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MR. WILLIAM COCO, Gymnast, Coach and Friend We have been informed of the untimely and shocking death, on October 16th, in Philadelphia, Pa., of one of our finest friends, and most outstanding coaches. Naturally, his passing comes with great sadness to all of us who knew him well, and we will miss him. Bill leaves his wife, Ginny, and his children - Michael & Ginny Beth to carry on. These times make it difficult to express meaningful feelings and the grief of his family is, of course, the greatest tragedy of his passing. One finds words a little lacking for the moment. Bill donated his body to science. He was like that in his dedication to life, to his family and his sport. Personally, during the USGF's formative years I learned to know and respect Bill Coco. He defended with vigor and conviction the AAU program of which he was an integral part and when the change of governing organizations was made he defended with equal vigor and strength the need for program expansion and structure of the USGF. He served in many capacities within the sport. Coach at Temple, and in his private school, the Mannettes. Roxanne Pierce and Ann Carr were but two of his products as a coach in women's gymnastics. His men's team at Temple frequently contended for the E IG L and he was always quick to host an international or national event. He was a worker. I think I remember him best as one who came with strong words when he felt the need to make a point for a gymnast or team, he never hesitated to make a stand, but when the point was made regardless of the outcome he had that big smile and knew he had made his stand and he felt better for doing so. I for one will always remember him that way. Frank L. Bare, USG F

By the time this edition of the USGF NEWS reaches you the memorial services for Bill will have been completed. The family had requested no flowers be sent, and the many friends from the gymnastic community as well as his other friends in the community where Bill lived have created a special remembrance-fund for Bill's children. It is entirely fitting that one who gave so much to children throughout his life should have others do something for his children at this time. His friends have created an education-fund for Michael and little Ginny, and ask that any contributions be sent to: Bill Coco Fund, c/o Lois Musgrave School of Will-Moor Gymnastics Hastings Road Mt. Royal, New Jersey 08054


EDITORIAL: September-October 1976




The USG F's new program year is about to begin. This issue of the USG F NEWS contains some widely varied information about that program including a list of gymnasts we have sent to various parts of the world, and some upcoming events in which we hope to take part. The USGF Congress in Dallas, Texas at the Fairmont Hotel, November 19-21st, will see a number of meetings deeply involved in program planning for next season. Mrs. Jackie Fie, Chairman of the USG F Women's Technical Committee was elected to the International Gymnastics Federation Technical Committee in Montreal, and she takes her office officially on January 1, 1977. We have invited Canada's gymnastics President Dr. Bryce Taylor to come to the Congress and along with him we have invited Mexico's President, Dr. Juan Jose Zalce de la Pena. With Dr. Taylor, we have invited their national women's coach Mr. Bajin and their newly-elected member of the FIG Technical Committee for Women, Mrs. Carole Ann Letheren. The attendance of the Federation Presidents from Mexico and Canada will allow us to have some real discussions regarding Pan-American events for next year. In 1977, late summer I believe, the World University Games are scheduled for Sofia, Bulgaria. Full teams of men and women gymnasts are entered from the USCSC our university sports governing body and all the athletes in question must be full-time university or college, or Jr. College students. They can, however, be in graduate school as well as be undergrads. The USGF hopes to have the USSR and their numerous medalwinners on tour of the USA again this December. Arrangements are now under way, and if the negotiations are fruitful the team from the USSR will come to the USA once more to barnstorm the nation in a few short days and assist in promotion and fund-raising for the gymnastics federations of both nations. Final word should be here before the Congress. Frank Cumiskey of the USGF staff, had a triple-bypass heart operation a few weeks ago. The operation, obviously quite serious due to the event of the replacements of arteries, and other aspects of the operation has meant that Frank will not be working for a few months, but he is home again now and recovering and will no doubt be back in the swing of office routine well before the end of the year. Looking forward to seeing every coach and teacher involved in our sport at the FAIRMONT HOTEL, DALLAS, TEXAS ... NOV. 19-21st ... for the annual USGF CONG RESS. Send now for your registration forms. For the U.S. GYMNASTICS FEDERATION: Frank L. Bare, Executive Director



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This article is on a subject that will be presented at the 1976 USGF CONGRESS,

SPONDYLOLYSIS IN THE FEMALE GYMNAST Douglas W. Jackson, M.D. Leon L. Wiltse, M.D. Robert J. Cirincione, M.D. The young female gymnast engaged in strenuous training and competition on the year-round basis places demands on her low back unparalleled in other sports. In a study group of one-hundred young girl gymnasts we have documented a four-times higher incidence of pars interarticularis defects than the 2.3% reported in the general female Caucasian population (7). This type of information and further studies are important, since the number of girls participating in gymnastics is increasing rapidly across the country. Early diagnosis of a developing stress fracture in the pars interarticularis may be difficult, because the initial roentgenograms often appear normal ( 10). A serial roentgenographic evaluation and/or a bone scan may be necessary to demonstrate a developing defect. Once a pars defect has developed (with or without vertebral slippage). further strenuous participation for the young female athlete deserves special consideration. Materials and Methods : The study group consisted of young, female, Caucasian volunteers representing their respective teams in gymnastic competition from the regional to national and international levels. Their ages ranged from six to twenty-four years. The average age was 14.0 years. Practice time ranged from twenty to forty hours a week in summer, and up to twenty hours a week during the school year. Gymnasts referred to our office for low back pain evaluation during the time of this study were not included in the series presented, because they represented a selective group. A questionnaire was answered by each girl listing age, height, weight, years in competition, and hours of practice per week. Any history of previous back pain or medical attention for back pain was documented. A lumbosacral roentgenographic series, including anterior posterior, standing lateral and both obliques was obtained.

Results: Eleven of one-hundred female gymnasts evaluated in this study had bilateral L-5 pars interarticularis defects. Six of these eleven had first degree spondylolisthesis of L5 on S-1. Eighty-nine gymnasts had no roentgenographic evidence of pa!] interarticularis defects. Of the eighty-nine girls without pars defect, nineteen, or 23%, had had an episode of low back pain significant enough to interfer with training. In the group with spondylolisthesis or spondylolysis six of the eleven (54.5%) had had prior back pain. Three of these girls sought medical attention for their low back pain, and had initial surveys of the lumbosacral spine interpreted as negative for bony abnormalities. Subsequent follow-up films at the time of this study indicated that they had developed pars interarticularis defects. This represents proven cases of new pars fractures. The girls with pars defects described their pain as chronic, dull aching, and cramping. It was persistent and usually not related to a "specific injury", but was usually aggravated markedly by certain activities, especially activities involving hyperextension ("back walkovers"). Thirty-eight of the anteroposterior roentgenograms revealed spina bifida occulta: twenty-eight at S-1, three at L-5, and seven at both L-5 and S-1 levels. Spina bifida was associated with pars interarticularis defects in nine of the eleven girls. Other defects noted in the routine roentgenograms were vertebral lipping at the disc space at the thoracolumbar junction in one, and another suggested old end-plate fractures. Twelve young female gymnasts referred to our office in this study for evaluation of low back pain were not included in this series. Nine of these had negative initial lumbosacral roentgenograms. Because we were aware of the possibility of early stress reaction in the pars, four of these nine had technetium bone scans. Two showed increased osteoblastic activity in their posterior elements. Two of the twelve had Grade one spondylolisthesis with bilateral L-5 pars defects. One girl had L-5 pars defects and continued to compete on a limited basis and proceeded to healing of the pars defects.

Table 1: Patients with pars defects. Patient



years of intensive participation

spina bifida


vertebral slip



















L-5, S-1





S-1, S-2










S-1, S-2










L-5, S-1














15.1 ave.

4.6 ave.


