................... 8 Education

The Importance of Gymnastics In the P.E. Curriculum .............. 10

page 4

Rhythmic Technical

The Musical Structure of Rhythmic Gymnastics .............. 12 Women's Technical

National Women's Tracking Program ...................... 14 Men's Technical

New Trend in High Bar Release Moves ............................ 20 Men's Technical

Technical Points on Compulsory Skills ................ 23 Event Schedule

Program Committee Reports ... 28 CHANGE OF ADDRESS AND SUBSCRIPTION INQU IRIES: In order to ensure u ninterrupted delivery of TECHNIQUE magazine, notice of change of address should be made six to eight weeks in ad va nce. For fa stest service, please enclose your present mailing label. Direct all subscription ma il to TECH NIQUE Suscriptions, Pan American Pla za, 201 S. Capitol Ave., Suite 300, Indianapolis, IN 46225. TECHN IQUE is published q uarterly for $12.00 by the United States Gymnastics Federation, Pan American Plaza, 201 S. Capi tol Ave., Suite 300, India napolis, IN 46225 (phone: 317路237路5050). Third class postage paid at Ind ianapolis, IN. Subscription price: $12.00 per year in Uni ted States; all other countries $24.00 per year. Back issue single copies $2.00 plus $1.00 postage / handling. All reasonable care w ill be taken, but no responsibility can be assumed for unsolicited material; enclose re turn postage. copyright 1987 by USGF and TECHN IQUE. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.


page 20

Sports Psychology

Psychological Demands Of Women's Training s you are all aware, gymnastics training consists of long, demanding hours K.P. Henschen, involving skill learning of both the P.Ed physical and mental dimensions. Due W.A. Sands, Ph.D. to the multitude of attributes required B.B. Schultz, Ph.D. in gymnastics, elite or international level gymnastics has been described as an extremely University of Utah demanding sport (Sands, 1984; Sands & Conklin, Department of 1984). Exercise and Sport In spite of the complexity and difficulty that is Science. characteristic of gymnastics, neither physical nor has been a systematic or endeavor. In fact, gymnastics for elite women has been a loosely and largely entrepreneurial enterprise in the United States (Szypula, 1985; Weiker, 1985). Gymnastics clubs are the most responsible for the development and training of elite female gymnasts, although occasionally a collegiate female gymnast competes at the elite level. Perhaps the single most important characteristic of elite gymnastics training for women is the relentless devotion and dedication that the coaches and athletes place on the process and goal of competing internationally for the United States. Unfortunately, this sincere desire is no substitute for formal training in the sport sciences - particularly the psychological mood states. Athletes and coaches who fail to Athletes and develop the appropriate psychological mood coaches who states of performance are at a disadvantage in the competitive world of elite gymnastics.


fail to develop the appropriate

psychological mood states of performance are at a disadvantage in the competitive world of elite gymnastics.

Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to document the psychological emotional states of elite women gymnasts to determine if the potential for psychological overtraining existed. A relationship between mood state disturbance and overtraining has been previously established (Morgan,, 1987).

Methods The research program was called the United States Gymnastics Federation National Team Athlete Tracking Program. This program consisted of designing a computer "dot" sheet that was to be filled out daily by each national team athlete. The form was designed to be easy to complete by the athlete and record many variables, among them psychological, critical to understanding relationships of training. The


computer "dot" sheet shortens and simplifies the data acquisition process considerably and provided an important convenience to the problem of acquiring data during busy training sessions. This program was offered to all female national team members four months prior to the 1988 Championships of the USA.

The Form There are three competitive groups in the U.S. Gymnastics Federation national team program. These are Junior B' s, Junior A's, and Seniors. The top half of the form was to be completed prior to training and the bottom half was to be filled in upon completion of the day's training. The psychological information recorded on the data form included: Psychological feelings prior to practice (5 point Likert-Type Scale).

a) Fatigued

c) Nervous

b) Cheerful

d) Helplessness

Analysis Analysis of the data was performed with the SPSS statistical program (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). Statistical analyses consisted of descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and the split-middle technique (Kazdin, 1982). The split-middle technique uses median scores and results in a median slope that is useful in identifying trends and is not particularly sensitive to the extreme scores that are apparent in the analysis of a wide variety of training programs.

Results and Discussion The data collection period began in March, 1988 and concluded in July, 1988. Half of the national team athletes volunteered to participate in the tracking program (Seniors = 10, Junior A = 7, Junior B = 13). These athletes provided 1034 training reports. The split-middle analyses are shown on Figure 1 as a straight line drawn over the columns of average values for each training day. The items in the psychological area were biased toward detecting any possible onset of overtraining. These measurements of mood were performed on the following areas: (a) fatigue, (b) cheerfulness, (c) nervousness, and (d) helplessness. The assessments consisted of a 5-point Likerttype scale: (a) not at all, (b) a little, (c) moderately,


Figure 1 - Average Sum of Psychological Feelings April 1 - July 3,1988 4.00

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(d) quite a bit, and (e) extremely. The items were summed with a positive value for cheerfulness and negative values for the remainder. Figure 1 shows the average of the psychological feelings per day over the data gathering period. The results were mixed during the Regional elite competition, however, a rather distinct pattern developed during the two classic competitions. The psychological variables measured here appear to deteriorate near and during the competition and immediately following. The split-middle analyses shows that the psychological feelings of the athletes get progressively better up to the first classic competition and then get progressively worse until they stabilize immediately prior to the Championships of the USA. The scale of responses form total reports is shown in Figure 1. Figure 2 illustrates that the gymnasts felt "a little" fatigued, "moderately" cheerful", and are very seldom nervous or helpless. Figure 3 indicates the cell means from the groups by months analysis. From the data presentedin Figure 3 it is obvious that there is considerable variability in each competitive group each month. This probably indicates that a month of data is too big a "chunk" to analyze. The Seniors appear to demonstrate a better profile of mood states over the studied period of time. Figure 4 indicates psychological ratings according to day of the week. This figure shows that gymnasts are most cheerful on Wednesday, Friday, Saturday, and Sunday; most fatigued on Thursday; and most nervous on the weekend.

Figure 2 - Psychological Feelings - Likert Scale U.S. Women's Gymnastics Reports

1000 800 600


2°~~~~::22~~;;~Z2~~=Z~L:~~61 Cheerful




Assessed Items •



~ Quite A Bit

A Little




Not AI All

Figure 3 - Cell Means - Psychological (Likert) Competitive Groups by Months Sum of Weighted Likert Values





Conclusions This initial study of the psychological training with the US. Women's National Gymnastics Team TECHNIQUE

Junior A


Junior B

Competitive Groups •



EITJ June 5

performances, but this was not the case in our athletes. Our elite athletes indicated an overtrained or 'burned out" profile - the opposite of what should be evident. Also, the coach may wish to use the psychological condition of the athlete immediately after the classic competition to require a mandatory rest. The exhaustion (mental and physical) following an important qualifying competition may decrease the likelihood of productive training.

Figure 4 - Psychological Ratings by Day USGF National Team Tracking Mean Rating 3.5

3 2.5





o Tue







Days â&#x20AC;˘




E2J Nervous

has shed some light on the nature of the training process as well as the psychological effects of such training. It appears that, for whatever reasons, (probably increased physical training immediately prior to a championship event) the mood states of the gymnasts deteriorated as the Championships approached. Psychologically our gymnasts should be "peaked" for important


Kazdin, A E. (1982). Sin~le-case Research Desi~ns: Methods for Clinical and Applied Settin~s . New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Morgan, W. P., Brown, D. R, Raglin, J. S., O'Connor, P. J., & Ellickson, K. A (1987) . Psychological monitoring of overtraining and staleness. British Tournai of Sports Medicine, 21 (3),107 - 114. Sands, W. A (1984). Coaching Women's Gymnastics. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers. Sands, W. A, & Conklin, N. (1984). Everybody's GymnasticS Book. New York, NY: Scribners Publishers. Szypula, G. (1985). The Administration of Gymnastics in the United States. In G. Weiker (Ed.). Clinics in Sports Medicine, (Vol. 4; pp. 7-16). Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders. Weiker, G. (1985). Club gymnastics. In G. Weiker, (Ed.). Clinics in Sports Medicine. (Vol. 4; pp. 39-44). Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders.

Safety Manual, 2nd Edition

The USGF is pleased to present the Second Edition of the Gymnastics Safety Manual. This has been the compilation of efforts 9f many of our top sports professionals headed by Project Director and Senior Editor, Dr. Gerald S. George. The final product contains almost four years of study review and the procurement of data research and documents.

The area of safety is as integrated in our sport as the most fundamental coaching concepts. The efforts of the USGF have put safety in high regard and have made it a priority in our fundamental mission of raising the standards of our sport. We simply could not raise the standards of our sport if we did not make every effort possible to make our sport safer and more enjoyable to our participants. The safety manual, while a cornerstone of this effort, has a great deal of additional support. There are other efforts such as our Safety Certification Program, safety posters, safety updates and articles, a safety video and an ongoing program of instructional clinics, workshops and seminars. - Mike Jacki, USGF Executive Director Thanks to the following contributing authors: Ken Allen, Jeff Austin, Jon Cada, Dr. Gerald Calkin, Dan Copeland, Donna Cozzo, Dr. Robert H . Dvorak, Stormy Eaton, Dr. Particia A Eisenman, Dr. AB. Frederick, Dr. Sidney A Freudenstein, Jim Gault, Jay Geist, Kayce L. Gilmore, Abie Grossfeld, Dr. Keith Henschen, Ed Isabelle, Dr. Chic Johnson, Tom Jones, Bruno Klaus, Gregory M. Lederer, Esq., Pete Longdon, OJ Milem, Rusty Mitchell, Dr. Alan P. Newman, Fred Orlofsky, Don Peters, Fred Roethlisberger, Yvonne "Sam" Sandmire, John Salvo, Dr. William A Sands, Dr. Don Tonry, Stephen Whitlock and to gymnastics illustrator James H. Stephenson. See page 2 of this magazine to order the USGF Safety Manual, 2nd Edition or any other USGF Educational materials. The manual is item #6001 and costs $16.95







SAFETY CERTIFICATION TESTING Scheduled Sessions Thursday, November 2,1989

Everyone Needs To Be Safety Certified

Lincoln, Nebraska -12:00 noon -7:00pm Union College 3800 South 48th St. Lincoln,NE 68506 Course Director: Mike Stanner 402-339-2924 Course Contact: Rick Spaulding 402-488-2331

1. Promotes a safer teaching/ learning environment. 2. Reduces insurance premiums. 3. Identifies your commitment to your profession, your sport and your athletes. 4. Implementation of stricter safety practices will help reduce the chances of accidents and/ or injuries. 5. Helps in membership recruitment.

Sunday, November 5,1989

General Points of Information

State College, Pennsylvania 11:00am-5:00pm Nittany Gymnastics & Dance Center '300 Commercial Blvd. Jtate College, PA 16801 814-238-8995 Course Director: Michale Rizzuto 814-238-8995

The text book for the Certification Course is the USGF GYMNASTICS SAFETY MANUAL. This text/reference manual is to be purchased and studied prior to course participation. 2. The course will take approximately six hours, including the test. 3. The Course fee is $100.00 (retest cost is $25.00). Call USGF317-237-S050 4. Certification is good for four years.

Saturday, November 11,1989 Charleston, West Virginia - 1:30-8:30 pm Maverick Gymnastics Club 725 Crescent Road, Charleston, WV 25302 304-344-3279 Course Director: Billy Bob Taylor 304-757-7461

Wednesday, December 27, 1989 Oahu, Hawaii - 9:00am-4:00pm Course Director: Yvonne (Sam) Sandmire 208-385-1657 Course Contact: Pam Zak - 808-922-4533 or 808-235-6356 This course will be conducted in conjuction with the Aloha Gym Fest.

Thursday, December 28, 1989 Laurel, Mississippi 10:00am-4:00pm First Baptist Church 607 West 5th Street Laurel, MS Course Director and contact: Karl Bishop 813-447-2108 :"'ocal Contact: Ms. T.J. Webb 601-649-2090


IP~ticip~~~R;~;~ti;nF~~~-----l I

Name: Mr. / Mrs./ Ms . _ _ __ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ Soc. Sec. # _ __ _ _ _ 1 Address: I City:. _ __ _ __ _ _ __ __ State:. _ _ _ _ _ _ Zip_ __ _ 1 Telephone: (H). _ _ _ _ __ __ _ (B). _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ I Course Director:. _ _ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _----.. Course Location: Date: - - - - - - - 1 1 Organization Represented:_ _ _ _ __ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _-I If USGF Member, List Type and Number--;==;--_ _ _ _ _ _ __ __

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DO NOT WRITE BELOW THIS LINE â&#x20AC;˘ FOR OFFICE USE ONLY Registration Form Received: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _____ Confirmation Mailed: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- ----c

~------------------------~ USGF Department of Safety, Pan American Plaza, Suite 300, 201 S. Capitol Ave., Indianapolis, IN 46225, 317/237-5050

Exercise Physiology

Flexibility For The Stiff Jointed Gymnast William Cornelius, Ph.D. University of North Texas

dequate joint range of motion (ROM) is achieved by the stiff or tight jointed gymnast only after persistent and so metimes arduous effort with stretching exercise. An individual is classified as stiff jointed because they possess tightly strapped connective tissue at the joint. Consequently, movement of a body segment at a joint is somewhat restricted. Slow progress is usually experienced in developing flexibility even though an individual is active and maybe involved in a flexibility exercise program as well. This condition at the joint is usually genetic and not easily altered. Hence, daily stretching is essential


appropriate for the stiff jointed gymnast, this practice may predispose the loose jointed athlete to an injury at an articulation. Effective stretching proced ures are particularly important for the stiff jointed individual. Often this individual is frustrated with efforts to realize benefits from a flexibility program. Procedures are often chosen that are either unnecessary or ineffective. It is important to develop a stretching program for the stiff jointed individual that is scientifically substantiated and adapted to their particular needs. The need to accurately identify the tasks to be performed in gymnastics activity, coupled with determining a performer's physical constraints and limitations, necessitate the use of effective stretching procedure. The following discussion, therefore, focuses on important flexibility practices essential to the stiff jointed gymnast.


Figure 1 for the stiff jointed gymnast. The outcome can be quite dramatic when effective flexibility procedure is followed . The result is better health related fitness, improved gymnastics performance, and an improved quality of life. On the other hand, a loosely strapped condition, known as loose jointed, can exist at a joint. Although the loose jointed gymnast should also remain physically active in order to maintain a standard of ROM, less time per stretching session and less frequency are required. The loose jointed individual appears to be able to easily maintain ROM and can produce greater flexibility with less effort than their counterpart. While normal or even superior ROM appears to be a characteristic of this gymnast, joint stability or integrity can be somewhat problematic because of the lack of effective ligament strapping. Therefore, while extensive stretching can be quite


Although stretching exercise will increase tissue temperature slightly, this practice should not be considered as the primary warm-up for a stiff jointed gymnast. It is the combination of general movement patterns with large muscle activity followed by effective stretching maneuvers that produce the ideal warm-up. Usually it takes approximately five minutes to adequately raise the tissue temperature in order to prepare the individual for effective stretch. The desirable temperature is within the therapeutic range of 102 to 108 degrees. Furthermore, this procedure reduces the chance of traumatizing soft tissue in the stiff jointed gymnast during stretching exercise and encourages an appropriate mechanical tissue behavior. For example, general movement patterns of light intensity, utilized prior to stretching, will aid in providing collagen fibers present in connective tissue with safer, longer lasting ROM improvements. Stretching when tissue temperature is normal or lower will provide temporary increases in flexibility and add to the chance of injury. Consequently, response of stretched muscle and connective tissue in the stiff jointed gymnast is dependent upon the conditions under which tissue elongation takes place.

