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D ec. 198 1

Official Technica l Publication of the Un ited States Gymnastics Federation

Bart Conn er, 1981 World Ch ampion ship Trials, Fort Co llins , C olorad o

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December, 1981

USGF Scientific and Technical Journal Published Exclusively for the USGF Professional Membership Vol. 1 No .4

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Physiologica l Considerations in the Deve lopment of a Gymnastics Training Program, Dr . Jim Brown , Dr . Jam es Wilke rson ........... page 4



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James R. Brown. Ed. D .• Head Gymnastics Coach. Indiana University James E. Wilkerson. Ph .D .. Director: Exercise Physiology Laboratories. Indiana University A Presentation To The National High School Gymnastics Coaches Association November 14. 1981


THE UNIQUENESS OF GYMNASTICS In most individua l sports the task of the coach is unidimensional. His/ hertask is to train the athletes to perform a movement faster. farther. or longer than the opponent. and teach a limited number of skills . For example. the shot putter refines a sing le technique and works to increase strength in an effort to improve performance . The tennis player practices for hours on some ten basic strokes and then conditions by playing tennis so as to be ab le to endure the duration of the match . By comparison. the gymnastics coach at the high schoo l or co ll ege level must literally teach thousands of skills for the six/ four competitive events. put these skills into sequences. the sequences into routines. and then repeat the entire process five / three more times . AND THIS IS ONLY HALF THE COACHES ' TASK! The other half is to deve lop a program that will provide increases in strength . muscular endurance. and flexibility to allow the competitor to utilize the skills he/ she has learned. The coach must be aware of what s/ he is doing and systematically attack the problem of developing a long-range program that encompasses teaching . composing. and conditioning .

A review of the literature reveals a glaring lack of interest on the part of physiologists and exe rci se scientists regarding training in the sport of competitive gymnastics. This is not to say that there has been nothing published in gymnastics and coaching periodicals . Indeed. hardly an issue is printed that does not contain an author's opinion as to the best type of weight training prog ram to use or how a particularly successfu l program sets up its seasonal calisthenics or stretching program . While many of these contain excellent information. most have been based on empirical observations of the successful coach and not upon scient ifically derived data. This is understandable since most exercise scientists have not had an interest in the training of competitive gymnasts. Instead. most physiological research dealing with sport has been directed toward less complex motor skills. such as running and swimming . where the data collected is almost directly app licable to competitive activities.


Much of the solid research in the sport of gymnastics has come from spec iali sts in biomechanics. motor learning. and. most recently. the new discipline of sports psychology . The vast majority of training programs have been developed by emulating others who have been successful and from a pragmatic standpoint. this is not an altogether bad approach . As the Japanese and the Russians have dominated international gym nast ics for some time. itwould seem logical to study their approaches to training. Basically. this is what many coaches from other countries have done. However. let us not forget that it was the Japanese who photographed all of the Ame ri can gymnasts' routines during the 1952 Olympic games and came back four years later to perform those same skills at an even higher technical level. This approach breaks down over an extended period of time if there are no internally-generated improvements. Copying others tells one on ly what the top gymnasts in a country have done in the past and not what they are presently doing. More importantly. the mimic does not know what the champions have done to "get to the top'"

There are three basic ways in which relative strength can be improved. The first is to make the gymnast stronger. The second is to decrease the gymnast 's body weight. The best choice, the third method, is to combine both an increase in strength and a decrease in body weight.

The Japanese Olympians are famous for the astounding number of routines that they throw in a training session . It is not likely they got to be as good as they are by training exclusively with large numbers of routines. Perhaps they train this way because they are as good as they are. i.e .. their routines are so easy for them. and they have mastered the routines so well that they can do the reported 200 routines per week . This is another way of saying they have attained a very high level of muscular strength and endurance. as we ll as cardiorespi ratory fitness. that allows them to do this high volume of work . Somewhere in their training background there must have been a very different type of program used - training to train in gymnastics. or getting in shape to train for gymnastics. The old saying. "PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT! ." should probably be amended to read. "PERFECT practice makes perfect! " To practice for any extended length of time and work at a high technical performance level requires that the gym na st be superb ly conditioned . It is unlikely that the gymnast can get into "shape " to do large numbers of routines in practice simply by doing the routines alone . It seems more logical that the necessary high level of fitness must come from supplementa l/ extra co nditioning programs. Ideally. the development of this training program would begin by analyzing what the physiologist and exercise scientists tell us about training and conditioning . This information would be combined with a know ledge of the specific physiological demands of gymnastics to yie ld a training regimen specific to gymnastics. Unfortunately. this information relating directly to gymnastics does not exist . since. as yet. no comprehensive stu dies have been conducted. Thus. the gymnastics coach must seek information from other sports. extrapo late this data to the gymnastics situation. and improvise a training program that hopefully will meet the needs of his gymnasts.


One might be very impressed with the ability of an athlete to bench press a very heavy weight - three hundred pounds. for instance. What if you learned that the perso n performing the lift weighs 350 pounds. or perhaps 150 pounds? In effect. the first athlete is lifting less than his/ her body weight. and the second is lifting a weight that is twice his/ her body weight. In absolute terms. both have accomplished the same amount of work . Relative to the athlete 's body weight, the second lifter is greatly superior to the first . Obviously, in gymnastics we are interested in relative strength and in the most efficient way in which it can be improved, since the gymnast lifts only his/ her body, and not other weights. during the performance of the required routines .

l osing weight may be eithe r the easiest or the most difficult part of the conditioning program to improve relative strength , depending upon the body composition and the biochemistry of the athlete . Obviously, the degree to which an athlete is overweight will affect his/ her ability to lose weight. You would not expect a person who has 10% body fat to be ab le to lose weight as easily as another who has 25% body fat. The coach who is truly interested in the relative strength of his/ her athletes must, therefore, know how much body fat his charges have and keep accurate records of this throughout the athletes' careers . It is not difficu lt or time consuming to do this. Inexpensive calipers are available for taking skinfold measures at various body sites, enabling the coach to make reliable estimates of the ath lete 's body composition. Contrary to common practice. weight reduction programs should not be emphasized during the competitive season. Eliminating excess body fat to attain the ideal body composition for gymnastics competition must be done before or after the season . It is essential that the gymnast report for training at, or below, his/ her desired competitive weight. The diet of the gymnast during the competitive season must be high in carbohydrates in order to maintain the muscle and liver glycogen that is necessary to provide energy for the stresses of training and performance . It is impractical to ask the athlete to eat a diet high in carbohydrates and at the same time to concern him / herself with losing significant body weight. The athlete will gain weight during the training through an increase in muscle mass. This should not be emphasized . however, since it is the relative strength . the power to weight ratio, that the gymnast is concerned with and not absolute strength . In order to increase the gymnast 's strength the coach must understand how the body adapts uniformly and predictable to any stress. including training . The coach must also understand that a high degree of relative strength alone is not sufficient to enable the gymnast to succeed, since s/ he must perform not one, but many individual strength moves in the all-around program . Muscular endurance is as important an objective as is muscular strength for success in gymnastics, and the training program must reflect this. It is not possible to maximally increase muscular strength and muscular endurance with the same movement; that is. training adaptations are specific. This suggests that the successful coach will develop a training program with at least two phases. design ed following Delorme 's principles regarding the relationship between increasing muscular strength (high res istance , low repetition) and muscular

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endurance (lower resistance , more repetitions). These object ives can be met using either conventiona l free weights (isotonic exercises) or the more recently developed devices that max imize resistance throughout the entire range of motion (isokinetic exercises). Preliminary data from an ongoing series of studies with collegiate gymnasts suggest that a third phase is necessa ry for max imal success, especially in the early portions of the training program. This is the augmentation of whole-body (cardio- respiratory) endurance. While not directly involved in the performance of anyone gymnastics movement, a high level of endurance is an asset to the competitive gymnast in that it provides the foundation for an expanded training program . As endurance increases, the recovery time between events decreases allowing the gymnast to perform more routines, CORRECTLY, and, thereby, improve performance more rapidly.

SUMMARY The development of a training program for the competitive gymnast is based upon the same principles as the programs of a ll other sports. An analysis of the physiologica l requirements of the sport of gymnastics suggests that there are three major components that must be included in a training program if the competitor is to be given the maximal opportunity to excel. It is possible to increase cardiorespiratory endu rance, muscular strength, and muscular endurance through the performance of gymnastics routines alone . However, it is somewhat ironic to note that as the ski ll (and the scores) of the performer increases, each routine becomes easier and less training occurs. Thus , the uti lization of external sources of stress (exercise overload) helps to hasten the attainment of higher training states, allowing the gymnast to improve his/ her ultimate potential.

have heard in the past sessions yeste rday and today plus the information booth we provided wi ll all be of help to you in the future of your gymnastics coachi ng careers. You've heard a lot about recognition of injury, rehabilitation and some very spec ific ways of helping to treat these injuries . My di sc ussion will cover (and very briefly I ca n promise you) the immediate management of injuri es as they occur in gymnastics. That is really rather poorly put. these same injuries cou ld and do occur in all sports, I have picked a number that occur more frequently in gymnastics. My rul e . of thumb is "a lways look for the worst and hope for the best", another little one liner you may want to reme mber is that " none of us has x-ray eyes", if there is any question of fracture an x-ray shou ld be taken to answer the question. One of the prime factors in the immediate management of athletic injuries is that you have a plan of action and the materials and supp lies needed to carry out this plan of action. Ice, elastic bandages, tape, are just a few of the items you should have ava ilabl e, but just as important is a li sting of phone numbers for ambulance, hospital , doctor, and of course parents. Soiet's get into a few general rules regarding immediate management of injuries.


To have knowledge of standard first aid measures and techniques.


To have knowledge of the proper sequence and chain of command in any emergency situation.