SPONDYLOLYSIS IN THE FEMALE GYMNAST (continued) Table 11: Roentgenographic Measurements Pars defects Length of transverse processes of the 5th lumbar vertebra (measured from tip to tip) 97.6mm Widest width of transverse processes of the 5th lumbar vertebra Depth of sacrum on the anteroposterior roentgenogram (measured from a line connecting the most cephalad points on both iliac crests to the cephala-'d surface of the sacrum) Discussion:


Without Pars defects



collegiate level with greater than a grade one spondylolisthesis. As one approaches 50% vertebral slippage, a vertical sacrum and decreased flexibility with hamstring tightness usually develops. Girls with less lumbar flexibility would not advance to the same level of performance as the girls in this study, and this degree of flexibility may be a selection factor against those with higher degrees of slip. Ninety-three percent (93%) of the girls competing at the level of this population group can place and hold their palms on the floor easily even without warming up (Table Ill).

Table Ill: Lumbar Flexibility:



This roentgenographic study of one-hundred ¡ young _ female gymnasts engaged in competitive level gymnastics showed an 11 % incidence of pars interarticularis defects. This is four times that expected in a general Caucasian female population, and is about two times higher than expected in a general population of young males (1) . Six of these eleven girls had 1° spondylolisthesis. These girls were training on a year-round basis, and were at the top of the pyramid of girls competing in school physical education, park and city recreation programs, and private gymnastic schools. Often athletes trying to excel in competition continue to train in spite of low back pain. We feel that to ignore "warning pain" increases the risk of developing pars defects. In this study group, three of the young female gymnasts sought medical attention for low back pain, and had negative roentgenographic evaluation. They continued to train - in spite of the chronic nature of their pain, and progressed to develop pars interarticularis defects. Two had an olisthesis of 25%. One female gymnast referred to our office for evaluation of low back pain (and one male football player) had pars defects on the initial lumbar roentgenograms, continued to compete on a somewhat limited basis, and proceeded to bone healing. We have seen more than twenty additional athletes heal their defects under treatment varying from bed rest and immobilization to simple restriction from all athletic activity (4). Observing athletes -heaT their lesions while continuing to compete or with varying degrees of restriction raises the question of how many of the twenty-five girls in this study with a period of persistent low back pain had an underlying pars interarticularis stress reaction. None discontinued their gymnastic participation completely; all restricted the maneuvers that significantly increased their pain, and in time the pain subsided. Early restriction of activities may allow healing to progress without developing roentgenographic evidence of fracture. These "sub-roentgenographics" reactions may be more common than generally appreciated. The bone scan is a tool to evaluate these further (5). We presently have nine individuals under observation with positive scans and negative roentgenograms of the area of the pars of L-5. The authors have not seen a young girl gymnast competing at the levels of proficiency to earn a spot representing a team at the inter-club, high school, or

Ability to place and hold the palms to the floor with knees fully extended

147 108 young female high school gymnasts football players

137 (93.2%)

39 (36.1%)

Note: A lumbar flexibility screening test of 147 advanced female gymnastics, including many from our study group, attending summer camp was obtained and compared with 108 high school varsity football players of the same age group. The flexibility parameter measured was the ability to place and hold the palms of the hands to the floor with the knees fully extended. It has been our experience that the larger degrees of olisthesis in pre-adolescent and adolescent females have been among those who are non-athletic. Often their initial olisthesis is not accompanied by pain. Their parents are usually not aware of the accompanying body changes until the slip has progressed to the point where the youngster develops a "spondylolisthesis crisis" - paid, tight hamstrings, and peculiar ga it. Many factors may be important in predisposing the young athlete to develop pars interarticularis defects. The increased incidence of spina bifida occulta at the L-5 and S-1 levels associated with L-5 pars defects has been wel I established in the literature (1 ). Spina bifida occulta was present in nine of the eleven gymnasts with pars interarticularis defects in this study. Twenty-nine of the remaining eighty-nine gymnasts had some degree of spina bifida occulta. This is consistent with the expected incidence of 25% in the general population for this age range (3). Since ossification continues throughout childhood and adolescence, the roentgenographic incidence of spina bifida occulta in this population will be less as they reach adulthood. Its role in association with pars defects is speculative: Is the presence of a defect in the closure in the posterior wall of the spinal canal associated with, or does it pre-dispose the pars of L-5 to develop fractures? Or is the failure of ossification of the S-1 arch a secondary change associated with a pars defect of L-5? The size of the transverse process of the 5th lumbar vertebra and the depth of the sacrum may be of significance in those who develop defects and olisthesis. Because the average age for the girls with pars defects in this study was older than those without defects, we were unable to document a relationship. The difference in depth of the sacrum and size of transverse processes may be more important in those who develop high degrees of vertebral slippage. Once slippage has occured, pelvic tilt alters these roentgenographic measurements.



Strong hereditary pre-disposition of those who develop spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis is another factor that has been well documented (8). Those defects occurring in individuals with a strong hereditary pre-disposition may not be associated with pain, and probably represent a different entity than those that develop in the teen-age athlete participating in vigorous athletic competition. These two groups overlap, however, and may account in part for defects being present with or without a history of low back pain. When defects are present and well developed on the initial. lumbosacral films in a young athlete with back pain, the age of the lesion is usually unknown. We have been assuming if the technetium scan is positive that they are relatively new. Those that show no activity are assumed to be long standing (Fig. 1-A,B,C,D,E,F). The old, or cold defects, may have been present for years. The role of repeated trauma must be a major factor in the development of pars defects in the athlete. Our experience suggests a higher incidence of pars defects among young male and female athletes participating in karate, football, gymnastics (9), hurdling, pole-vaulting, high-jump, and other "jarring sports". However, the development of these defects does occur in less vigorous sports, and even in non-athletes. It appears that individuals with strong family pre-disposition require no greater trauma than that of normal living. Particular aspects of sports have been indited as causative factors in the development of pars defects: as the interior lineman who repeatedly hyperextends the spine in the three-point stance (2). The high school football players and high school girl gymnasts showed striking differences in lumbar flexibility (Table Ill), and yet both groups of athletes have a high incidence of pars defects. The gymnasts routinely hyperextend and hyperflex the spine in performing both "back walkover" and "front walkover" maneuvers, and experience jarring with dismounts, vaults, and flips. Pain in both groups seem to be first noticed with hyperextension activities. This would tend to support the theory that these defects developa as a result of the hyperextension mechanism. We do occasionally see athletes who complain of their greatest pain with flexion . Both motions may contribute to the development of pars defects, but hyperextension seems to be the activity associated with the most pain. It is possible that the female athlete's spine, if subjected to the same repetitive stresses, will demonstrate the same incidence of pars defects as male athletes'. The 11% incidence of pars defects in our series compared to the 10.9% among athletic Japanese school boys would tend to support this (6). The long-term significance of pars defects and low-grade spondylolisthesis in the female athlete h¡_a_s_ _ yet to be determined. It has been our experience with a large series of symptomatic intervertebral disc patients that there is no increased incidence of pars defects. Industry and the military have definite feelings about the presence of these defects in terms of occupation selection, but this will require further studies before long-term effects are well documented.

Summary: A roentgenographic analysis of the lumbar spine of 100 young female gymnasts engaged in high-level competition was presented. This group had an 11% incidence of pars interarticular defects; six of whom had spondylolisthesis. This is four times higher than their non-athletic female peers. It appears that the female athlete may have the same incidence of pars interarticularis defects as the male performing similar activities. Pars defects developing in association with athletic activities may be distinct from those developing in early ch ildhood. A negative lumbosacral roentgenographic series does not completely rule out a developing pars defect. The bone scan offers an additional tool for evaluating early stress reactions in the pars, and suggests that if the athlete restricts vigorous activity, some will heal without progressing to roentgenographically detectable defects. Low back pain in the young gymnast should be a warning sign. Close scrutiny of the pars interarticularis in these young athletes will reveal a high incidence of developing defects. Note : The authors wish to thank Ms. S. Johnson for help in research and preparation of this manuscript.