Primary Target Connective tissue can be considered a primary target of flexibility exercise (figure 1). It is in this soft tissue that resistance to stretching can become


quite dominant for the tight jointed individual. Connective tissue such as tendons, ligaments, fascia, and joint capsules are made up of a tissue known as collagen. These fibers are particularly resistant to stretching maneuvers and are important in the process by which two body segments articulate. Furthermore, connective tissue in the stiff jointed gymnast can crea te limited ROM when strapped too tightly. Most resistance to stretch lies with connective tissue and not the muscle. Resistance associated with the muscle is often the fascia present in and around the muscle bundle and not the myofibrillar elements within. On the other hand, normally strapped connective tissue, such as ligaments, allows joint stability and orderly ROM.

muscle being stretched. An opposite reaction can occur when a slow stretching maneuver without associated pain is utilized. In this case, an overriding of spindles is accomplished with stimulation of Golgi tendon organs located at the musculotendinous junction. Inhibition of muscle contraction is created. This results in further lengthening of the soft tissue. Spinal Cord

Alpha Motor -f-"f4--'-~""'::',;i+ Neuron

Placement Of Stretch Effective stretching exercises will improve ROM, no matter where in the workout it is placed. Particular placement of stretching within the gymnastics workout (before, after, or both before and after) does not appear to influence ROM improvement. There are, however, other important considerations for placement of stretching exercise within the workout for the stiff jointed gymnast other than to improve ROM. Placement can provide particular outcomes important to the individual. Stretching exercise placed before the primary workout is believed to reduce injury. Tissue trauma and resulting soreness can be reduced by placing stretching exercise subsequent to the primary workout. The collection or pooling of metabolic products in joints and muscles can be persuasively dispersed when the cool-down process includes effective stretch. Therefore, it appears wise for the stiff jointed gymnast to stretch before and after the primary workout in order to receive full benefits from a flexibility program.

Use Of Sensory Mechanisms The use of painful and / or ballistic stretching maneuvers will stimulate muscle spindle receptors resulting in greater resistance to stretch . The old fashioned idea of "no pain, no gain" once again is untrue particularly for the stiff jointed individual. Painful or fast stretching exercise simply creates muscle contraction at a time when lower tissue tension and relaxation is desirable. Figure 2 demonstrates the neural circuit for the monosynaptic reflex referred to as a stretch reflex created when muscle spindle receptors fire. Muscle spindles sense tension during conditions where fast or painful stretch is present. A strong signal is transmitted to the spinal cord causing instantaneous reflex contraction when a muscle is suddenly stretched or pain is felt. Excitation of the spindles causes a reflex contraction of the TECHNIQUE

Figure 2

Summary Ineffective procedures must simply be eliminated if opportunity is to avail itself. The stiff jointed individual will continue to experience limitation in both health related fitness and sports / dance performance without normal ROM. Consequently, persistence and the use of effective stretching procedure are a must.

References 1. Cornelius, W.L., K. Tyree, CL. Wood, A.W. Jackson. (1986). Placement of static stretching exercises in a workout program. Technique, 6(2):15-17. 2. Cornelius, W.L., R.W. Hagemann, A.W. Jackson. (1989) A study on placement of stretching within a workout. TournaI of Sports Medicine and PhYSical Fitness, In press. 3. DeVries, H.A. (1961). Electromyographic observations of the effects of static stretching upon muscular distress. Research Quarterly, 32:468-479. 4. Guyton, A.C (1981). Textbook of Medical Physiology (6th ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co. 5. Sapega, A.A., T.C Quedenfeld, R.A. Moyer, R.A. Butler. (1981). Biophysical factors in range-of-motion exercise. The Physician and Sportsmedicine 9(12): 57-65,106. 9

It appears wise for the stiff jointed gymnast to stretch before and after the primary workout in order to receive full benefits from a flexibility program.

Educational Gymnastics

Gymnastics'Importance In The P.E. Curriculum Susan True USGF, Education Subcommittee

Properly sequenced gymnastics activities contribute to the development of upper body and abdominal strength, which is seriously lacking in many American children.

n 1985, the United States Gymnastics Federation formed an Education Subcommittee chaired by Garland O'Quinn, Ph.D. with the mission of developing a curriculum of gymnastics activities appropriate for physical education classes for grades K-12. The primary reasons for this major undertaking were: a concern about the decreasing number of school systems which require physical education as a part of a student's education at the elementary and secondary school level, the resultant reduction in the number of certified physical education teachers in the schools, particularly elementary schools and the lack of gymnastics activities in remaining physical education programs. The return of gymnastics activities to elementary and junior high school physical educations programs could have a positive impact on the growth of competitive gymnastics programs. Many gymnasts have reported their interest in the sport began in tumbling and other gymnastics-type activities in elementary physical education class. Unfortunately, physical education requirements are being eliminated rather than added to public school curriculum requirements, and the legal climate in the U.S. has made many school principals and some physical educators afraid to include competitive gymnastics activities in their physical education programs. As budgets are cut and professional staff are reduced, some of the first staff positions to be cut are specialists such as physical education teachers in the elementary schools. All of these factors have a negative domino effect on competitive programs at the high school and collegiate levels. Gymnastics was the mainstay of physical education programs in the U.s. prior to the World Wars. Participation in these activities can contribute in unique ways to the proper physical development of every child. Properly sequenced gymnastics activities contribute to the development of upper body and abdominal strength, which is seriously lacking in many American children. They can also contribute more to the development of inverted agility, orientation in space and upright and inverted balance than almost any other sport-oriented activities. In addition, properly conducted gymnastics activities, because they are weightbearing activities, aid the development of strong bones. The two programs either revised or written by the USGF Ed ucation Subcommittee also include sessions on landing and falling safely, skills which



are important to all physical activities. Garland O'Quinn states, "Gymnastics is too important to be left only to the gymnastics athletes of our country. Every child in our nation would benefit and enjoy a gymnastics experience." There have been both negative and positive results of the tremendous television exposure of elite level gymnastics. It is a daring and exciting sport to view; however, it also stereotypes "gymnastics" as an elite, risky, competitive activity. That image frightens many school personnel, including physical educators with no experience teaching competitive or noncompetitive gymnastics activities. The education community will have to be informed about the difference between non-competitive gymnastics activities and competitive gymnastics, and that the former can be safely ta ught to all children. The two programs which the USGF Education Subcommittee has been involved in revising or writing can be taught by any physical educator or trained personnel. (Developmental Gymnastics for ages 3-9 and Sequential Gymnastics for Grades 3-6.) They require a minimum of equipment, which most elementary schools already have, or could obtain without serious budgetary implications (ie. panel mats, floor / junior balance beam, horizontal bar and spring board). These gymnastics programs remove the guesswork concerning proper progression. The activities are illustrated and described in the order in which they should be taught. Each skill should be internalized by the children before presenting the next skill. A skill has become internalized (a conditioned response) when the child can perform the skill wi thou t constant a tten tion of the conscious mind. Both of these gymnastics programs, Developmental Gymnastics for Grades K-3, and Sequential Gymnastics for Grades 3-6 are available through the USGF. In addition to the curriculum guide, the Sequential Gymnastics curriculum is also available on videotape. If the response of the over one hundred elementary physical educators who attended the seminar on Sequential Gymnastics at the 1989 American Alliance for Health, Physical Ed ucation, Recrea tion and Dance Conference in Boston is any indication, this USGF project will have a positive impact on the future of gymnastics in our schools. There were two presentations of the Sequential Gymnastics curriculum, along with a preview of the newly revised Sequential Gymnastics program, at the 1989 USGF Congress meetings that were held in Philadelphia. TECHNIQUE

USGF Report

Member Representatives Elected to Board Congratulations to the new board representatives that were elected in the first na tional membership election. They include: For Rhythmic - Marina Davidovich from FL and Jolie Barretta from CA; Men's ProgramDave Strobel from OK and Bob Wuornos from MN; Women's Program - Joan Moore Rice from SC and Jeff Metzger fromOHl

New Policy Through a new set of by-laws approved by the Board of Directors of the United States Gymnastics Federation, six new members have been elected to the USGF' s board. The USGF Board of Directors is the representative body that runs the USGF. From the board, the executive committee and the officers are elected. For the first time, the national membership has been allowed to elect representatives from the three disciplines to sit on the board. Candida tes were identified and selected by state and regional boards. The nominees were presented to the three respective program committees who selected the slate of candidates. Information was distributed to all professional members, including ballots. The ballots were returned to the USGF and the two candidates from each discipline receiving the most votes were declared our winners. We had a great group of talented and dedicated professionals who comprised our slate of candida tes and we wish to congratulate all of them on their achievements. We are very pleased to be able to name our new board members who will be representing our professional membership throughout the rest of this quadrennium. These people represent the leadership of our sport and we are pleased to have them on our Board of Directors as they help guide the USGF into the 1990's. TECHNIQUE


Mike Jacki USGF, Executive Director

RHYTHMIC RESULTS Marina Davidovich, FL 50 votes Jolie Barretta, CA 39 votes Mary Ellen Holdreith, FL 35 votes Alla Svirsky, CA 27 votes

MEN'S PROGRAM RESULTS Dave Strobel, OK Bob Wuornos, MN Rick Boyer, GA Gerry Denk, IL

205 votes 190votes 163 votes 137votes

WOMEN'S PROGRAM RESULTS Joan Moore Rice, SC Jeff Metzger, OH James Archer, TX Frank Sahlein, ID N eela Nelson, AR Joe Polizzano, CT

704 votes 482 votes 391 votes 224 votes 205 votes 199 votes



Musical Structure of Rhythmic Gymnastics Tang Tieji Chinese Rhythmic Choreographer

Music is the art of time that is directly associated with the musical structure.

hythmic gymnastics is not simply a type of athletics. A systematic rhythmic gymnastics routine is itself a piece of art. The success of a piece of art lies in its power to move the audience and its power to arouse sympathy in the audience's emotional and aesthetic consciousness. The layout of a rhythmic gymnastics routine should be based on the perfect harmony between movements and music. Music is the spirit of rhythmic gymnastics and the layout begins with music. It's no doubt, therefore, that the composing of music for rhythmic gymnastics is the main point in the whole process. Any kind of art has its own way of expressing itself and music portrays its artistic images by such material measures as sounds that move with the flow of time. Fluidity and timeliness are the dispositions of music. In short, music is the art of time that is directly associated with the musical structure. It is particularly reflected by the music for rhythmic gymnastics that is different from ballet, dance, vocal music, instrumental music and other kinds of music in structure. The music for rhythmic gymnastics is confined, first of all, by the time for sports contests. For example, the time limit for individual exercises is 60 to 90 seconds and for group exercises two to two-and-a-half minutes or two-and-a-half to three minutes. In order to create a unique, moving musical image in such a limited time, the distinction in musical form that differs from other kinds of music should be considered.


4 Stages In Composing A Piece Of Music: 1. Primitive manifestation of subject 2. Strengthening of the contents of manifestation 3. Development of the contents of manifestation 4. Successful completion of the whole music The structures of musical form from small to large scales for musical pieces (for example period, binary form, ternary form, variation form, rondo form and sonata form) are the summation of music for generations. They are widely developed in pieces different in style, times and by different composers. They form a strict system as the guide 12

for composers to compose musical pieces by rational measures. The ways of creating musical image' s form, stylistic characteristics and expressive measures have been rich, but they have one thing in common - that is, there should be four stages in composing a piece of music: a) primitive manifestation of subject-b) strengthening of the contents of manifestationc) development of the contents of manifestation and d) successful completion of the whole music. This process can be generalized to four words: introduction, elucidation, transition and summing up. In the second World Cup Rhythmic Gymnastics Championships held in the capital of Tokyo, Japan in 1986, the musical structure of the cham pion grou p, Bulgaria's three balls and three hoops," from its subject material to the whole set of its musical structure, reflects the law. Every law is flexible and so islaw of the structure of musical form for rhythmic gymnastics. Limited in time, the musical structure of the rhythmic gymnastics appears to be more flexible, more succinct, more free and more changeable. In order to compose an impressive piece of music in such a limited time, original musical structure has to be developed to the unique musical structure of rhythmic gymnastics based on the settled form laws. The new trend of development in musical structure can be seen in a number of musical pieces of rhythmic gymnastics composed in recent years. In the following context, we will generalize the characteristics of the musical structure of rhythmic gymnastics through an analysis of the four stages: introduction, elucidation of the theme, transition to another viewpoint and summing up. II

Introduction It is the manifestation of the original music conception at the primitive stage of the music subject. Generally speaking, it has already had its specific structure and rather definite content expression in music tune. An impressive musical image should be composed in short time so as to arouse strong emotion and supply information in the area of very limited time movement in the music of rhythmic gymnastics whose acoustic base depends on the process of the time movement. Because of the limitation of length, the materials selected should be clearer, more succinct, and more exquisite and they should be highly concentrated. Emphasis should be put on the distinguishing features of the melody, rhythm, modes, harmony, organic system and timbre so as to deeply impress and highly stimulate the audience. In order to attract the audience as quickly as possible, experts of both China and abroad often choose various theme music or TECHNIQUE

of ornamental sections or change; synthesis of the previous materials; the renewal of rhythm, tonality, sound area, organic system and the second formation of climax. This stage is very important in that it is the generalization of the whole composition and the completion of impression. Those mentioned above are the general laws of the four stages. As the movement layouts of the rhythmic gymnastics are ever changing, these four steps should change accordingly. This change is not rigid, instead it is flexible. Usually the stage It's the further explanation of the music of introduction and the stage of elucidation merge conception, focusing on the security of the musical into one; the stage of elucidation and the stage of image and the deepening of the audience' transition merge into one. Thus forms the soimpression, and on the basis of the strengthening called three literary steps of "beginning, of the primitive statements of the theme of music. development and emergence" and two processes It doesn't produce the elements that show sharp of calling and reaction. With the rapidity of the contrast with the original music conception, the modern society and the rapidity of the sports ways of its expression: sequence, extension, the movements, the structure of the rhythmic sequence of change and sometimes even endless gymnastics irregularly changes. Or the structure repetition is used to emphasize the creation of changes around a center. It is mainly reflected in music image. These techniques are used in the that a theme is brought into full play and "hoop" music for Bulgarian rhythmic gymnast impressions are deepened constantly in a short Ignatova in the European Cup Contest in 1983, time, adding materials that are used to make and the "ball" music for Bulgarian rhythmic contrasts so as to produce moving effects. This gymnast Panova in the World Cup contest in kind of structure can be seen mostly in the music 1986. for group exercises. It can be specified into: first revelation of the theme music (introduction) production of the new contrasted materials through derivation and development (transition) It is the further development of the music - emergence of change in materials at the stage of conception, to develop the contents of the new introduction (shorten or widen the length) statement that are rather unstable. It emphasizes further recommendation of the transitional the formation of contrast on the basis of unity. materials that have been changed (small climax)New materials are generally evolved from the further emphasis of the music at the stage of original theme material. They are mainly treated introduction (at the other tonalities, or changing by the new techniques so as to enrich the expressive the materials of introduction)-introduction of measures and make contrasts. There are various the music at the stage of transition (formation of ways including: change of modes, tonalities turn- climax)-complete reappearance or changeable ing from lucid to dim, organic systems turning reappearance of the introduction (images become from strong to weak, rhythms turning from rapid fuller) - second formation of climax to complete to slow. Mainly leaping, unrestrained and wide the process of summing up-end of whole music ... melody grows to be stepping, soft, smooth and This kind of writing style resembles variation steady or visa versa and the exchange of sound form in music composition, only the latter changes area and timbre; emergence of sections of high are more flexible and irregular. Now we call it tide. Especially, the composition of group music "short variation composition from various angles" can be more flexible at the stage of transition. It to make the images more concentrated, brighter can be changed from various levels and angles. and fuller. Thus the musicfor rhythmic gymnastics Even new material can be added to make the impresses the audience deeply with its distinction effect of contrast. There are many examples not to of fast change. be listed one by one. Though the musical structure of rhythmic gymnastics changes very fast within a short period of time, we should be careful to keep perfect unity between the materials and the musical style. A Thus is the end of development of music musical theme image is like the seed of a big tree, conception. After the three stages of introduction, elucidation and transition, the identical and and a piece of complete composition is like a tree contrasted elements have been fully developed. full of leaves. The composing of the music for It is the main object of summing up to get unity of rhythmic gymnastics, from its exposition stage to contradictions on the basis on the three stages. It the completion of the whole piece is like a tree that is harmony and unity only that make the music experiences the steps of sowing its seeds, growth image full, round, rich and perfect to satisfy the of bud and roots and finally the growth of branches audience. The techniques are used to reappear to and leaves. Any tall tree grows from a tiny seed. The time for rhythmic gymnastics music is the previous music materials on the stage of the statement and development. They take the very finite but the change of the musical structure following forms: coordination of the beginning is infinite. Let us compose a piece of ever-changing and the end; obvious reappearance; reappearance composition in a definite period of time. sections from famous music from the world music treasury as the material for introduction. The reserve of music that survives the test of time is the endless resource for the composing of rhythmic gymnastics music and an essential way suitable for the selection of the material for introduction. Introduction decides the fundamental tune for the whole set of music. It' s vitally important to critically select material and carefully compose it.






The time for rhythmic gymnastics music is very finite - but the change of the musical structure is infinite.