To be able to relate pertinent information of predisposing chronic injury, or other information that mayor may not relate to the current injury .


To be ab le to assume the responsibility of determining the continued activity of the injured ath lete following injury in the absence of the physician . In situations where there is any question of the athletes ability to play, return of activity is withhe ld until a thorough eva lu at ion by a physician is comp leted.

Brown , James and Wardell, David, Teachi ng and Coaching Gymnastics, John Wi ley and Sons, New York, 1980.


To supervise and/ or assist in the application of protective equipment, including strapping and bandaging .

Brow n, James, "Spec ificity of Stress and Training in Gymnastics, " Olympische Tournkunst (Germany) 4 : 16-17, Dec . 1974.


To maintain records of all injuries and illnesses.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Armstrong, Ezra , W ilm ore, Jack, and DeMaria , Anthony, Exercise in Cardiovascu lar Health and Disease, Yorke Medical Books, New York, 1977.


Daland, Peter, "Distance Base: Key to Every Event," Swimming Wor ld, 22:1314, Oct. 1981 . Wi lkerson, James, Ko lk a M.A., Stephenson , L.A. , and Brown , James, "Physiological and Blood Biochemical Responses to Men 's All Around Olympic Compulsory Gymnastics Routines," (For future publi cation : Submitted to American College of Sports Medicine , 1981).




To have a knowledge of serious injuries that may be associated with the sport that he is coachi ng and the first aid measures necessary to manage these injuries properly.


To be knowledgeable and to assist in the proper chain of command that must be estab lished in case of injury or emergency situations; i.e., to know the location and telephone number of the assigned physician, and to know whereabouts of the trainer at all times .


To cooperate with the physician and trainer in making certain that a player does not return to participation until cleared for participation by the physician or trainer.


To impress upon each player the necessity of reporting any injury or illness, w hether minor or severe, to the trainer or physician imm ediately.


SPECIFIC FIRST AID FOR THE GYMNASTICS COACH ' Even though prevention is the best treatment for injury, athletic injuries are a real part of sports and it's vitally important that we know howto make proper assessments and the initial treatment of an injury. Ja ck Rockwell, a national team trainer and member of our USGF Sports Advisory Committee , from the Center for Sports Medicine, St. Francis Memorial Hospital, San Francisco, out lin es some of the important steps of assessment and treatment in a presentation he made to a group of northern Ca lifornia gymnastics coaches at a two day symposium at St. Francis Memorial Hospital.

Being the last one on the program has its advantages, I've lea rn ed from my predessors, t hey 're all taken a littl e added time and so th at makes it possible for me to shorten my speech a bit. Serious ly though yo u have heard some excellent presentations this afternoon. I'm sure that some of you who ha ve had to fend for yourse lves a ll these years are wo ndering why this information wasn't forthcoming a long time ago. Unfortun ately it was but our communicating lines were not plugged in and it's taken a lot of work, lik e so many things require to br ing th is Sports M edic ine information to you. I sin ce rel y hope that what you

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THE IMMEDIATE MANAG EM ENT OF SPORTS INJU RIES PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT Following any injury, restrict play of the injured athlete and observe, listen, exa min e, and th en ini t iate treatment when indicated. Before and following retu rn to p lay, a fun ctiona l eva lu ati on is necessa ry. A. Restri ct Play

A ny time that it becomes obvio us to the coach, physician , or tra iner that a pl aye r has been inju red, that player shou ld be removed from play. B. Observe Initi al obse rvatio n should be made on the spot, and later in a more appropriate area restricted from view of spectators so th at all necessary clothing and equipm ent m ay be removed. Observe the state of co nscio usness and the gene ral appearance of the athlete, t he co lor of th e skin, th e ability to move, the respi ratory rate, and the prese nce of abra sio ns, lace rat ions, pain, defo rmity, or bleeding . If he is unco nscious, check th e character of th e pu lse, re spira to ry rate, pupi l size and reactio n, prese nce of blood espec ially in the externa l ea r, rhinorrh ea or otorrhea , abnorm a l ref lexes, and deformit y. Establi sh a base li ne leve l of co nsc iousn ess as soon as possible . C. Li ste n If the at hlete is conscious, all ow him to relate the expe r ie nce of his injury. What is in jured? What was the mechanism? Was th ere contact? Was it a direct or indirect blow? Did he fall or d id he twist? What did he hear?Was the re imm ed iate disability? Was there a feeling of instabi lity? Has t he re been any prev ious injury to the sa m e site? If so, what was the exte nt of the inj ury? W hat is t he site a nd nature of the pain ? D. Exa min e Note any area of swelling, deformity, or mu sc le spa sm . Palpate for tenderness and crepitu s. Check for stabi lity, weakness, or disfunction in the ext rem ities, any se nsory defect, and the range of motion . It is necessa ry to dete rmin e th e nature as well as the extent of the injury. If, after carefu l eva lu atio n, the injury appea rs to be insig nif ica nt, then make a f unct ional eval uati on of th e injured player. If norm al fun cti on is present, then the ath lete ca n safe ly be allowed 10 return to play. If abnormal function is obse rv ed, then f urther partic ipation shou ld be de layed until a more thorough evaluat ion or definitive treatment has been concluded. If the injury is significant, then restrictio n of play should be cont inu ed and treatment instituted immedi atel y.

Next, observe, is there deformity? Is there swe lling or discoloration? Is there musc le spas m? Is there a full range of painless motion? Is the skin intact? Now, examine. Palpate for tenderness or crepitus. Use one finger tip to asce rta in the area of maximum tende rn ess. Point tenderness over li gaments and their bony attachment strongly indicate the pr esence of a sprain, wh il e maximu m tende rn ess ove r bone sho uld alert one to suspect a fracture. Point tenderness ove r the m ed ial (deltoid) li gament and over the f ibu la above the jo int line should lead one to suspect that th ere may be a d isrup tion of the ank le mortise and further play shou ld be restr icted unti l a more deta il ed eva luation can be ca rr'ied out (i ncludin g x- rays). Point tenderness over a tendon or its bony attachment suggests a strain . Tendons most often inju red about the ankle are the posterior tibial , ante ri or tibia l, and the Ach il les. Point tenderness and swe lling ove r latera l mall eo lus and peroneal tendons suggests peroneal tendon strain or dislocation. Forced eve rson with the foot in plantar fl ex io n is the usual m echa ni sm fo r dislocation of these tendons and reduction may occ ur spon taneously w ith littl e initial swe ll ing. Point tenderne ss equidistant between the latera l malleolus and base of the f ifth metatarsal suggests an avu lsion fracture of th e anter ior process of the ca lcane us (seen best on ob l ique X- ray of the foot). In the abse nce of deformity, the active and passive rang e of motion and stability of the ank le should be com pared with the opposite ank le. Locking or a ca tching fee ling shou ld lead one to suspect a chond ral or osteocho ndra l f racture. Inversion of the dorsiflexed ankle is the usua l mechan ism. An ante rior drawer sign ca n be demonstrated with comp lete tear of the anterior talofibu lar ligament and the ante rior joint capsu le. If there is any quest ion about the stabi lity of the ankle, these observat ions should be supplemented by x- ray examinat ion under loca l or general anesthesia with inversion and eversion stre ss in the anteriorposte rior view and w ith th e foot pu ll ed forwa rd in slight plantar fl exion on the latera l view. The immediate management of a ll ank le inju ries shou ld be to app ly cold, compress ion, and support and to forbid we ight bearing . If a diagnosis of sp rain w it hout fracture and w ithout comp lete dis rupt ion of the lateral lig ame nts is estab l ished, bandaging of the foot and ankle in mi dpos it ion w it h elast ic ad hes ive for comp ress ion, followed by elevati on as much as possible and no we ig ht bea rin g for 24 to 48 hou rs is indicat ed. Now let's go back a bit and run through a few slides to indicate the exact order or sequence of immediate management. W e sta rt with the app licat ion of an ela stic bandage over the ankle with an ice bag or two su rrounding the ankle.

Ankle sprai ns co nst itute one of the most frequent injuries in sports. An acc urate diagnosis of the degree of damage is esse ntial before making a determi nation of co ntinued activity. The best time for accurate assess m en t of th e degree of dam age is immedi atel y foll owing injury w hen muscle spasm is absent, pain is not seve re, and swelling and discoloration have not deve loped.

After a period of 30-45 minutes with the ice in place and the ankle and leg elevated, the athlete is allowed to shower or get dressed and a horseshoe or horseshoes are applied ei t he r around one or both malleoli . Th ese ca n be made of orthopedic felt, combine roll , o r diaper material. The reason we place the se on the ankle around the malleoli is that the natural indentat ions of the ank le jo int w ill rapid ly fill with blood and whe n thi s happens it wi ll slow t he healing process by a great deal of tim e. These horses hoes can be held in place by eit he r an e lastic ba ndage and you don 't have to wrap all t he way up the leg , ju st ove r the ank le, or a product that we use exte nsive ly ca ll ed (?). As yo u can see this materia l has a two-way stretch and is much eas ier to app ly proper ly than an elastic bandage. The only t ime this wrap and the horseshoes are removed are for more treatment by ice, or as the ank le begins, its healing process by contrast baths . We ve ry se ldom use heat only on a jo in t injury but prefer contrast bath which provides the dil ation and constr iction of the blood vessels w ithout the chance of excessive swe lling. Th e athlete is provided with crutches, and taught how to use them, he or she is then eith er sent to th e physic ian for x- rays or a ll owed to proceed home with instructions in icing, elevating, and compress ing the ankle unti l seen the following day. Eleva tion of any bed can be accomp lished by placing a suitcase unde r t he mattress at th e bottom of the bed .