REFERENCES 1. Baker, D. R., and McHollic, W.: Spondyloschisis and Spondylolisthesis in Children. In Proc. Amer. Acad. Orthop. Surg., J. Bone Joint Surg. 38A: 933, 1956. 2. Ferguson, R.J., McMasters, M.C., Stanitski, C.L.: Low-Back Pain in College Football Lineman. In Proc. Amer. Acad. Orthop. Surg, J . Bone Joint Surg. 56A: 1300, 1974. 3. Ingraham, Franc Douglas, and Matson, Donald Darrow: Neurosurgery in Infants and Children, Springfield, C.C. Thomas, 1954. 4. Jackson, D.W., and Wiltse, L. L.: Low Back Pain in Young Athletes. The Physician and Sports Med. 2:11 :53, 1974. 5. Jackson, D.W., and Bailey, D.: Shin SpJints in the Young Athlete : A Nonspecific Diagnosis. The Physician and Sports Med. 3:3:45, 1975. 6. Kono, S., Hayashi, Kasahara, T., Akimoto, T., Keneko, F., Sugiura, Y., Harada, A.: A Study on the Etiology of Spondylolysis with Reference to Athletic Activities, J. Jap. Orthop. Ass'n. 49:3:125, 1975. 7. Roche, M.D., and Rowe, G.G.: The Incidence of Separate Neural Arch in Coincident Bone Variations, J. 8one Joint Surg. 34A:491 , 1952. 8. Wiltse, LL.: The Etiology of Spondylolisthesis. J . Bone Joint Surg. 44A:3:536, 1962. 9. Wiltse, LI., and Jackson, D.W. : A Study of the Spine in Male and Female Gymnasts, Paper given at Pellenberg, Belgium, 1974. 10. Wiltse, L. L.~Widell, E.H., Jr., and Jackson, 9.W.: Fatigue Fracture: Bone Lesion in lsthmic Spondylolisthesis, J. Bone Joint Surg., 57A:17, 1975.

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FIG Women's Technical Assembly July 14, 1976 Hotel Bonaventeur 9:00 a.m. - 2:00 p.m. The meeting was opened with introductory remarks by Vice-President Ms. Ellen Berger followed by a welcome from Mrs. Nagy, President. Roll Call was taken by Mrs. Andreina Gotta. The following FIG member Federations were present and received voting cards: South Africa (AS) Guatemala West Germany Hungary (ARF) Italy Australia Israel Austria Japan Bulgaria New Zealand Canada Portugal China. (Taiwain) Holland Korea (Democratic Poland Republic) East Germany (ADA) Denmark Rumania Spain San Marino USA Sweden Finland Czechoslovakia France USSR Great Britain Cuba Thirty voting members present= 15 + 1 = 16 votes for an absolute majority. Ms. Berger asked for additional agenda items of which there were none. (Ms. Berger conducted the WTA meeting.) The Assembly agreed with the Berne minutes of the WT A and they were then accepted. Results of Qualification Competitions There were several problems, among them financial ones. The Hamburg Qualification served as the Final Competition worth 40% of the total qualification mark. Many countries disagreed with this competition and/or its formula, however all present there are now here. The question now at hand is: "What is the course to follow for future Olympic Games Qualification? How many qualifications must there be?" There is one proposal based upon grouping of countries geographically. This would be beneficial financially, but totally different grading systems might be apparent. The WTC believes that all qualifying teams must be graded by the best judges at the same time. The WT A needs to discuss how many qualification competitions are necessary.

MEETING OF THE FIG TECHNICAL COMMITTEE Mrs. Berger further stated that the West German Federation proposed two geographic qualifications and then a third to select the final lot of teams. Great Britain proposed only one qualification competition. The French proposal based upon geographical pools, appears on p. 98 ¡of FIG Bulletin No. 2 1976, June. Spain agreed with F.rance. However the WTC feels that there should be one qualification competition for teams in the future, the first six teams from the 1978 World Games being exempt from this competition. (Sec. 9. Proposals - Spain.) The Judges Course prior to the 1976 Olympic Games would be held on Friday the 16th at 9:00 a.m. providing the General Assembly adjourned by Thursday evening. Susses would leave from the Sheraton Mount Royal at 8: 15 a.m. for the William Kingston School - Training Hall #3. The vault and uneven bars would take place in the morning and the balance beam and the floor exercise in the afternoon. Susses would return to the hotel for the mid-day dinner break. Comments relative to the Olympic Games Competition: A future proposal for World and Olympic Game~: The Country that qualifies more than 3 gymnasts for competition #2 or more than 2 for competition #3 may choose which gymnasts will represent their respective countries in these 2 competitions. / b. The attire of the gymnasts must be the same for each team in competitions #1. The color may differ in competition #2 & 3. No appliques or embroideries will be allowed. There would be a penalty for excessively short leotards. c. The discipline of the gymnasts was not good during the Forum practice sessions. Only the next gymnast to compete may move around a little and stretch, but not performing complete exercises. Only one female coach may be with the team during competition. The alternate may not march with her team during competition in the Forum. Great Britain spoke on the numbers of gymnasts participating in the Olympic Games. It was stated that there were not

24 individuals present, leaving space perhaps for one or two more teams, if three or four gymnasts were added to the number of individuals already qualified by one or two countries. Ms. Nagy stated that the IOC would not allow more than the designated number of 12 teams, even if the total number of gymnasts were reduced. Ms. Weisenberger reported on the FIG List of Judges. There are 469 officially registered, who have worked as judges successfully. There are an additional 233 unofficial judges who have worked once or twice, but do not figure on the official list. The federations were asked to send all official competition papers to Max Bangerter promptly. Judges should not come to any competition without their card. If a judge looses her Brevet, she must requalify with course work and competitions. (The termination date needs clarification.) Only courses, where a member of the FIG WTC is present are valid. The federations must pass on accredation immediately to those who earn it. Even (FIG) National judges must possess accredation to judge. Age of Women Gymnasts - to be considered later in Proposals of Federation. Compulsory Exercise 1978-80 The exercises will be forwarded to the federations with diagrams and deductions by the end of the year. A three month period was stated to be the earlist possible date. There is a proposal that coaches and judges meet together to discuss and study them, in order that agreement in interpretation may be achieved, before using them in international competition. Proposals of the Federations (p. 85. FIG Bulletin No. 2 June, 1976) relating to technical matters. not to statutes. FEDERAL . REPUBLIC OF GERMANY a. European Junior Championships with only optional exercises for gymnasts 14 years and older who have never participated in Olympic or World Games. WTC statement: Age for international competition should not Cont'd on page 12.


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THE OBSERVER SC ANDA L IN T HE MONT REAL OLYMPICS Much has been written about the judging of the sport of gymnastics during the recent Montreal Olympics Games. Historically, much has been said about the subjectivity of the officiating in gymnastics, and equally the bias among judges from the Eastern European nations has been hashed and re-hashed for a number of years. Seldom has much been documented . Perhaps because it was difficult to find the appropriate and reliable documentation , or perhaps due to the serious accusations of prejudice or cheating that would accompany such documentation. Montreal saw two cases of such judging in men's gymnastics that they cannot go un-mentioned . Both instances involved judges from the Soviet Union and one even became so evident to the spectators that it affected the performance of the USSR men's team, as well as the eventual final outcome of the men 's team competition. One instance was witnessed on the Ring event. It involved the former great USSR gymnast and champion Albert Asaryan. We shall dwell on that point later. The second, was quite obvious as to intent, and takes on a most serious note when we realize that the individual who took this questionable action was elected to the Men's Technical Committee of the FIG (for the second term) in Montreal. The setting was the horizontal bar competition for men, during the optional routines. This competition therefore, would determine the Olympic team champion. Mr. Boris Schaklin of the USSR was superior judge on the horizcmtal bar. Distinguished member of the Technical Committee of the FIG, and superior judge on that event during the Olympic Games of 1976. The team from the USSR moved to the horizontal bar. The first competitor approached and performed an excellent routine. His scores: Judge No.

+ 1st Gymnast


1 9.5

2 9.7

3 9.7

4 9.5

Avg. 9.60

Mr. Schaklin called a conference of one judge. He called Judge #4 to come to talk with him. What fo r? One must be fair and say that perhaps he would ask judge #4 to lower his scores submitted . Of course, we realize he was asking judge #4 to raise his score ... to a 9.6 - making the possible average for the gymnast 9.65. Only .05 difference for the moment. The several rows of spectators behind the superior judge, saw this so-called conference of one and began to shout and call attention to the action. Sufficient pressure was brought to bear on the situation that the scores stood and Mr. Schaklin was forced to allow the score (which was not questionable to begin with) to stand. It is interesting to note that among those in the area that seemed to be calling attention to the situation which was developing before their eyes were several members of the FIG Executive Committee. They too, apparently saw this very brazen performance by a member of the FIG Technical Committee for men. The other scores for the USSR men's team. Gymnast Gymnast Gymnast Gymnast Gymnast

No . No. No. No. No.

