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NOTES FROM THE EDITOR: PROMISES, PROMISES: With the January MGwe started our new program of Change, Catch-up and Communicate. As promised we made format changes, are catching up and making waves in our communication . We have included sequence photos as promised but have not had the space (or photos on hand) for the more extensive photo coverage we had hoped for in the MG. But will have before the year is out.




REBUTTAL: Since we included a Challenge to the Coaches in the February MG editorial, we would be amiss if we did not include the following comments by HS Coach Robert Manning . ••• YES, COACHES DO GIVE A DAMN! One only has to think of the coach's incentive for his team to do an excellent job in the upcoming championship meets and come to the conclusion that this is a relatively poor time to chew out coaches for their lack of enthusiasm for not writing an article on improving gymnastics, and therefore I feel it is unrealistic to make an accusation such as : "Do coaches really give a damn?" The coaches I would like to hear from have their hands full, winding up their season, working on compulsories and optionals to ready their teams, not to mention normal educational responsibilities. "Where have all the coaches gone. . . ?" To coaching their tearr'ns where they should be this time of year. Robert Manning Head Gymnastic Coach lawrence High School, Kansas










APRIL 1971






VIEWPOINTS , Dick Criley
















J.C. BLUES, Dr. Ken Veselak









COVER: Featured on the April MG is co-captain Rick McCurdy, three times Big Ten AA champion. (He is only the second man to do this.) Rick's University of Michigan team will be host to this year's NCAA championships. Photo by W. E. Berg.

NEXT MG. Photo, action and reporting from the 1971 NCAA CHAMPIONSHIPS at the University of Michigan. COMING: The annual High School Report will be coming up soon. Make sure your State HS Championship results, action' photo of the AA winner and event winning routines are sent to the MG as soon as possible after the conclusion of the competition . And don't forget our "MISS HS GYMNAST" of the year award (see Sept. 1970 MG). Your entry must be a competing girl gymnast of high school age and will be judged by her competitive ranking , academic achievement and physical charm. This year, troph ies will be awarded for first, second and third place.

PUBLISHER-EDITOR: Glenn Sundby ASSOCIATE EDITORS, STAFF: Kenneth Sakoda, Dick Criley ASSOCIATE EDITORS, FEATURE: A Bruce Frederick, Education; Dr. James S. Bosco, Research; Jerry Wright, Competition; Frank Bare, USGF; John Nooney, Canada; Andrzej Gonera , European; Gerald George, Dan Millman, Don Tonry, AA Instructional; Bill Roetzheim, Instructional. THE MODE RN GYM NAST maga z ine is pu bl ished by Sund by Pub licat ions, 4 10 Broad wa y, Santa MOr."l ico , Cali fornia 9040 1. Second Class Posta ge pa id at San to Mo ni ca, Cali ( Pu b lished mont hly except bi-monthly J un e , J uly, Augus t and Septembe r. Price $6.00 pe r yea r, 60e a sing le copy. Subsc ri ption co rlle spond e nce, The MODER N GYM NAST , P.O . Box 6 11 , Sa nta Mon ica, Cali fo rni a 90406 . Copy right 1971 © all rights reserved by SUNDBY PU BLI CATI ONS , 4'10 Broadway, San ta Monica . Ca lif . All photos and manuscripts subm it ted become the p roperty of The MO DE RN GYM NAST unless a retu rn re que st and suffi cie nt pos ta ge ore included.


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2) The Men's competition: This competition was the highlight of the day. 41 gymnasts represent ing 10 different teams were responsible for an exce llent show! Th e most impress ive routines were shown by topscorer Satowaki Myake (a Japanese stud ent fro m Koln), Buddy Pillich (New Zealand), Ole Bened iktson and Kurt Trangback (Denmark), Stan Wild (Great Britain) and Hans Gunneman (HoIland). After this group of Âą10 gymnasts, a second group of about 20 gymnasts

International University Gymcompetition.

You Think You Have Problems!

Report by Jan Borms, University of Brussels

Ithaca College dropped their sixth straight, bowing to West Chester 113-82 .. . It has been an unbelievable hard luck sea son for coach Gordon Eggleston ... Ithaca College lost its best all around man Craig Kolloff for the year, in the opening meet, with a wrist injury . . . The top rings man Norm Sosin is still out with injuries . . . Two veterans, who were counted on, neve r came out and th en last week, junior Lee Multari, the top scorer this year and the team 's number one all around, floor ex, side horse and rings performer did not compete becaus e of tendonitis in his arm.

TUVEAC, Gymnastics Club of the Catholi c Academy of Physical Education Tilburg (Hol land), organised magnificently for the first time an international University gymcompetition. Due to the world champion ships in Ljubljana, quite a few gymnasts, although previously. announced in the program, did not show up during the meet. However 6 countries were presented by: The Danish State University of Physical Education Cope nhagen; Loughborough College of Physical Education and St. John's College York from England ; Germany with Munster Institute fur Leibesubugen , Sportwissenschaft Institut Giessen, Ruhr Universitat Bochum, Freie Universitat Berlin; Deutsche Sporthochschule Kohn; Institut fur Leibesubungen Hamburg; Austria with the Universitat Turninstitut Innsbruck; Belgium with the "Free University Brussels" and the Netherlands with the Akademy of Phys. Ed. Den Haag and the Catho lic Academy of Phys. Ed. Tilburg. Two basic considerations are at the origin of this excellent idea. First of all the organisers wanted to create a regular exchange of students, particularly phys. ed. students, through sports. In the second place they wanted to give an impetus to gymnastics in student life by means of gymnastics-competition. In order to realize those two ideas, the organisers from Holland had left space for a social program. Students could exchange ideas and gather information about the actual situation' in their respective countries and institutes. The main interest of course was focused on the competition, which was taken very seriously by all men and women. 1) The Women's competition. This competition took p lace in the morning. The sportshall was exce ll ently equipped by the well known Dutch dealer " Janssen en Fritze n". 21 ladies took part in the competition. The level of this match was somewhat low, although the crowd enjoyed the good performances of some gymnasts and particula rly Margreta Stegeman (she placed 40th in Ljubljana), coached by Janus Cajus (from Roumania) . Each team represented 4 gynasts; th e three best scores were taken in consideration. Hamburg took the team honours before the Academy of Tilburg and the University of Inn sb ruck .


2) Buddy Pillich (S porthochschule Koln) . 54.25 3) Ole Benediktson (Da nish State Inst.) .......... 53.25 4) Stan Wild (St. Johns College York) . 53.15 5) Hans Gunneman (Tilburg) .. 51.70 B) Team 1) Deutsche Sporthochschule Koln . 161.55 2) Danish State Institute of Phy. Ed. . .. 153.00 3) Munster Universitat 152.15

Century School of Gymnastics

Satowaki Miake, first AA showed good but not top performances_ The next competition will probably be organised by the Univers ity of Brussels in 1972, although Hamburg as well as Loughborough showed an eager enthusiasm for the organisation. It will be doubtful whet her th is tournament will be called "Wes tEuropean student championships", but who knows? RESULTS 1) WOMEN A)

The Century School of Gymnastics, a non-profit organization, has a summer program consisting of two, 5-week ses sions. The major objectives for the summer program are: 1. Make the general public in Rockland County more aware of the growing interest in gym nastics. 2. To help pay for equipment that can be used for fall and winter gymnastics programs at six elementary schools, two Sr. Highs, and two Jr. Highs. 3. To increase the skill abi li ty level of the present boy and girl gymnasts to compare with th e general regional ability levels (Northern New Jersey and Westchester County). 4. Secure new rec ruits to the sport of gymnastics on all age levels, 6-18 years of age.


1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Margreta Stegeman (Bochum) .. 36.40 p. Marian Cafferata (Den Haag) .. 34.80 p. Marian Bengen (Den Haag) .. . . 34.60 p. Eva Grabbe (Hamburg). 31.60 p. Ute Ahrend (Hamburg) . . . 30.40 p. B) Team 1) In stitut fur Leibesubungen Hamburg .. 92.75 2) Kath. Akademie Lich. Opv. . . 78.60 Tilburg 3) L'niversiteit Innsbruck ... 65.85 2) MEN

A) Individual 1) Satowaki Miake (Sporthochschu le Koln)

.. 56.20

The school capitalized on utilizing small group instruction eight to a group maximum, and is very successful in producing rapid results.