Following an injury to the ank le, it is best to bring the at hl et e to the side lin e w itho ut permitting he or she to bea r weight on th e injured extre m ity. Once on the side line shoes, socks, and any tape, wrap, or strappi ng sho uld be removed and ca reful exam ination made of the injured andl e. Freq uent comparisons with the norm al ankl e are very helpful , especia lly in relation to general conf iguration. rang e of motion, and stabi lity.

Immed iate management is the n a co mbination of plannin g for any even tuali ty, act ing immed iate ly when an at hlete is inj ured by obse rving , questioning and taking whateve r steps are necessa ry to put the injured athl et e at ease and to determine the nature and seve rity of the injury. When these things have been accom plished the patient shou ld be trea ted appropriately or moved to a medica l faci lity if the extent of injury ind ica te s that be done.

When the ankle has been exposed, li sten to the athl ete's description of the injury. Wh at hurts and where? How did t he injury occu r? Was the re direct contact with a nother player, th e gro und, o r something else? Did he or she fa ll , or turn ove r his or her ankle? Did he or she hea r a " pop " or "c rack"? Was there immediate disability? Was there a fe eling of insta bility? Ha s there been any previous injury to the same ank le? If so, what was the exte nt of th e prev ious injury? What is the nature and site of th e pai n?

I don't think I've en lightened you all w ith many or any new ideas today. I hope though tha t I may have helped you put yo ur priorities in order and given yo u an idea of the importance of immed iate management of the ath letic in ju ry. Thank you all for yo ur very kind attent ion.

Now th ese are genera l rule s a nd ca n be app lied to all inj uries, let's talk specifically about one area of injury that occ urs so very often in gymna sti cs, the ankle . I'd like to go through th e imm ediate manage ment of an ank le injury very thorough ly beca use it is so common and also because th e patte rn of management is so simi lar to all th e joint and soft tissue injuries we see in sport s.



United States Gymnastics Federation

Larry Gardner is a national team trainer and member of the USGF biomechanical task force, from the Sports Medicine Clinic of North Te xas in Dallas .


By Larry Gardner

In any sport where speed, quickness and rapid frequent changes of direction are called for, the ankle sprain is a common injury. If any sport falls into this category, gymnastics does. Therefore, anyone reading this article has probably gone through the pain and a period of not being able to participate due to an ankle sprain. The first point I would like to make is DO NOT use HEAT or HOTSOAKS after an ankle sprain for at least 48 hours after the injury. If you use no heat for one week, you will be much better off than if you use heat too soon. After an ankle sprain use I.CE . Use ICE, COMPRESSION AND ELEVATION . You must get ice on the area as soon as possible. Wrap the ankle with a wet elastic "Ace" bandage, apply an ice bag after dipping it in water to make sure the outside of the bag is wet, then elevate the ankle (ankle higher than knee, knee higher than heart) or the benefits of ice, compression and elevation will not be fully effective for you. If after 24 hours the pain has not decreased markedly, you should definitely have the ankle x-rayed. There are degrees of ankle sprains, just as there are degrees of burns. A first degree sprain will swell and be somewhat tender, but shouldn't be incapacitating for more than a day or two . Some of the ankle joint ligaments are stretched. A second degree sprain will be very swollen and painful and walking will be impossible without pain. Some ligaments are stretched and some tearing has occurred. In a third degree sprain ligaments are torn and ruptured with a definite possibility of fracture. In this case the ankle should definitely be x-rayed to ruled out a fracture or fractures. After 48 hours, Contrast Baths can probably be started, however you should be sure all swelling has stopped. Fill the bathtub with warm water (no more than 104 degrees) and a vinyl waste-basket \I, w ith ice and \I, with water. Then start in the heat for 15 minutes followed by 5 minutes in the ice slush, 5 minutes heat. 5 minutes ice slush, 5 minutes heat and end up with 5 minutes in the ice slush. Elevate your leg on pillows while lying down for 15 minutes. This routine should be done 2 or 3 times a day. The Contrast Bath routine will reduce swelling and pain dramatically. When you ca n walk pain-free do so a mile a day to help restore flexibility and strength to the ankle. When you can jog and run pain free start gradually working your way back into your gymnastics training. A protective ankle wrap or taping should be worn while training for a minimum of 6 weeks after the injury. Hopefully you won't need this routine, but if you do I hope it will aid you in coming back more comfortably and quicker.

Dr. Doug Jackson is a member of the Sports Medicine division of the USGF Sports Advisory Committee, from Long Beach , Ca.

"DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF SPONDYLOLYSIS OF THE LUMBAR SPINE" By Douglas W. Jackson, M,D. The word "spondylolysis" is formed by combining "spondylo" meaning spine and "lysis" meaning to dissolve. The defect (lysis) is in the pars of the laminae, between the articular facets; in other words, the pars interarticularis. The term spondy lol ysis is applied when this defect in the pars interarticularis is present w ithout forward vertebra l slippage. Spondylolytic spondylolisthesis is used to describe vertebral slippage in association with defects in the pars inte rart icularis. The vast majority of patients with spondylolytic defects present on roentgenograms of the lumbar spine have had their defects present since around age 5 or 6. They are usually asymptomatic incidental findings. The physician taking care of a person with lumbar pain who has pars interarticularis defects needs to determine if the pain is related to the defects and to prevent the potential vertebral slippage.

PREDISPOSING FACTORS Hereditary factors are important in the development of pars interarticularis defects, but the development of these defects is dependent on other factors as well, such as trauma and torsional and/ or tensional stresses . In some familie s

United States Gymnastics Federation

the hereditary factor is so strong that the pars interarticularis lesions virtually occur with the activities of normal living. The hereditary disposition is further evident in the different incidences of pars interarticularis defects in different ethnic groups. Dysplasia of the posterior elements is also manifested in a higher incidence of spina bifida occulta in spondylolytic patients . There is no evidence that pars interarticularis defects are present at birth. Defects rarely occur below age 5. The most common age of onset appears to be betwee n the fifth and sixth year of life, with the incidence of this disease increasing until adulthood. In most series the actual incidence of pars interarticularis defects is higher in boys, and particularly in athletic populations . However, the incidence of high degrees of vertebral slippage is at least twice as high in girls as boys. We are seeing a definite change in the incidence of pars interarticularis defects in the athletic female population . It appears that girls participating in the same vigorous type of activity will develop about the same incidence of pars interarticularis defects as their male counterparts. The incidence of pars interarticularis defects in young athletic male populations may approach as high as 10 percent in this country. In certain studies of isolated population groups, such as young Japanese weightlifters, this may approach as high as 39 percent. The incidence in certain ethnic groups is higher than others, with a high reported incidence among the Eskimos in Alaska. The development of pars defects seems to be dependent on hereditary, cultural and athletic factors.

PAIN ASSOCIATED WITH PARS INTERARTICULAR IS DEFECTS Pain associated with pars interarticularis defects occurs basically in two situations. One, in the young athletic participant who develops an acute stress fracture of the pars interarticularis. These may heal with boney union, or go on to fibrous union with a subsequent roentgenographic defect. Once these acute processes are stable the pain usually subsides. The other situation where spondylolysis may be associated with lumbar spine pain is with segmental instability as a result of or associated with the pars interarticularis defect. Flexion and extension views or cineradiography may make this segmental instability apparent.


As a result of the increasing number of young people participating in highly competitive athletic programs, more youngsters are presenting with chronic low back pain. While the significance and severity of this pain may vary, persistent lumbar pain in a young athletic participant should raise the question of an acute stress fracture developing in relationship to the pars interarticularis. The history is usually that of a youngster participating in a sport which places repetitive demands on the lumbar spine; that the pain develops somewhat insidiously and becomes progressively more painful. It is not uncommon for the pain to have been present for 6 weeks to 3 months prior to the youngster's seeking medical evaluation. Often there is a fall or jarring incident that was associated with a sudden increase in their pain . A typical presentation of a young athlete with a stress reaction developing in the posterior elements of the lumbar spine is one that presents with an aching low back pain , usually unilateral that is exacerbated by motion , usually twisting and hyperextension. The pain upon hyperextension is most pronounced unilaterally in the paraspinous area and can be well localized over a twoto three centimeter diameter by the patient . The patient often volunteers that the pain is on one side along the belt line. The aching in the low back in the athlete with the ordinary activities of daily living becomes much more significant when competing and performing maneuvers involving the extremes of lumbar motion , in particular hyperextension. The more common aggravating activities in the history are related to blocking in football , hitting the blocking sled, and the weight training for football and wrestling, particularly standing over-head presses, training maneuvers for gymnastics, pole vaulting, diving , hiking maneuvers in sa iling , hurdling , and baseball , particularly pitchers. On physical examination the findings are confined to the lumbar region . The pam is best accentuated and reproduced by the standing one-Ieggedhyperextension maneuver. Some of the more symptomatic patients have lumbar paraspinous muscle spasm and pain throughout the range of motion of the lumbar spine . Most of the patients developing acute pars stress fractures are able to place their fingertips to the floor and do not have nerve root irritation on straight leg testing . Their pain is accentuated by hyperextension . Recognition of the stress reaction can be confirmed with a technetium pyrophosphate bone scan. A positive bone scan usually indicates the lesion is of recent duration, or that it continues to show the signs of osteoblastic activity in an attempt at healing.


If the pars interarticularis defects are present on the lumbar roentgenograms, and the young athlete has a negative bone scan, it can be assumed that the pars defect is six months to a year or older and has an estab li shed fibrous union. Fatigue fractures of the pars interarticularis differ from stress fractures elsewhere in the body in that the pars interarticularis lesions do not show periosteal new bone, and there is a high potential for fibrous union, which is somewhat unique among fatigue fractures.

SEGMENTAL INSTABILITY ASSOCIATED WITH SPONDYLOLYSIS Segmental instability without apparent vertebra l sl ippag e, which can be brought out with flexion and extension of the lumbar spine, may be associated with pain. There are often altered mechanics at the adjacent intervertebral disc space and facet jo ints.

