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editor: _ WORLD GAMES PREVIEW REPORT: Livin g up to pre-meet observations the Japanese Men's team ca me through in exciting style to win the top honors at the World Championships in Yugoslavia with 571 .10 points. Russia placed second with 564.35 , followed by East Germany - 553.15. The U.S.A. 33.50 team points behind Japan (about half-apoint-per-man event) came in seventh with 537.60.
AA CHAMPION: Kenmots u performed beautifully to total 115.05 for first-place all-around. He was followed by teammates Tsukahara, 113.85 , and Nakayama, 113.80, to make it one, two, three AA for Japan (also 6, 7, 8). Sakamoto, the highest scorer for the U.S.A., placed 12th AA with 11 1.65.
A SILVER MEDAL: Little Cathy Rigby not only won the "Most Charming Gymnast" in a World Games Press Poll but came through to win a silver medal for the U.S.A. in the individual finals on the balance beam. It was nice to see the "Stars and Stripes" fly in the winner's circle of world gymnastics (we hope it becomes contagious) . . . nice going, Cathy.
USA-USGF VICTORY: Perhaps the big gest win of all for American Gymnastics did not come at the final competition at Tivoli Hall but at the 49th FIG Con gress two days later when the USGF was voted into the FIG (by a two-thirds majority) as the official governing body for gymnastics in the U.S.A. We hope this decision by the FIG will raise the curtain on a new era for gymnastics in America and that we can now ALL work together (no matter what our past/ or present gymnastic affiliation may be)toward a stronger national and international growth program for the American gymnast.
CG Official Publication of the United States Gymnastic Federation
TABLE OF CONTENTS VOLUME XII
NOTES FROM THE EDITOR .......... .. ..... Glenn Sundby CHALK TALK ..... . ..... . .... ... .... ....... ...... .. ..... . .. . ViEWPOINTS .... .. ............ ....... ..... ..... Dick Criley NATIONAL GYMNASTIC JUDGES ASSOCIATION NEWSLETTER ......................... ....... ..... .... CANADIAN REPORT .... .... ........ .. ...... John Nooney MG PHOTO ESSAY/A LOOK AT THE WARM-UP ..................... .... Ken Sakoda THE SMOKING GyMNAST ..... ... .... .. .... ... ... .... .... . IMAGINATION IN GYMNASTICS ...... ... Dan J. Millman COMPETITIVE GYMNASTICS IN SWITZERLAND ......... .. ..... .................... .. ... Ernest Furblu r MG CENTER PHOTO ..... ..... .... ..... .... ... ....... ...... . MG INTERVIEW: MASAYUKI WATANABE ...... .. .. ... ... ....... .. ... ....... ........ .Ken Sa koda EXTRAPOLATIONS ............ ... .... .. .. Robert B. Davis RESEARCH AND FITNESS IN GYMNASTICS ........................ ..... ..... ..... .. .John F. Rumpf BAC KGROUND AND TRENDS TOWARD SCIENTIFIC ANALYSIS IN GYMNASTICS .......... .Lyle Welser 1970-71 COMPETITION CALENDAR ....... Jerry Wright LETTERS .... ..... ..... .... ... ............ .......... .......... BOOK REViEWS ............... ... ... .. .... .. .. ..Dick Criley MG CALENDAR (Winter Clinics) ..... .. .... .... .. ...... ...
4 6 6 8 8 10 12 13 14 16 18 20 21 22 24 26 26 31
COVER: 1970 World Games Men's All-Around Champion Kenmotsu, Ka thy Rigby USA, World Silver Medal Winner on the Balance Beam and the Champion ship Team from Japan.
PUBLISHER-EDITOR GLENN SUNDBY
ASSOCIATE EDITORS路 TECHNICAL DICK CRILEY, FEATURE KEN SAKODA, LAYOUT
ASSOCIATE EDITORS路 Feature A. Bruce Frederick, Education ; Or. James S. Basco, Research; Jerry Wright, Com peti t i on ; Frank Bare. USGF; John Nooney, Canada; Robert Hanscom , YMCA ; Andrzei Gonera, European ; Gerald George, Dan Millman & Don Tonry, AA Instructional ; Bill Roelzheim, Instructional.
NEXT MG: A full report of all the men's events with statistics and photos (between Don Wi lkenson and your editor, we took several thousand pictures) of the 17th World Games Gymnastic Championships held in Ljubljana, Yugoslavia, Oct. 22-27, 1970. 4
THE MODERN GYMNAST MAGAZINE
THE MOD ERN GYMNAST magaz ine is publ ished by Sundby Publications, 410 Broadway, Sa nto Monico, Ca ljforn ia 90401. Second Class Postage pa id a t Sanla Monic a . Cal if. Published monthly except bj路monthly June, July. August, a nd Septembe r. Pric e $6.00 per yeor, 60c a single copy. Su bscription correspon d e nce, The MO DEfl N GYMNAST, P.O. Box 6 11. Sa nto Monico , Ca lifornia 90406. Copyright 1970漏 al l rights reserved by SU NDBY PU BLICATION S, 4 10 Broa d woy, Sonto Mo nico, Ca lif. All p hotos and ma nuscripts su bmitted become th e prope rty of Th e MODERN GYMNAST unle ss a retu rn requelt and suHicient postage are includ e d .
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TWENTIETH ANNIVERSARY The National Gymnastic Clinic of Florida will be celebrating its 20th anniversary at this year's annual gathering on Dec. 26-30 . . . . Congratulations to all who have helped make this clinic a success through the years . . .. Especially the founding fathers who had the drive and foresight to get the whole wonderful thing going in the first place (and we do point a grateful nod to Lyle Welser of Georgia Tech).