,The Gymnastic Web A, B, Frederick, Education Edito r for the M.G., is involved w ith a research project, which requires feedback from a relatively large number of experienced gymnastic teachers and coac hes, The research involves the use of a new, graph ic representation for movements and will require interested correspondents to read a background paper en titl ed The Gymnastic Web. A Web data sheet is presented here without co mment. Mr. Frederick's immediate req uirement

i s the gathering of data on five gymnastic m ovements. If you are interested in assisting, he will m ail you a copy of the paper and a suppl y of Web Data Sheets. All participants wi ll receive a set of the results of the stud y inc ludi ng five comp il ation webs with co mm ents on future applications. MOVEMENT ANALYSIS WEB For more information , tho se interested in coope ratin g in the study may write to: A , B. Frede ri ck, Dept. of HPER, Wisconsin State Uni ve rsity, Superior, WI 54880



Component Values A.B.F. P.B. s' -N 7 (x' ) M 5-5-5-5 112 Effort 3,00 5,00 4.43 force 4.00 5.00 4.64 Balance 3.00 3.50 4.50 Flexibility 4.50 4.00 5,07 5,29 Swing 5,00 22,50 19,50 4.50 23.93 Total T /5 3,90 4.786 Name of Movement EN DO'S BACK HANDSPRING (During Free Ex performance, 1960 Olympic Games-Tokyo) Data Gath ered 7/28/70 in Analysis of Gymnastics SS II University of Minnesota

VIEWpoints by Dick Criley Like many other Americans, I had the ' pleasure a few weekends ago of watching the ABC-TV Wide World of Sports telecast of two gymnastics meets between Russian and United States gymnasts, The performances were a treat to watch, and one could only wish that both the men 's and women's meets had been broadcast in their entirety. Congratulations are in order to the U.S,G, F, and Penn State for pulling off the tricky bit of d iplomatic footwork which preceded the Russian m eets. One of th e things that impressed m e was the re lative youth of the Soviet team , Rem embering the 1961 meet between t he Soviets and a U .S. team (a lso hosted by Penn State), it seems to me that th e average age of th e Russian team has dropped . (On th e 1960 men's team were Shakhlin, 28; Titiov, 25; Azaryan, 31; Portnoi, 28; Kerd emilidi , 22; and Miligulo, 24; 'for an average age of 26.3.) There is a little book printed around 1960 with the title "Soviet Gymnasts". It was written by Soviet Merited Master of Sport, V, Belyakov, to recount nearly a quarter century of the building of gymnastics in the USSR. The historical aspects



are interesti ng, viz.: Larissa Latynina who was described as an artist who had not learned to organize hers elf. Although great, she would lose her composure and become exc ited, She was already a champion before she learned control and how to compete und er pressure. Albert Azaryan, a form er blacksmith who became an outstanding rings performer. He had but 4 years training in gymnastics prior to winning the rings title in the 13th World Games. He went on to win the rings titl e again in both th e Melbourn e and Rome Olympics.

Albert Azaryan, Valery Kerdemlidi , Boris Shakhlin and Yuri Titov,

Boris Shaklin, a nat ive of Siberia who began at' the age of 10 as an av id participant in many sports, f in all y se ttlin g upon gym nastics and earning a Nat io nal A II Aro und Champ ionsh ip by th e age of 22. The book is fi ll ed wit h anecdotes abo ut great Russian gymnasts, but also reco unts the deve lopme nt of the Soviet gymnastics philosoph y. Th e Spa rtak iad is the Russian equivalent of a nat io nal age-g roup program and earni ng an award here ass ures the young ath lete of g reater atte nti o n by national coaches. From th e very beginning of their training the yo un g Russian gy mn asts are taught to be consc ien ti o us, persevering, and industrious. Much emphas is is placed on lea rnin g the bas ics, not o nl y wit h mechanical co rrectness but also with precision, ease, freedom and grace. Tea m co nsciousness is stressed: help o ne anoth er and set hi gh standards for the others, Continuity in training and persistence in working o n weak events are cited as keys to success. Soviet gymn asts are not built overn ight or in short term training. Th e atte nti o n g iven the gym nasts ' training has man y facets. Eve n for men, music is being used w ith floor exe rcise to give each combination an inner content and accentuate th e grace and rhythm of the movements. Creativity and the development of new m oves or co mbin atio ns of moves is enco uraged , Not bn ly aesthe trcs. but also proper medical aspects are given due we ight in the training program as the Soviet athletes obse rve th e rule that yo u must rest thoroughly after the tension of a major contest. Such has been th e direction of Soviet interest in true physical aspects that well-defined training timetables are deve loped for each gym nast and his forth-coming co ntests . Th e exercises of other nati o ns were studi ed to provide a basis for improvement at hom e. In 1950, for instance, th e Russians learned a grea t deal from a series of exhibition m eets in Sweden and Norway. " In m y opinion, " wrote Belyakov, "the only drawback in th e free exercises of the Swedes was the lack of a logical co nnection betwee n the djfferent elem ents. Because of that th eir combinations fa il ed to give th e impression of being integral. Th ey seem to be torn up into sepa rate pieces. " Writing of the Hun ga ri an parallel bar performances of th e sa m e era , " Lately, it had become the thing to give preference to fast swings, but in my op inion power elem ents should not be completely . dropped from the exercises on parallel bars as that impove rishes them, Any heap ing up of intricate elements sho uld, of course, be avo ided . But if strength and swing elem en ts are properly combined, the exercises will be sufficiently fast, graceful, and intr icate." As a res ult, in the 15th Olympiad, " But the principle und er which we formed our co mbination s was quite different. We included more power elements into them than did our opponents. This gave the exercises something of a static cha r-acter, broke the rh yt hm and detracted from the v isual impress ion made by the exe rci ses,"


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One other paragraph arrested my attention, this one having to do again with appearances . " The external appearance of a gymnast plays an important role. The color and cut of his costume can enhance the impression made by the exercises and emphasizes the beauty of movements, or, conversely, they can distort them and make them ugly." A rich history of gymnastics endeavor in the Soviet Union coupled with experienced coaches and good facilities has allowed the Russians to build many fine gymnasts. The same road has been taken by the japanese who have modified it in their own design. The Russians, however, are closer to the Europeans and Americans in body type and culture and it is to our advantage to learn from them some lessons for our future rather than from the japanese.

listenings to comments during exercises of Nakayama and Kenmotsu wh ich unduly criticized outstand i ng performances. In this case, perhaps, there may have been some envy or jealousy, but again, it was an effort not to recogni ze tr·ue geni us . As I have been assisting some judging classes, I can't help but wonder if we are producing subtracting machines as everyone totes up his 0.1-0.2-0.3 deductions without really having an awareness of the performance he has just witnessed . Our Nationally-rated judges have to work as hard to stay in top form as do the gymnasts, but the gymnast gets a break after the competition . The judge must sit down to lea rn the newest strictures and how to apply them. The gymnast's new challenge, then , is at least exciting-unless he stops to consider that the judges are again training to beat him down again.

Incidentally, should any of our reade rs feel inclined to compliment ABC's Wide World of Sports and to urge greater gymnastic coverage - they may be written to at 1330 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York 10019.

I got a bit of flak from some gymnastic acquaintances following the appearance of my column defending the right of coaches to set the level of discipline when it comes to the mustache, beard , and long hair bit during their team ' s competition season . I certainly look forward to the NCAA's to see what is really " with it" this year.


Viewpoints Part II by Dick Criley

"Mayb~, in our relentless pursuit of standardization, codification, detailed breakdown and exposition as personified in our Code of Points, we will breed a race of judges so technically competent that they will be unable to recognize an exercise of true genius when executed before them." George Kunzle. I received the December 1970 issue of the Modern Gymnast some weeks ahead of our readers and could hardly contain myself when I read the above sentence in, "A judge's Eye View of Ljubljana." I had been thinking about the very same point as a result of some discussion I had with Bruce Davis (Coach, Miami-Dade jr. College) this past fall. Bruce remarked that he had witnessed one of Toby Towson ' s (NCAA FX Champ 1968, 1969) floor exercise routines which apparently came on so strong that the officials could do little but pick on trivial things like a twitch of a toe in a handstand or a slight foot movement to finally arrive at a score in the low 9's . Superior judge Tom Maloney later commented that th e exercise was too good for such a score and deserved a 9.6 or 9.7. The trouble was that Toby was too perfect and where his minor faults would have been overlooked in a lesser gymnast, these were the only things the judges could see in his exe rcise. The rules are becoming so structured that the inclusion of good moves such as handspring, front; astraddle toe touch , front; and a dismount with a backfront receives the disapproval of the judges because of repetition! It seems to be the purpose of the official to prevent the gym nast from attaining a 10.0. Bruce isn ' t the only one whom I heard make such a criticism . Upon his return from japan, Makoto Sakamoto told of



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By far the largest body of coaches and competitors in the sport of gymnastics lies at the high school level . As coaches. and leaders of our sport it is our obligation to promote and direct gymnastics in the best interests of all . Up to date . however. little has been done effectively to organize high school gymnastics on a national scale and the potential good that would result from such an association has gone untapped. The National High School Gymnastic Coaches Asso ; iation (NHSGCA) now exists as a means to organize and make effective the r::tren~ th and influence that is inherent in the high school gymnastic coaches as a body.

Bill Ballester, President NHSGCA

The tasks that lie ahead for the NHSGCA are numerous and monumnental. but the good that can be accomplished for gymnastics through the association are deserving and long overdue.

Please find my $10 .00 annual membership dues to the National High School Gymnastic Coaches Association enclosed and include my name and high school on the NHSGCA roster with all the privileges granted thereof.

COLORADO by Chuck Ehrlich In Colorado the gymnastic season began on February 1, 1971, but actual competition cannot commence until March 1, 1971. The season ends with our state meet on May 14 and May 15. This year due to the Colorado High School Activities Association, gymnastics will be suffering a slight drawback because of new rules and regulations regarding limited season, etc., but the Colorado Gymnastics Association will become involved sufficiently in order to have these new rules modified. From all indications in talking to other coaches th is year shou Id be one of the best years for Colorado gymnastics with number increasing in student participation and in the quality presented . It seems from past experience that each year of competition the sport continues to grow in Colorado which shows a definite need for more coaches in order to continue and increase the quality of the sport. Since competition begins in March , this writer will have more to report of substance. See you next month from your Rocky Mountain reporter.