Women's Technical

National Women's Tracking Program


e cannot expect to win in the 1990' s using 1960 training methods. The W.A. Sands, Ph.D. u.s. is a big country with many K.P. Henschen, P.Ed. different coaches and athletes B.B. Schultz, Ph.D. working in relative isolation, using very different trial and error methods, with little or no educa tion in sport science, and expecting University of Utah world class results. Sport science has been rather Department of inadequate in really helping these coaches and Exercise and athletes. Singular testings are useless without Sport Science follow up. Testing facilities are often not close enough to the training centers. Many sport scientists have difficulty speaking the "coaches language" or taking direction from coaches. Sport scientists often assess those training parameters Continuous and that are the easiest to assess so that the results are immediate feedback a lot of descriptive informa tion tha t no more hel ps an athlete get better than telling him / her to eat must be given to right or try harder. Sport science must reach into the daily practice coaches and athletes session, scientifically assessing training to inform them of parameters that are relevant to improvement and high performance within the four walls or the progress of boundaries of the individual training facilities. Continuous and immediate feedback must be training, the given to coaches and athletes to inform them of potential for overthe progress of training, the potential for overtraining with given training efforts, and the training with given ability to learn from last year's mistakes. Then training efforts, and sport science must develop training models that are easily implemented by coaches and athletes, the ability to learn based upon sound scientific analysis of current training methods that are productive. from last year's Sports training consists of the application of a very simple paradigm. Athletic training is built mistakes. on the assumption that an increase in some training parameterresults in fatigue which is later followed by recovery and a supercompensation or improvement of performance beyond the preincrease condition. This paradigm can also be described as a dose/ response relationship. In other words, sports training is the controlled application of a dosage of physical work, which results in a response (fatigue, recovery, supercompensation, and involution). The dosage can involve more than just physical work. Psychological or emotional "work" can also be given to an athlete, that results in a response. Moreover, the actual source of the dosage and manifestation of the response can vary between the physical and psychological areas (Bompa, 1983; Morgan, Brown, Raglin, O'Connor, 14

and Ellickson, 1987; Sands, 1984). The control of the dose/response relationship is much of what coaching and training are all about. The dosage side of this relationship can be described as the input to the training situation, the performance of the athlete can be described as the output. The input is what the athlete does in daily training. An important assumption of athletic training is that increasing the input or dosage results in an increased output or performance. Unfortunately, there appears to be a multitude of factors that interfere with the precise predictability ofthis rela tionship. The problems of injury, chronic fatigue or overtraining, slumps, dropping out, various psychological mood alterations, and other problems are readily observed as performance deterrents in athletes in all sports including gymnastics. In an attempt to gain insight and control over the many factors that can influence performance in gymnastics, a study of gymnastics training was performed. The purpose of this ongoing study was twofold: 1. To develop and implement a means of tracking the training of the elite female gymnast to uncover relationships of various parameters to performance. 2. To develop a means of monitoring training for feedback to the coach and athlete with regard to the progress of training, by assisting in the prevention of overtraining, injury, dropping out, and other performance problems that plague the young international level gymnast.

Methodology: How The Sfudy Was Conducted A program of tracking was devised and implemented by the U.S. Gymnastics Federation involving a computer" dot" sheet that was used to collect information regarding the dose/response relationship. A dot sheet form was designed and provided free of charge to all national team athletes along with enough envelopes and postage to return the completed forms to the University of Utah - Motor Behavior Research Laboratory for analysis. Computer software was written to analyze the scanned sheets and produce graphic and numeric output for later compilation and analysis. The graphic results were returned to the TECHNIQUE


coaches and athletes on approximately 10 to 14 day intervals with hand written comments regarding the apparent progress of training and physical condition of the athlete. If necessary, a phone call was made to alert the coach of any important and potentially damaging patterns in the data. The form was a simple dot sheet design that included a section to be completed prior to training and a section to be completed after training. Each athlete was assigned an 10 number so that identification of individual athletes was possible. The athletes completed the forms by filling out the top portion of the form prior to training and the bottom portion following training. The various physiological measures and measures of mood state were self determined. The element counting was performed by tallying while training and later transferring the totals to the dot sheets. The following information was obtained on a daily basis from the participating athletes. See Chart 1.

How Do The National Team A thletes Train? Volume and Intensity The period of data collection was from late March 1988 to early July 1988. The analyses ofthe data were limited to the period from April 1, 1988 to July 3, 1988. The study period involved the training of athletes for qualification competitions prior to the Championships of the USA, and the Championships of the USA. These competitions were part of the long qualifying process for the 1988 Olympic Trials. This period included a "zone" competition that apparently very few of these athletes attended, May 6-7, 1988. The American and U.S. Classic Competitions were held May 21-23, 1988 and June 18-20, 1988, respectively. These competitions were attended by many of the athletes who participated in the tracking study. Half ofthe national team athletes volunteered to participate in this study with approximately half of each competitive group participating (Seniors = 10, Junior A = 7, Junior B = 13). These athletes collectively provided 1034 training reports. The breakdown of training reports is shown in Chart 1. The analysis of group information with regard to volume and intensity is shown in Figures 2, 3, and 4. These graphs show the average of all training reports per day. Volume was defined as the total number of elements performed on that given day. An element was considered to be a single performance of any single skill. Examples of elements include: one handstand, one forward roll, one giant swing, one back handspring, and so forth. Conditioning elements were also counted in a similar fashion, one handstand push-up equaled one element. Volume was used to determine the total amount of effort performed without regard to the TECHNIQUE

Chart 1

Athlete Information Collected 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

ID Number Date Day of the week Weight Health status Pre-practice resting heart rate Time to bed (to the nearest half hour) . Time awakened (to the nearest half hour). Sleep disturbances (5 pt. Likert-type scale) . a) inability to fall asleep b) restless sleep c) premature awakening 10. Psychological feelings prior to practice (5 point Likert-type scale) . a) fatigued b) cheerful c) nervous d) helpless 11. Injuries by body part. Unilateral Injuries. a) neck b) head c) face d) ribs e) abdomen f) low back g) upper back Bilateral Injuries h) fingers i) hand j) wrist k) forearm I) elbow m) upper arm n) shoulders 0) hip p) thigh q) hamstring r) groin s) knee t) shin u) calf v) ankle w) heel x) foot y) toes 12. Number of balance beam elements. 13. Number of balance beam routines. 14. Number of uneven bar elements. 15. Number of uneven bar routines . 16. Number of vault elements. 17. Number of floor exercise elements. 18. Number of floor exercise routines. 19. Number of conditioning elements. 20. Number of tumbling elements. 21. Hours of training (to the nearest half hour).

Table 1 - Training Reports by Competitive Group and Month Competitive Group


Senior Junior A Junior B

223 266 545



March April May June July

16 413 371 223 11


21.6 25.7 52.7 Percentage

1.5 39.9 35.9 21 .6 1.1


Figure 2 -

Average Volume Per Day April 1 -

July 3, 1988

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difficulty or intensity of the efforts, Difficult whether the values are increasing or decreasing elements were counted the same as an easy and at what rate across the training periods) . element, this was done to reduce the difficulty of Figure 2 shows that volume continues to completing the forms for the athletes. Average increase throughout the preparation period volume per day across the training period under leading to the Championships of the USA with a study is shown in figure 2. dramatic increase following the second Classic Intensity was defined in two ways for this competition. The upward sloping lines show that study. One method of determining intensity is to the trend in each period is one of increasing calculate the ratio of the number of elements volume. The positions of the lines relative to each performed during a training minute. This value is other also indicates that each period has a higher indicative of how tightly packed the elements are median value associated with it. in time. A second, but related, measure ofintensity Figure 3 shows that the average intensity, is the number of routines performed. Several measured in elements per minute, also continually authors have shown that as the number of elements increases throughout the period leading to the performed in a row is increased the intensity of Championships of the USA. Again, an increase in the exercise is increased (Bompa, 1983; Montpetit, intensity level is evident during the final period 1987; Sands, 1984,1987). Of course, a combination following the second Classic competition. The and a routine are a series of elements performed average daily total routines depicted in Figure 4 in a row. Usually combinations involve less than indicates a trend of continual increase in routine the total number of skills in a routine. Only training during this preparatory period. A pulse routines were recorded separately. This was of increased intensity level is demonstrated during assessed due to the ease of assessment and to the last training period and another large increase reflect the special intensity of routine performance is demonstrated in routine training immediately in mimicking the competitive performance. prior to the second Classic Competition. The rate A split-middle analysis, a statistical technique of increase in each training period appears to be borrowed from single-subject experimental relatively similar due to the same approximate designs (Barlow & Hersen, 1984; Kazdin, 1982), is slopes of the split-middle analyses. used in Figures 2,3, and 4 to facilita te data analysis. All of these analyses indicate that the U.S. This technique results in a line showing a kind of National Team athletes studied during this period median slope or a slope between the median delay the increase in training load until a period values of the first half of the data and the second from two to three weeks prior to the major half of the data in the time series. Therefore, the competitive event. Moreover, volume and the lines drawn over the columns of average daily two parameters of intensity assessed were volume (Figure 2), average daily intensity (Figure increased simultaneously indicating a globally 3), and average daily total routines (Figure 4), applied acceleration of training. The most show the directional trend of the values (i,e., pertinent question to be asked at this point is, "Is 16



this pattern the most optimal way to control training load for peak performance?"

Stage II

Achieving Peak Performance

Stage II preparatory period refers to a time segment filled primarily with combination training (less than full routines) to determine and prepare the segments of skills that will form the later competitive routines. The volume of skills performed during this period is slightly less, but the intensity is increased due to the number of skills connected in sequence and the increased physical demands of these sequences. Rest time between skills is reduced, therefore intensity is increased. The total number of skills performed during training is reduced due to an overall reduction in the variety of skills performed and to longer rest periods between combinations of skills.

The research literature presents a very different picture of the changes in volume and intensity as an athlete attempts to prepare for a peak performance. First and foremost, the relationship of volume to intensity should be INVERSE. In other words, as volume increases, intensity should correspondingly decrease, and vice versa. Moreover, this is especially true as training nears an important event (Bompa, 1983; Gilbert, 1980; Jerome, 1980; Matveyev, 1977; Sands, 1984). This inverse relationship is designed to prevent overtraining or chronic fatigue by avoiding loading the athlete's physical and emotional systems with too much work. Sands (1984) presented a four stage model of gymnastics training that has been modified to fit the training period in this study (Figure 5) and assumes a goal of peaking at the Championships of the USA.

relationship of volume to intensity should other words, as

Stage III, the precompetitive period, refers to the period where the athletes perform routines almost exclusively in preparation for an upcoming competition. In this period, the volume of total skills performed continues to decrease, but intensity is high due to the increased length of sequences leading to whole routines. Intensity is increased further by adding a "competitive atmosphere" to the performances and insisting on the highest quality. Generally, volume is kept low by reducing total training time. The competitive period (Stage IV) is another period ofroutine training with even lower volume and even higher intensity. During this period the emphasis is on very high quality so that the

The stage I preparatory period refers to a time segment filled primarily with skill training. The volume of skills performed is high, but the intensity is relatively low. This translates to a large number of skills performed with plenty of rest between skills. This ensures optimal recovery between skill executions and enhanced circumstances for skill learning and strength and power

foremost, the


Stage III

Stage I

First and

volume increases, intensity should correspondingly decrease, and vice versa.

Figure 3 - Average Intensity (Elements/Minute) April 1 - July 3,1988 7 . 00 ;u





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30 3




increased intensity demands are measured not so much by higher numbers of routines, but higher demands for perfected execution. In fact, the numbers of routines performed will usually be the same or less than the previous precompetitive period. Again, this is accomplished by reducing training time (i.e., short and sweet).

Conclusion The results of so severe an increase in both volume and intensity, and so near an important competition, may result in maladaptive responses on the part of the athletes.

The apparent pa ttern of training load increase priortoa major competitive event does not appear to be optimal with regard to women's national team gymnastics. Several authors, both foreign and domestic (Bompa, 1983; Matveyev, 1977; Sands, 1984), have developed models of training for gymnastics and other sports that do not agree with the apparent distribution of training load being used by our national team athletes. Future papers will discuss the individual events and the responses of these athletes to the training they experienced during this period. The results of so severe an increase in both volume and intensity, and so near an important competition, may result in maladaptive responses on the part of athletes. The results and potential consequences of the current training program will be demonstrated in future articles derived from this study.

References Barlow, D.H. & Hersen, M. (1984). Single Case Experimental Designs: Strategies for Studying Behavior Change, (2nd Ed.). New York, NY: Pergammon Press.

Bompa, T.O. (1983). Theory and Methodology of Training. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt. Gilbert, D. (1980). The Miracle Machine. New York, NY: Coward & McCann. Jerome, J. (1980). The Sweet Spot in Time. New York, NY: Summit Books. Kazdin, AE. (1982). Single-case Research Designs: Methods for Clinical and Applied Settings. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Matveyev, 1. (1977). Fundamentals of Sports Training. Moscow, USSR: Progress Publishers. Monpetit, RR (1987). Physiological aspects of gymnastics training. In B. Petiot, J.H. Salmela, T.B. Hoshizaki, (Eds.). World Identification Systems for Gymnastic Talent. (pp. 181-196). Montreal Canada: Sport Psyche Publications. Morgan, W.P., Brown,D.R, Raglin,J.s., O'Connor, P.J., & Ellickson, J.A (1987). Psychological Monitoring of Overtraining and Staleness. British TournaI of Sports Medicine, 21(3), 107114. Sands, W.A (1984). Coaching Women's Gymnastics. Champaign,IL: Human Kinetics. Sands, W.A., Newman, A.P., Harner, c., Paulos, L.E., Shultz, B.B. (1987). A two year study of injury in collegiate women's gymnastics. Technique, 7(3), 4-10.

Figure 4 - Average Intensity (Elements/Minute) A~ril1


- July 3, 1988

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Figure 5 - Periodization Model (Sands, 1984)


1 '10

.. - ..- .. .. . .-

.-.- - - -..

------ .--,~------,

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Stage IV Competitive Period


Stage III Pre-Competitive Period




Routine Training , High Intensity, Lower Volume .

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Sequential Gymnastics

(~rades 3-6) 2nd. Edition. Just revised by the

USGF Education Sub-committee, this book is ideal for P.E. teachers as well as the club developmental and pre-competitive coaches. The book is 3-hole punched so pages can be removed and posted for the gymnasts to see the skills. Illustrations beautifully drawn by James H. Stephenson. (A video-tape of all of the sequential skills will be available in late Nov.) ........... $19.95 #11 Coaching Women's Gymnastics (Dr. Bill Sands) ........ .................................... $22.95

NE W! #6001 - The USGF Safety Manual, 2nd Ed .................................. ......... .. .... $16.45

USGF Safety Posters #6101 - 1. Safety Guidelines ............. $5.00 #6102 - 2. Respon. of Gymnasts ....... $5.00 #6103 - 3. Mats ................................... $5.00 #6104 - 4. Safety First! ....................... $5.00 To order any of these publications, please use the form on page 2 of this magazine. Orders received prior to December 12, 1989 will be shipped in time for the Holidays. (Subject to item availability).



New Trend In High Bar Release Moves Hideo Mizoguchi USGF Junior Technical Coordinator

n recent International competitions we have witnessed more and more difficult release moves being performed on high bar. Often times, the new FIG rules affect the course of trend, and the high bar release moves are just one example (and prime indication) of this change. Recently, the following release moves have been observed in international competitions:

I a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h.

Gaylord I (Tucked, Piked, Straddled) Gaylord II (Tucked, Piked) Deff (Full Twisting Gienger) Winkler (Full Twisting Jeager) Layout Tkatchov full Twisting Layout Tkatchov Kovacs (Tucked or Layout) Xiao Ruizhi (Reverse Hecht Front Catch)

Often new skills that are developed by others at first may appear to be very difficult to acquire by others in the near future. However, as familiarity and clear understanding of the logical steps that lead to sound progression for the perfection of these particular skills, their performance may soon become very commonplace. For example, when basic release moves, such as the Gienger, Jeager, Tka tchov, and

A â&#x20AC;˘ Gaylord I (Piked) Gym nas t ¡ Li Jing (C HN) 89 America n Cup


A - Gaylord J <Piked) Gymnast -Dimitri Vorobiev (USSR) '89 McDonald 's Challa n ge USA vs. USSR

Deltchev were first performed internationally, these moves were regarded as spectacular skills that could be performed by only a few gymnasts at the very highest level. But of course, with the advance of mechanical understandings and the development of sound progressions, these moves are now commonly performed both nationally and internationally. When the same logic is applied to the new high bar release moves (as well as all of the new skills in recent gymnastics performances) then soon all of the skills will be commonly seen. In order for the U.S. gymnasts to be competitive internationally, they must obviously need to keep abreast of these changes and new trends. A concerted effort must be taken toward the perfections of these skills now. Although, in the examples illustrated in this article, a detail of the mechanical analysis will not be discussed, the astute and careful observer will gain insight into the performance needs and characteristics of these "higher level skills." Editor's Note: The drawings were created by Hideo Mizoguchi using a Panasonic Omni VP-330 Video Camera to record performances, a Mitsubishi Video Printer P-60U to obtain the selected sequence photos and a light box to create the drawings. TECHNIQUE



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Technical Points On Compulsory Skills he intention of the compulsory exercise is to evaluate and separate one's refinement level of the basic skills on each event in the routine form. The compulsory competition then, will test each gymnast on their gymnastics foundation. Therefore, gymnasts always try to maximize their technical execution on every skill in the routine. Consequently, the level of execution on some skills becomes the most difficult level which is defined as a "0" skill in the code. There have always been some critical skills in the compulsory which tend to separate the good from the mediocre gymnasts. This article discusses some of those critical skills and technical executions. The skills selected here are: Pommel Horse-dismount; Rings-cas t forward to inloca te; Vault-full twisting handspring; and Parallel Bars-front uprise stutz.