Report of the Seattle Gymnastic ClubTour of S路outh America July 24 to Sept. II , 1970 by Eric Hughes Thirteen members of the Seattle Gymnastic Club recently returned from a seven week tour offive countries in South America- Venezuela, Colombia , Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina. Sergio Luna, a University of Utah gymnast and a native of Ecuador, was invited to accompany the Seattle Club and serve as official interpreter as well as a performer. The tour was interesting and exciting but also very exhausting. Activities included 26 exhibitions , 19 clinics , 8 television shows , and 2 competitions in the 49 day period, an average of slightly over one function per day. As well as the gymnastic activIty , the group attended 21 receptions and/or dinners during the seven weeks. The Seattle Gymnastic Club was selected for this tour by the United States Department of State because of its excellent record on two previous tours , one in 1966 to Japan, Australia and New Zealand, and one in 1968 to Japan, Thailand, Singapore, Philippines , and Taiwan. The tour was jointly sponsored by the Department of State's Cultural Presentation Program and local gymnastic organizations in each country that contributed most of the room and board and internal transportation expense. The Seattle Gymnastic Club financed two of the thirteen members who made the trip. Some of the highlights of the trip were: defeating the Venezuelan National Team, both men and women , in a two day competition ; going up a 15,488 foot mountain in Meridia, Venezuela in a cable car; going 105 miles per hour in an old beat-up taxi cab with bald tires ; performing in a bull ring on a sandy-dirt floor in Caracas, Venezuela ; visiting the facilities for the 1971 Pan-Am Games in Cali , Colombia ; performing on several television shows with over 1,000,000 viewing audience ; landing at the airport in La Paz, Bolivia at over 15 ,000 feet and 'presenting an excellent show in the city of La Paz alai most 13 ,000 feet where we were told " it couldn't be done"; performing on a floor of jagged crushed rock with homemade equipment made of railway rails and old pipe in Tarata and Cochabamba, Bolivia; living with host families in Lima, Peru and Rosario , Argentina ; and spending time shopp ing and sightseeing in the beautiful city of Buenos Aires , the fourth largest city in the world. 6
FIRST NATIONAL GYMNASTIC CLINIC , DAYTONA 1950: 1. Tom Hagler, 2. - - , 3 . Tom Ma lo ney , 4. Sinisalo , 5. Warren Neiger, 6. Bob Sullivan , 7. Lyle Welser , 8 . Bruce Sidlinger, 9 . Johnson Collins , 10. - -, 11. Prof. Leslie J . Judd , 12 . Tom Davenport , 13 . Ken Bartlett , 14. Joe Calvetti , 15. Dr. Hartley Price , 16. Charles Pond , 17. Paula Row e, 18. Irv Bedard , 19. - - , 20 . Mrs. Hartley Price, 21. - - ,22 . " Ace" Moore.
Members of the tour group were Dr. Eric Hughes, University of Washington Gymnastic Coach ; Members of the Seattle Y girls teamLonna Woodard, Linda Bennett , Carol Elsner, Jean Henderson , Peggy Rowan ; members of the Univers ity of Washington Team- Yoshi Hayasaki , Hide U meshita , GordonJones , Bruce Brinton; Ex-Huskies Gunter Bohrmann and Bob Hall ; Lynn Hall (Bob's wife); and Sergio Luna- University of Utah.
GYMNAST IN VIETNAM
Sports Guide Magazine is Coming The publisher and managing editor of Jock , New York - the local sports magazine that was recently suspended and sold - wil l soon be coming out with an altogether new magazine called Sports Guide. The TV Guide-Reader's Digest-size biweekly is scheduled to run off its first 500 ,000 copies for delivery to the top 20 to 25 markets on Sept. 19. Accord ing to Stanford Karp , president and publisher, and Les Woodcock , editor, it will have from three to five national articles wrapped around locally-oriented detailed sports event listings. They'll even go as far as to schedule TV movies with sports themes.
GYMFEST The annual Labor Day Gymfest was the subject of widespread notice this year, thanks to the Automobile Club of Southern California who boosted it on their " Driver's Digest " radio program. Even more attention was given our eighth annual Gymnastics-By-the-Sea Gymfest by Sunset magazine in their September issue. Photos such as those which MG readers have come to expect thrilled Sunset readers with the suicide layout dismount from the fl ying rings , the full twisting hecht on the high bar and a halftwisting front off from the p-bars. Additionally a brief writeup described the three-day series of activities and encouraged Westerners to take in this rare display of gymnastic talent. As meet director Glenn Sundby observed , " I can't tell if there are an y more people here than usual ; it 's too crowded! "
VIEWpoints By Dick Crile y Glenn Heckenlaible, the 1964 California Junior College side horse champion, sent the Modern Gymnast a photograph of how a gymnast occupies his time in Southeast Asia. Glenn is back in the states now and is eager to use up the remaining two years of his college eligibility.
I was amused by notes in the sports sections of newspapers this fall advising returning football players to have their hair cut and sideburns trimmed when returning to fall practice. Still later came reports of enforced mowings of manly hirsuteness , but few dropouts (other than Joe Namath who finally came 'round on
hi s own good time) resulted fro m the coaches ' edi cts th at heads had to fi i the helme ts o r else ! Once upon a time, in the ea rl y heydays of st udent unrest, an un sho rn head of hai r was a sym bol of independent thin king, of a mind whi ch asked , "Wh y?" when told that so me face t of social di scipline mu st needs be obse rved. In fact, such inde pe ndent th ink ers preceded the days of Spiro Agnew, who was an un know n count y cog at the time of th e Berk eley demonstrations which shoo k college ca mpu ses everywhere . But I digress . ... Gy mn astics has always had its image: clean, muscul ar, we ll trimmed , close-shaven, razo rstraight form, graceful curves rather than angul ar distract ions. Onl y the top na mes in gy mnasti cs could get away with nonco nfo rmance to the code. What a surprise it mu st have been to the America ns to see a mustache o n th e face of Ru ssian gy mn ast Albert Aza ryan in th at 1960 U.S.A.-Russia meet. Yet on him it was accepted because, aft er all , he was th e besl. U niforms changed, Ameri cans beca me exposed to internation al influences, the sideburns cre pt down the face as th e hair crept dow n th e neckline. G ymnas ti cs, always a ho me fo r the independent spiri t, has been subjected to th e stress of conflict betwee n those seeking to retain its image and th ose people of today seeking to retain theirs. Is there any solution? Co nsider, fo r exa mple, a recent court case in which fo ur Califo rnia trac k stars sought an inj un ction agai nst their high school which would have permitted th em to work out wi th th e tea m des pite th eir long hair. The judge noted that th e iss ue was " in an area in volved wi th th e se nsiti ve, delicate and demanding rol e of athlete and coach. " He added that " th e alternatives are merely to forego athleti c competitio n or trim th e hair above th e collar and around th e ears du ring a parti cul ar athletic season." I n di ssolving a tempo rary restraining o rder whi ch had permitted the youth s to work out , he said , " It should not be considered unreasonable nor regraded as an infringement of co nstitutional prerogatives to requires plaintiffs to bring th emselves within the spirit , pu rpose and intendment s of the questi o ned ru le." In an area when disciplin e is a ppare ntl y an ugly wo rd , it is nice to know th at its enforcement is still possible. Wh y should an athl ete ask a coach to spend hours of intensive effo rt o n him when he refu ses to accord him the simple res pec t of fo llowing hi s directio ns? The social iss ues may be so mething else aga in. Dan Millman may even take up th e cudgel again (See Mqdern Gy mnas t, March 1967) o n behalf of the individual's individuality. If gy mn astics has the yout h a ppeal whi ch its advocates claim it has , surely yo uth will be ab le to identi fy with the lo ng-haired gy mnast. On th e other hand , th e gy mnasti cs commu nit y is still dominated by the image-conscious veterans of many years ' standing. T he co mpromi se, if there is one, may be th at ado pted by two gy mnasts at this year's NCAA championships : neatly groo med wigs to co ver their long, everyday style. If o ne li kes hi s activit y in the sport enough to want to continue in it (love it or leave it!) , he should be willing to acce pt the di scipline which it imposes and compromi se on hi s perso nal grooming, at least du ring the co mpetiti on season. But a wo rd mu st be add ed to enjoin th e coach 's tolerance during th e off seaso n. If it will sway anyone 's opinion, the Japanese are not sporting full mo ps of hair, mu staches or beard s in to p gymnastic circles. T he Europea ns are all ow ing carefu ll y trimmed mu stac hes and lo nger side burns. T he Americans neve r have been regarded as style-sette rs internati o nall y and mu st first de mo nstrate th eir gy mn as ti c prowess before such acceptance will be granted.