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Olympia Press These series of short OLYMPIC NOTES appearing in the Modern Gymnast are abstracted from a monthly news release from the press service of the Olympic Organizing Committee. It appears in 8 languages, English, French, Italian , Portuguese, Russian, Japanese, and German. Most of these notes have been adapted from longer releases by MG Associate Editor, Dick Criley. (Hello, out there in Hawaii!)

from the Olympia Press: 2-4,63 For the first time, all 21 recognized Olympic sports (only 19 were displayed in Tokyo) are on the program : light athletics, football, hockey, rowing, canoeing, shooting, equestrian sports, cycling, modern pentathlon, swimming, gymnastics, boxing, judo, basketball , volleyball, handball, fencing and archery, which returns after a 52year absence. The site of the sailing events is Kiel, the capital of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. The competitions will last 16 days from August 26, 1972, to September 10. This is a day longer than prescribed by the IOC Statutes, but it has been approved by the IOC. About 12,000 men and women competitors are expected, together with team personnel, about 2,000 judges, 4,200 representatives of the press, radio and television from all over the world, while the influx of visitors is estimated at 2 million . The Organizing Committee has been hard at work providing the best possible conditions for the competitors, visitors and press. In the Olympic village, not more than 2 competitors will have to share a room , there being almost 3,000 flats with sleeping accommodations for 11,600. The women's village has 1,728 flats with accommodations for 1,800. All flats will be equipped with baths and showers, and the men 's village will also have nine saunas with a cold water pool. There will also be a swimming pool for recreation purposes. The trainers and masseurs will have over 500 fully-equipped booths to work in . The Committee has already determined the menus at the catering center which will be open from 6 a.m. until midnight. For instance, it has been announced that on the opening day, competitors taking lunch will have the choice of cream of tomato soup garnished with toast cubes or consomme celestine. A recreation center will be provided with International Club, a dance floor, and a theater with both stage and film facilities. Journalists will be accommodated in a new housing estate and each will have his own, furnished room. The Press Center is


less than a mile from the main Olympic - be underground. The six-coach trains will Stadium and all pressmen will find the lat- have a passenger capacity of 870, which, if est in facilities for producing and transmit- trains leave at automatically controlled inting articles and pictures. For instance, tervals of 90 seconds and travel at between 500 to 600 microphone booths will serve 21 and 48 mph, is equivalent to a transport about 70 foreign television and 120 radio capacity of approximately 40,000 passenstations. Plans have been laid for the 70 gers per hour in each direction. sound studios and eight TV studios Visitors attending the Olympic events at equipped with color which will have be- the Oberwiesenfeld will thus reach the tween 40 and 60 monitors. A color procunderground station Olympiastadion in 11 essing plant will be located 'on the premminutes by direct service from the Marienises to process up to 4,000 feet of color platz in the city center, while the journey film an hour. To cope with the great profrom the Karlsplatz or the Hauptbahnhof fusion of data, a medium-sized computer to the same destination will take 14 and is being installed and all sporting stadia 15 minutes respectively. Passengers arrivwill be connected to it. Thus all necessary ing from Switzerland, France, Belgium, information will be at hand along with Holland, England and Scandinavia will find previously recorded personal and Olympic the Haupbahnhof connection most condata. venient while those from Austria and Italy Three separate restaurants will cater to will prefer a connection from the Ostbahnthe journalists' exacting palates. In one, hof to the Olympic stadium. the rushed pressmen can consume a standDuring the Games the circular service up snack in 10 minutes (wanta bet that from the city center to the Olympic someone will set a new Olympic record?) , grounds will be in operation from 8:30 or spend a half hour over a self-service a.m. to 9 p.m . The trains will run at intermeal from a cafeteria, or dine at leisure vals of six minutes in each direction so that in a comfortable restaurant with waiter there will be 20 departures per hour or a connection to th e city center every three service. Nor will the all-night type of journalist be denied as one of the three resminutes. To further minimi ze delay, the Olympiataurants will always be open all night. feld railway station (just a few minutes walk, about one kilometer) will have two from the Olympia Press: 36-37, 71-73, 174 platforms 450 yards in length , each serving In recent years Munich has been growtwo tracks. This means that eight trains can ing out of proportion to any other German be held in readiness for the return traffic town. The geographically favorable locaafter th e close of meets. 路 Th e sidings will tion of the town as the economic center accommodate six more trains which can be of southern Germany has complicated trafshunted into the station ready to pick up fic conditions. With 320,000 vehicles licensed in Munich (one car for every four passengers. Thus, 14 trains will be availinhabitants), the public transportation sysable at rush periods with a minimum of delay and another 31 can be available on tem is becoming increasingly hampered and inadequate. short notice. Munich w ill also provide parking for In 1965, with the prospect of hosting the Olympic Games already in mind, the City motorists at roadway ex its on the outskirts started construction of a modern highof town. These wi II be connected to the capacity transport system . Nearly half of stadia by bus and other public transport the projected 55 miles of transit lin es will systems.





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"Ha nd BI isters A Potential Threat to the Modern Gymnast"

Obtained MS from Indiana 1966. Mickey Cobb served as student trainer in high school, college and graduate school and became head trainer for one year at University High School, Bioomington, Indiana in 1965. He then served as head trainer at DePauw Vniversity, Greencastle, Indiana, before 90;n"s ~to his alma mater, Georgia Southern College in 1967. He is a member of the National Athletic Trainers Association; Member of American Association of Health Physical Education and Recreation; the Phi Epsilon Kappa Fraternity; active member and faculty advisor to the fellowship of Christian Athletes; instructor of Health and P.E. at Georgia Southern College.

I. INTRODUCTION II. HAND BLISTERS A. Cause B. Control C. Prevention III. INFECTED HAND BLISTERS A. Recog nition of B. What to Do IV: CONCLUSION In a previous writing in the Modern Gymnast, I made a statement, which I will somewhat paraph ras e, about th e modern gymnast must work year-round to achieve championship calibre _ This I feel quite sure will be supported unanimously by those athletes and their coaches who have experienced be ing in the championship bracket. During his long work-out road to being a champion, the gymnast will encounter a host of "s ma ll, no account injuries." There will indeed be times when the gymnast will have to "s hrug-off" some of the minor physical problems and still compete. Without. question, one of the most important parts of the gymnasts anatomy which is in constant contact with apparatus and the floor is his hands. Therefore, it is valuable to the athlete and his coach or trainer to be aware of how to deal with some of these hand problems _ Among the first of the hand problem of t}le gymnast is that of blisters. Technically, blisters will occur


on the hands because of increased friction to the skin surface . The friction causes the skin layers to rub together, thereby increasing the amount of heat to the area. The body's response to the increased heat as a primary result of friction is relatively simple : a message is sent to the brain via the nervous system informing the brain of temperature change. The brain makes its interpretation of the problem, informs the proper "authority" to remedy the situation; in this. case, the lymphatic system . Because the lymphatic system is found throughout the body, the re lease of a clear, watery materia-I called Iy~ph fluid is easily emitted from a nearby . lymph node (reservoir) in the hand area. The lymph fluid 's task is to " cool" the heated skin tissue and to reduce skin tissue friction. As a direct result of the lymph fluid the skin layers are separated . The blister, then is formed, as may be seen by the clear fluid under the raised skin. In practice or formal competition the blisters will break; the broke n skin will soon be torn off; and what you have then is un exposed skin. Eventually, a callousity

will appear. However, on occasion infection invades the hand area and soon iritercepts the gymnast's workout schedule. To prevent the possibility of infection is the intelligent thing to do. Treating the newly exposed skin like .an opened wound is th e best precaution. Any antiseptic will serve as both an antiseptic and protector of th e skin _ In about two days, new skin growth will be present. Now is the time to apply any skin toughness you may wish to use. During this early blister stage, most gymnasts will know how he wants his hands covered with tape. We use no standard . procedure. We hold to the idea of adjusting to the athlete _ And, of course, this would depend on event preparation. After callouses have fo rmed , callous-covered bl isters may be prevented by the occasional "shavi ng" or "sanding" the callous ; or, by using a liquid hand lotion after practice. If a blister does occur under a callous it should be drained . Drainage will allow for rapid healing. To achieve proper blister drainage, use a scalpel and do the following: 1. Place the blade point on top of the callous. 2. Rotate the scalpel , controlling it from the handle. 3. When lymph fluid appears the blister has been burst. 4. Catch with a gauze square. 5. Cleanse. 6. Apply a liquid antiseptic. 7_ Cover with appropriate bandage technique . Infected blisters to any athlete poses a genuine threat to that individual's performance. On e need not be a physician to recognize infected blisters. If the drainage material is " pus"; or if the hand is keenly sensitive to touch when attempting to drain blister fluid , infection may be present. At this point of injury, a physician should deal with the problem _ It is difficult for man y coaches to actept the idea that blisters may present such a problem to any memb e r of his team . Howeve r, we expect 100% physically, mentally, and emotionally from our athletes and, if we can control or limit small irritating situations, such as blisters, our efforts to develop the individual into a high level athlete will be more readily achieved.