2 3 4 5 6

1 9.6 9.6 9.7 9.7 9.1

2 9.6 9.6 9.8 9.7 9.5

3 9.7 9.7 9.8 9.9 9.5

4 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.7 9.6

Avg. 9.60 9.65 9.80 9j() 9.50

No other attempts at conferences were seen at that time, and then the Japanese m0_1Led to the_horj zo_ntal bat. LQok__at the scores for the Japanese men's team. men~s_team

Judge No. Gymnast No. 1 ll Gymnast No. 2

1 9.8 9.9

2 9.8 9.8

3 9.7 9.9

4 9.7 9.7

Avg. 9.75 9.85

But wait . .. here Mr. Schaklin again called for Judge No. 3 to have a conference with him . . . again only one judge was called to speak. Yet judge no. 3, had given a 9.9 - did the superior judge call him to have him raise the score to a ten? Assuming that not so, then we see that the superior judge was calling a one-judge conference to ask judge no. 3, to lower his score to at least a 9.8 which would have made the average for Japanese gymnast No. 2, drop to a 9.80 ANOTHER .05 GAINED!

SCANDAL IN THE MONTREAL OLYMPICS, (cont'd from page 9) Between USSR Gymnast No. 1, if the conference had been successful and Japanese Gymnast No. 2, if the conference had been successful the USSR would have gained .1 O in team points. If the public had not so aroused attention to stop the action would it have happened more than twice? The Japanese mens' team only won the Olympic title by .4! Again, the first several rows behind the superior judge created such a furor that attention was focused on the incident to the degree that the superior judge could not bring the change of score about. But what if it had gone unseen? In either instance why did Mr. Schaklin call a conference? During competition no. 1, were not the two middle scores within the allowed tolerance? Is this type of behaviour to be allowed by any judge, not alone by a privileged member of the FIG Men's Technical Committee? What action will the FIG take to remove Mr. Schaklin from judging entirely, is a subject about which only those within the FIG can speak. I do not know. I do know it cannot be allowed to stand as is. I thank the USGF News for allowing me to contribute this brief article concerning a most serious and threatening problem for all of us in different parts of the gymnastics world.


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The Original Reuther 'MuniCh' Board, which was selected for the 1972 Olympic Game$ in Munich has now been selected for the 1976 Games in M~ntr•al. This 'Munich' model hH bHn u98Ct in Worl<f Championships and all lntemati<>nal Com~titions since their tremendous im1Mct in 1972. The Original Reuther Board is specially constructed to attain maximum height, and also to meet the most rigid F.l.G. specifications. No other board of equal quality is available except from ''.Original Reuther". Available from stock in U.S.A. and CANADA.

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Phone - - - - - -


Cont'd from Page 7.

be lowered. A Commission must study this proposal. There must be a lower limit such as 14 or 16 for example. Czechoslovakia and Sweden favored a small commission. Vote: WTA favored a small commission to study the mechanics of such a proposal. b. Changing Point Ranges in F JG Code Proposal dropped: due to small difference from new 1975 F JG code regulations. c. Finals - Competition #3 WTC agreed: number of gymnasts in The competitions #3 should be increased from 6 to 8. (Same as Rumanian proposal - p. 105) SPAIN This proposal on 1980 Olympic Qualification very closely resembled the proposal of France (p. 98) . The WTC favored one qualification based upon good results from Hamburg in May. Great Britain and Australia favored the WTC . opinion for reason of finance and lessening of number of times for peak training. Vote: WTA unanimously agreed that the WTC submit a proposal for vote at the 1977 Congress. FRANCE a. Junior World Championships proposal: similar to F RG proposal on European Junior Championships, which is-s-t o be studied by a small commission. b. System of Olympic Qualification: / Covered under Spain. V c. Code of Points: WTC favors their proposal of not changing the Code of Poin~ more frequently than every 2 years. d. Jury for International Competition: WTC Favors 1 chief judge, 2 neutral judges, plus 1 judge from each nation in international competitions. WTC views this as a recommendation.

************ I ! I\


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Special for the GYMNAST SLP 1215 (Long playing record) NATIONAL COMPULSORY FLOOR EXERCISE ROUTINES, 1975-79. Linda Chencinski , technical advisor and coordinator. Sheila Simpson, pianist. Class I-Advanced, Class II-Intermediate, Class III- Beginner. Each compulsory is divided into several sections. Each section is played several times with voice instructions over the music. After several repetitions, previous sections are added to the new section until the routine is completed . This provides a way to review and proceed forward. At the end of each practice piece, the entire compulsory is played through first with voice instructions and then once through without voice. FREE INSTRUCTION INSERT S 887 (45 r.p .m. ) NATIONAL COMPULSORY FLOOR EXERCISE MUSIC. Arranged by Art Maddox and Attaway. Sheila Simpson-pianist. Each compulsory level-Classes I, II, III-has two choices of music. Each fits the routines closely giving you a chance to select the one you like best. Write for Complete Catalogue


GREAT BRITAIN a. Olympic Games Qualifying Rules : Reduction of 6 team members to 4, with 3 to count in order to include more teams ( 18 instead of 12). The WTC opposed this proposal, since it could cause a possible elimination of team competition entirely . The IOC has direct authority in this matter. b. Uneven Bars - Dimension : The WTC stated that 86 cm . is the regulation distance for the maximum and the minimum will not be indicated .

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F.I.G. -- WTC Report , Cont'd. ITALY Composition of Teams: 6 gymnasts with a selected four to work on each event. The WTC rejected th is proposal related to reasons in G.B. a. above. RUMAN IA a. Finals : increase from 6 to 8 gymnasts WTC agreed as for Federal Republic of Germany proposal (p. 87) b. Thickness of landing mats for vault and uneven bars: be allowed to increase. Czechoslovakia and USA favored this proposal and also for the landing mats at the beam. WTC agreed to allow increase of the thickness to 12 cm. - (4%") c. Official apparatus for FIG competitions: Japan stated that to designate apparatus 4 years in advance of competitions is impossible. WTC proposed that 2 years prior to World & Olympic Games the equipment would be decided and that it planned to decide in Montreal the apparatus for the World Games in 1978.



SAN MARINO Extension of Olympic Participation: was similar to Great Britain proposal. The jurisdiction for teams in Olympic Games remains with the IOC.

VENEZUELA Floor Exercise Mat: USA mat 14 x 14 m., 3.2 cm. thick, all one piece, nylon reinforced vinyl surface be official as a variation. WTC considers th is proposal only a recommendation by Venezuela . No vote was taken. Proposals made by FIG authorities : None Elections: candidates (p. 112 Results as follows: President :

Ms. Ellen Berger (East Germany)


Ms. Maria Simionescu (Rumania) Mrs. Jaroslova Matlochova (Czechoslovakia) Ms. Ulla Berg Members: (with tie vote declined Vice-Presidency in (Sweden) favor of Ms. Matlochova Ms. Jackie Fie (USA) Ms. Carol Anne Lethren (Canada) Ms. Riek Fentsahm (nether lands) Term of office runs from January 1, 1977 to December 31, 1980. The meeting was adjourned before 2:00 p.m.

CZECHOSLOVAKIA ../ a. Trainer symposium: on new compulsory exercises. Bulgaria agrees, however adds that 2 gymnasts per country are included. Invitations should be sent to all federations as soon as the compulsory exercises are ready. WTC agreed. Compulsory Deductions: The WTC agreed only to publish specific deductions (that do not appear in the Code of Points) for the 1978 World Games Exercises. c. Landing Mat increase for vault, bars and beam. WTC agreed as for Rumania proposal. ./ d. Warm up Time (30 sec.) Gong: WTC agreed for need for sounding device. Canada states that this would be possible for 1976 Olympic Games.

f â&#x20AC;˘

USSR Order of Competition of Teams: to seed best teams according to the previous Championship. Czechoslovakia favored drawing by lot for order in compulsories and then seeding the best teams for optionals. Vote: The WTA defeated the USSR proposal. b. Vault Finals: The final mark will be composed of the average of the two different vaults. Vote: The WTA unanimously approved the proposal.