The Modern Gymnast Magazine and Mademoiselle Gymnast Magazine are offering as a special gift the above 17x22-inch poster to any new subscription order for either magazine. The poster and a subscription to the world's greatest gymnastics magaz ines make an ideal gift for any fan or competitor. Extra poste rs are available on request for $1 .00.
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Please send a poster and a subscription of: _ _ _ The Modern Gymnast Magazine, $6.00 per year ___ Mademoiselle Gymnast, $3.00 per year to : Name _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ __ _ _ _ _ __ Address _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ City _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ State _ _ _ _ Zip _ __ _ Ma il to: Poster Gift Offer Sundby Publications Box 777 Santa Monica , Californ ia 90406
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National Gymnastics Judges Association Newsletter Vol. I With this issue of the MG , the NGJA is beginning a newsletter which will appear from time to time for the purpose of keeping judges , gymnasts and coaches aro und the country informed a nd up-to-d ate on the activities of the NGJA and the international rules of judging gymnastics as promulgated by the International Federation of Gymnastics (FIG) a nd as interpreted and supplemented by the N GJ A for gymnastics competition with the United States. This first news letter will summarize NGJA developments as of this moment and will describe several new judging rules recently enacted by the FIG. An initial meeting was held in Long Beach , California, on April 25 , 1969 at 6:00 p.m. for the purpose of discussing , authorizing and declaring the formation of the N GJ A. Present at this meeting and hereafter known as the founders of the N GJ A were: Ron Barak - Southern California Gymnastics Judges Association Frank Cumiskey - Eastern Gymnastics Judges Association Rick Field- Northern California Gymnastics Judges Association Ted Muzyezko- Mid-America n Gymnastics Judges Association Bill Roetzheim- Mid-American Gymnastics Judges Association C hris Weber-Iowa Gymnastics Judges Association Art White-Colorado Gymnastics Judges Association Jerry Wright - Northern California Gymnastics Judges Association It was unanimou sly agreed at this meeting that a national gymnastics judges association, consisting of local gymnastics judges associations from around the country , should be formed in order to improve the qu a lity and' quantity of gymnastics judges a nd the administration of gymnastics judging in the United States. More specifically , the objectives would be to conduct nationwide education and certification progra ms and to establish direct lines of communication between the FIG a nd gymnastics judges throughout the United States. Respon s ibility for documenting the formation and operation of the N GJ A was divided among the founders with the understanding that this task would be completed by the time of the first annu a l meeting of the N GJ A Board of Directors. The first annual meeting of the N GJ A Board of Directors was held in conjunction with the 1970 NCAA C ha mpionship at the Ben Franklin Hotel , Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on April 4, 1970. Present were: Ron Barak Frank Cumiskey Grady Matthews (replacing Art White) Bill Roetzheim C hris Weber Jerry Wright Through the initial effOJ1s of Arthur Gander, resident of the FIG, a nd Frank Bare , executive director of the USG F , arrangements were made to conduct two judges courses in the United States during the summer 1970, at which American judges could qua lify for inter-
national FIG ce l1ifica tion. Mr. Gander appointed FIG officers Ivan Ivancevic and George Gulack an d NGJA Technical Director Frank C umi skey to take charge of running the courses. The NGJ A was requested to oversee the administration and running of the courses. The first course was held in Pasadena, Calif., on Aug. 8- I I, 1970. Jerry Todd, member of the NGJA Technical Committeejoined Messrs. Ivancevic, Gulack and Cumiskey in providing the instruction at this course, which was attended by 25 judges from four of the Western states. The second course was held in Naperville, Ill. , on Aug. 16- I 9 , 1970. Ted Muzyczko , member of the NGJA Technical Co mmittee , joined Messrs. Ivancevic, Gulack and Cumiskey in instructing at this second course, which was attended by 27 candidates. The four-day events proved to be outstanding learning experiences for all prese nt. Messrs. Ivancevic and Gulack more than amply demonstrated the extreme knowledge of and devotion to the sport of gymnastics which typifies the FIG leadership. Messrs. Cumiskey , Muzyczko and Todd similarly evidenced their expertise and very ably represented the N GJ A. The candidates at each course worked quite well together, and each program finished with a very enjoyable luncheon attended by all of the candidates and the instructors , which was cohosted by the U SG F and the N GJ A. Although the results of the certification examinations are not yet known , Mr. Ivancevic stated that these were the best-informed groups that he has ever addressed and that the results , when they become official , will no doubt support thi s observation. Mr. Ivancevic also expressed his wish that upon receipt of the FIG card and pins they be presented to the successful candidates at some proper function. It is quite clear that these two courses have done a great dea l to bring the United States closer to the international program and to provide American judges with additional technical insight. The NGJ A thanks Frank Bare and the USG F for making them a reality and looks forward to helping to provide similar FIG courses throughout the United States in the immediate years to come.