TREATMENT OF THE PAINFUL INTERARTICULAR IS DEFECT Bracing of the lumbar spine with a flexion anti-lordo tic type brace can be done by casting or with some of the newer braces that are avai lab le. It has been my experience that the patient needs to wear the brace for a minimum of six weeks to three months, with subsequent strengthening exercises of the abdominal musculature, and stretching, in particular, avoid ing hyperextension of the lumbar spine. Thi s often gives symtomatic control of the pain until the process stabilizes and the individual can go on until a subsequent injury or exacerbation increases their pain. If it is an acute pars interart icularis stress fracture and they go on to boney union, there has been no subsequent long term reoccurrence of lesions at the level once it has healed. A fusion for pars interarticularis defects without vertebral sl ippag e is something that is usually not necessary to control the pain. If the pain is on the basis of segmental instability, and the surgeon can demonstrate that this is related to the pain, then a one level fusion may be indicated and carried out with good results in terms of controlling the pain .

VERTEBRAL SLIPPAGE It has been known for some time th at the greatest vertebral slippage in association with pars interarticularis defects occurs between the ages of 9 to 14. One thing that is reassuring is that whatever slippage occurs it usually occurs during this age , group and very se ldom afterwards. There may be some progression of vertebral sli ppage with degeneration of the associated disc spaces and facet joints, but as a rule this is minimal once vertebral growth is complete.

THE LONG-TERM SIGNIFICANCE OF PARS INTERARTICULARIS DEFECTS Spondylolisthesis that develops during childhood, or adolescence, once the acute process stabilizes, may have no long term sequelae. This is yet to be defined. Now there are definite occupational concerns in much of ardous industry, including many police and fire departments and the military. There are definite restriction s on those with roentgenographic defects in the lumbar spine, with or without associated slippage . In reviewing a large number of roentgenograms of patients with lumbar disc disease, there seems to be no higher incidence of pars interarticularis defects than in controlled popu lations. So it does not appear that these defects predispose one to develop degenerative disc disease. However, there is a strong feeling in the lite rature that people with defects and slippage who have sustained an indu stria l injury tend to have more chronicity to their problem and a longer disability associated with injuries to the lumbar spine. Th e question arises as to how vigorous should one be in treating these defects besides eliminating pain and preventing further slippage. Consideration has to be given as to what is the long term disability if these defects are left untreated. The answer to this question is yet to be defined.


JANUARY 2-3, 1981

Present: Les Sasvary (Chairman), Ken Allen (Secretary, Ed Burch, Don Gutzler, Fred Roethlisberger, Bill Roetzheim and Jay Whelan. Also present for all or portions of the meeting we re Roger Counsi l, Ed Zimmer, Mas Watanabe and Rich Kenney of the USGF Office The meeting was ca ll ed to order by Chairman Sasvary at 7:25 P.M. Chairman Sasvary welcomed Jay Whelan to his first meeting as the Athletes' representative. It was moved by Bill Roetzheim and seconded by Les Sasvary to accept the minutes of the October 5, 1980 meeting. Carried .

SELECTION OF 1981 WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP COACH It was moved by Ken Allen and seconded by Bill Roetzheim to tab lethe selection of the 1981 World Championsh ip Coach. Carried . Note: Reasoning is based on insufficient advertising time, low number of applicants, desire on the part of some FRC members to restructure the job responsibilities of such a coach ing position. The concept of head coach for the various international team competitions was discussed at great length. As a result, a new concept and slightly different process has been developed as follows; A. The position would be called "The 1981 U.S.A. Team Coach" as opposed to the 1981 Wor ld Champ ions hip Coach. B. The length of service would be from the date of selection (on or before April 15) until December 31,1981. C. Main responsibilities would include serving as head coach at all U.S.A. Team functions during term of service (team competitions prior to, including and following World Championships, Training Camps, exh ibitions, etc.). D. Additional responsibilities would include : 1. Choosing ass istant coach with approva l of F.R.C . 2. Overseeing uniform and personal eq uipment selectio n and fitting. 3. Maintaining regular contact with the athletes in order to establish rapport and awareness of mental and physical well being . 4. Maintaining regular co ntact with the National Program Director (Mas Watanabe). 5. Enforcing U.S.G.F. rules and regulations with regard to conduct of team members. 6. Making recommendat ions tothe F.R.C. with regard toteam selections for competitions for which specific trials were not conducted . 7. Making recommendations to the F.R.C. and U.S.G .F. office with regard to team preparation and travel re lative to competitio ns and/ or training camps which would be desirable. 8. Preparing comprehensive reports of activities and experiences of the U.S. Team during the coach's tenure. E. In the future, a U.S.A. Team Coach will be se lected each year from the following applicants; 1. Coaches who app li ed the previous year and w ish to be considered again. 2. New applicants. 3. The head coach from the previous year if he elects to reapply.

SUMMARY: The majority of pars interarticularis defects in the lumbar spine are incidental findings on lumbar roentgenograms and are not associated with a particu lar pain syndrome. Th ey develop, usually during childhood, asymptomatically. Those associated with pain are usually developing in the young athletic population as an acute fracture, and in the older population that has segmental instability; although segmenta l instability may become a problem in the young athlete . Treatment often requires activity restriction and selective bracing , surgery (fusion) is seldom necessary for spondylolysis .

REFERENCE "Spondylolysis in the Female Gymnast, " Dougles W . Jackson, MD, Leon L. Wiltse, MD, and Robert J . Cirincione , MD, Clinical Orthopedics, June 1976, Vol. 117.

F. After se lection of the U.S.A. Coach for the current year, the time table for th e selection process for subsequent years is as follows: 1. All applications must be received by December 1. 2. The reviewing process wou ld be comp leted by December 31 . 3. The U.S.A. team coach would be announced by January 15 and would serve in that capacity until December 31 of that year. It was moved by Les Sasvary that the position of 1981 U.S.A. Team Coach be advertised in all U.S.G.F. publications with job description, responsibi lities, term of service and procedure for application . Second by Bill Roetzheim . Carried . The meeting recessed at 10:00 P.M .


United States Gymnastics Federation

The meet ing reconvened at 9: 15 A.M. Saturday, January 3. It was moved by Les Sasvary to have the U.S .G. F. office notify direct ly and as soon as possible the three applicants for the position of 1981 World Champ ionship Coach w ith regard to the act ions taken by F.R .C. at th is time . Th e applicants shou ld be assu red that their applicat ion s wi ll automat ica ll y be considered for the position of 1981 U.S.A. Team Coach. Second by Don Gutz ler. Ca rri ed.

PLACING GYMNASTS ON THE NATIONAL TEAM UNDER SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES It was moved by 8ill Roetzheim that the F.R.C. be a llowed toadd gymnasts tothe National Team (at the bottom of the ranking) under specia l circumstances. Second by Don G utzler. Car ried. It was moved by Fred Roethlisberger that we add as many gymnasts as we need to the National Team from the rank ings of the 1980 Championships of the U.S.A. Second by J ay Whelan. Defeated. It was moved by Les Sasvary 't hat the Nat ional Program Director recom mend specific gymnasts to be added to the National Team for ass ign ment to this year's international compet iti ons. Second by Bill Roetzheim. Car ried . Note: Reasoni ng behind this re comm endat ion is there are few gymnasts re ma ining on the Nat iona l Tea m w ho are available for upcom ing compet itions because of retirement, injury or the N.C.A.A. coll eg iate season. Cons id eration w ill be given to th e ra n ~i ng s at the 1980 Champions hips of the U.S.A., the junior gym nasts of last year's J uni or Nat ion al Team who are now college fr esh men, and the current read in ess of al l possible gymnasts.


was also the potentia l for jeopardizing the amateur status of our athletes. As a resu lt of discussio n, th e following was recomme nded to the U.S.G.F. off ice and th e ath letes and coaches of the U.S. G.F. progra m including the Junior and Senior National Teams: The F.R .C. recommends that the athl etes of the USGF program and their coaches do not negot iate w ith private promoters of domestic events. Rather, this type of co ntact shoul d be reported to the U.S. G.F . office and arrangements and assignments fo r such domestic eve nts be coordin ated through the U.S.G.F. off ice and the F.R.C.

DOMESTIC EVENTS IN 1981 SANCTIONED BY THE U,S,G,F , A. Scats Invitat ion al: J an uary 31-February 1, 1981 . Los Angeles, California . B. Ame ri can Cup: March 20-22, 198 1. Fort Worth Texas. Th e top two gymnasts from the rank ing of th e Olympic Trial s and their coaches will be ass igned to ou r Amer ican Cup . If they are unallailable for some reaso n, we w ill proceed down the ranki ng s. Th e top two gymnasts are Bart Con ner and Jim Hartung and their coaches are Paul Ziert and Francis Allen. C. U.S.G .F. Qu a lifying Meets: Ap ril 24-26, 198 1. Sites undeterm ined. There w ill be two reg ion al meets co ndu cted on the same dates and the sa me times. One w ill be in t he East or Mid-East and the oth er in the West or Mid-West. F.I.G . Competition I rul es wi ll be used. The meet director sho uld contact the N.G.J .A . Regional Technical Director for assig nm ent of judg es to the meet . The U.S.G.F. w ill pay for the judging expe nses if. local judges are used. D. Champ ionsh ips of the U.S.A.: May 2 1-23, 1981 . S ite und etermined. F.I.G . Competition I rules will be used. There w ill be no ti e breakers used in thi s meet. The top eight in eac h event afte r compulsories and optionals w ill advance to the individual finals where the scores will be ca rried. The top 24 gym na sts w ill be designated as the 1981 -82 Senior National Team. E.