~ Elvira Saadi (USSR) in action (above)

/ a.



NADIA COMANECI 13 x 21 inch posters of Nadia Comaneci in action in Montreal at the Olympic Games. Write the USGF for price list of all USGF POSTERS

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'76 USGF

November 19-20-21, 1976.

********~************* Friday - Nov. 19, 1976



9 :00 AM - 12:00 Noon 9:00 AM 9:00 AM - 10:30 AM

Registration Foreign Relations Comm. (Women) Certification Committee Administration Workshop - All test administrators USG F/NAGWS and judges attendance requested.

USGF Staff F. Bare Sue Ammerman Varina French

9:30 AM - 12:00 Noon

Meeting of the National Association of Collegiate Gymnastics Coaches (Men)

Art Aldritt

10:45 AM - 12:00 Noon

National Compulsory Routines Women (1st session) Clarification of Judging & Coaching.

Delene Darst


Welcome by the USG F

Frank Bare

1 :05 PM - 1 :45 PM

Report Montreal Olympics - 1976 ·Women

Dale Flansaas Rod Hill Jackie Fie

1 :45 PM - 2:30 PM

Report Montreal Olympics - 1976 · Men

Karl Schwenzfeier Gene Wettstone

2:30 PM - 2:50 PM

Canadian Gymnastics Federation

Dr. Bryce Taylor

2:50 PM - 3:15 PM

International Report

Frank Bare

3: 15 PM - 3:30 PM


R. Amyx

3 :30 PM - 4:30 PM

USGF Biomechanical Task Force

Dr. George

4:30 PM - 6:00 PM

USG F Jr. Olympic Program for Men

Mas Watanabe

4:15 PM - 6:00 PM

Reg. Chairpersons

7:00 PM - 9:00 PM

USGF Women's Committee General Meeting followed by Regional Assemblies Montreal 1976 Films - Women

7 :00 PM - 9:00 PM 7:00 PM - 9:00 PM

Meeting - Men - USG F Foreign Relations Meeting - National High School Coaches

Frank Cumiskey Ralph D_ruecke

USGF Committee: Modern Rythmic Gymnastics.

No~ma Zabka.

Meeting - Women - NAWG Judges Meeting - Men · NG Judges Association

Kitty Kjeldsen Ted Muzyczko

7 -9p.m.

9:00 PM - 11 :00 PM 9:00 PM - 11 :00 PM

Frank Endo Scott Crouse



:* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Saturday, Nov. 20, 1976



8:00 AM - 9:00 AM

Coffee Hour

W. Zwickel


Meeting of the USA Independent Gym Clubs

Ed Knepper

9:00AM -11:00AM

Men's Olympic 1980 - Compulsory Exercises

Mas Watanabe Abe Grossfeld

10:45 AM - 11 :45 AM

FIG Rules Interpretation - Questions & Answers

Jackie Fie

1:00 PM - 2:00 PM

USG F Biomechanical Task Force (2nd session)

Dr. Gerry George

2:00 PM - 2:30 PM

Spondylolysis in the Female Gymnast

Douglas Jackson M.D.

2:30 PM - 3:30 PM

Dance for Gymnastics (Statler records)

Rose Menez

2:30 PM - 3:30 PM

Judging with the new Code of Points - Men

Ted Muzyczko

3:30 PM - 5:30 PM

Montreal 1976 Films - Men


3:30 PM - 5:30 PM

Coaching & Judging Program - All Events

Jackie Fie

7:00 PM - 8:00 PM

Cocktails - Courtesy of the Nissen & American Equipment Co.'s

8:00 PM - 10:00 PM

USGF Banquet Athlete of the Year Awards Master of Sports Award

Frank Bare


Meeting of the National Association of Collegiate Gymnast cs Coaches (Men)

Art Aldritt


Women's Elite Exercises - 1978 - 1980

Dale F lansaas Jackie Fie

9:00 AM - 10:00 AM

National Compulsory Routines - 2nd session

Sharon Valley

Sunday,Nov.21, 1976

FAIRMONT HOTEL, Dallas, Te~as (214) 748 - 5454. â&#x20AC;¢

UNITED ST A TES GYMNASTIC FEDERATION 4545 East 5th Street, Tucson, Arizona

85711 USA

THE MONTREAL GAMES; POSTSCRIPT THE MONTREAL OLYMPICS; Postcript. The Games of the XXlst Olympiad are now being recorded in the history books. Many aspects of the games will be discussed for a long period of time. The guest editorial on page 9 of this issue of the USGF NEWS bears on a subject of overwhelming importance to the men's gymnastics program of the FIG. The USGF is pleased to provide this space for the material received, as it was well documented even though the writer wished to keep his name off the article and simply asked to be identified as "the observer". There can be little question that the gravest problem of all at the Olympic Games in Montreal was the China question. Not because any particular nation cared about the resolution of the problem. Each nation, based on it's own politics would have voted yea or nay to Taiwan or China as the case might be. The serious question faced there was whether or not the 1.0.C. is, in fact, in charge of the Olympic Games or not. The answer was a resounding NO . For many, many years we have heard domestically that no government may interfere with the conduct of the Olympic Games. As recently as last year and earlier this year, high-ranking officials of the U.S . Olympic Committee have gone on public record to the effect that if any government interfered with the 1.0.C. or the Games themselves that all the athletes of that nation would be denied the right to participate or perhaps some other even more serious malady would strike. Prime Minister Trudeau walked all over that old wive's tale. He waited until the last minute in order to allow many nations to be present already, and then violated every trust given him by the 1.0.C. His punishment, or that for the host nation was absolutely nothing. Henceforth, it may well be said the host nation determines who does and who does not participate. Even more striking, the host may determine which flag entr ies march under, and which anthem they may or may not play. I thought you might like to read the official ruling by the 1.0.C. which was handed us before the games opened. So we reprint it here:

STATEMENT Montreal, 11th July, 1976 The Executive Board of the International Olympic Committee unanimously and strongly protests the decision of the Government of Canada , only one month prior to the opening of the Games of the XXlst Olympiad, to refuse the admiss ion to Canada of the team of a National Olympic Committee under the name duly recognized by the International Olympic Committee, and properly invited by the Organizing Committee of the Games. As recently as June 22nd, 1976 Olympic Identity Cards, as issued to athletes and officials of this team, were confirmed by COJO as meeting with all requirements to be accepted as a travel document by the Canadian Government. This decision of the Government of Canada violates the undertaking given to the IOC by letter dated the 28th November, 1969 and signed by Mr. Mitchell Sharp, Secretary of State for External Affairs, in support of the application of the City of Montreal for the honour of staging the Games of the XXlst Olympiad . Without prejudging the problem of the representation of China which is being further studied by the Internat ional Olympic Committee, the Executive Board stresses that it is the fundamental Olympic principles which are being seriously jeopardised by the att itude of the Canadian Government. However, in view of the fact that athletes from over one hundred countries have, for several years, been preparing themselves to take part in this great gathering of the youth of the world, and that the City of Montreal, the Canadian Olymp ic Association and the Organizing Committee have fulfilled their commitments as far as the IOC is concerned, both from the point of view of sports infrastructure and organization, the Executive Boa rd has no other alternative but to recommend to the 78th IOC Session that the Games must go on . It appeals formally to the Canadian Government to review its attitude in keeping its word and holds it entirely responsible for any harm which the Olympic Movement may suffer.