HI REPORT by fohn Nooney 18 Lavington Dr. Weston, Ontario
A PERSONAL COMMENT Now that our national mail strike is settled may I again suggest that our communications get back to normal. I have written many letters in the past to people holding office in our Sport, to congratulate them or sometimes to request inform a tion , or for some other reason but I HAVE RECE IVED NO REPLY . Ma y I point out that this is very bad manners. I n thi s day a nd age , surely a reply or thank you is not too much to ask. The Sport is now in a tremendous growth period and good communication is essential to the growth of the sport. My second comment is about the tra ining and coaching of our gymnasts, in the past five
years we (I meaT! man y of the officials of the Sport) spent a great deal of time having meetings and organi zing and drawing up charts etc., etc. , etc. , but how much time was in the gym with our young gymnasts, how many practical work outs a nd clinics were org a nized , how much time was spent REALLY TEACHING GYMNASTICS as against organizing it. If you will remember there was a day , when we could beat Mexico, Cuba, etc., and could really challenge the U.S.A. CAN WE NOW where are the Seniors and for that matter where are the Juniors. May I appeal to the leaders in the Sport to get out of the meeting rooms and into the gymnasiums , we do have a great deal of coaches and judges time spent around tables. Our boys and girls are keen and talented but they desperately need good coachin~. In case you don 't think I practice what preach ask anyone in Toronto if I have not spent the last three years with the little ones , helped by another old timer Eugene Oryshyn I would like to tell many of our judges you have a responsibility to coach and spend time in the gym. Age group gymnastics is the key and we all know it, can we cut the meetings around the tables and get around the apparatus and teach swings , kips , etc. , if not we will soon have no gymnasts to organize.
HERE AND THERE World Student Games Representi-ng Canada were Santy Hartley U.B.C. , Karen Dean Vancouver City College , Liz Swinton York University , Louise Lamonthe McMaster Univ. and the coach was Mrs. Carol Anne Letheran. Men 's team , Steve Mitruk McMaster Univ. , Tom Kinsman York , Tim Sedgewick and Gary Balcombe Saskatchewan Univ. and the coach was Hartmut Fink.
York University Summer Seminar Attending this year was H aruhiro Matsuda (former surname Yamashita) his presence was a great asset to this years summer school , a total of 500 students attended over the three week period. This is becoming a truly national school. Geoff Elliot from the Univ. of Alberta and Gordie Gannon of B.C. were on staff and again we had Boris Bajin and his wife from Yugoslavia. Dr. Taylor and staff are to be congratulated. York University is really helping our Sport. .
Canadian Gymnastic Federation Schedules and news are requested by Lew Waller our National Secretary. Please subscribe to the Newsletter. Address changes: W. Weiler 31 Parc Lauruer, St. Jean , Quebec ; Cal Girard , 49 Centerepark Dr. , Blackburn Hamlet , Ontario ; Jacque Chouinard , 2 Chemin de la Cilline, St. Adele, P.Q.; Jacqueline St. Jean , 234 St. Joseph St. , Dorion P.Q. Girls selected for the World Championship team are as follows Lise Arsenault , Susan Buchanan , Jenny Diachen, Sandra Hartley , Nancy McDonnell , Glenna Sebeysten, and Lise Ouellette. The final team will be selectet. from the above. Mrs. Savage will coach the team.
National Championships The 1971 National Championships have been awarded to Ontario and the 1972 to Alberta. The national technical committees have laid down specific instructions on the holding of these important meets.
Two Quotes The first one is from the B.C. newsletter and was sent in by Jill Winberg , Age 9 Winning is Fun Sure But winning is not the point
Wanting to win is the point Not giving up is the point Never being satisfied with what you have done is the point Never letting anyone down is the point Play to win Sure But lose like a champion Because it's not winning that counts What counts is tying The second quote is from Colin Wackett Pres. , Etobicoke Jaycees Gym Club from the Ontario Newsletter. " Surely the only concern and interest should be directed to improve the effectiveness and performance of the gymnast, whether a beginner or an advanced competitor. This Sport will not advance without the correct attitude towards the gymnast- they must become our main motivation.
Judges Meeting at the National Championships National Committee consists of representatives from all the areas of Canada under the chairmanship of Jacque Chouinard, Quebec.
Present International Judges in Canada A. Bedard, Quebec ; H. Fink , Ontario , W. Stephanchuck , Manitob a ; G. Bibleheimer , Manitoba ; J. Hoyle, Nova Scotia; J. Tutte, B.C. ; J. Chateris , Ontario, J. Mowat, Manitoba; W. Weiler, Quebec ; J. Chouinard, Quebec ; J. Nooney , Ontario ; Tom Zivic, Ontario ; Cal Girard , Ontario. Judges chosen for World Championships ; Will y Weiler, I st choice and standby , E . OrysFiyn. For future events our iIiternationaljudges will rotate to gain experience. All judges holding F . I.G. Cards are granted Canadian National judges brevet. I n future only judges holding national judging brevets can attend F.I.G. courses or clinics. Arrangements are being for another F.I.G . C linic.
New Coaches Committee The following are members of the national coaches committee J. Cote , T. Zivic, C. Sebeysten , one person from B.C. the chairman is Mr. Andre Bedrad.