A. Select ion process for the Final Trials 1. Champ ions hips of U.S.A. w ill be se mi -f in al trial. a. Gymnasts must score 111 points or more at a U.S.G .F. app roved com petit ion in orde r to qualify for the 1981 Championships of the U.S.A. b. If 24 gymnasts do not achieve a 1 11 score, the remaining positions to tota l 24 for the championships of the U.S.A. will be filled by gymnasts on the bas is of rank order score at one of two U.S.G.F. regional meets held at the same ti me and dates on th e weekend of Ap ril 24-26. c. F.I.G . Competitions III rul es wi ll be used in the co mpetitio n . d. Th e top 24 gymnasts wi ll be designated as the Se nior National Team. 2. It was moved by Bill Roetzheim that the Senior National Team as dete rmin ed by the 1981 Cham pi onships of the U.S.A. be advanced to the Final Wor ld Championship Trials . Thi s includes all approved petitions as well. Seco nd by Ken A ll en. Ca rri ed. a. The Fina l World Champ ionsh ip Tri als w ill be held on Octobe r 16-17, 198 1 at the Unive rsity of Cal ifornia at Santa Barbara. b. Th e competition w ill be judg ed by F.I.G . Co mpet ition III rules (Moti on by Alle n, seco nd by Sasvary. Carri ed). c. Th e 1981 World Champions hi p Team will be composed of the top six gymnasts based on the res ults of the compu lsory and optional compet ition . Th e seventh ranked gymnasts wou ld be a non compet ing member of th e team. Ti es for the sixth or seventh pos iti ons w ill be broken first by the compu lsory tota l received in the final trials and seco nd by t he tota l AA sco re received at the semi-f inal tria ls (refer to minutes of May 26, 1980 meeting) . (Motion by Sasvary, second by Roetzhe im . Ca rried). B. The 1981 U.S.A. Team Coach who w ill be coach for the 1981 Wor ld Champions hi ps wi ll be announced no later th an April 15, 198 1. C. It is reco mmended that the N.G.J .A. assign twelve judges whom it considers the most capable judges to judge t his competition w ith no concern fo r regiona l aff iliation.


There was much discussion about the proliferation of domest ic gymnastics eve nts due to the marketab il ity of gymnastics to telev ision aud iences . It was felt that the re was potential for con fli cts of interests on the part of the athletes between domestic eve nts (privately sponsored) and inte rnational tou rs. Th ere

United States Gymnastics Federation

National Sports Fest ival: July 23-29, 1981 . Syracuse, New York. Th erew ill be 24 gymnasts compet ing in this event. Twe lve of those gymnasts will be the top twelve gymnasts from the Jun io r National Team. The remaining twe lve wi ll come, first, from among invitations extended to the membe rs of the Senior Nat ion a l Team by rank and then theJunior Elite NationalTeam by the same process . There wi ll be four coaches. Two coaches will be chosen from amo ng those recommended by the Junior National Team coaching staff. The othe r two wi ll be chose n by th e F.R.C. from among the senior coaches of th ose athletes who chose to participate in National Sports Fest iva l.

F. Fi nal Trials for World Championships: October 16-17, 1981 . Unive rsity of Ca liforn ia at Santa Barba ra (refer to earli er discussion for deta ils).

INTERNATIONAL EVENTS A. New Zealand Invitat ion al: January 22-February 1, 1981 . We will se nd thre e ma le gymnasts. Th e National Prog ram Director has already exhausted the Senior National Team members with only Breck Grigas available to go . Mas Watanabe w ill be respons ibl e for se lecting t wo more at hletes. At least one of those ath letes will be a juni or and his coac h w ill be given f irs t priority as th e coach of this group . If he is unable to accept, Mr. Watanabe w ill attempt to secu re a coac h from among the junior ranks . B. East German Invitati ona l: April 10-12, 1981 Two gymnasts w ill be selected from th e rank ord er at th e Final Trial s beginning with th e 4th and 5th positions . The coac h of the highe st rank ed gymnast w ill be given first priority to se rve as coac h of this group. C. Champ ions All: April 11 - 12, 198 1. London, England . One gymnast, preferab ly our U.S.G .F. Nat ional A.A. Champ ion, wi ll be sent. That would be Peter V idmar . Next in order wo uld be Ba rt Conn er, Jim Hartung and then the ran k order fr om the Final Tria ls. Th e personal coac h of the gymnast w ill tra ve l as coac h. D. Ennia Gold Cup: Jun e 1-9, 1981 . Hollan d. We w ill send the top two athle tes from the ranking of the 1981 Championships of the U.S.A. w ho are not involved in a training camp or ot he r internat ional compet iti on at th e time. E. Golden Sands Invita tiona l: June 5-7, 1981 . Va rn a, Bulgaria . It was decided not to se nd any male ath letes to this competiti on . F.

World University Games: August, 1981 . Bucharest, Romania . Tab led until further details are forthcoming fr om the U.S.C.S .C.


G. Junior International Competitions: It was recommended that the U.S .G.F. explore the possibilities of involving our junior gymnasts in a major international competition with a Pan American as we ll as a Pac ific Alliance group of countries. rhe next business meeting of the Men 's F.R.C. w ill be at 9:00 A.M., May 22, 1981 at the site of the U.S.A. Champ ionships. It is anticipated that the re w ill a lso be a meeting scheduled at 11 :OOA.M. on May 23,1981 which wou ld include the new members of the 1981-82 Senior Nationa l Team and their coaches. The meeting adjourned at 3:25 P.M . Respectfully submitted,

have unanomously elected Abie Grossfeld as U.S.A. Team Coach with recommendation for selection of Makoto Sakamoto as the assistant coach. The minutes of the Apri l 27, 1981 specia l meeting were approved.

1981 CHAMPIONSHIPS OF THE U.S.A, - FINAL DISCUSSION Prior to the beginning of the actua l competition (6:00 P.M., May 21, 1981) f ive members of the F.R.C. held a short meeting to discuss the procedure of determining a team for the World University Games. The U.S.O.C., in a su rpri se move, has announced that they wou ld be funding teams to the World University Games. The vote was 5-0 to select the W.U.G. team based on the optional scores on ly of the 1981 Champ ionships of the U.S.A. (Ken A ll en and Jay Whelan were the other two members of the F.R .C. and had not yet ar rived).

Ken A llen, Secretary


MAY 22, 19B1

Present: Les Sasva ry (Chairman), Ken Alle n (Secreta ry), Ed 8urch , Don Gutzler, Fred Roethlisberger, Bill Roetzheim and Jay Whe lan. Also present for a ll or portions of the meeting were Roger Counsi l, Mas Watanabe and Ed Zimmer of the U.S.G.F. Office and Abie Grossfeld, and Makoto Sakamoto, 1981 U.S.A. Team coaches. Th e meeting was called to order by Chairman Sasvary at 9:15 A.M. Mr. Sasvary introduced the U.S.A. Men's Team Coaches (Ab ie Grossfe ld and Makaoto Sakamoto) and we lcomed them to the meeting . Mr. Sasvary informed the com mitte members that the U.S .G.F. Executive Co mmittee had chang ed t he na me of th is comm ittee to "The U.S.G. F. Men's Program Committee " since the comm ittee was actua lly serving in a capacity simi lar to the outlined responsibilities of the "The U.S.G. F. Men's Program Committee. "

APPROVAL OF THE MINUTES OF PREVIOUS MEETINGS Before the minutes of our last regular meet ing and two subsequent special meeti ngs cou ld be approved it was necessary to define and discuss situat ions which occ urred w hich were in conflict w ith the actua l recomme ndations made in the minutes . There were other instances of assigning people to competitions who were not able to go . We felt it was important to spec ify which personnel actua lly accepted the assignments . Relative to the minutes of January 2-3, 1981 the following exceptions were made: 1. There were four regional qua li fying meets instead of the two recomme nded. 2. The dates and site of the Final Wor ld Championship Trials were changed because of negotiations for television . The Fim:1 Trials wi ll now be held September 18-19, 1981 , at Fort Co llins, Colorado. 3. Bart Conner and Jim Hartung were our representatives attheAme ri can Cup. 4 . On the NewZealand trip (January 20-February 1) Tom Beach , Ch ri s Caso and Rick Atkinson traveled as gymnasts with Ron Caso as Coach. 5. For the D.D.R . Invitat iona l the 5th and 6th ranked gymnast and the coach of the 6th ranked gymnast fulfi ll ed the ass ignment. These we re Ron Ga li more, Casey Edwards, and Ke n Allen, respectively. 6. Peter Vidmar we nt wit h hi s coach, Makoto Sakamoto, to the Champions A ll in London. 7. Pete r Vidmar and Mitch Gaylord we nt with their coach, Makoto Sakamoto, to the T.B.S. Cup in Japan in April.

Th ere was much discussion on the type of pe rsonne l which wou ld make up the delegation to the World Championsh ips wit hin t he F.I.G. restrictions. There wi ll need to be coordination between the men 's and women's delegation in order to allow for the best perso nne l poss ible. Don G utzler moved that the 1981 W.C. Team consist of the top six gymnasts from the final t ri als and one non-competing alternate with a second non-competing alternate to be included in as many of the preparations and compet it ions as possible . Second by Jay Whelan. Carr ied. NOTE: Position on the team is based strict ly on rank order from the tria ls i.e. the eighth person is not on the offic ial W.C. Team. It is conceivab le that the eighth gymnast may not be all owed to trave l into Russia because of limitations on the size of the de legat ion. There was much discussion on a proposed ca lenda r of events including compet iti ons and training camps between now and the Wo rld Championships. Some things were designated as mandatory and others were left to the discretion of coaches and gymnasts.