Pommel Horse:

Dismount (Bailey handstand)




Critical point of execution 1. The hips should be extended throughout the Bailey action. (The hips should move around the pommel and as much away from it as possible.) 2. The rear support position prior to the travel down. a. The shoulder should be as square to the pommel as possible. See 6, Figure 1. b. The hips should be extended to the front as much as possible. 3. The traveling down to the end with 1/ 4 turn. a. Initiate the traveling action as straight back as possible and delay the hip turning action. b. Avoid the excess shoulder lean to the side on the supporting arm and initiate the vigorous hip lifting action just when the other hand reaches end. c. The feet should stay very close to the end of the horse and the hips should be at least shoulder height by the time the hand reaches down to the end of the horse. See 7, Figure 1. 4. During the press to handstand, pushing (blocking) with the supporting hand and the shoulders is very critical. (Refer to figure 2 & 3.) There are two ways to lift the body to the handstand position: a. Lift the hips vigorously with slight shoulder turning action, similar to a stiff stiff press to handstand fashion . Figure 2. b. Leave the shoulders in the slightly lean TECHNIQUE

forward position and open the hip angle fairly early, then press the body to the handstand in similar to the straight arm straight body press fashion with the very strong blocking action on the shoulders. Figure 3.


Mas Watanabe USGF Men's Technical Coordinator


Figure 1

Figure 2

Fi ure 3

NOTE: Ideally, the hip piking action should be as little as possible. However, above mentioned step 'a' could be used as a step to 'b' stage.

Common Mistakes 1. The hips turn open too far during the Bailie. 2. The hips stay too close to the pommel. 3. The hips turn too far, too soon during the traveling down to the end. 4. Placing the hand on the end too late. 5. Hips are not at least to the shoulder height when 1/4 turn is completed. 6. Shoulders collapse forward before the hips are in the position to press to the handstand. 23


Recommended Drills 1. Baily to travel down longitudinally to the end of the horse without releasing the hand on the pommel, then, stop the circle. The body should have as little turning action as possible and place the hand on the end as early as possible. 2. Add the hip lifting action to the above drill. The hip lift (or could be the chest lift) should be initiated after the leg kick to the side and as the travel down starts to the end. The hand should be placed on the end of the horse before the legs.


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vertical (in line to the hands) when the body swings through the bottom. d. The legs should be accelerating the swing through the bottom (ideally just as the parallel bar swing) for the forward casting action. Note: The gymnast in Figure 4 failed to demonstrate above mentioned c), d) , and partially b). 2. Just as the legs and the body swing through the bottom, the rings should be pushed back vigorously to assist the legs and the body to rise forward and upward. See 5,6 & 7, figure 4. a. During the bottom part of the swing, the bod y should swing first forward, then,lifted upward. b. The shoulder should have a shrugging motion just as the parallel bar swing during the bottom of swing to ensure the strong acceleration. 3. As the feet reach to the highest point of the cast, the rings should be pushed further backward and sideward with the pressure on the rings. a. The rings should be pushed backward first and then sideward, so the rings will be easily placed behind the shoulders to ensure the powerful swing through the bottom. See 6 & 7, figure 4. b. There is another way to treat the rings in the descending phase to create the effective swing through the bottom. That is to thrust the rings backward and place the rings behind the shoulders as quickly as possible at the end of the forward cast. See figure 5.


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Cast 'forward to inlocate

4. During the descending phase, the rings should

Critical point of execution 1. During the lowering down, the body should remain arched until the legs pass through the vertical support position. a. The body should be lowered in the manner of the parallel bar swing which is a smooth and rhythmical down swing. b. The rings should be turned parallel to each other so that the forearms will not lean against the straps. c. It is very critical not to leave the shoulders leaning forward too long during the down swing. The shoulders should be just at the

be placed behind the shoulders as early as possible to ensure that the proper beat swing occurs at the most effective timing at the bottom. See 8, 9 & la, figure 4. a. While lowering the body, the feet should maintain higher than any other part of the body. b. The body should be in the deep rounded position particularly from the chest region to ensure the proper beat action. 5. From the deep rounded position, the vigorous heel driving action should occur to turn the body quickly to the upside down position prior to lifting the shoulders backward and upward.



a. During this heel drive backward, it is very critical to keep the head down as well as keeping the shoulders down to facilitate the body rotation at the bottom. See 13 & 14, figure 4. b. The rings should be turned outward and slightly pushed out to the side to facilitate smooth body turning action through shoulders. c. The body should be arched backward from the waist region at first, then the arched point should be shifted up toward the upper chest as the body turns further. 6. The shoulder lifting action should be initiated when the heel reaches well above the head (gymnast should feel that his body is completely turned over at this point). See 14, figure 4. 7. During the lifting phase, the position of the rings should be maintained in the balanced position where lifting force be directed toward handstand throughout. See 15, 16 & 17, figure 4.

to attain the maximum take off the board. See 4, figure 6. a. The hurdle step should be fairly long (the distance should vary based on the speed of running) which will allow the gymnast to lift his knees high enough to prepare for the vigorous compression of the board. See 1 & 2, figure 6. b. The u pper body should lean forward enough during the compression to ensure the quick reach to the horse.

Common Mistakes 1. Piking too early during the down swing from . the handstand, resulting in a weak cast. 2. The shoulders remaining too far forward through the bottom of the swing resulting in an early drop of the body. 3. Early body opening action on the descending phase, resulting in early kick through the bottom. 4. The head and the shoulders rising too early during the back rise.


Recommended Drills 1. From handstand swing down to support swing, continuously swing a few times and swing to handstand. 2. Cast forward from support swing emphasizing the shoulder shrug through the bottom of the swing. 3. Cast forward to swing down, then swing through the bottom as high as possible without backuprise emphasizing the body turn over as well as head and shoulders being down through the kick.

Vault: Full twisting handspring Concept: Main objective of this compulsory vault is to go higher and further from the horse in a controlled manner (meaning without over rotation). The most effective way to attain this goal is to use "Hecht blocking action" coupled with the tremendous heel drive which will convert the rotational force exerted from the board to upward and forward direction in controlled fashion. In this way, the twisting can be executed at the peak of the flight and completed well before the landing. Critical point of execution 1. The compression of the board is very important TECHNIQUE






Figure 6

2. During the very brief moment of pre-flight, the heels should be released from the slightly hollowed position (See 6, figure 6) to initiate to the arched position. a. Too early heel drive off the board will result in a lack of body rotation which effects the distance as well as the height of the vault. b. The hands should reach to the horse as soon as possible for early contact. See 7, figure 6. 3. The body angle at the contact should be as low as possible (preferably from horizontal to maximum of 30째 depending onhow much rotation to ensure that the proper "Hecht" action will follow. 4. Forceful downward push as the heel rise and lifting of head as the hands leave the horse will ensure the proper completion of the repulsion off the horse. See figure 7. 25

a. lower body angle in contacting the horse creates a more forceful upward lift as the hands leave the horse. b. The hand push is only downward, not forward , or backward. 5. The hands should be placed to the side in the open position as the body starts to rise and rotate. The twisting action should be initiated just prior to the body reach to the peak of the flight. So that

Recommended Drills 1. "Hecht" action drill. a. Set up a tramp or mini-tramp as the take off area to vault over the horse (the horse should be side-ways). The landing area must be elevated with skill pads to the horse height. b. Execute the handspring off the tramp or mini-tramp and land on the back very flat. c. The entry of the handspring must be very low (from the horizontal to 30째) and execute the "Hecht" action.

Parallel bars:

front uprise stutz Critical point of execution Layaway from handstand position, the shoulders must be pushed away from the hand as much as possible. See 1, figure 8. a. The body should be straight or naturally arched during the lowering phase. b. The body must stay extremely tight and slightly in arch position to resist the tremendous downward force as the shoulder reaches the bar height. 2. Both the shoulders and the body must resist the downward force during the descending phase of the swing and must try to maintain the same body position (tight arched position) through the bottom. See 2 & 3, figure 8. a. Intentional shoulder sinking action at this point will weaken the powerful lift that will occur later. b. The beat action from the hips should not be initiated until the body passes the bottom of the swing. 3. The leg lifting action should be initiated after the bottom of the swing, however, the shoulder lift and the arm pulling action should be delayed until the toes and knees are lifted above the bar. See 5, figure 8. a. During the vigorous lifting action with the legs, the head should be kept upward to ensure that the shoulders maintain on the bar. (Shoulders should not rise too soon.) b. It is essential to feel that the body is turned over upward at this point prior to the vigorous upper body lifting action. 4. As the legs pass through the bar height, a vigorous shoulder lift and arm pull should be initiated. It is essential to lift the shoulders directly upward keeping a firm grip on the supporting arm as the body starts to turn. See 6, figure 8. a. The shoulder and the head should not be pulled forward during the uprise which will weaken the supporting arm push as well as the leg kick. b. The supporting arm should be kept at a fairly wide angle during the rising phase (it is much stronger position compared to the tightly bend arm) and the hands must stay on the bar as long as possible. 1.











Figure 7

the twisting action is done at the peak of the flight. See 5 & 6, figure 7. a. The twisting action should never be initiated on the horse. b. Lifting the head and opening the arms to the side immediately after the repulsion will naturally delay the twisting action in the post flight.

Common Mistakes 1. Not enough compression of the board at the

take off. 2. Too early heel release off the board. 3. Too high a pre-flight, and contacting the horse at too high an angle. (It is then impossible to do the "Hecht" action.) 4. Initiating the twisting action on the horse. 5. Bringing the head forward too early (ducking action), so the body tends to over rotate and the shoulder tends to lean forward too soon resulting in low post-flight.



Common Mistakes 1. Placing the shoulders too close to the hands in the arm support position. 2. Lacking a firm support on the shoulders during the swing. 3. Initiating the beat swing prior to the bottom, resulting in a weak uprise. 4. Pulling with bent arms (more than 90째 bend) during the uprise. See 2, figure 9. 5. Releasing the supporting hand too early to complete the turn.

Recommended Drills 1. Series of front uprise to handstand: This exercise is to strengthen the shoulders and to develop proper timing of the kick as well as to develop the overall technique of the front uprise. 2. Similarly, from a handstand position or support swing, layaway the shoulders as much away from the hand as possible and swing in a firm arched position all the way to the inverted shoulder support position.





Figure 9

"Built by Gravity & Guts. Not Steroids." A public service announcement provided by the United States Gymnastics Federation he U.S. Gymnastics Federation is taking steps to warn its athletes, parents and coaches of the dangerous side effects of steroids and their use. We feel it is our responsibility to take a leadership role in educating our gymnastics community. The message is to be sent through the sport to convey to the athlete to train naturallywithout the use of harmful drugs.


Through the poster, "Build by Gravity & Guts. Not Steroids," the USGF hopes to convey the message to our athletes, coaches and officials that champions and triumphs are attainable without steroids.

The committment that an athlete makes to sport requires dedication, perserverence and hard work. Success in sport and in life is achieved through such efforts. There are no shortcuts.

"The dangers of anabolic steroids are insidious. First, there may be the benefits of a stronger or faster or quicker-healing body. But then athletes face a monstrous set of potential health problems. And, along with individual dangers, there is the unfair competition - athletes aided by drugs vs. drug-free competitors - that threatens the foundation of fair competition itself. Steroids can build champions. But they also can kill." - USA TODAY, October 26,1988

For a poster, use the order form on page 2 of this magazine and send a check or money order for $3.00 (payable to the U5GF) . NOTE: the Item number for the poster is #6200



Men's Committee Reports

Men's Program Committee Conference Call August 22, 1989 ROLLCALL Members Present: Greg Buwick, Chairman, Senior Coaches Represen ta ti ve Jim Howard, Vice President for Men Bill Roetzheim, FIG Member of Mens Technical Committee Peter Kormann, Sr Coaches Representative John Burkel, NGJA Representative Dave Mickelson, NCAA Representative Ed Burch, Junior Coaches Representative Yoichi Tomita, Jr Coaches Representative Jim Hartung, Athletes Advisory Council Representative Bill Meade, World Championships Coach (Voice, no vote) Mas Watanabe, Mens Technical Coordinator (Voice, no vote) Robert Cowan, Mens Program Administrator (Secretary, Voice, no vote) Members Absent: None

Chairman Buwick opened the call with an explanation that during his term, business would be conducted during business hours. He also explained the format of the calL The Chairman would outline the discussion item, ask for further clarification from specific individuals and then the members would speak in alphabetic rotation. Voting would occur the same way. 1. ADOPTION OF NGJA RULES INTREPRETATlONS-

John Burkel explained the work that had been done by all the various judges from U.s. National Championships, Gary Alexander and himself. He then asked for input from the committee on corrections or additions. Jim Howard addressed the following: a) Clarification of item 4 under general of page 1. This refers to Still Rings and Parallel Bars, though not stated as such. b) Clarification of item 1, page 2 . .. where does deduction come from? Gymnasts score. c) Page 4, item 3 .. . clarification of example d) Page 7, value raising ... 3rd bounding element? e) Page 9, item 3 .. . Better explanation needed f) Page 11 ... define type of planche g) Page 13, item 10 . . . must this skill be held h) Page 14, item 2 on High Bar ... clarify number of 1 arms needed i) Page 15, item 4 . .. typographical error .. . one


hang phase

j) Page 15, item 18 . . . for 1 arm giant to dbl salto to value raise, how many one arms? k) Page 16, item 2 ... should read "2 D's for a total of 3 D's" Dave Mickelson addressed the following: a) Page 3, item 2 needs clarification b) Page 7, item 5 needs clarification c) Page 7, item 10 ... where does it end? d) Page 11, item 1 ... when "L" is done e) Page 14, item 3 . . . number of hang phases Bill Roetzheim addressed the following: a) Appendix II, pg. 40 #24 in Code. Skill should be "V" not Manna b) Appendix III, pg. 91, #40, "0" either way c) Appendix V, pg. 212, #13, #14, #22 . .. eleva te all 3 with 1/ 2 twist-No action was taken. d) Page 5, item 1 ... need to elaborate on moves preceding mount are 0.3 deduction. e) Page 8, item 23 .. . a full twisting 1 1/4 should be 0, whether tucked, p iked or stretched. f) Page 9, item 6 .. . clarify g) Page 9, item 7 .. . should be "A + A" h) Page 11, Still Rings, item 3 .. . no devaluation possible. i) Page 11, Vault, item 1 ... clarify j) Page 13, item 2 ... clarify k) Page 13, item 3 ... should be " 0" 1) Page 13, item 4 ... if dismount ... so state John Burkel had taken all of this information down and commented generally throughout the various points. Next discussion took place about steps into corner versus "balletic movements". Bill Roetzheim stated that after World Championships, the requirement will be for a value move to be done into the corner.