The Black African nations boycotted and withdrew from the Games. Almost all of them left Montreal, and took their athletes home before the opening ceremonies. They left because New Zealand was in the Games. In careful investigation following the games in Montreal, there is only that fact remaining. They left, denying athletes who had worked for years for this event the opportunity to participate, because New Zealand was participating. End of report. The judging in our sport reached an all time high. Nadia Comaneci was perfect seven times, and according to news reports in various periodicals now on the market, her latest interviews indicate she has as a goal to make all tens. She may well be capable of it. Her impact of the sport over-all has not yet been measured. There can be no doubt that she is the best gymnast of all time, and she may have changed the difficulty requirements from this date forth. Perhaps one must do more, with perfect form, as Nadia has shown, to score perfect scores in the future. A most interesting aspect of all this is the continued interest in Olga Korbut on the part of the American gymnastic fan. We have received more inquiries regarding her possible appearance in 1976-77 than we have for a similar appearance by Nadia. Can it be that the smile, and human charm that Olga has shown over the years remains more impressive to the American public at least, then the perfect scores of the youthful Rumanian star? Again, that is a matter for time to tell. As for the scores which were in many instances in orbit around the Forum in Montreal, something must be done to make the ten for a vault like Nelli Kims (outstanding as was her double back on the floor) a little more discernible from the 9.90 of some other gymnasts, when the real diffe rence was obviously much greater. Politically, as many of you may know the FIG came forth with a new and youthful President (who takes office on January 1, 1977). Mr. Yuri Titov, of the U.S.S.R. was a world champion, Olympian and is leader of the sport of gymnastics in the Soviet Union. Many nations expressed real concern for the fact that a President would be from the East European nations. The USA did not share that concern. We were and remain more interested in progress for the FIG, without the political farces of the past, without the boycotts of events due to the political stance of a particular government. We hope that the new Executive Committee of the FIG will be capable of delivering such a progressive program whether the President or any member of the EC be from a Commun ist or non-Communist part of the world. 1977 will be an interesting year to watch in the hope that new and exciting events will be forthcoming and the FIG will seek to clean house among the judges (from any part of the world) who do as two judges from the USSR did in Montreal (see part one of a two-part series on page 9 of this issue of the USGF NEWS).

Continued on followina oaae ( 17)


The miw Executive Committee of the International Gymnastics Federation: President: Vice-President: Vice-President: Vice-President: Secretary General: Treasurer: Member: Member: Member: Member:

Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr.

Yuri Titov, U.S.S.R. Takashi Kondo, JAPAN Frank L. Bare, U.S.A. Maurice Surette, FRANCE Max Bangerter, SWITZERLAND Farbin Radovanovic, YUGOSLAVIA Felix Fernandez, SPAIN Nicolai Vieru, RUMANIA George Whitely, GREAT BRITAIN Nicola Hadijiev, BULGARIA


Term of office from January 1, 1977 th rough Dec. 31, 1980. Preparations are under way for Moscow in 1980, and the Games of the XXll Olympiad, and for the World Championships in France in 1978. So we bid adieu to the Montreal Olympic Games, but the shadow of the political victories of the Canadian Government which were made in the interest of business deals and dollars, might well remain to haunt the Olympic movement for the remainder of it's existence. Frank L. Bare, USGF

~~., Copley News Service ~


THIS ONe IS FOR ALLOWING POL!//CB -ro INTeRFeRe W17HfJPoRT5.,, TRIS CNe 15 Forl £MEaRfliJfJ§JNG (JN EN-rifie COUN71i,'1.•• TFllf3 ONe I& FOR BeTFi<JWNG Tt{e SPIRIT oF OlYMPtc GJtvte&,,," ,


JUDGES CERTIFICATION COMMITTEE REPORT submitted by Varina French, Certification Coordinator The NAGWS/USGF Joint Committee for Judges Certification will be meeting November 6th and 7th to precede as quickly as possible in the revision of the theoretical exams and a critiquing of the demonstration routines of the practical exams delayed due to committee members responsibilities to the preparation of the Olympic Games. Until the new exams are distributed, the 1975-76 examinations packet is to be used beginning again with Form A. The new certification year began September 1, 1976 and if a rating was not earned prior to that time those examinees will be required to take both theoretical and practical exams for their first test. The exception would be Class 111 where the practical examination is not required. Tests will not be scored if this procedure is not followed. All test administrators are reminded that all exams must be scheduled at least three weeks prior to the examination date. This includes the Class Ill exam. If the results of your exams are delayed this is the reason . Test results have been mailed within ten days if proper procedures have been followed by the T.A. 's. Rating cards will be sent only upon receipt of exam payments, financial report and rating report. If an examinee does not hold a prior rating she/he is eligible for only the Class Ill exam. Each rated judge must hold their current earned rating for one certification year. (Eligible to test for next level after September 1 in any year.) Three active status judging reports must be filed between September 1 and August 31 to keep ratings current. A rating card must be produced by the examinee to the T.A. to verify their current rating before they can proceed to Class II or I exams. If they do not have their card they must call or write Varina French so a duplicate can be sent (call 503-357-6151 ext. 226 or write U.C. Box 684, Pacific University, Forest Grove OR 97116) . Test Administrators are not to permit anyone to take the Class I or II exams if they are not shown the needed rating card. Test Administrators can look forward to new comprehensive instructions for administering exams that should "streamline" the testing procedure. The agenda for the November meeting also contains the recognition and consideration of all of the good constructive thoughts and ideas that have come to us via phone and letter. We appreciate your positive encouragement and patience, and are prepared to have a certification program you can all be proud of. We are open to additional thoughts on procedures and will welcome your comments prior to our November 6 and 7 meeting.

USGF ELITE NATIONAL JUDGES USGF JUDGES GROUPINGS GROUP I - BREVETS Darst, Delene Davis, Gail Fie, Jackie Pasquale, Joanne Patoile, Karen Treiber, Grete Valley, Sharon Wachtel, Erna Weaver, Ernie Weber, Sharon



8 6 4

1973 1973 1968 1976 1973 1975 1970 1973 1970 1975


2 5 6 5 7 3



Thonon - 1975 London - 1976 Thonon - 1975 Toronto - 1975 Toronto - 1975 Rome -1976 Thonon - 1975 Toronto - 1975 Toronto - 1975 Thonon - 1975

c•i .... ,..._


x 0




GROUP II - FIG NATIONAL Aschenbrenner, Joanne Chencinski, l.,inda Cross, Marilyn Kjeldsen, Kitty Leidtke, Carole Ruhlman, Shirley Schweyer, Audrey Thielz, Sandra Wagner, Cheryl

3 6 6 6 5 1 7 7 1

1975 1973 1975 1975 1975 1973 1973 1973 1975

Toronto Toronto Toronto Toronto Toronto Toronto Toronto Toronto Toronto


1975 1975 1975 1975 1975 1975 1975 1975 1975

"'c:: 0 ·;:; z"' LL. (.'.) Ul


GROUP Ill - USGF ELITE NATIONAL PARTICIPANTS Section A Crabtree, Judy DeCristoforo, Maria Mahoney, Mary Ann Thompson, Elaine Shalk, Judy

8 6 3 3 4

1974 1974 1976 1976 1976

Cincinnati - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976 Denver - 1976 Denver - 1976 Denver - 1976



Denver - 1976 Denver - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976 Denver - 1976 Denver - 1976 Denver - 1976 Denver - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976 Denver - 1976 Denver - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976


6 5

1976 1976 1976 1976 1976 1976 1976 1974 1974 1974 1971 1974 1976

7 4 6 1 2 4 8 6 6 3 8

1976 1976 1976 1976 1976 1976 1976 1976 1970 1974 1974

Cincinnati - 1976 Denver - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976 Denver - 1976 Denver - 1976 Denver - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976 Denver - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976

1 5 7 6 3 5 6 8 5 7 3

1974 __ 1976 1974 1974 1976 1976 1976 1976 1976 1974 1974 1974 1974

Denver - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976 Denver - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976 Denver - 1976 Denver - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976

Section B Beran, Linda Bodman, Judy Carson, Lois Crossman, Arlene French, Varina Hammer, Norma Levee, Patricia Mellinger, Mary Morton, Linda Rogers, Laurann Schmid, Dr . Andrea Sheldon, Marilyn Sroufe, Betty

3 6

2 2 1 1

7 5 3 1

Section C Ammerman, Sue Hamann, Jolene Hanlon, Anne Hann, Joan Kees, Pamela Mclellan, Mary Noble, Hoylene Quigg, Kathy Schnaars, Marilyn Stacey, Kathleen Stuart, Donna


E 0







0 c..