. SPECIAL PRESENTATION At 12:00 noon, Mrs. Cheryl Grace was introd uced to the committee by Roger Cou nsi l as the U.S.G.F. Membership Director. Ms. G race spoke of the medical coverage for members of the U.S.G.F. at sanctioned eve nts. It was explained that members of the national team and thei r coaches are members of the U.S. G.F. and anyone representing the U.S. G.F. in intern ationa l competitions, etc. will be covered by the U.S.G.F . insu rance policies. There were a variety of questions related to the insu rance program which were answe red by Ms. Grace. NOTE: Our regular meeti ng resumed fo ll owing this prese ntatio n . Although the eve nts of 1981 were not necessari ly discussed in the following orde r, I have chosen to li st them in chrono logica l order. Those act ivities which are mandatory fo r national team members are marked with an aster isk (*).

WEST GERMAN INVITATIONAL, MAY 25-30 Of those who were origina lly ass igned, Hartung, Conner, and Vidmar, Galimore (as alternate) - Conner was injured, replaced by Galimore; then Gal imore and Hartung both had to decline because of injuries; then the rep lacements we re Johnson and Gaylord, making the acceptance consist of Vidmar, Gaylord and Johnson. The Coach w ill be Abie Grossfeld.

ENNIA GOLD CUP, HOLLAND, JUNE 1-9 Gymnasts include Ma rk Caso and Chuck Chme lka with J im Howard as coach.

BRAZILLIAN EXHIBITION, AUGUST 12-24 The date was postponed and conf licts w it h the ESPN Tournament. Spec ifi c arrange ments are yet to be made .

Th e minutes of the January 2-3 meeting were approved. In the minutes of the spec ial meeting on Apri l 4, 1981, it was incorrectly stated that the coach of the top ranked gymnast would accompany the team to West Germany. The U.S.A. Team Coach (Abie Grossfe ld) w ill accompany the team. Peter Vidmar, Mitch Gaylord, and Scott Johnson wi ll be the gymnasts. During the spec ial meeting held by conference telephone cal i on April27, 1981 , we made ass ignm ents for the Ennia Cup in Holl and. Becau se of injuries, etc. the assignments have changed severa l t imes. At the present time Mark Caso and Chuck Chme lka are the assigned gymnasts with Jim Howard as the coach. We


U.S .G.F. JUNIOR OLYMPIC NATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIPS AND TRAINING CAMP, PROVO, UTAH, JUNE 25-27 and JUNE 29JULY 2. The top ten gymnasts from each age group wil l atte nd the two week training camp. Coaches for the training camp inc lude Don Gutz ler, Yoichi Tomita, Wa ichi ro Miki, BiliAustin , Tom Gard ner, Bill Foster and one other tobe named by Mas Watanabe.

United States Gymnastics Federation

1981 WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP TRIALS, FORT COLLINS, CO , SEPTEMBER 18-19 F.I.G. 100TH CELEBRATION, MONTREAUX, SWITZERLAND, JULY 3-7 Bart Conner is being honored. He is our on ly active Wor ld Champion. His name was submitted to the F. I. G. by the U.S.G. F. off ice. If conner is for any reason unavailable at that time, we w ill go down in the rankings of the U.S.A. Championships.

MACCABIAH GAMES, ISRAEL, JULY 6-16 The team was se lected by a Maccab iah committee based on competitions this year. Gymnasts must be of Jewish descent. Those inv ited to partic ipate are Matt Biespiel , Ben Fox, Reid Go ldetsky, Merrick Horn, Chuck Chm elka and M itch Gaylord. Coach is Abe Grossfe ld. Manager is Ch uch Ehrlich .

*WORLD UNIVERSITY GAMES , BUCHAREST, ROMANIA, JULY 19-30 The gymnasts were invited to participate in th e W. U.G. based on the ir rank order fin ish at the U.S.A. Champ ionships by opt ional scores. If a tie had to be broken, the tota l al l around score was used. Th ose who accepted t hi s assignment would be Peter V id mar, Scott Johnson, Mario McCutcheon, Mitch Gaylord and Ch uck Chme lka. Sin ce the dates co nfl icted with National Sports Fest ival and the Maccabiah Games, Abe Grossfe ld requested that his ass istant , Makoto Sakamoto, be named as the head coach. The committee app roved this . Greg Buwick was named as the assistant wi th Ke n A ll en as the a lternate.

A ll 24 National Team members will compete at t hi s final trials . The compet ition w ill be judged by F.I.G. compet iti on. There w ill be two different vaults during opt iona l competitions (Coaches-study the F.I.G. Code of Points for what const itu tes different! ) Optional floor exercise w ill be timed (50-70 seconds). The backward roll on the still r ings compu lsory should be 3/ 4 rathertha n 13/4. The N.C.A.A. handguard rule wi ll be app li ed. Ties wil l be broke n accord ing to the minutes of May 26, 1980. In essence, t ies for the sixth, seventh or eighth places w ill be broken, first, by the compulso ry tota l received in the f inal tria ls and second, by the total all around score rece ived in the semi-fin al trials (U .S.A. Championships).

1981 WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS, MOSCOW, NOVEMBER 8-29 Arrangements are now being made so an outline of proposed pla ns are presented here: 1. Delegation wou ld depart for Europe aro und Nov. 8 2. Training wou ld be co nducted in some Western country whic h had top trainin g facility. 3. A competition w ith severa l co untries wou ld be arranged for around Nov. 1314 (n ine days befo re W.C. ). 4. Travel to Moscow Nov. 16. 5. Compet ition Nov. 22-29.




NATIONAL SPORTS FESTIVAL, SYRACUSE, NEW YORK, JULY 23-29 The junior gymnasts (12) were se lected by theJuniortraining staff in December. They include: Daniel and Dennis Hayden, Matt Arnott, Rick Atkinson, Cha rl es Lakes, Dan McCann, Russell Lacy, Randy Besosa , John Omori , Chris Caso, Jay Foster and Stuart Breitenstein. After the W.U .G. team had been se lected invitations were extended by rank order to the rest of the sen ior nat ional team membe rs unt il twelve seniors. Those who accepted are Mark Caso, Brian Babcock, Ron Ga lim ore, Tim Daggett, Chris Re igel, Kevin Prady, Tom Beach , Roy Pollasou , Br ian Meeker, Steve Marino, Billy Pau l, and Wally Miller. Joey Ray wo uld be the f irst alternate . Coaches are Abe Grossfeld, Yoichi Tomita , Bill A ustin, Francis A ll en and Rusty Mitchell. The meeting adjourned at 2:30 P.M. Th e meeting reconvened Sa turd ay, M ay 23 at 9:10 A.M. Th e previous even ing , the coaches of the nationa l tea m members held a n election fo r t he position be ing vacated by Ken A llen . Elected to a two yea r tea m on the U.S.G.F. Men's Program Committee was Abie Grossfeld . Fred Roethlisberger was e lected secretary to replace Ken A ll en in t hat position . Ken Al len agreed to maintain h is responsibility t hrough the conc lu sion of this meeting.




Mas Wata nabe has deve loped new guidelines w hi ch w ill be made available to the gymnasts in the ve ry near f ut ure.

COACH VERSUS ASS ISTANT COACH It is recom mended that any assistant coach at a co lleg e or privale club be named as the head coac h of any spec ifica lly designated gymnasts (currently, Makoto Sakamoto is desig nated as Peter Vidmar's coach eve n though he is th e assistant coac h at UCLA). It was also recommended that w hen the Program Committee meets w ith the coaches of the National Team members, these specific des ignat ions, if they are different from normal head coac hing responsibilities, shou ld be made at t his time and wou ld re main as such for the com ing year. During t he meeting w ith the athl etes and F.R .C., Mr. Sasvary ha s asked all 24 team members to designate their own coach. Following li st w ill indi cate all the team members and their coaches:




Since all national team members wou ld be avai lab le for this tra ining camp (some wou ld be coming from W.U.G. and others fr om N.S .F.) and beca use of the importance of giving strong direct ion for the comp ul sory exe rcises in particular it was decided (moved by Bill Roetzhe im , second by Les Sasva ry and carr ied) to requ ire all 24 national team members to attend the training camp. No injury petitions wo uld be accepted (gymnasts wou ld observe if unable to participate) . Expenses wou ld be paid by the U.S.G.F. Coaches for the training camp would be Ab ie Grossfeld, Makoto Sakamoto, Peter Kormann, Rusty M itche ll , Francis A ll en and Mas Wata nabe.

Jim Hartung Bart Conne r Peter V idma r Ron Galimore Phil Cahoy Mitch Gaylord Wa ll ace Miller Br ia n Meeker Bria n Babcock Roy Pallasou Scott Johnson Tim Daggett Mario McCutcheon Billy Paul Peter Stout Chris Reigel Tom Beach Breck Grigas Matt Biespiel Steve Marino Joey Ray Kevin Prady Mark Caso Ch uck Chmelka

Francis Allen Paul Ziert Makoto Sakamoto Ed Gagnier Fra nci s Allen Art Shurlock Ab ie Grossfeld Fred Roet hlisberg er Bill Meade Wa ich iro Miki Jim Howa rd Makoto Sakamoto A bie Grossfeld Hal Frey Paul Ziert Larr y Moyer Dan Conne ll y Chuck Ehrlic h Pau l Ziert Ka rl Schwenzfier Fred Roethli sbe rg er Rusty Mitchell Art Shurlock Jim Howa rd

SOUTH AFRICAN CUP, AUGUST 4 -10 It is expected that the Junior gymnasts w ill go to a ju nior invitat iona l in West Germany around th is time. Therefore, the top ranked senior gymnast from among those who we re not inv ited to the W.U .G. or the N.S.F . would be se lected along with nis personal coac h . If the ju ni ors do not go to West Germany, the top gymnast from the Junior Elite Nat iona l Champ ion sh ips a nd his personal coach w ill be assigned.

JUN IOR INVITATIONAL, WEST GERMANY, AUGUST 9-23 II was felt by the comm ittee that t his was to be a very high priority project. Th e top ten j unior elite gymnasts wou ld go. Coaches wou ld be Mas Watana be, Waic hiro Miki, and Don Gutzler.