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Proper Hand Care •In Gymnastics


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'1. D o not be afrai d t o was h yo ur hand s after a wo rko ut sessio n. Soaking yo ur hands in hot wate r for abo ut 10 m inutes after wo rki ng o ut wi ll help d raw th e hea t out of yo ur hands . A hand lo ti on or crea m shoul d be app li ed after th is to keep the ski n soft. Do not use anythi ng with an alco ho l base. 2. Yo u sho uld keep you r hand s soft and p revent the bu il d up of heavy call o uses. Kee p call o uses sa nd ed down by usi ng em ery pape r, a pumi ce sto ne o r razo r b lad e. A t h ick ca ll o us buil d up ca n lea d to a ve ry d ee p ri p. 3. Wh en f irst beg inning to workout, q uit before yo ur ha nd s fe el as thoug h th ey wi ll ri p. Wo rkou t s can often be extend ed fo r a few min utes by p utt in g th e hands in co ld water to coo l t hem off a li tt le. 4. W h n trea tin g a ri p, cut away to rn sk in be ing carefu l to leave good ski n intac t. Don ' t try to .take to rn sk in off wi th yo ur f inge rs o r by b it ing at it; t hi s often leaves a ro ugh ed ge th at p ro lo ngs th e healin g p rocess and leads





t o f urther ri ps . Use an ant ise pti c o n a ri p, after clea nin g it th oro ughl y, if it is b lee d ing. After ini tiall y treat ing the rip, use a sk in soften er like Chap -H and s o r a First A id cream to keep th e raw skin from dryi ng and crack in g. Vase lin e is not as good for this pu rpose as is a c rea m . A wate r abso rb in g crea m see m s to be mo re eff icie nt. Keep th e ri p mo ist and befo re go in g to bed add a li tt le m ore f irst aid cream and keep o pened t o t he ai r. If a r ip is t rea ted prope rl y th e gymnast ca n usuall y worko ut th e next day q uite successfu ll y. Use of a sm all steri le pad held aga ins t t he hand by so m e tape an d th en cove red by hand g rips w ill aid t he gymn as t. Many gymnas ts are usi ng a sm all , thi n p iece of sty rofoam cut to f it th e hand and p lace t his between th e rip and t he gri p ; it seem s to wo rk ve ry we ll. Proper hand ca re is a n ite ly process; take ca re of yo ur hand s after each w o rko ut. Th e lo nge r yo u de lay soakin g you r hands, etc., th e g reater th e cha nce of so re or ri pped hand s during th e nex t wor ko ut. Wea rin g hand grip s wi ll help p reve nt hand p ro bl em s, espec ial ly if yo u lea rn t o w ear th em j ust above t he fi rst knu ck le and thu s sw ing f ree of fri ction agai nst th e palm o f th e hand . If a rip d ries and c racks, was h it t ho ro ughly and t reat co ntinuall y w ith a skin softehe r as in #5 above. Bl oo d bl isters sho ul d be opened : inse rt a sterili zed need le alo ng th e side of th e bli ster (two o r three inse rts m ay be needed). Th e blo od and fluid sho uld be sq ueezed o ut. Leave th e sk in on, t hen trea t w ith a sk in softener. The ski n cove rin g acts as a pro tect ive cove ri ng fo r the rip und erneath. Use a lot of chalk during wo rko uts. Clean yo ur hand s tho ro ughl y im medi ate ly afte r each wor ko ut. Never p ut the ad hes ive part of tape ove r a rip or tender pa rt of th e hand s.

REMEMB ER: As a gymn as t yo ur hand s are yo ur m os t va luabl e asset; ca re for th em freq uentl y and pro perl y.

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A Survey Dealing With The Selection of a National Coach For Various International Tearns

412 Broadway Santa Monica, Ca. 90406

BOB HENNECKE Coach of Gymnastics Georgia Southwestern College

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DON TONRY Coach of Gymnastics Yale University The following coaches took part in the survey: 1. Larry Banner, 2. Ken Bartlett, 3. George Bauer, 4. Pat Bird , 5. Bill Coco, 6. Roger Counsil, 7. Lee Cunningham, 8. Doug DeWhitt, 9. Mike Flansaas, 10. Hal Frey, 11. Ed Gagnier, 12. Bill Holmes, 13 . Jim Howard , 14. Eric Hughs, 15. Lloyd Huvel, 16. Bruno Klause, 17. Eric Kjeldson, 18. Arno Lascari , 19. Newt Loken, 20. Bill Mead, 21 . Dan Millman , 22 . Fred Orlofsky, 23. Fred Roethlisberger, 24. Bill Rotzheim , 25 . Art Shurlock, 26. Bill Simms, 27. George Szypula, 28 . Don Tonry, 29. Armando Vega , 30. Bill Vincent, 31 . Jerry Wright. The following competitors took part in the survey: 1. Kanati Allen , 2. Gary Anderson, 3. Ron Baretta, 4. Jim Betters, 5. Bob Dickson , 6. Dave Repp, 7. Brent Simmons.

The Selection of a National Coach In view of several articles in The Modern Gymnast about the selection of a national coach , I surveyed forty-two coaches (and received thirty-one replies) as to the possibility and content of a National Coaches Test. (This attests to the lethargic nature of many coaches who are apparently not concerned about participating in a study [survey] that is clearly intended to improve our national gymnastics program .-D.T. ). Such a test could be used as part of the " total criteria " in the selection of national coaches.

In regard to the feasibility of such a test, those coaches su rveyed were asked to respond to the question, " Do you feel that a test can be devised that would provide a fair indication of a coaches ' technical knowledge ?" Yes -50 % Yes (strong reservations) - 17 % No -10 % Did not answer - 23% (Most coaches seem to agree, either with reservation or strongly, that their technical knowledge could be tested. I assume that those who did not agree feel some deep, innate, untestable quality exists which could not be perceived under current known testing procedures-D.T.). The major obstacle in creating a National Coaches Test would be establishing a set of standardized norms. Throughout the survey, coaches questioned how such an item would be standardized , who would establish norms, who is qualified to score a test of this type, etc. Clearly, there would be a magnitude of organizational and administrative problems in attempting to "set up" a National Coaches Test. My opinion after this investigation is that, although attempting to devise a National Test could be a fruitful endeavor (in terms of knowledge gained), I doubt that a test could be written which would be precise enough to yield the results we would truly want. (I disagree with Bob in that I feel that the results of this survey show that technical knowledge of our sport seems to be of prime importance to most coaches and gymnasts surveyed. They indicate that knowledge of the rules [judging} and technical knowledge are of supreme importance. Most held that personality (impossible to test), organizational ability (very difficult to test) and meet records (92% considered this not valid) were of lesser importance. Most coaches and gymnasts agreed that technical knowledge could be tested, and that a fair test could be devised-D.T.). The next section of the survey dealt with the type of categories to be included in the test and the amount of emphasis each category would receive. Since the type of information to be included on a Nati onal Co aches Test w ould refle ct th e kind of individual needed to fill a national coaching position, I will attempt to generalize (from the survey results) as to what knowledges were felt to be most important in selecting a coach for a national team . 1. Knowledge of Compulsories. Since this has been our great weakness in the past, there was considerable concern about selecting a coach with an abundant knowledge about compulsories. As one coach stated, "In past international competition we were finished after compulsories. The optionals were simply a formality we went through ." Another coach said, "If a national coach doesn't have this knowledge, what is he doing as national coach-we have plenty of administrators already." (It should be noted here that in the past we have had coaches of national teams who knew far less about the technical aspects of execution than any of the competitors on their team-D .T.).

2. Technical KnOWledge.

3. Work-out Organization. 4. Ability to describe almost all of the skills that can be performed from various positions. (Coaches can memorize compulsory routines and judges can memorize the code of points do these individuals necessarily have the ability to carefully scrutinize and analyze all phases of gymnastic work?-D.T.) S. Knowledge of rules and etiquette of international competition. 6. Judging knowledge. (For those coaches who would like to decide on who should compete for the team that they are coaching [seven gymnasts within a couple of tenths or a point away from each other}, I hope they would base their decisions on a complete knowledge of the rules of competition, and not just on a "this man looks better" system. It should also be noted that coaches train a gymnast to rise to the occasion, and that many gymnasts [indi viduals} have a personal habit of winning when it counts-D.T.). 7. Knowledge of lead-up skills and fundamentals. Coaches wQo commented on this question felt that our better coaches would have this knowledge , and there would be little need to include it on a test. The coaches were also asked to estimate the percentage of importance they would give to each of the following criteria in selecting a national coach : Average % Technical knowledge 41 % Personality 27% Organizational ability 24% Meet records 8% The same survey was also sent to thirtyfour top-ranking gymnasts to allow a comparison of answers and observe any differences in priorities and opinions. However, the returns were very low (only seven gymnasts returned the questionnaire). Nevertheless, I shall attempt to make some generalizations on the basis of this small sample. Fi rst, there appeared to be no d isagreement with the coaches on the fi rst and second sections of the survey (as summarized above) . But, on the last section, dealing w ith the pro blem s of t ra ining rules, practice rules, and the replacement of a team member by an alternate, some differences appear. In covering this section of the survey, I shall include the opinions of both coaches and gymnasts who were surveyed. The following condition was felt by the majority of coaches and gymnasts to be sufficient reason to allow an alternate to replace another team member : 1. Injury or sickness prior to contest. The following conditions were felt by the majority to not warrant a change in positions (special ci rcumstances cou Id mean a special decision): 1. If another team member is difficult to coach. 2. If another team member has shown little improvement. 3. If another team member does not get along well. 4. If another team member has what the