Section D Anderson, Shirley Christensen , Char Edwards, Carolyn Evans, Beth Hale, Carolyn Hodge, Yvonne Ide, Carole King, Diane Maloney, Gail McManis, Jean Parsons, Gail Smith, Judy Taylor, Lydia



Continued on page 25



SPECIAL NOTICE: CANADA CONCORDIA . INVITATION: 1976 The United States Gymnastics Federation is pleased to relay the following invitation to the gymnastics clubs of the Un ited States, and indicate our approval and endorsement of the event as well as encourage participation by those clubs interested and willing to take part. The Concordia Invitation is one of the finest events in the world for young gymnasts (girls) and the management and conduct of the event is enviable. The USGF is pleased to encourage participat ion of our gymnasts is this truly outstanding event. Frank L. Bare, Exec. Dir. USGF

For the fourth consecutive year, the members of the GYMN IX Club are planning their Inter-Clubs International CONCORDIA INVITATION '77. A tentative date of June 4th and 5th 1977 has been set and will be held in Montreal. This year they are planning to invite 16 clubs from many different countries. A team will include 6 female gymnasts with 5 to count in the team competition. All the competitors must be under 16 years of age as of September1st, 1976. The event will include competition lb (optionals) and competition 3 (finals for 10). The rules will be those of the International Gymnastics federation as used in the 1976 Olympics Games, Code of Points 1975 Edition. The Concordia Organizing Committee will provide the funds for the room and Board while in Montreal for the following The Concordia Organizing Committee will provide the funds for the room and Board while in Montreal for the following official members of each delegation: (6) Gymnasts ( 1) Coach (male or female) ( 1) Female judge (each delegation must bring a judge) (1) pianist One alternate gymnast can accompany the delegation but her expenses will be the responsibility of the visiting team. We expect the delegations to be in Montreal from June 1st to June 6th. The ENTRY FEE will be $100.00 Canadian dollars to be paid when accepting to participate. ($100.00 per club). This letter is to indicated that the Canadian Gymnastics Federation fully sanction this competition and we hope that a club from your country will enter this important event. Included is a program from their last year competition. Please answer before October first (1st) : Miss Nicole Mac Duff, GYMNIX Club 265 Quest Mount Royal, Montreal, Quebec, CANADA · Kindest personal regards. Sincerely,


Bryce M. Taylor, Presiden t

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Telephone: (213) 756-3283





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# 9 - 400 ft. -# 10- 400 ft.

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1970 WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS (Super 8 in Color) The world's most exciting com bi notions, twists and new techniques have been filmed. See the winning and top optional routines, on all O lympic events, in semi• slow motion taken from choice locations.

Men - #14 - 400 ft. Women- #16 - 400 ft.

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1974 WORLD'S GAMES IN VARNA, BULGARIA (Super 8 Film in Color) Once again films of the world's best gymnasts ore featured at this spectacular Games. More new moves and superb techniques have been Ii Imed at this Game than at any previous Games .

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1976 U.S.A. FINAL OLYMPIC GAMES TRIALS (Super 8 in Color) America's top women gymnasts ore featured in this film. Includes all four Olymp ic events. 5·6 complete optional routines on each event.

Women - #33 - 400 ft.

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1976 MONTREAL OLYMPIC GAMES (Super 8 in Color) See the winning and runner•up optional routines on all Olympic events, Romania's Nadia Comaneci com• plete routines on all evenls . No Rentals.

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IMPORTANT: Women's Gymnastics



******** IMPORTANT: Women's Gymnastics In view of the fact that the FIG has not released the Official Olympic Compulsories, and will not release them until December the following alternate proposal has been worked out by the USGF WC Technical Chairman and the USGF Staff, acting upon a proposal made by the Elite Coaches Association for the 1977 Competitive Season.

Proposal 1. Drop the December Elite Qualifying Meet the remaining two 2. Rename Qualifying Meets to Elite Nationals 1st Elite Nationals February 4 - 5 or 11 - 12, 1977 3 day meet 1st day - Compulsories 2nd day - Optionals 3rd day - Individual Finals 2nd Elite Nationals March 4 - 5, 1977 3 day meet 1st day - Compulsories 2nd day - Optionals 3rd day - Individual Finals * * 8 judges will be requ ired for the above two meets. The winners (top 15) from each Elite Nationals will qual ify to the Championships of the USA - April 21 , 22, 23, 1977. * ** Any gymnast who received 72.00 AA in the 1976 Elite Nationals does not have to compete on a regional level, but automatically qualifies to enter either (or both) of the 1977 Elite Nationals. In connection with this proposal we must inform you that the unofficial film of the Olympic-Flcror~X.out in e cannot- be released since it differs greatly from the unofficial text, and all tumbling elements have been ommitted. Reason for proposal Each gymnast would have ample time learning the new routines correctly. The same would apply to all judges.



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NADIA COMANECI (ROM) Forward somersault ( to regrasp )


200 Engineers Rd. Smithtown, NY. 11787 3007 N. Druid Hills Rd. Atlanta, Ga. 30329 10021 Highway 66 St. Louis, Mo. 63126 5317 Excelsior Blvd. Minneapolis, Minn. 55416


OLGA KORBUT (USSR) Backward somersault (to regrasp)

WHO WENT WHERE? China Trip, Oct. 23 - Nov. 6 Gymnasts Mike Carter Bart Conner Larry Girard Mike Gadowa Gene Whelen Jay Whelen

LSU Oklahoma - Norman Nebraska - Lincoln LSU Penn State Southern Connecticut

Koleen Casey Kim Chace Diane Dunbar Carrie Englert Kathy Howard Leslie Wolfsberger Jodi Yocum

St. Paul Turners Chace Sch. of Gymn. Palm Beach Diablo Gym Club, Walnut Creek Natl. Sch. of Gymn. Eugene, Oreg,. HI LO Twisters, Oklah. City SCATS Westminster, Cal. Read ing Pa.

Officials Frank L. Bare Dr. Harold Frey Linda Mulvihill Scott Crouse Mel Blickenstaff Art Maddox

USGF Univ. of Cal., Berkeley Natl. Sch. of Gymn. Eugene SCATS Indiana State, Trainer Natl. Sch. of Gymn. Pianist

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Ind. Finals Ind. Finals

:. Kips Gymnastics, Long Beach LSU Dickinson High, Dickinson.,N.D. Vannie Edwards School of Gymn.

Vannie Edwards Grete Treiber

Belcher, Louisiana Indiana State

Barcelona Invitational, Spain Oct. 7 - 13, 1976

Peter Korman Abe Grossfeld

Southern Connecticut Southern Connecticut

350 ft. 350 ft.

Women Men

The individual finals films are complete with score board identification of all contestants. Also available 1972 Munich Olympics Ind. Finals Ind. Finals

Women Men

400 ft. 400 ft.

All films are super 8 - color


Add Postage and Handling: 75¢ for orders under $10.00 $1.25 for orders over $10.00 U.S.A. orders only Overseas-write for postage information

Penn State Reno School of Gymn

Officials Dale Flansaas Reno School of Gymn . Jackie Fie Jefferson, Iowa Ted Muzyczkoi----LIDowners--Gr-ove,~l IL- Bi II Roetzheim Cbjcago, Ill.