There was very good disclIssioll throllghollt this I:'lltireagenda item. Mr. Burkel will correct all mistakes, mail to Robert Cowan and date of enactment is September 1. Motion to accept NGJA Rules Interpretations for USGF competitions as amended and corrected. MOTION - Bill Roetzheim SECOND - Greg Buwick PASSED - UNANIMOUSLY


Greg Buwick explained the correspondence that had transpired in this regard, and also the last phone call he had with Harry Bjerke. Mr. Bjerke was concerned with lack of representation of west coast coaches on the selection committee. Greg Buwick stated that it is important to get ranking for criteria to help select domestic judges for USGF TECHNIQUE

events. At this point, he asked Jim Howard to explain how the coaches were selected and the voting procedure. Jim Howard went into meticulous detail on the ballot preparation. The active members were eligible to be nominated. The active members and associate members were eligible to vote. The ballots were sent out and explicit instructions and a deadline were printed on top. Coaches were to vote for at least 1 coach per region. 23 votes were cast. In rank order, the balloting was for : Jim Howard, Ed Burch, Greg Buwick, Randy Jeppson, Gene Watson, Fred Roethlisberger, Bill Meade, Tom Dunn. This completed the 8 representatives. Sadao Hamada received the 9th highest total. Mr. Buwick asked for comments in alphabetical order. John Burkel-felt that regional representation at this level is very critical, although later the ranking might not reflect a regional representation. Feels we should have 2 coaches per region. Robert Cowan-as he understood it at this time, coaches had the opportunity to vote, the process was followed and timelines had to be met. Jim Hartung-agreed with John Burkel Peter Kormann-very concerned over what the list is to be used for. Greg Buwick-explained that the list is to be used to determine the top officials for domestic USGF competitions such as Winter Nationals. Also "grouping" may be better than actual 1,2,3,4 etc. rank. Bill Meade-no comment Dave Mickelson-concerned about the balance of judges who will not judge Olympic, Pan Ams, etc. Yoichi Tomita-agrees with Peter Kormann. How the system is to be used is most important. Discussion that Ed Burch is Midwest, not west. Also want regional representation. Mas Watanabe-no comment Ed Burch-Felt regional representation was dealt with during voting procedure. West coast coaches had a chance to elect their representative.

More discussion centered around whether the MPC or any organization should be determining who will represent various factions or constituencies. Motion to send representative issue back to senior coaches to decide who their representatives will be. Further, the Mens Program Committee needs to review the entire issue. This will occur at the Congress. MOTION - Bill Roetzheim SECOND-Greg Buwick

FAILED - 2 for, 3 against, 5 abstentions Motion that the entire issue of judges ranking needs to be reviewed at the Mens Program Committee meeting at Coaches Congress. MOTION - John Burkel SECOND - Jim Howard PASSED - UNANIMOUSLY

3. DOMINICK MINICUCCI PETITION Robert Cowan explained that Dominick Minicucci was living in Staten Island and training with Roberto Pumpido. He is enrolling in a local college there and needs to find some type of financial support. He is petitioning to the National Team in an unranked position in order to be able to apply for Olympic Committee Level II Subsistence funds . Motion that due to Dominick Minicucci's Olympic Team status, accept Dominick's petition to national team in unranked position. For express purpose of applying to USOC for athlete subsidies. MOTION - Jim Hartung SECOND -John Burkel PASSED - UNANIMOUSLY

The call was concluded at 2:08 p.m. The above is true and accurate to the best of my knowledge. Signed: (Robert Cowan) August 23,1989

Motion to take the rankings that Jim Howard obtained from the elite coaches and select top two names per region in rank order regardless of rank. Also, Ed Burch would represent midwest not west. MOTION-John Burkel SECOND-Peter Kormann PASSED - 5 for, 3 against, 0 abstention

It was then determined to have Jim Howard use the

balloting he had received and determine who the representatives would be. Based on the voting, the tabulations revealed: Jim Howard-Midwest Randy Jeppson-East Fred Roethlisberger-Mideast Sadao Hamada-West Ed Burch-Midwest Gene Watson-East Bill Meade-Mideast Scott Barc1ay-West- Tie Dick Wolfe-West-Tie Motion regarding tie between Scott Barclay and Dick Wolfe, select Scott Barclay due to involvement with National Program. MOTION - Greg Buwick SECOND - Dave Mickelson PASSED - UNANIMOUSLY



Men's Junior Board Meeting September 14, 1989 Called to order 3:00 p.m. Everyone present except Mr. Beckstead I. REPORTS1. MPC - Proposal - Incentive Program $2000 for Sr. National Team Members Club coach would receive 75% if gymnast is freshman in college - college coach 25 %. Club coach would receive 50% if gymnast is sophomore in college- college coach 50% Club coach would receive 25% if gymnast is junior in college - college coach 75 %. Senior year college coach would receive 100%. 2. NGJA -

no rep.

3. Athlete Repesentative- no report 4. Junior Coaches Staff Rep - Mr. Mizoguchi Top 25 boys in the 10-11 year group will go to Colorado Springs this year. Jr. National Testing Program again will take place after Jr. Nationals this year for the boys that make it. 1989 Camp - 12 boys passed the testing with benefit and discussion . Mizo will re-think the philosophy and selection procedure. Class I & II Camp - 6 boys did not show - 24 total worked on testing skills. 5. Regional Chairman Reports Region IV did a Regional Camp before Summer Testing 6. Office Report 1991 World Championships are in Indianapolis. Financial Structure of Federation - the enrollmentdown. Gym-Kin official Uniform Sponsor - 390 gymnasts involved. Mr. Watanabe-Training Center in Indianapolis Very good controlled situation 3 week training camps can accomplish a lot more. Very effective training utilizing resi-pits & over head belts.



Nominees: Doug Hills - Judge Bill Jones - Coach Ray Gura - Administrator Motion to amend the number of award recipients to all three PASSED for this year only! V. JR. ELITE DIVISION FOR U.S. NATIONALS24 Jr. athletes under 19 years. the top 8 will compose the Jr. Elite National Team VI. JR. OLYMPIC PROGRAM STRUCTURE(Ron Brant proposal) Age Groups 5-11 years - with skills and sequences 12-13 years - sequence of skills (2 divisions) National Team -boys elect their own skills14-15 years - mini routines with 8 to 10 parts (2 divisions like above) 16-18 years - elite and class I level New Scoring System -- base score changes: 6.2 Class V= Class IV = 7.2 Class III = 8.2 9.2 Class II = Class 1= 9.2

Class IV receives a second vault with a 1 point deduction if he got a zero on first vault. Motion by Ron Brant to accept the scoring proposalMotion was withdrawn after discussion! VII. NEW BUSINESS USGF will provide someone to run the scoring table at J.O . Nationals for faster RESULTS.

MEETING ADJOURNED at 6:10 p.m. II. REVIEW OF JR. OLYMPIC CALENDAR Is competitive season too long? Dennis McIntyre and committee will study this and bring up findings to our January Meeting.

Signed (Tom Fontecchio) September, 1989

III. 1991 J.O. NATIONALS BIDSNo actual bid to date from west coast!



Rhythmic Sportive Gymnastics

ERRATA English FIG Code of Points (RSG) Hard Cover: Should be Rhythmic Sportive Gymnastics (RSG) as on inside cover page. Table of Contents: Page numbers are incorrect. Chapter 2: p . 29, #19. The picture shown under #19 is superior difficulties should be put under the text of #19 Medium Difficulties. p.30, #5. Incorrect illustration under Medium Difficulties. Should be the same as in Superior Difficulties but no "on the toes." Chapter 3: p.40 4/Broken Apparatus 2.a) and 2.b) Penalties: Change from: "Loss of rhythm and general impression" to "consequences." p.46 7 I Originality 1. Bonus: - 0.10 point when the originality pertains to superior difficulties. (delete "isolated" and "one minimum"). p .46 8/Risk Taking 1. Note: Delete from 1st line "and the ribbon ... Delete 4th line "for the clubs" completely. Add: "For the ribbon: catches with one hand and by the end of the stick . .. p.51 C. Bonus (V.O.R.) 2. Originality Should read: 2. Originality - Novel difficulty(ies) - Combinations (delete: 1st line "in the difficulty(ies)" 2nd line "isolated but" 3rd line "of difficulty lies")


p . 52 Hoop "Compulsory fundamental or specific apparatus elements" column: last line change from: "jumps or leaps and passing through and above the hoop." to: "jumps or leaps and passing through or above the hoop."

CLARIFICA nON OF RISK ELEMENTS FOR THE ROPE For the rope: catches by both ends of the rope. 1) For the open rope: catch by both hands at each end of the rope. 2) For the rope folded in two: catch both ends with one or 2 hands, or catch both ends with one hand and the folded end with the other hand (the rope ends may be tied together). 3) For the rope folded in four: catch each end of the folded rope with both hands, or catch one end of the folded rope with one hand. 4) For the full length of the straight rope: catch one end of the long straight rope and from the same momentum, immediately catch the other end. 5) Particular cases: wrappings. Catch on different body parts with precise wrapping movements. Note: a) Risk bonus for the above cases will be awarded only if the conditions specified for risk are present. b) Catches at the "end of the rope" means: no more than 5 cm. from the end (5 cm . tolerance is allowed).


Andrea Schmidt Ph.D. July, 1989

Rhythmic Gymnastics Program Committee Oklahoma City, Oklahoma July 26, 1989 3. Members Present: Candace Feinberg Andrea Schmid Bev Bruce Alla Svirsky Irina Vdovets Wendy Hilliard Nora Hitzel Members Absent: Norma Zabka (in attendance at the Senior Pan Am Competition) I. 1989 WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS The top three athletes following the trials competition will be named as the USA individual team. The 4th ranked gymnast will be invited to attend the World Championships as the alternate. Irina Vdovets, Alla Svirsky, and Mary Ellen Holdreith were named as coaches. II. INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIONS -

Accepted: Holland, Alfred Vogel- September 1-3 (Group Only) Greece, Cup of Peace & Friendship - September 1-3 (Individuals) Because of the short time between this competition and the World Championships, the coaches and the athletes selected to the World Champions hip team will determine the need to attend this competition. England, Daily Mirror Competition - November 5, (Senior National Champion requested) Alexandra Feldman, athlete Alla Svirsky, coach /judge Diane Simpson, alternate athlete Declined: Bulgaria, The Stars Portugal, Braga Competition Finland, Lahti Competition III. NATIONAL RE-RANKING COMPETITION The National Team Re-Ranking Competition will be tentatively held February 1-4, 1990 at Colorado Springs. The procedures and policies to be followed are: 1. All Senior and Junior National Team Members and their coaches will be invited to compete at the reranking competition. USGF will underwrite transportation expenses. 2. 1989 Junior National Team members who meet the FIG Senior age requirement in 1990 will be eligible to compete IN THE SENIOR DIVISION of the re-ranking competition. a. If a junior athlete chooses to do this, she must remain in the USA Senior division during the 1990 competitive season. b. If a junior athlete chooses to compete in the Senior division and places in a position that would have


4. 5. 6.

entitled her to receive either USGF or USOC funding she will be eligible to receive these funds . The results of the Senior Re-ranking competition will determine the placement for Team '92 funding through May, 1990 and will determine placement for selection decisions for the Spring International Events. The results of the Junior Re-ranking competition will determine placement for selection decisions for the Spring International events. Only Individual World Championship Team members will be eligible to submit injury petitions for review. One panel of four judges and one meet referee will be used for the competition.

IV. WORLD CUPBecause the recently announced FIG schedule for World Cup qualifying competitions is in direct conflict with the already scheduled 1990 National Championships, the Rhythmic Program Administrator will study the possibility of changing the Championship date. *** V. PARENTS POLICY A letter will be written and sent to all Rhythmic National Team parents explaining the USGF philosophy, rules and regulations of international delegation team travel and competition with regard to the role of a parent or friend of a USA athlete who has chosen to go as a spectator to an international competition. VI. 1990 USA GROUP PROGRAM It was recommended that the USGF National Senior Group for the 1990 Four Continents Championships, will be the Illinois Rhythmic Group under the following conditions: 1. A majority of the 1989 Group members continue to train as Group members for the 1990 Group Competitions. 2. Group members will not compete as individuals during the 1990 competitive season. 3. Any decision to send a USA Group to an International competition will continue to be dependent on the international quality of the group and its members. 4. No financial commitments will be made by the USGF until a final decision is reached . 5. A final decision will be made following the World Championships. Submitted by:

Nora Hitze/ 8/24/89 ***Because of the problems involved with changing the date of the National Championships, it was decided by M. Jacki, A. Schmid, and N . Hitzel that the Championship date must remain as scheduled. If a USA athlete qualifies to a World Cup qualifying meet, accommodations will be made by the Rhythmic Program Committee for that individual. TECHNIQUE

RSG JO Program Committee Oklahoma City, Oklahoma July 23 - 24, 1989 Present: Region I Chair Alla Svirsky Jan Williamson Region II Chair Region III Chair Carol Bormann Region IV Chair Debbie Grainger Region V Chair Gwen Hilliard Region VIII Chair Marina Davidovich Nat'! Age Group Chair Maureen Broderick Nat'! Elite Develop. Chair Bev Bruce Nat'! Coaches Develop. Chair Zina Mironov Nat'! Judges Coord. Chair Candace Feinberg (Proxy) Nat'! Public Relations Chair Jackie Scherrer (proxy) F.LG. Representative Andrea Schmid Rhythmic Program Admin. Nora Hitzel Absent: Barbara Hudon Region VI Chair Region VII Chair Cathy Harrelson Nat'! Judges Coord. Chair NormaZabka Nat'l Public Relations Chair Sandy Miller Guest: Athletes'Representative Wendy Hilliard

Call commenced at 6:30 pm. I. REGIONAL REPORTS - I, II, III, IV, V, VIII II. REPORTS

A. ELITE - Bev Bruce reported that 28 gymnasts attended the Elite Development camp in Colorado Springs. Agenda included individual and group apparatus work, body technique, dance and classroom sessions on nutrition, eating disorders, and goal setting. B. AGE GROUP - Maureen Broderick discussed logistical problems related to the Age Group Development camps. The consensus of the RJOPC is that gymnasts who are ill or have injuries which training will not be allowed to attend the OlympiC Training Camps at that time. C. JUDGES - Candace Feinberg reported that a judging course will be required for each level of judges. Clinicians are to be approved by the National Judging Chairman and the Rhythmic Program Administrator. The NPA will approve underwriting clinics where need is established. The National Judges Coordinating Committee will meet at Congre~s . A judges' patch designed by Carol Bormann Will be issued to each Class III and above judge when they receive their rating. TECHNIQUE

Meeting reconvened at 12:30 p.m. July 23,1989. D. ATHLETES - Wendy Hilliard announced an athlete reunion will be held at the 1991 World Championships. E. F.LG. - Andrea Schmid announced upcoming international competitions and trends. Group competition will not be in the 1992 Olympics. Originality credit for skills is limited to two years. F. RHYTHMIC PROGRAM ADMINISTRATOR-Nora Hitzel announced a re-ranking meet for National Team Members will be held in February. Selection for World Championships will be determined by scores from National Championships and the U.s. Olympic Festival. A directory of Rhythmic Gymnastic clubs will be compiled from lists provided by Regional Chairmen. III RULES AND POLICIES (CHANGES) RefertoR&P Book* A. DUETS*I.c. (p.3) Add: Duets may be competed up through regional level. MOTION - Debbie Grainger SECOND - Gwen Hilliard PASSED

B. CLASS IVIV.A(p.3) Add: with the numberof events to be determined by the Meet Director. MOTION - Maureen Broderick SECOND - Jan Williamson PASSED

IV.A(p.3) Add: 3. The gymnasts may select which events they compete. MOTION - Andrea Schmid SECOND - Candace Feinberg PASSED

C. GROUP ROUTINE COMPETITION XI.A.l - 3(p.5.) Eliminate group routine categories as described. MOTION - Marina Davidovich SECOND - Candace Feinberg PASSED

XI.A.l(p.5) Groups must meet F.I.G requirements to compete internationally. 1. Senior groups compete the two Senior F.LG. routines 2. Junior groups compete the one Junior F.LG. routine. 3. Groups composed of Seniors and Juniors will compete in Senior division meeting Senior F.LG. requirements. D. USGF NATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIPSC.B(p.7) Add: Gymnasts from Children's Division are not eligible for awards. MOTION - Bev Bruce SECOND - Marina Davidovich PASSED


E. MEET RESULTS VII.C(p.14) The original All-Around score sheets must be signed by all judges at meet. .. VII.C.2(p.14) Mail to Regional Chairman and Regional Judging Chairman MOTION - Bev Bruce SECOND - Gwen Hilliard PASSED

F. THE DRAWVII.(p.17) Add: Local, state and regional competitions will have a random draw based on age group and class of all gymnasts (including out-of-state and region competitors). MOTION - Carol Bormann SECOND - Maureen Broderick PASSED

G. OFFICIALS VIII.D.4(p.17) Add: Class I State Meets: Two judges per panel. MOTION - Andrea Schmid SECOND - Candace Feinberg PASSED

VIII.E.(p.17) Delete: E. When the meet format consists of only one panel of judges, the minimum number of judges required is four for Class III, II and I. MOTION - Andrea Schmid SECOND - Debbie Grainger PASSED

H. AWARDS X.D.(p.18) A gymnast may only claim medals from State and Regional Meets in which she is a resident. However, the quality of visitor awards should be of a consistent quality. 1. INQUIRIESX.D.(p.18) Add: A $10.00 fee will be charged for each official inquiry regarding gymnasts performances. Fee would be refunded if decision is in favor of gymnast. MOTION - Candace Feinberg SECOND - Andrea Schmid FAILED