Canadian Championships July 5 & 6, 1970 at City 01 st. James-Assiniboia. Manitoba ALL AROUND CHAMPIONS Junior Women - 34 competitors 1. J. Campbell, Ont. 66.25; 2. l. Walker, Ontario 64.65; 3. T. Martin, B.C. 64.1 O. Senior Women - I 9 competitors 1. J. Diachun, Onto 71.15; 2. T. McDonnell, Ont. 69.85; 3. S. Hartley, B.C. 68.45 Team Champions, Jr. 6 gymnasts Scores of 5 counting. Jr. Women 1. Ontario 2. B.C. 3. Quebec Jr. Men 1. Quebec 2. Ontario 3. B.C. Junior Men - 30 competitors 1. J. Gagnon, Quebec" 98.55; 2. B. Medd, Ontario 98.30; 3. R. Bigras, Quebec 96.75 Senior Men - 13 competitors 1. A Simard, Quebec 105.00; 2. S. Jensen, Quebec 102.60; 3. B. Mackie, B.C. 101 .45 Team Champions, Sr. 4 gymnasts Scores of 3 counting Sr. Women 1. Ontario 2. B.C. 3. Quebec Sr. Men 1. Quebec 2. B.C. 3. Ontario
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MG PHOTO ESSAY / A Look at the Worm-up Photos by Ken Sakoda
The Smoking Gymnast? For many years, coaches and athletes had no way of knowing the actual re lationship betwee n s moking a nd performance as scientific facts were not availab le. Howeve r, much of th e literature on tobacco a nd it 's effects is increasing due to an increase in the hea lth rel ated di seases. Would it not be wi se for coaches to recognize that evidence concerning the detriment a l effe cts of s moking on a thlete s continues to ri se? I n fact. isn't it poss ibl e th at pa rticipation in spo rt s can be one of the most effective deterrent s to the use of tobacco? However, the coach and the pl ayers mu st be full y informed to make a sound effort to a bstain from anything which might impair pelforma nce . It is not the intent of this articl e to exa mine in depth the full implication s of the effects of s moking on th e body. but rather: I) to denote. to so me degree, inform ation re lati ng to smok ing tha t might be considered pe rtinent to the gymnas t and the coach that view s moking and sports as a que stionable good re lation ship: 2) to offer the coach a great and meaningful challe nge to the coaching profess ion by he lping a sugges ted list of references for the coach and athlete to acquire more depth as to the s mok ing problem in general. A few of th e conclusion s deri ved fro m scientific investigat ions linking c iga rette smoking with poor phy sica l performa nce should be extremely importa nt to the gym nast. Co nsider the effects of nicotine on the body with poss ioi e impairment of move me nt efficiency. The initi al effec t of nicotin e is o ne of a ph ysical a nd me nta l stimul ation followed immedi atel y by a de clin e in both res pon ses. It is ironical th at the mu sc les themse lves remain in good physical condition ready for action , but th e nicotine part ia ll y or, in so me cases, completely blocks the ncrvc impul ses from reaching the act ive mu scles. This is done by suppre ss ing the impul ses at the re lay station s (ganglia) in the nerve circuits before it reac hes th e mu scles. Such a condition might help to exp la in why so me smoking a thle tes have a slowe r reaction time than non -smok ing athletes. It is co nceivab le that through suc h nerve int erfe rence, one might be prone to awkward and uncontrolled movement s. It is w ise to adhere to the " nosmoking" rule , if a ny , in a sport such as gy mnastics in that react ion time , clear thinking, and precise move ments are di stin ctl y importa nt in refere nce to survival, precision a nd efficiency of movement s kills. It is indica ted that nicotine as acquired through cigarette s moking increases the instabilit y of blood pressure. Fluctuation of blood press ure is norma l, but heavy a nd consistent , stimulation as caused by smoking re nde rs th e victim with prolonge d a nd eve ntu al sustained hypertension. Such a condition places added strain upon the heart , especially the athlete. the heart attempt s to wo rk against th e added stra in by becoming en larged , but structurall y weaker and susceptible to fa ilure. Associated with such a condition is an increase in circulatory di sturbance dec reas ing th e blood flow to the active muscles with ine vit ab le poor ph ys ical performance. One other area of concern as re lated to a sport highl y depe nde nt upon th e participants hands for execut ion of sk ills, if any. That is , nicotine causes a construction of tin y blood vesse ls in the s kin of the hand s which causes the tempera ture a t these a reas to drop considerably. Likewise , there is, in many cases , a slowing or stopping of the blood flo w in the capillaries. Such an abate of reduced blood when needed in the active ti ss ues becomes one of concern as to th e poss ibl e bad effects on th e reaction time of th e s moker's hand s. Thi s 12
would see m co ntradictory, too , to the ge neral warm-up rul es as to th e benefic ia l effect derived from suc h. Appare ntl y a gym nast would be conce rned in utili zing hi s hand s to the maximum to a id in proper executi on of gy mn as ti c ski ll s a nd , likew ise, mu st detect a nd delete th at which proj ec ts poss ibl e barriers to success. I nasmuch as the ef(iciency of th e circu latory sys te m is highl y dependent upon man y factors , o ne suc h factor is th e ava il ability of hemog lobin in the red cells which se rve as th e maj or tran sport sys tem for oxygen to th e acti ve muscles . I t is evident that in order for th e mu scles to co ntinue th eir act ivity , the s uppl y of oxygen mu st not be ha mpered. Howeve r, carbo n monox id e, as acquired by s moking, a nd hemoglobin have a greater tendency to link toge th e r th an oxyge n and hemoglobin . In essence, carbo n monoxide reduces th e a mount of oxyge n ava ilable fo r acti ve ti ss ues to continue their wo rk as we ll as hinderin g the circ ul ato ry mechanisms of ge tting th e metabolic was te out of the circulatory system. Such condition s o nl y increase th e onset of mu sc ul ar fatigue , th e reby decrease th e gym nast's ab ilit y to perform strenuou s routines. There are man y other com pli cat ions th at res ult from s mok ing. Likew ise, th e conc luding stateme nt , as denoted be low, a re now support ed by avail able resea rch tha t bac ks up the coac h's tradition a l rule again st s mok ing. The y a re: I) The membranes that lin e the a ir passages of s moke rs are thickened and abnormal. The hair- li ke c ili a soon become ineffecti ve in re mov in g tox ic age nts introdu ced into the pulmona ry system: th en , allo win g harmful substances to stay in the respira tory tract. 2) The s moker's c hronic cough da mages the iung tiss ue of many persons ca using a rupture of th e wall s of the minut e a ir sacs of th e lungs. 3) The diffu sibi lit y of oxyge n in the lungs is significa ntl y decreased a mo ng regula r smokers. 4) There is an indi vidu al sens iti vity to tobacco th at wo uld se ri ously affect pelformance in instances of rela ti ve ly high sens iti vit y. 5) Smoking depresses menta l ac ti vit y a nd reflex re sponses. The facts a lso assoc iate ciga rett e s moking with chronic di sease. abse nt ee is m due to ill ness. a nd s ho rte ned life expectancy to just mention a few. It is apparent. therefore. th a t smoking is no t compa tibl e w ith attainment of athle ti c fitness. Thi s mea ns. in terms of coac hing, th ere s hould be direct a nd correlated hea lth inst ru cti on re lating to the sc ie nti fic fac ts of s mokin g w ith the gy mnas tic 's progra ms. I nstruction s should not be one of mora li zin g or a one s hot a ffair. but instead , it should be co ntinuou s a nd /s1rictl y from a sc ien tifi c viewpoint. The coach must accept the re sponsibilit y of not a ll owing hi s ath lete to s moke by co nvin cing them as to reaso ns why th ey shou ld not s moke.
Bastedo, Wolter A. Pharmacology, fhero peutics, Writing. Philadelphia: W. B. Sounders Co.. 1947.
and Prescri p rion
Bauer. W. W. Todo y's Health Guide. United States: American
Medical Association, 1965. &ird, Oliver E. Textbook of College Hygiene. London : W. B. Sounders Co., 1953.