considers to be poor style . coaches and gymnasts agree that the current coach of an Olympic or national team should not change team personnel positions on the basis of an individual ' s training pattern as it relates to his actual place on the team. after the final triels-D .T.) . Both a majority of the coaches and gymnasts agreed that: 1. The final training squad should train with the possibility of being replaced by an alternate. (I assume that in view of earlier responses to th e questionnaire that an alternate would replace a regular in case of injlJry or sickness -D.T.). 2. The judges alone should be responsible for selection of team members. (I again assume that most coaches and gymnasts feel that a team picked as a result of actual meet [Olympic trials, etc.} conditions, by qualified judges, is the most fair and accurate consideration-D.T.). 3. The National Judges Association should select all judges for final trials . (The best judges should judge the final trials for all teams-D.T.) 4. During practice each member of the team should be handled individually. (Gymnasts feel that gymnastic team members should be allowed personal training habits in order to improve their individual manner of performance-D.T.). There was a difference of opinion in regard to training rules. The seven gymnasts felt that they should be handled as individuals, while the coaches generally thought that training rules should apply to everyone. In regard to settling disagreements between coaches and athletes, the coaches and gymnasts were divided (on close to a 50-50 basis) between the following methods of handling the situation: 1. The coach and gymnast should discuss the problem and try to arrive at a situation acceptable to both. 2. The coach and gymnast should discuss problems, but, ultimately, the coach should be responsible for the decision. Three coach es and o ne gymn ast preferred the statement-The coach should make suggestions, but then allow the gymnast to follow his own beliefs. I am certain that there are persons who will disagree with my findings and opinions. Certainly, the small sample of gymnasts leaves much to be desired . I hope that my comments will stimulate additional research and editorials in these areas. We (none of us) know enough . (Hopefully all members of the gymnastics community will recognize a need for the most knowledgeable and experienced coaches to guide our future national teams into world competition. This can only be achieved by finding out who these individuals are and affording them the opportunity to pick up where we have left off. If we believe in testing our judges for basic knowledge of gymnastic rules, let's have a coaches' priority I ist, at least partially based on the technical knowledge of our coaches. D.T.) 19 ( Mo~t

JUNIOR COLLEGE GYMNASTICS This article was taken from the first edition of the Junior College Gymnastics Newsletter. This very well put together newsletter is the official bulletin of a new association in the New York area called the Metropolitan Junior College Gymnastics Coaches Association, whose active members include Suffolk County Community College, Nassau County Community College , Queensborough Community College and Farmingdale. Any school is welcome to join the association and receive the newsletter. Make all inquiries to Brian Bozick, Gymnastic Coach, Queensborough Community College, Bayside, New York 11364.

by Dr. Ken Veselak Gymnastics Coach Nassau Community College


Although gymnastics at the junior college level is in its infancy, it is beginning to grow and d eve lop in all parts of the United States. Junior colleges are beginning to include gymnastics as part of their intercollegiate athletics programs. I have served as the men ' s gymnastics coach at Nassau Community College for the past six years. During that time I also served as the women ' s gymnastics coach . Although our competition was primarily against four year colleges, we still managed to finish each season with a fairly respectable record. Coaching junior college gymnastics can be a lot of fun and enjoyment; however, it can also be discouraging. In this article I would like to share with new coaches my experiences in dealing with problems that occur in coaching junior college gymnastics. The problems discussed in this article are not unique to the gym coach, since they face coaches of many other varsity sports. In order to understand the problems that a gymnastics coach must deal with we must take a look at th e type of gymnast that goes to a junior college. From my experience I have found that most good gymnasts prefer to go to a four year college. Th ey wind up in a junior college because they don ' t have the money to go to a four year school or else they lack the academic ability to gain entrance into a senior college . As a result, you will find that the attitude of many of your gymnasts toward attending a junior college is negative. They are here at Nassau Community College but they really wanted to go to Springfield. Th ey look at the junior college as being second-rate and, as a result, they are not really motivated to work as hard as they might if they were in a four year college. The negative attitude that students have toward junior colleges can be seen in many ways . For example, in the bathrooms, you will frequently see statements such as these written on the walls : " NCC won soccer national championship - big deal for a junior college," and " NCC won baseball national championship good job for an over-grown Little League." This negative attitude will also be seen in th e lack of enthusiasm that many of your gymnasts will have - that spark of life and excitement that is needed if a person is going to develop into a good gymnast. It can be seen that one of the most difficult problems that a gymnastics coach must deal with is the changing of the attitudes. of many of his gymnasts. He must convince his gymnasts that attending a junior college is a worthwhile experience, He must enlighten them about the values of junior college gymnastics experience in helping th em get into four year colleges. He must make them aware of the gymnastics scholarships that are available to topnotch junior college gymnasts. He must motivate them to work! Most junior college students have serious financial problem s. Many of them are living away from home and must work in order to feed, clothe and house themse lves. They must also pay for some kind of transportation to get to and from

school. Fi nancin g a car ca n be a b ig ex pense. Practically every student I had on my gymnast ics teams over the past six years had to wo rk in order to ma ke ends m eet. Thi s presents a second m aj or problem to the coach, that is, getting his students to attend th e wo rko uts as we ll as th e meets. W here a coach likes to have all of hi s gym nasts present at eve ry workout, you wi ll find that if you get t hem to attend three wo rkouts a week yo u will be doing pretty good. I used to have six sched ul ed wo rkouts a week in cludin g four afternoons and two morning workouts (i ncludin g Saturdays) in order to accomm odate stude nts who were wo rki ng or who had classes that conf licted w ith afternoon worko uts. Thi s type of schedule m ade it possible fo r all of my gymnasts to ge t two or th ree workouts a week. In o rd er to prevent stud ents fro m having classes durin g workout hours, it is advisable to have stud ents register at an early registration so that they can get morning classes. Norma ll y, the scheduling of classes so th at there is no conflict with th e afternoo n workout ho urs is not a prob lem with sopho m o res, but it ca n be a real problem with entering freshmen, especia ll y if they are blocked in to a program that has all late aftern oo n classes. M any of yo ur gymnasts w ill wo rk o n days that you have m eets. I have my m eets p rim aril y on a Frida y night o r a Saturday. I had m any confl icts with students who had jobs o n these days. In m ost cases the gymnast w ill take a day off from wo rk, eve n though it may m ean a loss of badly needed mo ney. Another prob lem that gym n astics coac hes mu st deal wit h is that of eligibi lity. Ma ny gym nasts d eve lop acade mic prob lem s after their first six months of co llege. You w ill fi nd yo urse lves working hard during the Fall semester, developing yo u r team . Unfortunately, w hen the se m es ter co m es to an end and th e grades are in, yo u wi ll find that some of yo ur outstandin g gymnasts are now ineligibl e. Thi s is a real heartbreake r, but it happens every year. In orde r to help gymnasts m ai ntain their el igib ili ty, it is extrem ely impo rtant for the coach to be consta ntly awa re of th~ aca dem ic progress that his students are making and any problems that they may be develop ing. Th e coac h sho ul d f requently talk wit h hi s gym nas ts about the progress they are mak ing in th eir co urses. If a gy mnast is havin g problems, the coac h can freq uently get extra help fo r the st ud ent by speak in g with his instructo rs o r m ak ing arrange m ents for a tutor. Havin g th e in structors I i II o ut a monthly progress report on each of yo ur gymnasts is an exce ll ent way of keeping informed abo ut the accomp li shme nts that are being made In each class. Early detection of academ ic prob lems is essen ti al if elig ib il ity is to be maintained. Coaches sho uld make sure that their gymnasts know and have a t ho ro ugh understanding of the NjCAA rul es as well as the rules of their region. It is a good idea to spe nd part of a wo rko ut sess io n exp laining all aspects of these rul es. A good ex -