*ESPN SINGLE ELIMINATION TOURNAMENT, RENO , NEVADA, AUGUST 16-23 The top 16 ra nked senior gymnasts w ill be required to part icipa te in this meet . Th is is an extreme ly impo rtant fund rais ing event for the U.S.G. F. Coaches for this event w ill be Abie Grossfeld , Makoto Sakamoto, Fred Roethlisberger and Rusty Mitchell. United States Gymnastics Federation

Next MPC (forme rl y FRC) meeting 18- 19 of September at World Championship Final tryouts in Fort Co lli ns, Colorado. (This w ill be non -pa id meeting). Respectfull y sub mitted, Ken Alle n (outgoing Secretary)



SEPTEMBER 18, 1981

Present : Les Sasvary (Chairman), Fred Roethlisberger (Secretary), Bill Roetzheim, JayWhelan, Ed Burch , Don Gutzler, MasWatanabe. Also, present for parts of the meeting was Roger Counsil. Meeting was ca lled to order by Les Sasvary at 9:20 A.M . 1. The committee complimented Roger Counsil and the U.S.G .F. staff for managing all the 19B1 summer events so well. 2. The committee commended Mas Watanabe for the fine job he is doing with theJunlor Program , with the Jr. National Championships and training camps dUring 1981 . Also, for the positive leadership and direction he is providing for the overall men 's program . 3. Review of May 22, 1981 minutes and corrections : A. Page 1, Makoto Sakamoto spelled wrong. B. Page 3, Chuch Chmelka not typed correctly . C. Fin al members of delegation to South Africa were Fred Roethlisberger, Joey Ray, Roy Pallasou and Russell Lacey. D. The training camp to be held at International Gymnastic Camp was cancelled because of the Chinese Meet. E. Because of injuries, only six Jr. gymnasts participated in the West Germany training camp. F. Stewart Butler replaced Dan Hayden at the Sports Festival because of injury. G. Participants and coaches at the ESPN Tournament were coaches : Abie Grossfeld, Makoto Sakamoto, Rusty Mitchell. Participants: Jim Hartung, Peter Vidmar, Phil Cahoy, Scott J ohnson, Mario McCutcheon, Mark Caso, Mitch Gaylord, Chuck Chmelka , Brian Babcock, Tim Daggett, Chris Riegel , Kevin Prady, Tom Bea ch, Brian Meeker, Billy Paul , Wallace Miller. Minutes of May 22, 1981 were approved with the above exceptions, additions, and corrections . 4 . World Championship schedul e - presentation by Coach Abie Grossfe ld and discussion: A. There will be weekend training camp at the University of Nebraska on October 15-18. B. Eight gymnasts will be taken to Moscow and all eight are World Championship Team members. This is a change from the M ay 22nd minutes because it has been learned that there is probably room for all eight to travel into Moscow. C. Depart for West Germany on November 9. Depart for World Championships from Germany on November 15 or 16. Training in West Germany for men will be at Oppau . D. Pre -World Championship meet in Europe will be with West Germany a nd with 2 four -man teams on November 13 and 14.

C. Chunichi Cup . Fred Roethlisberger moved and Abie Grossfeld seconded that the two World Championship alternates be asked if theywould like to compete in the Chunichi Cup. Defeated . Jay Whelan moved and Don Gutzler seconded that the first alternate be asked and the top ranked National Team member be asked and then proceed down the national ranking from # 1 as far as necessary if gymnasts decline. Passed . Moved, seconded and passed that the coach of the highest ranked gymnast accompany these two gymnasts. If unavailable , the coach of the second gymnast goes . D. Coca-Cola Meet. Moved by Les Sasvary and seconded by Abie Grossfeld that the ninth and tenth ranked gymnasts be asked and if they decline, proceed by rank order to the next gymnasts. Passed . Moved, seconded and passed that the coach of the highest ranked gymnast go to the Coca -Cola Meet. If unavailable, the coach of the next ranked gymnast goes . E. Mas Watanabe will obtain Invitational.

more information on the Hungarian

6. Calendar of Events : A. Discussion took place regarding the heavy schedule in March, the overuse of gymnasts and possible conflicts with the NCAA. It was explained that $90,000 was to be realized from each meet with DDR and China and that this was the only time these meets could be arranged . B. Japan Jr. vs U.S.A . Jr. on January 9 in Denver . Selection of Jr. Team members to be used for junior competition shall be firsttheJr. Elitesand when these are exhausted, the other Jr. Team members will be used according to December, 1981 rank . Jr. Team coaching staff will be used. C. Moved by Les Sasvary and seconded by Bill Roetzheim that three men be selected for the American Cup according to rank from the World Championship final trials. Only two Americans may make the finals passed unanimously. Personal coaches of each gymnast will be invited. D. Discussion took place regarding the desirability or necessity of having mandatory participation by athletes in any competitions . Jay Whelan (athlete 's representative) indicated that the athletes voted that there should be no mandatory meets . General feeling was that the comm ittee did not want to interfere with NCAA events . More info'rmation from the athletes, as well as additional discussion, is needed to establish a policy . The question remains what obligations does a National Team member have? E. USA vs Japan in Japan on January 30 and 31 . F. DDR vs USA in the U.S.A. on March 12 and 13 . G. China vs USA in the U.S.A. on March 26 and 27 . H. USA vs USSR on April 16 and 17. National team members will be asked about their availability for the Japan, DDR , China and the Russian meet. Top priority will be the DDR Meet. 7. Junior Olympic Program issues:

E. Podium training will be 19 and 21 . Opening ceremony November 22nd . Compulsory November 28, optiona ls November 25. Departure for U.S.A . November 30.

A. It is recommended that the Executive Committee of the USGF take up the topic of the responsibilities of the MPC in relation to the Junior Olympic Program and the Junior National Team . Also, the method of selection of Jr. represen tatives to th e MPC .

Considerable discussion took pla ce regarding the pros and cons of allowing the Wor ld Games coach to select the final competing lineup from the eight member team . Selection procedures were left as described in previous minutes and the Men 's Program Ru les Book. (Final Trials determine the line-up, except for extenuating circumsta nces).

B. Wes Suter situation was discussed. Fred Roethlisberger moved and Don Gutzler seconded that Wes Suter have his way paid to the National Testing at Christmas so that he may avail himself of the opportu nity to achieve a place on the National Team.

5. Remaining 1981 .E vents Schedule :


8 . Qualification system for th e 1981 -82 U.S.A . Championships '

A. Austrian Invitational was not recommended for participation .

A. 112 .00 qualifying score .

B. Pole Star Invitational was tabled pending more information .

B. Qualification can be done only at USGF certified qualification meets .

United States Gymnastics Federation


C. The M en's Program director mu st approve these meets. D. All qualifying competitions will be competition III with the exception of 1 vault. E. The U.S.A. Championships will be Competition III except 1 vault will be used, except finals where 2 vaults will be used. F. Four qualifying meets will be held on May 14 and 1 b at the same time . G. The U.S.A. Championships wi ll be held on June 3, 4, and 5. H. Everyone including World Championship Team members must qua lify through approved meet. The top 24 from the USA Championships will be the National Team , 9. Post-Grad Program : Mas submitted a program for post-grad gymnasts - a corporatio n team concept, whereby a corporation sponsors the team and the individuals on that team for training . Details will be forthcoming from the National Program Director as they become available . An April 30, May 7 competition is planned . 10. Domestic Invitation Meet. It is requested that meet directors desiring the participation of National Team Members in their events clear their meet and the availability of National Team members with Mas Watanabe at the National office before extending invitations to National Team members . Meeting adjourned at 2:45. Resumption of meeting at 8:00 A .M. on September 19. Present: Les Sasvary, Chairman; Fred Roethlisberger, (Secretary); Jay Whelan; Ed Burch; Don Gutzler; Mas Watanabe; Absent was Bill Roetzheim . 11 . Appli cations for the 19B2 USA Team Coach are not being accepted by Les Sasvary (Chairman of the Men 's Program Committee) until December 1. An advertisement for applications should be placed in the USGF News with the responsibilities of the position as listed in the MPC minutes on January 2 and 3, 1981. 12. The new ranking of the National Team from the World Championship Trials 1981 until the USA Championships 1982 is as follows: Ties were broken by the higher compu lsory score . Gymnasts:

Coaches: Francis Allen Pau l liert Makoto Sakamoto Jim Howard Francis Allen Makoto Sakamoto Abie Grossfeld Art Shurlock

1. Jim Hartung 2. Bart Conner 3. Peter Vidmar 4. Scott Johnson 5. Phil Cahoy 6. Tim Daggett 7. Mario McCutcheon 8. Mitch Gaylord 9 . Ron Galimore Abie Grossfeld 10. Wallace Miller Waichiro Miki 11 . Roy Pallasou Larry Moyer 12. Chris Regal Dan Connel ly 13 . Tom Beach Art Shurlock 14. Mark Caso 15 . Brian Babcock Bill Meade 16. Matt Biespiel Paul liert 17. Peter Stout Paul liert 18. Chuck Chmelka Jim Howard 19. Brian Meeker Fred Roethlisberger 20. Billy Paul Hal Frey 21 . Kevin Prady Rusty Mitchell 22 . Steve Marino Karl Schwenzfeier 23 . Joey Ray Fred Roethlisberger NOTE: Breck Grigas has retired from active competition . 13. Meeting adjourned at 10: 15 A.M . Following the MPC meeting , an informational meeting was held with the National Team . They were informed of various 1981-82 plans and asked for their input. A third meeting was ca lled of the MPC after the meeting with the athletes on Saturday, September 19. 1. All members of the 1981 World Championship team mayqualifyat the 1981 World Championships in Moscow. 2. Due to the resignation of Breck Grigas from the national team , the total number of national team members is now reduced to 23 and will remain at that number. 3. If there are more than 24 gymnasts qualify with 112 points at the 1982 Championships of the USA, all gymnasts will be allowed to participate in the Championships . However, the number of national team will remain 24 and the results of the Championships wi ll determine the national team . Submitted, Fred Roethlisberger, Secretary. Approved for publication Les Sasvary Roger Counsi l

United States Gymnastics Federation

RHYTHMIC GYMNASTICS Foreign Relations Committee Minutes September 27, 1981 Present: Presiding , Andrea Schmid; Barbara Fester; Alia Svirskiy; Norma labka; and USGF representative, Scott Crouse. Absent:

Candace Feinberg

1. Approval of Minutes Minutes of the meetings of June 6 and Ju ly 26, 1981 were approved . * 2 , International Competition Program - 1982 After discussion, the internationa l competition program was put in the following priority order: Tentative Dates A. Dec . 1-5 B. May7 - 15 C. Mar.13-15 D. June 18- 19 E. June 18-21 F.