Bresnahan, George T.. and others. Trock ond
The C. V. Mosby Co. , 1964. Dayton , William. Athle tic Training and Cond itioning_ New York : The Ronold Pres s Co. , 1965. Johnson. Warren R. Science and Medicine of Exercise and Sports . New York , Horper ond Brolhers Publishers, 1960. Kalfs. Corl E.. and Daniel D. Arnheim. Modern Principles of Athletic Training . Saini lou is: The C. V. Mosby Co., 1963. Mathews, Donald K. Meosuremen ts in Physico I Educotion. London: W. B. Sounders Co. , 1965. McCurdy, James H., and Leonard A. Lorson. The Ph ysiology of Exercise. Philodelphio, l eo ond Febige r, 1939. McDevitt, Ell en, and Irvin S. Wright. The Biolog ic Effects of Tobacco. Boston, little, Brown ond Co .. 1955. Morehouse. laurence E., and Augu'stus T. Miller. Physiology of Exer~ cis e . Soint louis, The C. V. Mosby Co .. 1963. William . Jesse F. , and Whitelaw R. Morrison . A Text Book of Physical Education. Philodelphio , W. B. Sounders Co. , 1939. PERIODICALS Coccese, Anthony, " Th e Effects of Cigorette Smoking on Ihe Bol·
listocard iogram," American
Journol XXXXII (October,
1951), 596·98. Comment by the NOl ionol Federotion of Stote High School Athlet ic
Associations and the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Sports of the American Medicol Association, "Cigarettes and Athletics Fitness," Journal of Health , Physicol Education, and Recreatian (October, 1967), 14. Greenberg, D. S. "Ciga rettes and Cancer: Pressure Grows for the Government to Respond to Health Hazard," Science, (XXXVI (Moy, 1962), 639. Karpovich, Peter V. " Effects of Smoking Upon Recuperation from Loca l Muscular Fatigue," The Research Quarterly, XX (Oc tober, ( 949),250.256 Moutis, Nicholas P. "Cardiovascular Measurements of College Age Smokers and Non·Smokers," The Research Quarterly, XXVI (December, 1955),454·460. Reeves, Warren E.. and Lawrence E. Morehouse, " The Acute Effects of Smoking upon the Physical Performance of Habitual Smokers," The Research Quarterl y, XXI (October, 1950), 245·248. Rolh, Groce M., ond others. " The Effect of Smoking Cigorettes ond of the Intravenous Administration of Nicotine on the Electrocar· diagram, Basal Metabolic Rate, Cutaneous Temperature, Blood Pressure, and Pu lse Rate of Normal Persons," Th e Jaurnal af the American Medical Association, CXXV (July, 1944). 761 -767 Russek, Henry I., ond olhers. " Effects of Tobocco ond Whiskey on the Cardiovascular System," The Journal of the American Medical Association, (lVII (Februory, 1955), 563·568. Ryan, Allan 1. " Smoking and Ath letics." Journal of the Canadian Association for Health, Physical Educ ation, and Recreation, XXXVI (Jonuory, 1967), 32. Schilpp, Robert W. "A Mothemoticol Description of the Heort Rote Curve of Response to Exercise," The Research Quarterly, XXII (Oecember, ( 951),439.445. "Smoking: The School 's Responsibility," Journal of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, XXXV (November· December, 1964), 10. Stone, Donald B. "Smoking," Public Health Reports, XXCIII (March, 1968),224. Willgoose, Corl E. "T obocco Smoking, Strength, ond Musculor En· durance," The Research Quarterly, XVIII (October, 1947), 22 1222.
PUBLICATIONS American Cancer Society, Inc. Smoking and Lung Cancer. American Conce r Society Pomphlet No. 2023. New York, New York, 1962. McGrady, Pot. Cigarettes and Health . Public Affairs Pamphlet No. 200. New York, The Public Affoirs Committee, Inc., 1960. President's Council on Physicol Fitness. A Complete Exercise Plan for Boys 12 to lB. U. S. Governmen t Printing Office No. 717-485. Woshington, U. S. GPO, 1964. U.S. Deportment of Health Educa tion, and Welfare, Chronic Bron· chitis and Emphysema . Public Health Service Publication No. 11 03· F. Woshington, GPO, 1967. U.S. Deportment of Health Educa tion, and Welfare. Summary of the Report of the Surgeon General's Advisory Committee on Smoking ond Heolth. Public Health Service Publication No. 1103-0. Washinglon, GPO, 1964.
NEWSPAPERS Alvarez, Wolter C. " Dr. Alvarez Says," The Shreveport Times , De· cember, 1968, pp. B, 1 2.
Imagination In Gymnastics Dan J . Millman Gymnastics Coach Stanford U nivers it y " I have see n on film ," sa id a friend of mine , "a gy mn as t leap eleven fee t in the ai r from a sta nding position on the gro und. Whil e in the air, he does a full twi st , then catches th e hi gh bar int o an immediate giant!" "That's a bold-faced fiction , or I owe you five dollars," I replied. He proceeded to show me hi s film of Nakaya ma 's full twi sting hecht from the high ba rbackwards. The above a necdote illustrates more than how to lose five doll ars. It shows how one can view so me a mazi ng and uniqu e gym nas tic s mov eme nt s on film , bac kwards. Some of the move s are not yet possible; others are. Psychologi sts assure us that o ur imag ination does not work in a vacuum ... it needs nouri shment from outside st imuli. F ilms a re one of our imaginat ion 's richest so urces of stimul ation. Every move ment , new and old , has its reve rse. The Diomido v a nd the Hea ly co me to mind immediately, though the actu al number of move-backward move co mbinat ions is almost unlimit e d . And for every new. move "created ," its reverse is also born . Suppose a gy mnast is a nxio us to originate a new movement all hi s own- so met hing no one has performed before (to his know ledge). Is he limited to watching a ll hi s o ld film s backwards for inspiration? Indeed not. There a re a number of sources for gaining idea-mo me ntum. I) Any move ment can be extended one step further. Picture a ny common movement with a noth er ha lf, o r full twist. A one a nd one- ha lf twist ing st utz hand is only a matter of time, mechanics and initiati ve. Ho w about adding so me so mersaulting to a move ? Us ing para llel ba rs agai n, try a pike front ove r-ba r la nding in a hand stand. Think of so me id eas on yo ur ow n. 2) Most moves can be reno vated with so me style addit ions . Even a simple stem rise (j a mb) to handstand on the high bar, when done with stra ight a rms throughout , becomes an elegant " new" move. Or a front giant on rings wi th straight arm s . . . as we have recently di scovered. 3) Try pelforming a movement wi th a combination of different positions or positions a nd twists. A piked fl yaway fro m the high bar, a norma ll y elegant di s mount , was rendered even more dyna mic and explosive when a J apa nese gy mn as t added a wide straddl e at th e sa me time he opened from the pike. T he Ya mash ita va ult is a handspring with a ra pid pik eo pen added . 4) One can make imagin ative strides by trying move ment s normall y native to o ne apparatu s ... on another apparatus. We have seen a number of side horse move me nt s transfer to free exe rci se and parallel bars. Has a nyone tri ed a cas t front di s mount .. . from the end of th e para llel bars? 5) One might put two separate movements together to form a new combination. For exa mpl e, on th e high bar, if you do a blind change to a handsta nd , immediate hop to overgrip on suppo rt hand immedi ate reach under (to vau lt or s uch), you have an interesting new move' 6) The lad ies should not be forgotten . Watch women's gy mnast ics for additional ideas - gy mnastics ideas that is. Because women aren't