amp le of how a gymnast m ay be los t d ue to el igib ility involves t he rul e concerning the number of credits of work an athlete mu st co m p lete each semes ter. Art icle VI, Sectio n I (a) of the Nj AA eligib ili ty ru les states that a stud ent " Ca rry, as a regul ar enro ll ed studen t, at leas t ten (10) cred it hours of co ll ege work as li sted in th e catalog of th e participating college the quarter or se m ester o f participation." However, Art ic le V, Section I of th e Region XV eligibi lity rul es states that " No stud ent shall be eligib le to represe nt hi s institution in Regional competitio n unl ess he is a reg ularl y enro ll ed stud ent taki ng a minimum of 12 credi t 路hou rs." You w ill freque ntl y fin d studen t s enro ll ing fo r fourteen credits of acade mic work during t he Fall sem este r w ho withdraw for o ne reason or ano th er, from a three credi t co urse . At the end of the se m es ter, t he stude nt passes eleven credits of work and thinks that he is eligibl e for co mpeti ti o n. Unfo rtun ate ly, he is not eligibl e because the Region XV rul e supe rs edes the Nj CAA rul e and requires that the stud ent mu st complete a minimum of twel ve credits of academic wo rk per semester. It is interesting to note th at if the student would have ca rri ed the fo urteen c red its for the entire semeste r and rece ived an " F" in a three credit co urse, he would be eli gi bl e for competition . A final problem that m any juni or college gymnastic coac hes will have is th at of not havi ng enough gymn asts to f ill all the slots in each event. He may no t have eno ugh gymnasts or else he m ay not have enough el igib le gymn asts . Sect io n 8 of the NjCAA eligibi lity rules state that " No in elig ibl e p laye r shall be all owed to dress fo r any co ntest sponsored by the NjCAA." I personall y fee l that an in elig ibl e gy mn ast sho uld be all owed to perform in a gymnastics m eet o n an ex hibiti o nal basis o nl y - t hat is, he is scored by the judges but hi s score is not co un ted in with th e meet score. This is especia ll y true fo r gymna sts w ho are in eli g ibl e for the Fall se m ester but w ho may be eligibl e for th e Spring semester. Th e competitive experience that th e in eligi bl e gym nast gets in the Fall season w ill be of great value in helpin g h im to prepa re for th e Sp ring co mpetiti 0 n . In a dual m eet, if t he coac hes ag ree to enter ineligib le performers o n an ex hibiti ona l basis, they sho uld be permitted t o do so. Sin ce the final meet score in gym nastics is the sum of the sco res of all the el igib le perform ers in each eve nt, the inclu sion of in elig ibl e performers on an exhibiti o nal basis wo uld have no effect o n the final m ee t sco re. I n a team spo rt such as basketball, it wo uld be impossible to use an ine ligibl e player beca use hi s co ntribution t o the team 's effo rts wo uld have a d efi nite effect o n the final sco re; however, in gymnas t ics, this is not so. Coachi ng gymnastics, regardless of whet her it is in high school or co ll ege, is always an exciti ng and rewarding experi 路 ence. It is a thrilling experience for me to see gymnastics beginning to d eve lop in the junior co ll eges throughout the co untry. In time , gymnastics will grow and develop into o ne of th e m ost popular spo rts in thi s co untry.

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Gymnast ics began at Springfield College in 1891 wi th an informal meet against the 23rd St. YMCA Leaders Corps in New York City. At that time it was the International YMCA Training School and open to qualified men who intended to enter any field of service for youth. Not until 1951 was the campus made coed. The real history of gymnastics began in 1904-05 when an organized team was developed which evolved into the present day gymnastic exhibition team . The purpose of the early exhibitions intended to show nothing more or less than the work of the College. As the college developed the purpose took on new meaning. Team members, with a restless , compulsive urge to rectify the sameness of the times, not only demonstrated an important phase of the activities program of physical education, but also served as an incentive for many groups of Alumni along the east coast to meet and organize as Alumni chapters. It was in honor of Springfield ' s first All-gymnastic Reunion, November 8, 1969, that a 16-page publication was prepared by Harold G. Lynch to record the 65-year history of gymnastics at Springfield College. Early exhibitions featured, beside gymnastics, a veritable circus including fencing, wrestling, and torch swining. In 1906 a formal gymnastic competition with Amherst was arranged by H . H. Reinhardt. The dual nature of Springfield gymnastics has continued to this time and has inspired development of many similar programs across the country. Although gymnastics had a student manager from its inception, its first advisor did not arrive on the scene until 1913. Prof. Louis B. Schroeder (12) had been the team captain during his undergraduate days and assumed the coaching role until 1918 when he entered the Armed Services. He was succeeded in 1920 by Leslie j . judd, a former pupil and YMCA representative from Australia. Since Prof. Schroeder was given specific teaching duties, judd was really the first faculty coach, and he fielded his first team in 1921. The arrival of Les judd as varsity coach signaled th e beginning of a new and distinguished era for Springfield College gymnastics. Under his leadership, the varsity exhibition team attained international fame: Nobody knows exactly how many miles this peripatetic group actually has traveled. Under coach judd, the exhibition team became more than a group of performing gymnasts. All types of rhythmic patterns, Morris dilnces, sword dances, and various kinds of national dances from Russia, Spain, the Philippines, and Hungary became part of the exhibition team program. Numerous types of team drills such as glittering wands, fundamentals of fencing, judo, balancing trios, Indian Club swinging, clown acts, and many other marvelous features that now are so familiar to all who follow the Springfield College varsity exhibition team were added to the team's repertoire . Apparatus work did not take a back seat during this period of introduction of new and exciting features. Rather,


THE JOY OF EFFORT The Story of Gymnastics at Springfield College

every member of the team was requested to maintain high standards of skill and ability on various pieces of apparatus. Proof of this development of talent is the fact that prior to World War II, the Springf ield gymnastic team won the New England AAU Gymnastic Championship eight times. Perhaps the greatest contribution Coach judd made to the exhibition team has to

be the world-tamous living Statuary of Youth. Professionals in the field, however, have honored judd for his contribution to such forms of artistic physical education as emphasis on the dance, rhythmic gymnastics, and the use of various types of hand apparatus. The story of the birth of the living statuary tableaux is more than interesting. As

The famous "Aspiration of Youth" as it appeared in Life Magazine, 1939.

Rick Black clears 9 gymnasts.

a young man in Australia Les judd had witnessed competition in music, drama and pageantry at the annual interstate festivals hel d in Victoria, th e cultural center of Australia. It was here, while viewing Greek scenes in marble, that he first conceived the id ea of the tableaux. According to the record, the first Springfield College living tableaux were in connection with Commencement Weekend pageantry and canoe carnivals around 1934. The posing athletes were then covered with a snow white marble substance. Usually no more than three men were prepared for the display. The tableaux dep icted were imitations of famous Greek statuaries such as " The Thinker" by Rodin and " The Dying Gladiator." Other tableaux illustrated the joy of effort and the love of competition that characterized the Springfield philosophy and tradition. Thanks to the efforts of Charles Weckworth, judd ' s assistant coach, a change in body makeup to a bronze paint and eventually to a silver makeup was developed to highlight the tableaux. From its beginning in 1937, the "Men in Bronze" theme won popular acclaim . Coach judd 's themes were recognized nationally and internationally, and Life magazine published a feature story on the tableaux and the College in their january 1939 issue. Many other honors were also bestowed upon the traveling exhibition team and Statuary of Youth including coverage by the Time Magazine film feature " The March of Time," its first appearance at Madison Square Garden, and an invitation to present its living statuary as the finale of the 1939 International YMCA Championships in Detroit. The late 30's and early 40's saw the team continue its busy travel schedule. World War II led to the cessation of all varsity sports at Springfield as well as the closing of the school until the war's end. In 1945 Coach judd reorganized the traveling team and once again Springfield ' s gymnasts became known across the country. In 1955 after 35 years of exceptional service and leadership in gymnastics Leslie j. judd retired, having brought richly deserved honors upon Springfield College and stronger focus upon gymnastics in general. He was succeeded by one of his pupils, Frank A. Wolcott ('52). The decade of the 50's saw exhibition gymnastics reach its zenith at Springfield. Many of these men now serve gymnastics in many positions as coaches, YMCA leaders, officials, and ardent boosters. Not only in exhibition gymnastics did Springfield attain prominence but many of its gymnasts were recognized for their competitive efforts as well. One of Frank Wolcott's earliest stars was jeff Cardinali who earned a berth on the 1960 Olympic Squad and

earn ed the 1961 NCAA Parall el Bar Championship. Later he served as assistant coach and is today varsity gymnastics coach at the Coast Guard Academy. When Springfield went coed in 1951, it was not long before the young ladies were clamoring for a role in varsity gymnastics. With Frank Wolcott and Betty Weisner ('58) setting the pace, the 1958 ex hibition season saw girls as a part of th e exhibition team . In 1962 under the coaching of Diane Potter ('57) th e girls became part of the traveling team and a new dimension in grace and beauty was added to Springfield gymnastics. Under Miss Potter's leadership and later than of M iss Mimi Murray ('61) the girls competitive team developed as an intercollegiate powerhouse. Such young women as Andie Hyland ('66) and Kathy Corrigan ('66) led the team to national distinction. Miss Corrigan represented the U.S. in the 1964 Olympic Games as well as at the Vienna Gymnaestrada and 1963 PanAmerican Games. She later lent her expertise to coaching Penn State's women's team and now has her own school of gymnastics in Massachusetts. The 1967 womens team won the 1967 Eastern Women ' s Championship and National title and in 1970 won again the Eastern and placed second Nationally. Under Wolcott' s guidance the 60's have seen even greater performances as competitive gymnastics grew. In 1963 Springfield joined the Eastern Intercollegiate Gymnastic League to do battle with such powerful teams as Temple and Penn State. In the past three years the men's gymnastic team has finished in the top three places of the NCAA College division gymnastic championships and captured the EIGL title in 1967. The story of gymnastics at Springfield has no end ing. Th e rich tradition established so many years ago by men of much foresight will continue so long as there is a Springfield College. When the bronze tableaux were first introduced , each number represented a dream of mankind: Peace, Love, Brotherhood, Aspiration, Cooperation, Freedom, Faith in God , and a United World. The Springfield concept of friendliness, a concern for others and a sense of purpose goes back to 1885 . Since 1937 the gymnasts of the college have expressed th is concept and their idealism through dra-. matic tableaux. While some have ridiculed the tableaux as pure camp, corn, and Pollyana thinking, anyone who has ever seen the displays has been touched, at least for a moment, with the thought that perhaps life can be better than it is.