J. FLOOR REGULATIONSXI.A.1.(p.19) For local and state competitions the competition area may consist of a wooden floor, a rubber-covered or other sporting gym surface that is even and allows for safe, free movement. The competition area may consist of a carpet layer, needle-felt or similar material. For regional and above competitions a regulation size carpet must be provided. For floors other than wood or a resilient athletic surface a foam pad must be used under carpet. MOTION - Marina Davidovich SECOND - Debbie Grainger PASSED

K. PIANOSXI.C.1.(p.19) Add: it is the responsibility of the Meet Director to provide a good sound system for training and competition. MOTION - Bev Bruce SECOND - Carol Bormann PASSED

L. ATTIREVII.B.3(p.26) Add: Small unobtrusive stud earrings may be worn during competition. MOTION - Andrea Schmid SECOND - Gwen Hilliard FAILED (for reasons of safety)


VII.f(p.26) Add: Compulsory gymnasts will be required to wear the same leotard throughout a meet. A Class II gymnast may choose to personalize her leotard for the Class II optional routine. MOTION - Bev Bruce SECOND - Candace Feinberg PASSED

M. ENTRY FEES V.D(p.15) Add: The maximum fee for a State or Regional Meet is $60. MOTION - Andrea Schmid SECOND - Ca ndace Feinberg PASSED

N. QUALIFICATION TO NATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIPS I.A.2.(p.31) Qualification procedure will remain the same with the dates for Regional Championships rotating among the regions. MOTION - Maureen Broderick SECOND - Debbie Grainger PASSED

Last weekend for State Meets is March 10. Regional Championships are scheduled as follows : March 17 Regions IV /VIII Week 1 Week 2 March 24 Regions III /V Week 3 March 31 Regions II / VI Week 4 April 7 Regions lIVII National Championships is scheduled for May 3-5 in Eugene, Oregon. QUALIFYING SCORE I.A.l(p.31) The qualifying score for Seniors is 34; the qualifying score for Juniors and Children is 32. MOTION - Maureen Broderick SECOND - Alia Svirsky PASSED

O. MANDATE SCOREII.D(p.15) If a Class III gymnast scores 32.00 AllAround at HER Regional Meet, she must move (mandate) to Class II by the beginning of the next competitive season. MOTION - Maureen Broderick SECOND - Andrea Schmid PASSED

V. OLYMPIC TRAINING CAMPS An ad hoc committee was appointed to study the previous Olympic Training Camps and determine the rules and policies for utilizing the camps in 1990. The Committee will consist of Maureen Broderick, Bev Bruce, Marina Davidovich and Wendy Hilliard. V. JO PROGRAM LEVEL IDENTIFICATION The concept of an intermediate level between Class II and Class I will be studied for the 1990-91 competitive season. The level would consist of the Class II Floor Exercise and three optional events. An ad hoc committee will study the details of the new level. Events will be determined after the World Championships. Class II will remain the same for the 1989-90 season. MOTION - Bev Bruce SECOND - Gwen Hilliard PASSED

VI.RHYTHMIC GYMNASTICS RESTRUCTURING The following were recommended language changes in the election process that were voted to be included in the proposal for future restructuring of the Rhythmic program. The committee will meet January 5-7 in Indianapolis to work on the Operating Code which will


include additional discussion of the proposed structure of Rhythmic Gymnastics. A. To vote for your Regional Chairman (recommended positions #1-8) you must be a Professional Member of USGF for a minimum of one year. MOTION - Marina Davidovich SECOND - Bev Bruce PASSED

B. Coaches' Association Representative (recommended position #9) will be elected by criteria determined by the Coaches' Association. C. Coach (recommended position #10) will be elected

by active compulsory coaches. D. Judge (recommended position #11) will be elected by all judges Class III and above. MOTION - Carol Bormann SECOND - Andrea Schmid PASSED

VII. COACHES REPRESENTATIVE A representative from the Coaches' Association will be invited to all meetings of the Rhythmic JO Committee (at herlhis own expense). MOTION - Bev Bruce SECOND - Marina Davidovich PASSED

VIII. ATHLETE REPRESENTATIVE Increase current Rhythmic JO Committee to include an Athlete Representative to be selected by the Athlete' s Council. MOTION - Gwen Hilliard SECOND - Andrea Schmid PASSED

IX. RHYTHMIC PROGRAM COMMITTEE REPRESENTATIVE Bev Bruce will be the temporary RJOPC representative to the Rhythmic Program Committee. MOTION - Carol Bormann SECOND - Zina Mironov PASSED

X. THE RHYTHMIC CLASSIC The Committee recommended the Coaches Association be consulted to see if they would like to assume the responsibility of the Rhythmic Classic Meet. MOTION - Maureen Broderick SECOND - Bev Bruce PASSED

Meeting Adjourned at 10:30 p.m. Approved: (Mike Jacki) August 9, 1989

McDonald's American Cup March 3-4, 1990 Fairfax, VA For ticket information call 703-323-2672

McDonald's Interna tional Mixed Pairs March 7, 1990 Villanova University Philadelphia, PA

u.s. Challenge March 30April 1, 1990 Las Vegas, NV(Tenative)

McDonald's Challenge:

USA- USSR April 28 - 29, 1990 Orlando, FL (Tentative) TECHNIQUE


Women's Committee Minutes

Women's J.O. Program Committee Conference Call August 2, 1989 Members Present: John Wojtczuk, J.O. Committee Chairman Mark Cook, Region I Bob Levesque, Region II Steve Snow, Region III Tom Koll, Region IV Doreen Bolhuis, Region V Tony Gehman, Region VI Frank DeFrancesco, Region VII D.J. Milem, Region VIII Connie Maloney, J.O. Technical Chairman Roe Kreutzer, Elite Program Committee Chairman Mary Ann Mahoney, Administrative Board Chair. Kathy Kelly, Women's Program Administrator

John Wojtczuk explained that the purpose of the call was to clarify items concerning the new rO. Program prior to the printing of the Rules and Policies. Recommendation that for the 19S9 fall season ONLY all gymnasts seven years of age who have previously competed as Class IV's MAY compete in LevelS. MOTION: Steve Snow SECOND: Tom Koll PASSED

CLARIFICATION - When registering a gymnast for LevelS: A. If the gymnast has previously competed within the USGF program, indicate that on the USGF Athlete Registration Form. A skill Evaluator need not sign the registration form in this case. B. When entering a gymnast into LevelS as a FIRST time competitor: A Report Card MUST be included with the registration form. The report card must be completed and signed by a certified Skill Evaluator. REPORT CARDS CAN BE OBTAINED THROUGH STATE CHAIRMAN OR BY CALLING THE NATIONAL OFFICE. CORRECTION TO THE COMPULSORY TEXT: The S-l1 Age Division in LevelS may lower the horse to 100 cm.

Day two: Finals Competition - NEW LIFE MOTION: SECOND: PASSED

Connie Maloney Tony Gehman

Recommendation to the Administrative Board that the entry fee to Level 9 East/West Championships be $50.00. CLARIFICATION - LevelS Closed Division is a subdivision of Level S. Each state may choose to adopt this level of competition. A gymnast may ONLY advance to Level 9 by attaining the required 32.00 AA at Level S OPEN Division. CLARIFICATION - Vault restrictions for LevelS OPEN DIVISION - NO "D" VAULTS, NO "C" SALTOVAULTS (Twisting "C" vaults are allowed) CLOSED DIVISION - NO liD" VAULTS, NO "C" VAULTS, NO "B" SAL TO VAULTS CLARIFICATION - A GYMNAST MAY COMPETE IN TWO STATE MEETS PER CALENDAR YEAR. SHE MAY NOT COMPETE IN TWO STATE MEETS WITHIN ONE SEASON Each state may set a "commitment date" on which the gymnast must commit to that level for the remainder of the season. Example: a gymnast may compete in Level 6 meets (prior to the commitment date) and advance to Level 7 meet when qualifying score has been achieved. A gymnast may compete in Level 6 throughout the entire season including State Meet and then advance to Level 7 within the same season if she has attained the qualifying score, but would not be allowed to compete in the Level 7 State Meet if the meet was held in the same season. She would be allowed to compete in the Level 7 State Meet if it were held in the next season.

Call terminated at 5:53 pm.

Recommendation that Regional Team Competition be conducted at Level 9 East/West Meet. Day one: 1st session - Individual Junior 2nd Session - 4 Teams 3rd Session - Individual Seniors 4th Session - 4 Teams



Women's J.O. Program Committee Philadelphia, Pennsylvania September 14, 1989 ROLL CALL: Region I Region II Region III Region IV Region V Region VI Region VII Region VIII Elite Program Com. J.O. Technical Chair Compulsory Chair Admin Board Chair Women Admin

Mark Cook Bob Levesque and Laurel Tindall Steve Snow Tom Koll Steve Howard (for Doreen Bolhuisl Frank DeFrancesco Tony Gehman D.J. Milem Roe Kreutzer Connie Maloney Linda Chencinski Mary Ann Mahoney Kathy Kelly

Meeting called to order by John Wojtczuk, Chairman at 9:15 am I. MINUTES from the last Conference call were approved as published with the addition of 100 cm for LevelS children's division for beam.

II. BIDS FOR JO NATIONALS MEETS were discussed. Committee was asked to solict meets.


CLARIFICATION - Recommendation that if a gymnast passes all four points of a skill in Level I and III and then falls, she will receive credit and pass the skill. If gymnast in Level II and IV passes nine of the twelve points of a sequence and has one fall she will pass the sequence. Recommendation that any gymnast who has reached her seventh birthday may register and compete as a Level 5 athlete. MOTION: SECOND:

Connie Maloney Tom Koll

TABLED until we can get figures as to the number of athletes affected, as well as recommendations from child development experts as to the desirability of the proposal. Adjourned at 1:40pm. Reconvened at 2:45pm . Correction: Warm-up time for Levels 5, 6, 7 should be 1 minute not 1 1/2 minutes. Recommendation that if the state board so chooses, gymnasts who compete LevelS Closed may return to Level 7 in the following season. MOTION: SECOND: PASSED

Mark Cook Tom Koll

III.REGIONAL REPORTS: Regional Chairman discussed concerns and comments on the new Program within the states and regions. Recommendation that Level 5 Invitationals that are not used for qualifying purposes, may give Placement Awards in addition to Achievement Awards. MOTION: SECOND: PASSED

Tom Koll Bob Levesque

Recommendation that Beam time for Level 7 be 1:10. MOTION: Mark Cook SECOND: Tony Gehman PASSED

Recommendation that the text differences on Floor and Beam between the Level 10 routine and the Elite routine in minor areas of connections should not be penalized. MOTION: Connie Maloney SECOND: Tony Gehman PASSED ** Recommen dation requires further consideration and implementation of procedures.

Recommendation that the Technical Committee review the proper applications of the appropriate deductions for the Compulsory Levels. TECHNIQUE

IV. NA WGJ FEE STRUCTURE PROPOSAL Recommendation that one judge panels be allowed for LOCAL Level 5 meets. MOTION: Mark Cook SECOND: Steve Snow PASSED

* See Technical Minutes for final decision ...

RECOMMENDATION to the Women's Administrative Board regarding the proposed NAWGJ Fee Structure: That Judges be paid an hourly rate as follows: (except for one session meets which will be compensated by a minimum of three hours) LevelS $10.00 Level 6-7 $12.00 LevelS $12.00 Level 6, 7, S $14.00 Level 9 $16.00 Level 10 $lS.00 Elite/Brevet $20.00 No per diem will be paid except for Championship Meets on Non-Judging Days. Meals will be provided by the Meet Director on judging days. Mileage will be paid for competitions over 50 miles round trip. $.24 per mile shall be paid only to the driver for miles traveled over the 50 mile minimum.


$5.00 will be paid for "idle time" over the hour and a half additional break time. (Regardless of the level of the judge.) Championship Fees will be for East/West Championships and above. Championship fees may be used for Regionals as negotiated by the Regional Board with the Regional Judging Director. Judges must be notified within 7 days of a cancellation of a meet contract, except for out of pocket expenses already incurred.

** NAWGJ proposed fee structure will be considered with the above recommendation by the Executive Director V. ELECTIONSDiscussion was held concerning Board of Directors election of Women's representatives and recommendations to the Administrative Board for Women's Operating Code election procedures.

Adjourned at 6:45pm . Reconvened at 8:15pm. VI. NEW BUSINESS: Discussion was held concerning the ].0. Training Camp and recommendations for the direction of the camp. John reported that the J.O. National Team Training Camp was excellent and all gymnasts felt that their experience was beneficial. Coaches Certification Program is in final stages . Discussion regarding the need for this program and its benefits insued. Committee request that information and materials regarding this program be sent to Steve Whitlock to assist in his efforts. Meet Directors Certification test has been revised Test will be distributed to the State Chairman. Thank you to Doreen Bolhuis and Judy Freiheit for updating the test.

Discussion on the increase in membership fees . This increase was due to insurance premium increase. Clarification: An optional gymnast from the previous cycle that elects to start competition at a Compulsory Level must stay at that Level until the proficiency score is achieved. Discussion of the J.O. Program for future cycles. Evaluation of the procedure of development of the compulsories.

Adjourned at 9:35pm. Reconvened at 8:00 am Friday Child Abuse The ].0. Program Committee supports the office in its decision s protecting the integrity of the sport and most particularly the safety and well-being of our athletes. This must be our first concern under any and all circumstances. Unprofessional behavior toward athletes particularly abuse of athletes, should be dealt with severely. Request to the Safety and Biomechanics sub-committees to examine the situation for "dowel lock" on the new 35 cm rails. Tabled Motion: Entry Level Age: Recommend that 7year olds are eligible to compete in Level 5 local meets as of their 7th birthday. (The January 1 rule will determine age division only.) Motion: Tony Gehman Second: Steve Howard PASSED

NOTE: It is stressed that LevelS competition is for achievement awards only. The emphasis for children this age should be for fun and improvement, not competition for its own sake. SEE Corrections to the 1989 J.O. Compulsory Book made by the Technical Committee on page .....

Signed: (Mike Jacki) September, 1989

Women's Elite Program Committee Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Meeting Called to order by Chair, Roe Kreutzer at 12:15 ROLLCALL: Region I Region II Region III Region IV Region V Region VI Region VII Region VIII

Steve Gerlach Bob Levesque Jim Jarrett Jim Schlott Gary Warren Kip Reed Gary Anderson Marion Dykes for Kevin Brown Nat'l Elite Tech. Chair Audrey Schweyer Adm. Board Chair Mary Ann Mahoney Women' s Prog. Adm. Kathy Kelly Wom. Prog Adm. Asst. Tami Holt


Recommendation that Junior A Championships be held in conjunction with USA Championships for the 1990 season. Motion: Gary Anderson Second: Bob Levesque PASSED

Recommendation that selection criteria for the Olympic Sports Festival be Seniors in rank order from USA Championships, Junior A National Team in rank order from USA Championships and all remaining unfilled slots will be filled by Senior gymnasts from number 21 down from USA Championships and Junior A National Team down through number 24. Motion: Gary Anderson Second: Bob Levesque PASSED


Recommendation that all gymnasts born in 1976 or 1977 may choose to enter the Senior Division at Elite Regionals. Once a gymnast attains the qualifying score to enter Classic as a National Senior Elite, the gymnast may not return to the Junior Division. Nonqualifying scores received by a gymnast competing as a Senior in the Regional competitions may not be used as a Classic qualifying score in the Junior A Division. Motion: Second: PASSED

Gary Anderson Jim Schlott


in 1979 in 1978 in 1977/76 in 1975

Junior B Division Only Junior A or Junior B Division Junior A or Senior Division Senior Only

AMERICAN CLASSICS Bid has been received from Emil Milan, Hurst, Texas for the American Classic. It has been accepted . Information will be forthcoming from Audrey Schweyer and Emil Milan. Please be prompt in returning your athletes entry. PLEASE READ THE ELITE SECTION OF THE RULES AND POLICIES FOR CLARIFICATION CONCERNING ELITE COMPETITIONS, SCORE REQUIREMENTS, NUMBERS OF QUALIFIERS TO USA CHAMPIONSHIPS, ETC. THERE WILL BE A CLINIC ON SUNDAY (UNTIL 12:00 NOON) FOLLOWING THE AMERICAN CLASSIC COMPETITION. INFORMATION CONCERNING THE UPDATES ON THE ELITE COMPULSORY EXERCISES FROM WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS WILL BE THE MAIN TOPIC. PLEASE BOOK FLIGHTS TO ACCOMMODATE. TRAINING CAMPS Training Camps for the Senior Team and the Junior "B" National Team Training Squad were held in August. Training camp for the Junior A National Team will be held in Indianapolis September 28-0ct. 1. The committee expressed appreciation to the Training Camp staff and Bill Sands for these quality experiences. The Elite Program wishes to recognize the outstanding efforts made by the USGF office in developing our USGF National Training Center in Indianapolis. JUNIOR B PROGRAM CLARIFICATION - Optional Mounts and Dismounts will not be subject to Compulsory Mount and Dismount deduction. Individual Event Awards at Regionals and Classics: Junior "B" - Unadjusted per event (same as Age Group) Seniors-Based on Adjusted Event Totals (60%/ 40%)


Recommendation that the Arabian Saito on Floor Exercise in the Junior B Testing Elements be performed in either tucked or piked position. Motion: Jim Jarrett Second: Kip Reed PASSED

Recommendation to delete the second tumbling pass in the Junior "B" Testing Program. Motion: Kip Reed Second: Jim Schlott PASSED

Recommendation to the Women's Administrative Board to support the recommendation of the Junior Olympic Program Committee regarding the NA WGJ Proposed Fee Structure. *Final d ecision will be made by the Executive Director. TECHNICAL REPORT Audrey Schweyer informed the committee that the Technical Handbook and the Judges Training Manual (publications of the WTC available through the USGF Office in mid-November) are valuable tools for coaches as well as judges. Schweyer presented the Table of Deductions for the Junior B Testing Program. Deductions were ammended and approved by the committee. (see attached) The committee discussed the Junior B Program. Recommendation that a minimum of the top six Junior B gymnasts from the American Classic will be invited to a training camp. Motion: Gary Anderson Second: Kip Reed PASSED

SAFETY CERTIFICATIONMandates will be made in the near future concerning International Coaching Assignments and Training Staff positions. ELECTIONSRecommedation that election procedures for REPC by elite coaches and regional board. Request of the USGF Events Department that the REPC be credentialed to observe training sessions at USA Championship and all other domestic international competitions.