Competition Four Continents Championship, New lealand Bulgarian/ Corbei l Invitationals Czechoslovak Invitational Princess Grace Cup, Monaco (if individua ls on ly are permitted) Israel Invitational Ennia Cup

Evaluation of the value of the Ennia Cup was not possible as no report has been received from Roza Litvakova (coach) on the 1981 Ennia Cup. U ,S . Invitational The committee feels strongly about the value of a second U.S. Invitational being held in 1982. It is important that countries which we would li ke to invite can be invited at the time of the Munich World Championships in October . Scott Crouse indicated that hosting this meet will be contingent upon TV coverage. He, therefore, will check on the possibility of TV coverage prior to the World Championships . Site : Dependent upon USGF negotiations Suggested date: August Purpose of meet: a) Return of invitations we have received b) International experience for our gymnasts c) International support for our gymnasts Format: 3 gymnasts per team, all scores counting toward team score Countries to be invited: Bulgaria , Canada, Czechos lovakia, France , Russia , Israel, West Germany, Mexico, and two U.S. teams . 3 , Domestic Program Tentative Dates A. May 23 B. July 22-31 C. Julyll-15

Competition USGF National Championships, Los Ange les National Sports Fest ival Explorer Olympics, Colorado (no information receiv ed)

4 . Selection Process Gymnasts To be se lected by Foreign Relations Committee with input from the National Development Committee Coaches Same as above Judges National Judges Certification Committee Accompanist- Foreign Relations Committee 5. National Sports Festival Selection In line with the above, the F.R.C. discussed the se lection of gymnasts for the National Sports Festival. The vote was 3 for and 1 against the following : Top 12 all-around Seniors and Top 4 all-around Juniors The all-around score for this purpose will be made up of 80% optional score and 20% ball performance score at the USGF Nationals.


6. Training Camps The purpose of two training camps wi ll be the prepa ration of the group for the Four Continents Championship. The first training camp is to be requested by Scott Crouse on June 14-28, Co lorado Springs. The attendees will be as fo ll ows: 15 gymnasts, 3 coaches, 1 choreog raphe r, 1 accompanist, 1 judge, 1 psychologi st, manager, and the Rh ythm ic Gymnastics cha irm an . Tota l: 24 The 15 gymnasts will be the top 3 individuals plus #4 through # 15 using comb ined score of a ll -around and ball score . Seniors on ly will qualify. If the gymnast becomes 15 during the ca lendar year of the competitions (in this case, the Four Continents Competi t ion - 1982) she is considered a Senior. The seco nd training ca mp will be sched ul ed for two weeks prior to the departure of the team to the Four Continents Champsionship . The USGF off ice will check with the New Zealand Federation regarding the date of the Four Continents Compet iti on. Atte nding the second training camp wi ll be 11 gymnasts (8 group-3 individuals), 2 coaches, 1 manager, 1 judge, 1 accompanist, 1 psychologist, and the Rhythmic Gymnastics chairman . Selection of individuals will be on the basis of combi ned Nationa ls and Sports Festival scores.

and downward to the left lateral Measure 6:


Bending the left knee, place the R knee 0 the floor and make a one-quarter(900)turn I.

Measure 11 :


With a 1/ 8 turn R, lung e sideward .....

M eas ure 12:


Making a 1/ 4 turn R, lunge sideward ..

Measure 13:


..... And make one small outward circle

Measure 14:


with a 1/ 4 turn L, step forward right ..... .. Make a small circ le of the right club beh ind the head and behind the arm to the right.. ... Simultaneously, make a small circle of the right club to the right in front of the body and make a small circle of the left club behind the head

Measure 15-17

Measure 21-22


.. ... do a large forward body wave

Measure 23-24


.... push off both feet to land on the left leg semi-bent, right leg bent forward against left ank le


Making a one-quarter (90° ) turn R

Next Foreign Relations Meeting The USGF will absorb the expense of 1 meeting per year. The next meeting will be scheduled in Fort Worth, preferably when Roger Couns il , Scott Crouse, and Ed Zimmer are available.

.. ... Make a smal l outward circle on the outside of ar m

Measure 28-29

Respectfully submitted,


Norma B. Zabka Secretary, Foreign Relations Comm.

..... and circle them three times inward on the outside of hands

CLASS II - EXERC ISE WITH HOOP see attached routin e



..... Step R, hop turning 180° to left - circ le rope backward on right and up to overhead on turn

Mea su re XI-XII



Upon finish of body wave, ball swings down and back low obliqu e, L arm forward upward to high oblique

Measu reX ll1


Roll the body to the back either direction



Pivot the feet to the R to face side 2 ...

MeasureX IX


Turn L to corner 1, hop on L, R hee l forwa rd wi th the toe flexed ..

Measure XXXX I


Run 1, R, 1 and execute a tourjete with the R leg wh ile moving over the ball to the left, landing in a R lun ge deep.



Bending both knees, step L an d transfer the weight..


The arms and clubs , parallel to each other, ci rcle downward, right, upward, ve rt ica l, left and downward and to the left latera l



Bending th e left knee, place the R knee on the floor a nd make a onequa rter (900)turn R

Measure 11 :


With a 1/ 8 turn R, lunge sideward ....

Measure 12:


Making a 1/ 4 turn R, rise onto the ball..

M eas ure 13:


.. ... and make one sma ll outward circle


eliminate " step righ t and"

M easure 14:


with a 1/ 4 turn L. step forward right..

M easu re 23-24


.... .Do a large forward bodywave


..... push off both feet to land on the left leg semi-bent, right leg bent forward against the left ankle

Measure 5:

Measure XV-XV III should read Measure XV-XVII MeasureXIl

step L forward in plie, pirouette 450° on L to right




Bending both knees, step left and transfe r the weight


The arms and clubs, para ll el to each other, ci rcle downward , right, upward, vertical, left

Measure 28:

Circ le the clubs outward on the outside of the hands two times.

United States Gymnastics Federation


..... and circle them three times inward on the outside of the hands

CLASS III - EXERCISE WITH HOOP see attached routine


The illustrations and floor patterns have been prepared to assist in translating the text. Should interpretations vary, the text is to be followed.


Step hop R with 45° turn L to face corner B... Step hop L with 45° turn L to face side 7


Stag jump done facing corner 4


land on both feet and immediately jump turning 90° to L


360° turn R (step to R side on R, begin turn as L foot crosses over R, continue turn high on the balls of both feet ending in a releve ' with R foot in front

Measure XXVI

TraveJing forward, small leapforward onto R foot.. ... Small leap forward to L foot..

Measure XXVII

Small leap with 90° turn to R on R foot, L leg lifted rearward 45° upward . Hop three times ..


2 steps 1, R. Arms move to horizontal sideward. Step L to L. Arms swing down and to L, body inc lin es to L. Transfer weight to R foot and extend L leg to horizontal. Arms swing to R, body tilts to R horizontal. (Support leg may be bent or stra ighl.)


Immediately join ..

Measure XXXVI

Arms continue arching forward downward to finish crossed low oblique. Turn 90° on forward foottoward forward fool. End position optional.


Measure XX IXXV



Run R, L, R continuing curve around corner 1 as ball bounces. Catc h ball. ...

.... finish by sitti ng on L side again with R leg crossed over L knee and facing side 4 at this point . Toss overhead to L again. Roll ball behind back to R hand again .

' Th ese corrections supersede all previous correction notes

United States Gymnastics Federation

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The winning team with the perfect score on benefits. Join the winning team. Over 125,000 gymnasts and over 700 clubs are members. We offer even more in 1981-82 than before. Everyone scores perfect with these benefits: USGF Club Membership. By enrolling 100% of the club staff and students as USGF General Members, your club would automatically receive a million dollars of Comprehensive General Liability. The intent of this program is to insure that the club and parent or guardian will not be burdened by medical costs not covered by other programs, and that the club and its personnel are adequately covered for their liability exposure. Individual General Members receive $50,000 excess medical coverage. Some of the club benefits include: 1. O,L,&T (Owners, Landlords and Tenants Liability). 2. Hired and Nonowned Auto Liability. 3. Incidental Medical Malpractice . 4. Trampoline Coverage. 5. Personal Injury Liability. 6. Independent Contractors Liability. 7. Premises Medical Payments. 8. Extended Bodily Injury Liability. USGF Professional Membership. This membership is designed for the serious gymnastics coach , teacher, judge or program director. It offers professional growth benefits as well as information on the USGF System of Competition. Some of the benefits include: 1. USGF Technical Journal (bi-monthly). 2. USGF GYMNASTICS Magazine (bi-monthly). 3. $50,000 Excess Medical Coverage. 4. Twenty-four Hour Accidental Death Benefits. 5. Free Admission to Nationally Sponsored USGF

United States Gymnastics Federation

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Profile for USA Gymnastics

USGF Technical Journal - December 1981  

USGF Technical Journal - December 1981