This issue of the NGJA Newsletter includes a repo rt on the FIG International Jud ges Courses given at Pasadena City College and North Central College last summer, and a report by Ken Allen, Gymnastics Coach , Wisconsin State University, Oshkosh, Wisconsin. Mr. Allen 's report was app roved by the NGJA Technical Comm ittee, including Frank Cumiskey Technical Director, Lou Baretta, Jon Gulbertson, Ted Muzyczko, Jerry Todd and Jerry Wright. The FIG courses proved very informa tive and most enjoyable. Ivan Ivancevic of Yugoslavia, Vice-President of the Te ch nical Committee of the FIG, which prepared the Code of Points, and author of the Past World Games Compulsory Floor Exerc ise routine, George Gulack of New York, translator of the English version of the routine, George Gulack of New York, VicePresident of the FIG Executive Committee, Frank Cumiskey, Ted Muzyczko and Jerry Todd , members of the NGJA technical committee. Several items were discussed pertaining to the judging of optional exercises. Much of the in formation is new, some of which has been published in the quarterly FIG bulletin, but all of which has been approved by the NGJA technical committee. 1. Article 25,4. The judge should record Band C parts on a scratch pad and ma ke note of whether a C part was made up of two B parts. In the final evaluation, if a gym nast had two C parts and two B parts, it is possible to give credit for full difficulty if one of those C parts rece ived its value by the comb ination of two B parts; e.g. back saito on PB to regrasp at 45 째, immediate stutzkehre with regrasp at least 30 째 high (above horizontal). 2. Article 29,1. Mr. Ivancevic stressed the importance of striving for correct technical execution and form rath er than difficulty. His impression of U. S. coaches was that they pushed too quickly on difficulty at the expense of execution . He further explained that in Europe technical execution and correct form are emp hasized from the first time children are exposed to gymnastics to the time a limited number become international competitors. 3. Combination A. Article 30,3. Attention should be given to the requirement of not more than three actual stops as given in Article 37,5 . An example of three stops in an exercise would be: From support, drop cast to support, double leg cut to "L" and hold for 2 sec. (1 stop); press handstand and hold for 2 sec. (2 stops); stutzkehre to handstand and hold for 2 sec. (3 stops). There should be no more stops during the exercise, otherwis e a combination deduction must be taken as follows: a. .1 for a C part which stops b. .2 for a B part which stops


Spring, 1971

c. .3 for an A part which stops It sho uld be noted that a stutzkehre above 30 degrees does not satisfy the requirement for a B release because the release of the hands is not simultaneous. B. Article 30,4. The following is a paragraph reprinted from the FIG September bulletin: " The exercise must co nsist excl usively of swinging without stops. Apart from forward and reve rse giant swings with change of grip, it must also include other variations such as the forward hip circle, the reverse hip circle, as well as longitudinal turns. The minimum demands which must be fulfilled to qualify for the maximum mark from the point of view of the combination are: reverse or cubital work in suspension and at least one combination in which both hands leave and re-grip the bar at the same time ." C. Article 30,5. In floor exercise, flexibility does not have to be demonstrated per se. However, if the gymnast performs parts which require flexibility and he does not demonstrate that quality, there will be deductions. . D . Article 33,1. Generally, violations of the requirements as stated in Article 30 result in a .3 deduction (e.g. leaving all sc issors out of a side horse routine would result in a .3 deduction for combination). Swinging of the rings is listed as both a combination error and an execution error, but only one deduction is taken dependent upon degree of swing. In free exercise it is possible to get lower deductions; e.g. if the gymnast does not sufficiently cover the entire area or enough of the area he would not receive a full .3 deduction. E. Article 33,2. Intermediate swing. This occurs when the end of a swing is not used to perform a part of value unless it is the only way the succeeding part can be performed . Kip to support on the horizontal bar and cast to back giants includes an intermediate swing. The stoop and ride backwards in the back kip before throwing a Czech stem me (german giant) giant does not because there is no other way to perform the back kip (of course one could do a double rear in or stoop from back giants but the stoop from below is accepted as l eg itimate). The deduction of .3 -.5 for intermediate swings is based on the following: a. If A parts precede and follow the inte rm ediate sw in g-ded uct .' b. If a B part precedes or follows the intermediate sw ing-deduct .4 c. If a C part precedes or follows the intermed iate swing-deduct 5. There are no deductions for an intermediate swing in the following cases: a. In compulsory exerc ises when it is called for. b. After fall i ng off the appa ratus, one

intermediate swi ng is allowed to con tinu e the exercise after remount in g. c. If the rules are changed at the conference, high school or age group level in order to adapt to a beginner skil l leve l (Page 1B8-9 in Code). . F. Article 33,3. The following is a guide for mak ing deductions concerning a commensurate dismount: a. Routine that contains 1 or 2 B-8.88.6- A dismount or better is ok dismount of no value would be deducted .1 b. Routine that contains 3B - B dismount or better is ok A dismount deduct .1 ; no value dismount deduct .2 c. Routine that contains 4 B or better-high B, or C dismount is ok low B dismount deduct .1 .2 A dismount deduct no value dismount .3 Th e system does not work in reverse, e.g., a gymnast should not be penalized for dismountin g with a C part when he has performed a routine of all A parts. G. Article 33,8. A part of no value is a part which does not reach the A difficulty leve l according to the Code of Points and / or does not contribute significantly to the composition of the exercise. Deductions are as follows: a. In a 4B plus exercise (value from 9.4-10.0) deduct .3 each time. b. In a 3B exerc ise (va lue up to 9.0) deduct .2 each time. c. In a 1 or 2B exercise (value from 8.2-8.6) deduct .1 each time. d. Do not deduct for parts of no value in an exercise which contains no B or C parts. Examples of parts of no value are: a. Swedish fall and hold on floor exercise. b. Single leg cuts on side horse (you may drop only one leg to get into scissors) c. Shoulder stand on rings d. Shoulder stand or layaway on parallel bars (stutzkeh re to 30 degrees immediate layaway would not be a part of no val ue but a back stutzkehre layaway would be). e. Vault catch on horizontal bar, sw ing forward and 'h turn-if the V2 turn is not above the horizontal , it is a part of no value. H. Article 33,4. Be aware of the deductions for working outside of the floor exercise area. Many judges are hanging on to notions of deducting full points instead of tenths. Th e d eduction range is from .1- .3 with a deduction of .1 for each part performed outside the area. 4. Evaluation of Execution. A. Th ere are two very important concepts to be aware of concerning execution . The first is that there are two general areas of execution, namely form and'tech-

nical execution . . Form pertains to things such as bent arms or legs, etc., wh il e the technical execution pertains to the mechanical way the part is to be, e.g. its efficiency. To make a trick does not mean that it has been performed in a technically correct manner. Many high school and college judges have difficulty in this area because they never see top level gymnastics with correct technical execution. Going to high level meets and / or purchasing films of high level competition would add much to a coach 's and / or judge's knowledge. Deductions should be made for errors in both these areas on each trick. It is not enough to hold good form throughout an exerc ise, correct technical execution must also be observed. The second important concept to be aware of is that in only certain instances is the deduction for execution to be dependent upon the difficulty of the part causing the fault. This pertains to stops or hesitations in an exercise. In all other cases the deciding factor in making a deduction is the severity of the error, e.g. was there a slight knee bend, 50 to 60 degree knee bend or more than 90 degree knee bend, etc. The other exception to this rule is in the case of intermediate swings where difficulty is taken into consideration. B. Article 37,2. Th e difficulty of many moves lies in the transition from a hang to a support. The transition sho uld be made without interruption in order to receive full credit. The following example should show how deductions may be made for a Fau lt :


have been met on a piece of apparatus relative to the holding rule, there shal l be no deduction for not holding. There should be, however, a reduction in value of that part if its execution is defined as having"to be he ld for 2 seconds or 3 seconds. F. Article 37,11. It was pointed out that judges were usually too severe concerning landings. The rules read that a gymnast may receive deduct ion for steps and / or hops or poor posture but not both. The maximum deduction a gymnast may rece ive for poor land ing is .5. G. Article 38. Guide lin es for making deductions under unsportsmanlike conduct in cluded being reasonable and keeping in mind the " spirit of the sport." Things which might bring deductions in th is area would be appearance, speech , facia l expressions or body actions. 5. Article 40 A. Risk does not necessarily mean d ifficu lty. It means that the gymnast is exposin g himself to the possibility of los in g grip or falling from the apparatus or on the floor. The part or combination must contain an element of danger beyond what we normally see. If there is much risk and it is performed we ll , the gymnast is entitled to the maximum al lowance of .2. Originality refers to the first time that we view a part or combination in FIG organized competition (not to inc lud e practice sessions.) At any subsequent competit ions, you may not