40.00 40.00

Moderr1 Rhythmics by U.S. S. R. at Madison Square Garden, N.Y.-1975 200 ft. 25.00

Milk Meet Toronto Canada, Oct. 31 - Nov. 8

Wayne Young Tammy Manville

45.00 45.00

Selected routines from women's TeamAll Around finals 400 ft. 45.00

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OL VM PIC FILMS 1976 Montreal Olymnics

:« Gymnasts


SOUTH AFRICA, Sept. 25 to Oct. 10, 1976

Susan Archer Jeanne Beadle Robin Huebner Kathy Johnson

gymnastic a.ides

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Sanlam Cup, South Africa, Nov. 1 - 14 Gymnasts Debbie Wilcox Ron Gallamore

Univ. of Col. Boulder LSU

Official Erir. Sinaf!r

Univ . of Co _Boulder



School - - - - - - - -Zip






------** ZWICKEL


Chunichi Cup, Japan Nov. 10 · 22, 1976


Kim Chace Wayne Young

Chace School of Gymnastics, Fla. Penn State

Official Shirley Ruhlman Mr. Jim Fontaine

Oxnard, Calif. Kips Gym Club, Long Beach

Tours to look for in 1977 January 77 February 77 March 77 March 77 April 77 June 77 August 77 October 77 November 77 November 77 November 77

New Zealand Games American Cup, New York Moscow & Riga Invitational USSR South African Invitational, Johannesburg Champions All , London England Golden Sands Invitational, Varna Bulgaria Antibes Invitational, France Sanlam, Cup, South Africa Chunichi Cup, Japan Barcelona Invitational, Spain Milk Meet, Canada

SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT MODERN RYTHMIC GYMNASTICS 1977 National Championships The 1977 USG F National Championships in the Modern Rythmic Gymnastics division, will be hosted by the University of Iowa, at Iowa City, Iowa. The dates are April 29-30, and the competitions will be preceeded by a two day clinic on the 27th and 28th. All coaches and athletes interested in the competition and/or the national clinic should contact the Chairman, MRG Committee: Ms. Norma B. Zabka, Hunter College, Dept. of Phys. Education, 695 Park Avenue, New York, N.Y. The Modern Rythmic Gymnastics Comm., will meet at the USGF Congress in Dallas, Texas on Friday, November 19th, from 7-9 p.m. Other general sessions will be announced at the Congress.

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A Distinctive Line of Men's and Women's Uniforms


• •


Why Settle for less? FREE CATALOG

ZWICKEL Gymnastic Tailors

P.O. Box 309 Jenkintown, Pa. 19046

U.S.G.F. ELITE NATIONAL JUDGES (Cont'd from page 19) GROUP IV - USGF ELITE NATIONAL Archer, Jackie Asmus, Annette Bowers, Carolyn Bunge, Carole Dobransky, Judy Edwards, Jeanne Engebrecht, Vickie Guy, Wilma Herald, Lee Ann Johnson, Joan Knepper, Pat Keeth, Kathy Maloney, Connie McNall, Jan Modyelewski, Margaret Molnar, Mary Nelson, Nella Ogg, Leslie Pyle, Pat Spatz, Barbara Thomas, Sharon Vercruyssen, Max Weber, Jean

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8 6 5 3 5 5 1 8 6 8 7 5 1 3 6 6 1 3 7 5 3 2 7

1976 1976 1976 1976 1976 1974 1976 1976 1976 1976 1974 1976 1976 1976 1976

(AUDIT) Cincinnati - 1976 Cincinnati ~


Cincinnati - 1976 Denver - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976 Denver - 1976 Cinci nnati - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976 Denver - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976 Denver - 1976 Denver - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976 Denver - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976 Cincinnati - 1976 Denver - 1976 Denver - 1976 Cincinnati ·- 1976

)974 1976 1976 1976 1976 1976 1976 1976.


Compulsory and Optional Floor Exercise Music 1975-1979 Manual by United States Gymnastic Federation Pianist - Dennis Buck Objective: To provide official compulsory music for USGF 1975-79 National Compulsory Routines. Focus: Side 1 includes compulsory music chosen by the USGF. Side 2has10 bands of optional music including classical pieces, show tunes and contemporary piano selections. Manual includes Class I, II, Ill routines for balance beam, floor exercise, uneven bars, vaulting and music for compulsory routines . LP & Manual $9.95 Manual Only $4.00

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Swing With Gymnastics

"How To" Design Floor Exercises

By Noreen E. Connell Objective: To provide the beg inner/advanced gymnast with instructions and varied musical selections for competition. Focus: Side A contains a wide range of melodies appealing to gymnasts of any age, as well asa2-minutewarm-up.Side B includes several methods of teaching rhythm, movement, originality, composition , focus , and dynamics to be used by physical education and special education instructors, in addition to gymnastic coaches. LP & Manual

By Doris W. Mathieson Objective: To gain a personal understanding and acquisition of those skills which enable gymnasts to construct a floor exercise routine compatible with natural tempo, body type, immediate and anticipated skills. Focus: With the aid of musical selections and instructions, students learn how to look for creative moves, build movement sequences, pattern a routine, select appropriate music and more . LP & Manual

KIM 4027-C


KIM 4025-C


K1M 4058-C

For additional floor exercise and gymnastic albums and manuals write today for your free 1976-77 catalog

KIMBO EDUCATIONAL 86 So. 5th Ave., Box 477, Long Branch, N.J. 07740






The 1976 USG F CONG RESS is set for the southwests most beautiful hotel and in Dallas, Texas for the first time ever for tile USGF meeting in the State of Texas. The Congress is scheduled for NOVEMBER 19-20-21st., with the annual banquet slated for Saturday night. The, Fairmont Hotel, in downtown Dallas is not only beautiful and famous for it's service and atmosphere, but will offer us the finest meeting facilities we have ever had available. This year, the USGF will begin an annual recognition award for ttie "GYMNAST OF THE YEAR" award. The outstanding male and female gymnast of the past season will be selected and those individuals so honored will be our guests at the Congress and appear and speak at the annual banquet. Appropriate awards will be made and we look forward to that presentation as well as the "MASTER OF SPORT-GYMNASTICS" award ceremonies. REGISTRATION FORM: USGF CONGRESS 1976

Registration Fee: $25.00 in advance, if paid in Dallas $30.00 (includes banquet, program and coffee Saturday a.m.) Check enclosed [ ]

Please send receipt [ ]

send to: USGF PO BOX 12713 TUCSON, ARIZONA 85711

Make your reservations directly with the

Please indicate your registration as a participant in the USG F CONG RESS 1976. Special rates are being made available for Congress registrants, however, if you fail to indicate your attendance to the Congress or if your request for room reservations arrives after October 20th •.....we cannot guarantee you will have a room or the preferred rate.




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FAIRMONT HOTEL, Dallas, Texas (214) 748 · 5454.

-I -I


............................................................................................................................................. . ........................ ....---------------

Room request USGF CONGRESS. November 19-20-21, 1976.

c.. c:i:







Single Room [ ] Double Room [ ] I will be rooming with ...............·-····················-································· Departure Date ........................................... Arrival Date ····························- ·· Send to: RESERVATIONS FAIRMONT HOTEL DALLAS, TEXAS



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U.S.G.F. POSTER - "SPECIAL" The most beautiful gymnastics poster ever made avilable in the USA. Large, full-color photo of NADIA COMANECI (Romania) taken at the Olympic Games in Montreal and used as a cover for NEWSWEEK magazine. The USG F is pleased to have th is finest ever poster for our membership. It is a large ... 22 x 33 inch poster, and is beautifully printed on excellent stock. Write now and order for your coming season. Price List:

1 to 5 posters 5 to 10 posters 10 or more

Order from:

USG F POSTERS P.O. Box 12713 Tucson, AZ 85711

$2.00 each. 1.50 each. 1.00 each.

Send check or money order, with order.





i All white T-shirts in two patterns as shown. 50% polyester and 50°/o cot· ton. Less than 2 % shrinkage. American made. Handsome sport shirt for adults and children. ADULTS: Small, Medium, Large, x~ Large CHILDREN'S: 2-4;68;10-12;14-16; PRICE: ADULTS $4.50 CHILDREN'S $3.50 PATTERNS: Games of the Olympiad Montreal 1976.






i~ MONTREAL 1976



,ti\wh'ii>1l ..





P.O. BOX 155,


Please send T-shirts in follow ing sizes and patterns. Enclose money order or check. No C.0. D.'s. ADD .75C For Sh1pp1ng













UNITED ST A TES GYMNASTIC FEDERATION 4545 East 5th Street, Tucson, Arizona 85711 USA



Non-Profit Organization U.S. POSTAGE PAID

PERMIT Nr. 729

Tucson, Arizona

Profile for USA Gymnastics

USGF News - September/October 1976  

USGF News - September/October 1976