Meeting Adjourned at 7:45 pm Next meeting will be at U.S. Classics Signed Mike Jacki, September, 1989


Women's Committee Minutes

Women's Administrative Board Philadelphia, Pennsylvania September 15, 1989

c. After 3.5 hours of continuous judging break time is required. IV. OTHER BUSINESS -

Roll Call: Region I Region II Region III Region IV Region V Region VI Region VII Region VIII Nat'! J.O. Program Chairman Nat'! Elite Program Chairman NAWGJ Women's Program Adm.

Denise Porrazzo Laurel Tindall Carol Hillenburg Nancy Fischer Kathy Koeth Kathy Feldmann Sue Warbutton Hoylene Noble John Wojtczuk Roe Kreutzer Dale Brown Kathy Kelly

Meeting called to order by Chairman, Mary Ann Mahoney at 9:15 am I. The minutes from the March meeting were ap-

proved with the exception of the Election Procedures. Motion: Hoylene Noble Second : Kathy Koeth PASSED


The committee was requested to solicit bids for the National Meets. A bid has been received from Idaho. Regional Chairman were given pins to present to the host of 1989 National Meets. II. NATIONAL SILVER QUILL AWARD was awarded to Joan Hicks, Connecticut State Chairman. III. NAWGJ FEE STRUCTUREDale Brown presented the proposed Fee Structure to the committee. Amended proposal from the J.O. Committee and the Elite Program Committee. Both proposals were discussed at length. Proposal will be completed at Sunday's meeting. Fees: Judges will be paid an hourly fee according to their rating with a minimum payment of 3 hrs. Add: For meets in which the total judging time exceeds 3.5 hours; a. a total break time of up to 1.5 hours will be non compensated. b. Additional break time will be compensated at an hourly rate.,


All regions will supply the uniform (leotard and warm-up) for the alternate gymnast at the Junior and Senior JO National Championships. The cost of this uniform will be paid by the Regional Chairman from their regional account. Motion: Kathy Feldmann Second: Denise Porrazzo PASSED

State Chairman shall be elected by the members of the Women's Program Committee in their respective states by a majority (1 over 50%) of the votes cast. If no one receives a majority vote and a runoff is necessary, the run-off election will be between the two candidates receiving the most votes. In the case of a tie in the run-off election, the respective State Board will vote to break the tie. Motion: Hoylene Noble Second: Kathy Feldmann PASSED

If only one nomination for State Chairman is received, the Regional Chairman will cast one vote and the nominee will be elected by acclamation. Motion: Laurel Tindall Second: Kathy Feldmann PASSED

Recommendation that write-in votes for State Chairman will not be allowed. Motion: Sue Warbutton Second : Laurel Tindall PASSED

Jackets will be provided by the Regions for Level 9 East/West Team. No additional competition gear will be supplied by the Regions. Motion: Nancy Fischer Second: Carol Hillenburg

CLARIFICATION - The process for distribution of minutes will be as follows. All minutes will be mailed to each member of their respective committees prior to final approval for their input or corrections.

An Ad Hoc Committee was formed to develop Regional Officer Election procedures. These will be presented to the entire committee at the next meeting. Members of the Ad Hoc Committee are Kathy Feldmann, Kathy Koeth, Hoylene Noble and Carol Hillenburg.

Signed (Mike JackO September 1989


Women's Technical Committee Philadelphia, Pennsylvania September 15, 1989 Region I Region II Region III Region IV Region V Region VI Region VII Region VIII Nat'l Elite Tech. Chair. Nat'l J.O. Tech. Chair. Nat'l Technical Chair. Women Program Adm Judges Tran. Chair. Nat'l Elite Pro. Chair. Adm. Board Chair. NCAA Representative NAWGJ Guest

Joanne Pasquale Karen Wisen Lesley Ogg Linda Beran Carolyn Bowers Linda Chencinski Cheryl Hamilton Marion Dykes Audrey Schweyer Connie Maloney Marilyn Cross Kathy Kelly Sharon Weber Roe Kreutzer Mary Ann Mahoney Pam Burgess Dale Brown Delene Darst

Meeting called to order by Chairman, Marilyn Cross at 7:00pm. I. SUB COMMITTEE PROPOSALS A. Element Evaluations were approved as pro-

posed. (see attached) B. Warm-up Configuration 1. The current format, as outlined in the Rules and Policies should remain an option, with touch warm-up by all gymnasts at the start of the rotation. 2. The format used at Junior Olympic Nationals is acceptable. 3. Bars and Floor should remain as we have traditionally done. All touch warm-ups should occur at the start of the rotation. The squad should only be split if there are more than 14 gymnasts per squad. 4. Two (2) warm-up vaults be allowed for all J.O. meets. 5. Balance Beam warm-up may occur with a staggered format. Gymnast 1, 2, and 3 touch. Gymnast 1 competes. While gymnast 1 is being scored, gymnast 4 touches. Gymnast 2 competes . While gymnast 2 is being scored, gymnast 5 touches, etc. Motion: Marion Dykes Second: Lesley Ogg PASSED Recommendation that (3) three warm-up vaults be allowed in Finals competiton at J.O. national level meets. Motion: Second: PASSED


Maloney Bowers

Final updates were made to the USGF Technical Handbook. Book should be ready for sale and distribution by mid November. II. RULES INERPRET ATIONS AND REVISIONS Boards must be removed as soon as possible after mounting for ALL Elite and J.O. competitions. FLOOR: Non-flight elements to ahandstand pirouette WILL NOT Value raise. (Any direct connection of a gymnastics element to handstand pirouette could receive special requirement credit for gymnastic! acrobatic series). Recommendation that for the J.O. Program the addition of a gymnastics element anywhere in an acrobatic series will not change the series or make the saito different. (Only acrobatic elements can change an acrobatic series) Motion: Audrey Schweyer Second: Connie Maloney PASSED

III. J.O. TECHNICAL REPORT - Compulsories WTC has directed the Judges' Training Commission to produce a Video Tape of LevelS routines to serve as a tool in the education of beginning level judges.


STATEMENT: THE EXACTNESS OF TEXT IS IMPORTANT IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE OF THE COMPULSORIES. ** Further consideration on this proposal will be given by both the Technical Com. and the Com .


Delete ParagrahI in IV. Element Evaluations Clarifications to the minutes of Fairfax, VA 3/89 (changed 9/89) Timed warm-ups compulsory levels 5, 6 & 7 = 1 min.; Level 10, 1.5 min.; Optional 2 min. IV.ELITE COMPULSORIES: (A. Schweyer) Changes in the deductions for the Jr. B testing for the Fall Season were presented. Judges training films were discussed. Video for JO will be used at states and above.


IV. J.O. DEVELOPMENT REPORTJohn gave a report on the decisions of the J.O. Committee Meeting. Recommend that for setting Uneven Bars all levels of competition are as stated in R&P. Motion: Carolyn Bowers Second: Karen Wisen PASSED

Gymnasts that wish to enter into the USGF competitive program must start in a compulsory level 7 or below. Recommendation that we maintain the number of judges as stated in the Rules and Policies to maintain a sanction. Motion: Cheryl Hamilton Second: Carolyn Bowers PASSED

time through at regular speed , the second time through a slow motion analysis accompanied by a script. Part 2 would include seperate passes done several time through for learning and analysis only. Vaulting with angles on the vaults in 3 parts. Part 3 would be several routines from different parts of the country that can be used for practice (no analysis). A booklet for teaching learning concepts. Meet Referee Responsibilities handout was discussed. Marian Dykes will retype with the clarifications and corrections.

Adjourned at 1:00 pm


IV. FIG REPORTJackie Fie distributed the 1989 International Competition Report and the 1989 Judge Selection Document. Jackie spoke of the International competitions and the effects of the World Cup qualifying meets. She presented the Selection Criteria for the fall international competitions. Fie announced that the FIG Technical Regulations Book is in the final draft. Copy will be mailed to all Brevet Judges. It is their responsibilty to be familiar with this document. Linda Chencinski has volunteered to revise the International Competition Report Forms for Judges, Coaches and Delegation Leaders. V. NAWGJKaren Wisen has volunteered to act as the WTC representative to the NAWGJ Newsletter to proof all technical questions and answers. Dale Brown presented a proposal for NA WGJ Fee Structure and an Interim Proposal. A Year End Report was distributed. VI. OLD BUSINESS Discussion on the behavior of coaches during competitions. Recommend that a card system be used for unsportsmanlike behavior of a coach: a yellow card is warning, a red card is .5 off team score. Motion: Joan Pasquale Second: Karen Wisen

JCI Report - Delene Darst Delene reported to the committee that the new test has been revised with corrections made and clarified. Judges Training - Sharon Weber Dance Video thru USGF (Tranquill) Idea of a LevelS judging film. In 3 part series in one film: Part 1 would be a compulsory demo tape with an excellent routine on all 4 events performed at regular speed. Then 5 routines of gymnasts from around the Indianapolis area - the 1st


OPTIONAL - GENERAL 1. Usually, does the chief judge's score determine the range? GENERALLY USE THE CHIEFJUDGE'SSCORE BUT THE AVERAGE SCORE MAYBE USED. THIS IS UP TO THE CHIEF JUDGE. 2. If the gymnast runs and touches the board, bars or beam but does not mount, what are her options and what deduction should be taken? TOUCHING THE BOARD OR APP ARA TUS IS CONSIDERED A FALL -0.5. SHE MAY REPEAT THE MOUNT IF NECESSARY OR JUMP UP AND CONTINUE. IF SHE DOESN'T DO ANYTHING RESEMBLING AMOUNT, THERE WOULD BE A 0.1 DEDUCTION FOR MOUNT LESS THAN A.. (THE DEDUCTION FOR NO MOUNT HAS BEEN DELETED FROM THE CODE) 3. If gymnast balks 2X (no touch) then just climbs up (no mount), what is the maximum deduction? 0.1 MOUNT EASIER THAN AN "A" ELEMENT. A COMPOSITION DEDUCTION COULD BE CONSIDERED. 4. If gymnast does the compulsory mount or dismount, can she receive value part credit or compositional credit? SHE WOULD RECEIVE VALUE PART CREDIT AND COMPOSITIONAL CREDIT. (MINUS .3 PENALTY FOR COMPULSORY MOUNT OR DISMOUNT) 5. If gymnast does 4 compulsory elements in a row, can they count for value parts? YES, ELEMENTS WOULD RECEIVE CREDIT FOR VALUE PART AND COMPOSITIONAL REQUIREMENTS. 6. Please clarify. Medium faults in the Code are .25-.40 but in the training manual medium faults are .25 - .35 FOLLOW THE CODE. 7. Is the .20 deduction for not having a natural "C" in competiton Ib considered a value part deduction? YES, AND IT IS TAKEN FROM THE START VALUE. OPTIONAL - VAULT 8. If the gymast balks twice (no touch), can she change the flashed vault number before the third attempt? YES TECHNIQUE

9. Although a handspring and a yamashita are listed under the same number, can a Level 10 gymnast do a handspring vault as her optional vault? YES 10. Do different vaults mean different numbers? YES 11. Is there a way for judges to distinguish between vaults listed under the same vault number so they know which vault to expect? NO, JUDGE THE VAUL T THAT IS PERFORMED. 12.What is the deduction for bent arms? DEPENDING ON THE DEGREE OF BEND SMALL .05 -.20 MEDIUM .25-.40 LARGE .45 AND UP 13.1s there going to be a late repulsion deduction? NO, LATE REPULSION IS NOW CONSIDERED UNDER DYNAMICS. THIS IS WHY DYNAMICS WAS INCREASED. 14.What is poor technique of a vault? Please give examples. WHENEVER THE BODY POSITION DOES NOT CORRESPOND WITH THE PRESCRIBED TEXT. Preflight - TUCKING KNEES ON A FRONT HANDSPRING, FRONT SALTO In Support - BODY OVER ARCHED OR PIKED OPTIONAL BARS 15. Does kip, cast handstand 1/ 2 turn count as one skill for the number of elements in a row or does that only apply to kip, cast handstand? YES - CONSIDER AS ONE ELEMENT IN COUNTING ELEMENTS ON ONE BAR OR IF NEEDED, AS TWO ELEMENTS FOR 10 ELEMENTS. 16.Can you count front hip circle, cast handstand as one element if needed? YES. 17.Can gymnast do cast handstand plus belly beat straddle over-straddle back and have it value raise? NO, THE STRADDLE-OVER BREAKS THE VALUE RAISING POSSIBLITY. 18. Since flyway layout and la you t 1 / 2 dismoun tare listed under the same number in the CODE, as are flyaway tuck and pike, are they considered four different dismounts or only two? THEY ARE ALL DIFFERENT. 19. Can mounts fulfill the "B" flight requirement? ex. free straddle mount- front tuck mount. NO, FLIGHT ELEMENT MUST BE DURING THE EXERCISE. OPTIONAL BEAM 20.Are flic flac to two feet and flic flac step out considered different for value part credit and for Bonus Series? THEY ARE DIFFERENT FOR VALUE PART CREDIT AND CONSIDERED THE SAME FOR A BONUS SERIES. 21.Can a gymnast do flic flac step out, layout salto step out, fli c flac step out and later in the routine do flic flac to two feet, layout step out, FLIC FLAC TO 2 FEET and receive credit for all flic flacs and BOTH saltos?Bonus? ALL THE FLIC FLACS AND BOTH SALTOS RECEIVE VALUE PART CREDIT. THEY ARE CONSIDERED THE SAME SERIES FOR BONUS AND RECEIVE THE B,C,B BONUS CREDIT ONLY ONCE.