Perfect by definition

Sl ight to bad interruption in tempo but no stop

A stop-high (arms 90째-180 째) and an obvious press

Stop in shoulder ba lance and press



.1- .3 usi ng strength on swing part.1-.3 interruption

part of no va lue deduct .1-.3

shoot to a handstand on the rings (B part) . In addition there may be deductions for poor form. e. Article 37,3. Two or more starts to a hold or strength part refers to returning to the original position, otherwise the preced ing rule applies. The deduction is based on the distances already covered before returning to the starting position; e.g. stradd le press to handstand on floor: If the feet come off the floor perhaps 6 inches to 12 inches the n return, there would be at least 'a .2 deduction. If the gymnast comes close to ach ieving the handstand and then returned close to the floor and back to the handstand, there wo uld be a .5 deduction. D. Article 37,4. Strength parts shou ld be executed slowly with an eve n consistent tempo. Swing parts shou ld also give the impression of having a somewhat even tempo, on ly faster. When the tempo is destroyed and one or the other elements takes the place of the appropriate one, there shou ld be a deduction based on the degree of error (.1-.3). E. Article 37,6. Once the requirements

give leniency for originality for that part. .1-.2 may be given to an exerc ise containing originality. Virtuosity refers to the extraord in ary execution of parts or the entire exercise. The performer may be granted .1 for several moves or .2 for demonstrating virtuosity throughout much of the exercise. The judge must look back ove r the entire exercise to decide whether any of these qualities were present. If all three were, he may grant .3; if only two were, he may grant .2-.3; if only one was, he may grant .1-.2. The factors are used as mitigation for errors in execution in the preliminary compet ition (dua l meets) and as bonus points in the finals competition (maximum score being 9.7 here without risk, o riginal ity and virtuosity). 6. The Long Horse Vault. The following is a diagram of the new dimensions of the zones for vault ing. The purpose in en larging the zones was to make the event more exciting. The maximum deduction for grip is .5.



+ + 400






The vau lt begins with the first step the gymnast takes. Once he proceeds forward he must vault or receive a zero score for the vau lt. The approach is not considered in the scoring, however. A new system has been devised by the FIG for assign ing maximum va lu es to the vaults. In the all-around competition (dual meets, etc.) all vau lts in articles 56-57 are lowered in value by .3. After norma l deductions for the vault, the judge may mitigate under the following circumstances: a. A double asterisk vault may receive .1-.3 for risk, originality and virtuosity. b. A sing le asterisk vault may receive .1-.2 fo r risk, originality or virtuosity. c. A no asterisk vau lt may receive no bonus for risk or orig in ality, but may receive a max imum of .1 for exceptional virtuosity. In the fina ls competition, the maximum va lu e for any vault shal l be 9.4. Bonus points may be given as fo llows: " " 1. Vau lts marked **-up to 4/10 of a point for difficulty and risks. Up to 2/1 0 of a point for risks, exceptional virtuosity and origina lity of vaults not yet featuring in the 1968 Code. Art icl e 58.5 can also be app li ed but the reduced deductions may not exceed 3/10 of a point. 2. Vaults marked with one *-U p to 3/10 of a point for difficulty and risks. Up to 2/1 0 of a po int for risks, excep tional virtuos ity and originality of vau lts not yet featured in the 1968 Code. Article 58.4 can also be applied but the reduced deduction may not exceed 2/10 of a point. 3. Vau lts with no special indications -For vau lts of this kind, there shall be no awarding of bonus points and no reduction of the deductions." Several pointers were offered in evaluating the execution of va ults: A Yamashita must be piked to 90째 at least, otherwise it is a handspring with a bent body; the vau lte r should rise after push ing from the horse (the second flight should be higher than the first); the gymnast shou ld be fully stretched or extended before landing; a stoop is a stoop w hen the hips are above the level of the shoulders immediately after the push, otherwise it is a squat-this is especially true of a neck vault but is more difficult to distinguish when a croup vault. 7. Article 65 This particular rule seems to cause disagreement, not among judges, but among judges' scores. Most judges agree that moves must be pe rform ed in a technically correct manner in order to receive the assigned difficulty credit, but judges disagree


or have not so lidified their own allowances for these definit ions. Opinions range from " nothing to less than 45°" for a back saito on PB to "well, five or six degrees off isn't too bad, I' ll hit him for execution." Unfortunately FIG instructors are also varied in their feelings.

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The following is the interpretation of the NGJA : Always give the gymnast the benefit of the doubt. This is the best guide possible and all FIG instructors agree on this point. This means that once the gymnast settles into the cross you begin to count and if he starts to come out just before you count three, it is quite possible you counted too slowly. He should, however, come to a fairly solid stop with his arms horizontal. Handstands should be under control and, ideally, at a dead stop. If there is some minimal movement, but th e gymnast is in a correct handstand position and not still trying to get into position, the count should begin and there might be a deduction for execution. Remember, you give credit to th e gymnast who performs properly by deducting points from th e gymnast who does not perform properly. Angles cause confusion to those who have trouble measuring them. A Judge should form some references as soon as he moves to a new apparatus. The important angle is that which the body, exclusive of the arms, makes with a horizontal reference after the trick is completed . There should be some leeway if you are not positive of these angles. With something like the free hip or stem rise on high bar, there should be an allowance of up to five to ten degrees from vertical when the arms are fully stretched. The judge should be aware of all the requirements for difficulty and should be able to recognize fulfillment of these requirements, but should be ready and willing to give the gymnast the benefit of the doubt. Remember also that in most cases while the value of the move is reduced, it is possible that there should be no additional deductions for execution. There may be a deduction under combination, however, if that part is required; e.g. B release on parallel bars. The NGJA Technical Committee plans to come out with a comprehensive interpretation of Article 65 in the near future. 8. Additional points which were discussed or which should be emphasized were as follows : A. There is no justification in the rules for deducting for less than 11 moves except in the area of difficulty. For example, if only 6 moves are performed and they are all A's, one must use the maximum allowable score of 7.8 if the combination requirements are met. B. Although all the figures used for describing the A, B, and C parts are not precisely correct, most of them are very close and can be used to gain a greater appreciation for the mechanics of moves.

C. Judges should develop a shorthand system of their own . Generally, this will be different for each piece of apparatus. The ultimate is to be able to recall an entire exercise because it is down on paper. A judge should be able to react to a bent leg or poorly performed movement by jotting down the deduction for it at that time. What you don't see, you cannot and should not deduct for. According to the rule book it is ill egal to deduct for general impression. The only way to improve your reactions is to know the rul e book (memor ize) and practice judging. Films are best to practice looking for difficulty, combination and execution, first one at a time and then gradually all. You should be able to justify your score on paper. D. Most coaches work pretty hard with their gymnasts. It is frustrating to be penalized for so mething that a judge doesn't know or understand . Judges have the ultimate responsibility for trends in gymnastics becau se coaches must train their gymnasts to get th e highest possible score. They will train their gymnasts to perform the way they know their judges will judge. E. Mr. Ivancev ic pointed out that the authors realize that the code is not perfect, but th at it is more than was had in the past and is all we have at present. He urged all coaches and judges to stick by it while making well supported suggestions to the Technical Committee.

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LETTERS Dear Gle nn : W hat's the matter? I haven ' t got my copy of the December 1970 iss ue of the Modern Gymnast. How can you ex pect me to go on li ving w ith out regular suppli es of th e M .G. ? You will receive payment for another two yea rs early in Febru ary. To subscribe for thr ee years wo uld be ras h. I am 72 . Best wishes to yo u personally and to that wonderful pub licat ion THE MODERN GYMNAST Yours Sincerely Mr. Becker, we're sorry about the delay. As of now we have almost gained two weeks on our production schedule and we hope to be even by the April issue. We are flatlered that your need for the M .G. is as dire as you indicate, in fact we decided that after your current two years subscription has expired your next 74 years of the M.G. is on us.-Ed

Costly Envelopes? Dear Mr. Sundby: As an avid gymnast, I am very enthusi as tic about the " new" Modern Gymnast and eage rl y await the next, more o n tim e

issue. I commend yo u for your consta nt effo rts aimed at improvement. I have a sma ll suggest ion fo r you that I feel might be a f inancial help towards making eve n more of th e co ntinuall y offered improvements, which co uld hopefull y make favo rite ite ms such as photoseque nces and routines a freque nt instead of sporadic hi ghlight. Every month a copy of M.G. co mes to my mailbo x w rapped in a ni ce enve lope. I rea ll y appreciate it, but don't yo u think that it might be unnecessary? I do. Why don ' t yo u follow suit with every other major magazine and simply use ad dressed labe ls replacin g the undoubtedly costly enve lopes with in expensive cover-m ounted tags? I don ' t think any of t he subscribers wo uld mind , th e savi ngs could go for ,the changes we all wa nt, and we wo uld have an eve n better publication out of it. Sounds fea sibl e to me, and I know a savings (even a small one) could defi nitely help! Gymnastica lly yo urs, Paul Evans, Co-Captain University of Miami Varsity Cheerleader'S Paul: We appreciate your suggestion on how to save a little money by eliminating our mailing envelopes, but we use those envelopes for a good reason. Because our circulation is not as large as life or Luok. Our magazines have to be handled. as regular mail and consequently are handled and re-handled. The result to our subscribers would be a magazine worn and torn around the edges. We felt tFII! small extra cost would be worth it.-Ed

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Modern Gymnast - April 1971  

Modern Gymnast - April 1971