generally as stro ng as men , they cannot co mpensate for in correct mechanics wit h strength , a nd must rely o n superior exte nsio n a nd fle xibilit y. Men have only begun to exp lore this area. For exa mpl e, instead of s impl y doing a back extension roll hand sta nd , step do wn, how different it would ap pear if we co uld lower one leg to the ground keeping the other pointed upwards (needl e splits) , th en lowe r through a scale to a sta nd . Perhaps the reade r may deve lop hi s ow n system of readying himself fo r inspiration. Pe rso na ll y, I like to awaken a t three in the morning, place my feet in tepid water, sip hot tea, and a lte rnqte ly listen to acid-rock and cool , cool classical. (H ot and coo l mu sic alternatel y applied to ears, increases menta l circulation). With regards to o ri gina lit y in gymnastics , two importa nt point s should be s tressed : First ; it is essential th at every gy mn ast make sure tha t he has mas te red the fundamental , stock movement - the importan t basic building blocks of the art - before trying th branch o ut
into new materi al. It is impo rt ant to maste r the bas ic voc ubulary before in ve nting a new language. Second, th e gym nast s ho uld be warned that not a ll o ri gi nal move ment s are valuable asse ts to hi s rout in e. It is all too easy for th e in experie nced gy mn as t to feel that hi s new move mu st be place d in hi s routine , often at th e cos t of compos itio na l int egrit y. The moveme nt should above a ll be aesthetic. N ew moves a re oft en so complex and intri ca te, the y do n' t fit into th e routine and ac tu a ll y detract from th e dra ma tic fl ai r o r "character" of th e routine. It mu st fit the routine , a nd it mu st fit the indi vidu a l sty le of the gy mnast ' A ll too o ft en , imag inat ion is directed towa rd single movements. Wh y not direct our mind s toward the whole routin e. Any composer who thought o nl y of single not es would probab ly leave so mething wanting in the total sym pho ny. Many of our gymna,s ts are single- note me n. I) I'd li ke to introduce the concept of dramatic contrast in gym nas tic compos itions: 2) One as pect of pleas urable li v ing is enjoy ing and deve loping contrast. Does n't food taste th e best whe n we are really hun gry ? Isn ' t a sa una bath bes t on a wintry night , or a glass of coo l wa te r more sati sfy ing after a dese rt hik e? T hese a re exa mples of contrast. Aesth etics a re the conce rn of gym nastics and aes the ti cs may be defi ned as se nsory pleasure. In gy mn ast ics, we can apply co ntrast in vari ous ways. Picture the vaulte r just beginin g to run: he slowly leans forward , tipping off balance ... hi s run builds s peed a nd potential energy ... sudden ly, he ex plodes off th e boa rd a nd fli es high into the a ir, performing a graceful gy ra tion and WHAM! He stops dead still. This is dra matic contrast. Ex plosive , d yna mic move me nt a nd a bsolute ly sudden, dead sto ps. Even those gymnasts who prefe r to co ntinu all y flow through a fre e exercise routine li ke a forceful ri ve r still have the dra mat ic effect of ... Wham! ... stick ing the di smount. A noth er type of contrast is us ing the full a mplitude possible on the a ppara tu s. On pa ra llel bars, it see ms more dramatic to fl y upwa rd thro ugh a handstand a nd immediately down be low the bars, and up aga in , than to rema in up fo r a time . .. then finally drop down below. But of course, thi s is up to individua l aest hetic judgment. We do not merely deve lop our gymnas ti cs by us in g imagination. We a lso deve lo p our imagin ation through gy mnastics. This co nsta nt interacti on and interplay , this total ph ys ical and menta l deve lopment which found throu gh our a rt , is perhaps what makes our pain a nd" sweat wO I:th whil e. It might be interesting if MG readers a round th e country and the world would write in reporting new move ments they have performed or actu a ll y seen pe rformed , giving credit to the originator. For exa mple , thi s writer has heard that: D enni s Sherma n of Santa Monica, Ca li foni a, has done a double back and has a lso do ne a back-back with a double twist ... a ll on the soft sand at the beach! Doug Boger, now at U. of Arizona has done a doubl e back on the ground in street shoes and full y dressed . .. incidenta lly , he did it on concrete. Donn y Martinez, a profession al gym nast who became an aerial star under the tutelage of Bob Yerkes , has done a triple back on th e ground in tumbling. D ale Hardt, forme rl y of Southern Illin o is, has done a full-in on the ground with a free spot from coach Bill Meade. Dale has also done a back with a triple twist in free exercise .. a long th e side. A ll th e above are hearsay. What have you seen , readers? 13
GF AGE GROUP GYMNASTIC WORKBOOK The finest pu blicatian af its kind available. Boys' and girls' routines, ages 6 thraugh 18 years of age, divided into divisions, complete with stick figures and values of parts. It will make a perfect school program or training manual for any coach or student. Also availoble in Spanish.
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1970 Yugoslavia World Gymnastics Championships Super 8 - in color The world's most exciting combinations, twists and new techniques have been recently filmed . See the winning and top optional routines, for all Olympic events, in semi-slow motion taken from the best locations. In order to show more variety of routines, a second reel for men ha s been produced showing top competitors throughout the world . Men's - # 1 4 - 400 ft .. ..... ... .. $35.00 Ppd. Men's - #15 - 300 ft .. .... .... .$25.00 Ppd. Women's - # 16 - 400 ft . .. .. .... $35.00 Ppd.