22. Can the mount and dismount be used to fullfill any or all special requirements? YES, THE ACRO SERIES SPECIAL REQUIREMENT MAYBE MET IN A DISMOUNT SERIES IFTHE ELEMENT ON THE BEAM HAS FLIGHT. HOWEVER, IF THIS IS THE ONLY ACRO SERIES THERE COULD BE A COMPOSITIONAL DEDUCTION. Ex. Round off, back tuck dismount - Meets the acro. series requirements Cartwheel, back tuck dismount - Does NOT (no flight) 23.Please clarify the leg position, relative to the beam, for pike jumps. C +.1 (90째) D +.1 (45째) IDEALLY LEGS SHOULD BE PARALLEL TO BEAM. CLOSURE AND HEIGHT SOULD BE CONSIDERED. 24.If gymnast does a plain layout step out and later in the routine does flic flac, layout stepout, does she receive value part credit twice for the layout step out? YES, THE ENTRANCE TO THE LAYOUT STEP OUT IS DIFFERENT.. 25. Since we continue to judge after time is called, if the gymnast falls after time is called is she permitted to continue and do her dismount? YES 26. Can the holds listed as 5. Holds and Stands in Code be used as the second element for value raising? NO 27.Can the waves listed as 4. Waves in the Code be used in value raising? YES, OPTIONAL - FLOOR EXERCISE 28. What is the maximum deduction for the acrobatic series special requirement? .1 (EACH) 3 ACRO SERIES .IMUST SHOW 2 DIFFERENT SALTOS .1 MUST SHOW TWO SALTO SERIES OR "D" SALTO TOTAL POSSIBLE .50. 29.1n an INDIRECT connection does a roll element break value raising possibilities? IF THE ROLL IS AN "A" VALUE ELEMENT AND DOES NOT HAVE FLIGHT, IT WILL BREAK THE VALUE RAISING. Front tuck, forward roll, round-off, back layout full twist. HOWEVER, FRONT TUCK FULL TWISTING DIVE ROLL , ROUND OFF BACK LAYOUT FULL TWIST, FRONT TUCK (A) VALUE RAISES THE ROLL(B) TO C AND THE SALTO TOe. 30.Can the following example fulfill the series with two saltos AND the mixed series, since there are enough elements for both? YES Round-off, whip, flic flac, straddle jump, flic flac, back tuck 31.Can aerials and front handspring step outs be used as part of the acrobatic series. (Special requirement). For example: Aerial cartwheel, flic flac, back salto or front handspring step our, round off, back saIto. YES., THE AERIAL CARTWHEEL IS AN ACRO ELEMENT WITH FLIGHT & WITHOUT HAND SUPPORT AND THE FRONT HANDSPRING IS A FAST FLIGHT ELEMENT.




32. Does the natural acro "C" and natural acro "B" refer to acro flight? YES 33.Two butterflies are listed in the CODE, what if the gymnast only does one? DEVALUE Forward to L and Backward to ~ 34. Even though butterflies are listed as being done in a pair for value part credit, can the gymnast fulfill the gymnastic series by doing 2 butterflies and full turn? YES 35. Please clarify value raising and bonus connection for the following : Full twist front handspring (C), round-off (A), flic flac with a full (B), jump 2/ 1 (C), Pike front salta, round-off, jump 2/1, jump 2/1 CAB C C (vr) A C "0" (No credit) JUMP 2/1 VALUE RAISE THE FRONT PIKE TO C. THE LAST JUMP 2/ 1 IS SHOWN FOR THE 3X AND RECEIVES NO VALUE PART CREDIT. .20 BONUS THE FULL TWIST FRONT HANDSPRING. .10 BONUS FOR THE GYM / ACRO CONNECTlONSOFATLEASTTHREEELEMENTSOFlB AND 2C. (HAND SUPPORT FLIGHT ELEMENTS MAYBE USED FOR INDIRECT CONNECTIONS FOR BONUS POINTS. COMPULSORY - GENERAL 36. The deduction for changing an element is .5 + the value of the element. What is considered changing? EX: IF AN AERIEL CARTWHEEL IS REPLACED BY A CARTWHEEL. IF A FRONT HANDSPRING IS REPLACED BY A FRONT TlNSICA.LeveIS BARS 37. If the gymnast does the underswing and rips off, can she do the counter swing from any start position? YES, SHE MAY START ANYWHERE. 38. If the gymnast is attempting the counter swing to straddle stand and misses her feet three times and then falls do you deduct three intermediate swings? DEDUCT FOR 3 INTERMEDIATE SWINGS PLUS THE FALL. DEDUCT EXECUTION ON THE FIRST ATTEMPT ONLY. Level 10 39. What is the deduction for giant to handstand and then 1/2 turn? IT IS CONSIDERED AN INTERMEDIATE ERROR OF UP TO .30 FOR INCORRECT TIMING OF HAND CHANGE. 40. What is the deduction for a turning uprise instead of the 3/4 giant 1/ 2 turn? .60 plus.50 THIS IS CHANGING AN ELEMENT.


BEAM LevelS 41. Can the arabesque in and out of the cross handstand be on a bent leg? YES, BUT STRAIGHT LEG WOULD SHOW MORE AMPLITUDE. Level 6 42. During the cartwheel handstand straddle down, does the gymnast have to touch both feet to the beam before bending the one leg? YES. Level 10 43. When may the feet be changed on the cartwheel, flic flac, sissone? THE FOOT MAY STEP IN FRONT OR BEHIND FOR EACH ELEMENT. FLOOR Level 5 44. Is it acceptable to do a beat of the legs during the front handspring step out? YES. IT IS NOT REQUIRED . 45. During the hitch kick, does the deduction for legs below 45 degrees refer to 45 degrees above the horizontal? NO, BETWEEN FLOOR AND HORIZONTAL FOR ALL LEVELS. 46. What is the deduction for adding an element at the end of a series? Example: Round off, flic flac, flic flac, backwalkover. THIS IS A MEDIUM ERROR .30. IT MAY ALSO CAUSE A RHYTHM ERROR. Level 6 47. Which body wave is the element or are they both considered the element? BOTH - ALL OF #2 LISTED ON PAGE 137. 48. Should each body wa ve be subjectto the ded uctions listed? YES. Level 7 49.Why is the deduction .40 and not .60 on the layout salta for a pike or tuck? THIS SHOULD BE CORRECTED TO .60. Level 10 50. During the split position of the jete en tourant should the hips be square or is it done in an open position? AT THE COMPLETION OF THE SPLIT THE HIPS SHOULD BE SQUARE.

Approved: (Mike JackO, October, 1989


Women's Program

Women's Elite Program 1990 TO:


FROM: AUDREY SCHWEYER, NETC The 1990 Elite competitive season begins with the American Classic to be held in Hurst, Texas on November 16-19, 1989. the meet directors are Debbie Bellard and Emil Milan. The competitions site is L.D. Bell H . S. in Hurst, Texas.

Meet information packets and entry forms will be sent by the Meet Directors to the REPC prior to the Regional Meets and to the individual clubs of gymnasts already qualified to the Classic Meets by the first week in October.

Please refer to 1989-90 Rules and Policies for qualification procedures forregional and national Elite competitions. The RTC and REPC must be responsible for determining that all gymnasts are competing in the correct age division according to their 1990 birthday. To clarify the age division for American Classics:

Those gymnasts qualified directly to the Classics will be required to return the Entry Forms and Fees to the Meet Director postmarked no later than October 23,1989.

Birthday 1975 or earlier 1976 1977 1978 1979

Division Senior c/o Junior A I Senior Junior AI Senior Junior A or Junior B Junior B

The following gymnasts may enter directly into the Classic meets: (Rules and Policies 89-90) Name Johnson Bruce Panzaroni Henrich Neubauer Kelly, Keri Woolsey Bangerter Tierney Ester Lister Jones Stack Kenoyer Dundas Wood, S Knight Kelly, Kim Mercier McKenna McQuown Kaye Miller Jackson Cole

Club Brown Brown Brown GAGE GAGE GAGE Desert Devils Desert Devils Desert Devils Gym Country Gym Country Gym Country SCATS Un. of Utah Capitol Capitol Am. Gym Parkettes Parkettes Parkettes Parkettes Parkettes Dynamo Dynamo Dynamo


Name Club Dixon Karolyi Stokes Karolyi Scherr Karolyi Grivich Karolyi Zmeskal Karolyi Uherek Karolyi Karolyi Pitzen Reardon Karolyi Moody Arena Dawes Hill's Angels Wood Am. Twisters Walker Ok. Gym Richter Nebraska Sch. Simpkins 11. Gym Inst. North Stars Leung Anderson New England Wymer Sunrise Peterson Iowa Gym Hagberg Olympic Gym Voorheis Saginaw Gym Erwin SCGA Charter Oaks Fierro

Gymnasts who qualify to the American Classic at their Regional Elite Meet, must be prepared to submit their Entry Forms and Fees to the RTC at the Regional Meet. The RTC will collect all Entry Fees and mail them to the Meet Director via Express Mail. In addition to collecting and mailing the entries for qualified gymnast the RTC MUST CALL the NETC (Audrey Schweyer) the day after the Regional Competitions with the name of the qualifiers. Regional Elite Meets may be held no later than October 28-29,1989. Please understand that since there are less than three weeks between the Regionals and the American Classic it is critical that the above procedures be followed. The competitive draw and final schedule of competition cannot be done until the exact number of entries in each division is known. NOTE: If because of numbers, it becomes necessary to do a seeded draw, late entries (by Postmark or otherwise) will automatically be placed in the second seed. Thank you for your cooperation, (Signed: Audrey Schweyer)


Women's Program

Corrections to the 1989 JO Compulsory Book Correction sheet says "};2.J.2l" change to "p.195". P. 191 is correct as printed in the Compulsory Book. All .10 deductions are flat deductions not "up to" for compulsories. Very small errors of .05 can be considered under general amplitude at the end of the routine. PAGE ~7 The legs may be closed or opened during the swing down. 99 Box - Change "Cast to within 15 of vertical and does NOT repeat element. execuFall ( No execution errors)" "to Plus tion errors" 115 Level 7 Balance Beam time changed from 1:00 to 1:10 sec. 121 Box Add "Failure .... (feet together) up to .30" 135 20 Add to end.: "Extend Left leg in releve, closing Right foot behind Left foot in releve. ARMS: Extended upward. 21 Box Change "insufficient repulsion up to .20" to .30 139 13 Box Add "Failure to switch legs .40" 143 Top add to NOTE: #22 145 6 Shaded Box: Change "Piked or tucked salto .40" to .60 151 Top NOTE: Delete #49 158 43 Add to "360 TurniA.Ql 160 Delete 49 This is part of~ 164 3 Add to "Petit Temp Lie Left" (.60) 4 Add to "(.60)" each


7 Add to "Soutenu en Tournant" (.40) 10 Change "lack of suppleness up to .20" to .10 187 3 "Lack of control on downswing up to .10" delete up to 189 2 Change "Castto within 15 of vertical. . .Fall (No execution errors) to Plus execution errors. 197 1 add "up to .30" 199 21 Change: "insufficient repulsion up to .20" to .30 200 21 Back extension roll "Not held for 1 second at vertical up to .20" delete up to 201 Box change;:L Body Wave to2. and also under the Element Column. 13 Add Failure to switch legs .40 203 Top box change numbersn to 18 and 18 to 11 6 Change "Piked or tucked salto .40" to .60 11 change "free leg not lifted ... up to .10" delete up to 205 Top Box Add to 48" .. .Tinsica, 360 Turn" Change 2 Major elements @ .60 to ~ 206 Delete 49 - Deductions for 360 Turn apply to 43 and the last 360 Turn after the Tinsica. 207 Top Box Change ~ Major elements to :2 Add 7 to 5" Soutenu en Tournant Change Z to ll. Change ~ to 2 Add to 2,3,4,5 and 7 (each) 10 Change "Lack of suppleness up to .20" to .10

Meet Director's Certification Procedures Procedures: Cost: $5.00 for Professional Members $10.00 for Non Professional Members

1. After expenses, the proceeds from the test should be sent to the Regional Chairman.

Required: Meet Directors for Sectional and Above Competitions.

2. The following should be sent to the USGF Office: A roster of all test participants with names, address, city , state and zip and Professional Number Results (pass / fail) of all participants Site and Test Administrator name

Time: No test will be administered after JuniorOlympic Nationals until the new Rules and Policies are available.


3. Test is valid for the current quadrennium 4. National Office will send Certificate to each successful participant and enter their name into the USGF computer for Sanctioning purposes. TECHNIQUE

USGP Vault Table August 17, 1989 M. Cross


GROUP II Cuervos & Saltos Forward

CW A 8.8 1.01 HSPlYami 1.02 Cartwheel· 1/4 turn 8.8 1.03 HSPlYami ·1 /2 turn 9.0

HSPlYami·1 1/2 1/1 on· HSP 1/2on·11 /2off 11 /2on · 1/2off 1/1 on· 1/1 off 1/1 on· 1/2 off

1.90 1.91 S· 1.92 S· 1.93 S· 1.94

HSPlYami ·2/1 1 1/2 on . 1/1 off 1/2·2/1 1/1 . 1 1/2 HSP . 21 /2


S =Supplement * =Changed Value


*9.6 9.6 *9.8 *9.9 *9.9 9.7

*9.9 2.60 HSP· Front Tuck *9.9 2.61 Cuervo Tucked S·2.62 1/4 . Side Saito· 1/4 9.8

7.0 7.5 7.5 8.4

*10. HSP· Ft Pike HSP· FtTuck 1/2 *10. HSP· Ft Pike 1/2 10. HSP· Ft Layout 1/2 10. 10. HSP· Ft Tuck 1/1 1/2 on . 1/2 Ft Tuck 10. Tuck/Pike Ft on . Opt. Off 10. 10. 2.97 Front· Front 2.98 1/1 on· Front 10. 10. 2.99 Front· 1/1 off 2.100 ·HSP . 2 1/2 Front 10. 10. 2.101 ·Cuervo Piked 2.102 ·Cuervo Tucked 1/1 10. 2.103 ·Cuervo Piked 1/1 10.

2.90 2.91 2.92 2.93 2.94 2.95 2.96

9.4 9.5 9.5

4.30 RO · FF . Tuck Back 9.4 4.31 RO . FF . Pike Back 9.5 9.5 S-4.32 RO · FF· Tuck 1/2

C 3.60 3.61 S·3.63 S·3.64

D 10. 10. 10. 10. 10.


B 3.30 Tsuk. Tuck 3.31 Tsuk. Pike S·3.32 Tsuk. Tuck 1/2



LevelS Closed: S·0.1 Squat S·0.2 Stoop S·0.3 Straddle S·O.4 1/2 on . Repulsion


*9.3 9.4 *9.5 *9.5

C 1.60 1.61 1.62 1.63 1.64 S· 1.65






B 1.30 1/2 on · 1/2 off 1.31 Cartwheel· 3/4 (same direct) 1.32 Cartwheel· 1 1/4 1.33 HSPlYami· 1/1 1.34 1/2 on· 1/1 off

GROUP III Tsukaharas

Tsuk. Layout Tsuk. Tuck 1/1 Tsuk. Pike 1/2 Tsuk. Layout 1/2

C *9.7 *9.9 9.6 9.8

4.60 4.61 S·4.63 S-4.64

RO . FF . Layout RO· FF . Tuck 1/1 RO· FF . Pike 1/2 RO . FF . Layout 1/2

10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10.

4.90 4.91 4.92 4.93 4.94 4.95 4.96 4.97 4.98 S·4.99

RO· FF . Pike 1/1 10. RO . FF . Layout 1/1 10. RO· FF· Layout 1 1/210. RO . FF . Layout 2/1 10. RO· FF ·1 /1 . Tuck 10. RO· FF· 1/1· Pike 10. RO· FF· 1/1 . Layout 10. RO . FF . 1/1 . 1/1 10. RO· FF · 1/2· Front 10. RO· FF ·1 /2 Front 10.


D 3.90 3.91 3.92 3.93 3.94 3.95

Tsuk. Pike 1/1 Tsuk. Layout 1/1 Tsuk. Tuck 1 1/2 Tsuk. Pike 1 1/2 Tsuk. Layout 1 1/2 HSP 1 1/2 on· Saito (T.P.L.) 3.96 Tsuk. 2 1/2 · Tuck 3.97 Tsuk.2 1/2· Pike

*9.7 *9.9 9.6 9.8

10. 10.

All Tsuk are to be preformed with 90 degree to 180 degree LA turn in first flight phase.

Level 8,9,10 - NO Round-off Entry Vaults Allowed Level 8 Open Division - NO "D" Level Vaults or "C" Saito Vaults Level 8 Closed Division - NO "D" Level Vaults, "c" Level Vaults, or "8" Saito Vaults

Non·Profit Organization U.S. Postage

PAID Permit No. 7867 Indianapolis, Ind .

Walking the Straight and Narrow Can Lead to a Wide Open Future.

-- -----

alking a balance beam 4 inches wide and 4 fee' high teaches a young girl how to concentrate on where she is going in life. She quickly learns how to put her foot down ... and when to leap for her dreams. Gymnastics gives young girls the tools they need to build a successful future: The courage to explore unique talents. The confidence to set lofty goals. And the creativity to reach them. Above all, it develops the discipline to achieve. If you'd like to help your child learn to walk the straight and narrow, enroll her today in a local gymnastics program. You'll be opening up a world spinning with possibilities . For more information, contact the United States Gymnastics Federation, Pan American Plaza, 201 S. Capitol Ave., Suite 300, Indianapolis, Indiana 46225. 317/237-5050 Gymnasti(

I! ..- • •




Winning at Life

Profile for USA Gymnastics

Technique Magazine - October-December 1989  

Technique Magazine - October-December 1989