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of Dimes THI S S PACE C ONT RI B U TED BY T HE P UBLI S HER
Competitive Gymnastics in Switzerland by Ernest Furblur Ge nev a , Switzerland The National Sports Federation (Soc iete Federale de Gymnastique) of Switzerland is the world's oldest a ll -encompassing sport s orga ni zat ion. It was founded in 1832 in the town of Aarau. Out of vocation , the SFG contented it se lf to remaining a civic group and confined a ll its competitions within the Swiss boundaries. At the turn of th e century consideration was given to the values of inte rn ational competition , and an observer was sent to the Olympics in Anvers in 1920. Switzerland made its first official entry into the 1924 games in Paris. Ten years later the Swiss participated in a world gymnast ics championship. Thi s was in Budapest in 1934 when the Swiss won the tea m title , a nd their top man , Eugene Mack , won the allaround. The Swiss enjoyed a string of victories until the earl y 1950s because of a highly organized nation a l progra m comprised of pure amateurs. While other countries were putting tremendous emphasis on the sport for among other, prestige a nd political reasons , the Swiss took a back seat. Ironicall y , th e third-place tea m of the early 1960s was being coached by Jack Gunthard , a former Swiss champion . Gunthard was summoned back with " carte blanche" conditions to coach the nationa l team. H is efforts brought recognition back to Switzerland which is ranked ninth s ince its success in Mexico in 1968. Co mpetition on the high school and university level is practically nonexiste nt ; however , basic gymnastics is learned in school. The foundation of a ll spo rts lies at the club level , and the SFG is the controlling organization. At the age of 8 a boy may enroll in a loca l club. Here he will learn the basics in track and field , gym nastics , games and general body conditioning. In a vast majority of the clubs the moniteur is a nonpaid layma n. Present-day emphasis is that a club become specialized in one s port , depending upon the qualifications of the moniteur. For those interested in gymnastics , there is a very comprehensive se ries of compu lso ry exercises (Ie programme de classification) made up by the national coaches . From age 8 to II there are three different tests based on performance. Each test is comprised of an elementary rou't ine on p-bars , h-ba r, floor ex and a vault. From age II to 15 there a re competitions using on ly compulsory routines in all events except the side horse. From age 16 there is a series of four different compulsories ranging in difficulty in a ll events. Gymnasts capable of performing in the third a nd fourth groups of compulsories may be considered for the junior national or elite nation al team. Although the compulsory program is basically age group, a gymnast may advance , according to hi s capabilities. All exercises are given a competitive value to facilitate judging . The head nation a l coach and his a ssis tant , Marce l Adatte , are high ly respected and competent technicians. Adatte is respons ible for most clinics, the formation of national in structors a nd the junior national team (gymnas ts up to age 21). Three days per week he coaches promisi ng yo ung gym nasts in training centers in Lausanne, Olten and Bern. Gunthard hand les on ly the e lit e team made up of abo ut 15 gymnasts . Thi s group works out Tuesday , Thursday and Saturday at the National Sports School at Macolin. On Monday and Wednesday evenings Gunthard trave ls to a training cen ter in Zurich to wo rk with members of the group who live in the area. The elite gymnasts
make specia l arrangements with their emp loyers in order to train . Their travel expense , plus room and board, at Maco lin are covered by the National Gymnastics Federation , a subsec tion of the SFG . An elite gym nast is expected to repay these expenses if he breaks the two-year renewable training con trac t that he signs with the coach . A workout usua ll y begins with a IS-minute comprehensive warmup often done to music. Team vaulting fo ll ows, then a bre a kup into sma ll groups of three to four gym nasts for the apparat us work. A strenuo us strength workout follows each pract ice sess ion. All work done in a practice session with or withou t the coach must be noted in a notebook which is checked periodica lly by the coach. The compet itive year is broken down into several parts. From January to mid-May is the first preparatory period with stress on learning new moves , combinations and working part and whole routines . Mid-May to the end of June is the competitive season and refining of routines. Two weeks of total rest follows or light participation in other sports. Mid-Ju ly to the end of October is the second period of preparation , followed by the seco nd period of competition , and the last two weeks of December is the second rest period. Aside from dual meets the Nation a l Gymnastics Federation organizes each year a na tion al team and individua l cham pion ship. Festivals are a very important part of Swiss culture, a nd every two years there is a three-day nationa l gymnastics festival and every five years a national sports festival w hich draws over 30 ,000 participants for wrest ling. track a nd field , gymnastics and games. Switzerland naturally has fewer problems in organizat ion than other countries like the U.S.A. The geog rap hi c size of the country lends it self to week ly practice sess ion s with the coac h. Both coaches are full-time profession a ls, a nd there is no friction or intervention from other individuals or groups. The gymnas ts are prepared s lowly with solid basics and not rushed into competition before they are ready. One of the biggest assets in Switzerland is th at the Swiss are fond of tradition, and gy mnastics is a tradition. It is this writer 'S opinion that Switzerland will in the future recover it s place among the gymnastic le aders of the world.
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I~ ~~~~OOW~~I: Masayuki Walanabe
by Ken Sakoda
Wa tanabe: Rated as the best horizontal bar co mpetitor in the world, of the top 10 AA gymnasts in Japan and now one of the most respected coaches on the U.S. college gymnastic scene.
\. Assistant Coach Wotanabe talks to the Cal team before the NCAA competitions, head cooch Frey looks on,
What kind of background do you have in gymnastics '! I was 13 yea rs old when I stal1ed gy mnas tics. In J apa n, in juni or high schoo l there are on ly three event s : free ex, high bar and long horse vaulting. I n high school we sta rt ed 6 even ts. My junior hi gh school was located in Hi roshima a nd the hi gh sc hool. I graduated from the high sc hool a nd went to Nippon Ph ys ical Educati on Coll ege. I have graduated from thi s college. What are some of the awards you received in your gymnastics career? I was I I th in the a ll-arou nd in high sc hool. In Nippon Ph ys ica l Educat ion Co llege , I twice broke my Ach illes tendon in th e second year. I n my third yea r I had my fi rst nat iona l competition in the co ll ege national s. I took fi rst pl ace on high bar. I took I I th in the a ll- arou nd . My se ni or year I took third in so me tri als in Japan fo r th e U nivers iade , but followin g the N H K meet , I we nt to Europe on a tou r a nd did not ge t to compete in the Unive rsiade. I was injured in Eu rope and the rest of th e year was very bad -this was 1963 . The next yea r, I competed in the Tokyo O lympic tryou t but did not make the team. I was the fi rst a lternate on the J apanese tea m in the World Game s in Dortmund, and I went to D ortmund. That yea r, I was rated fifth in a ll-J a pa n, and I took high ba r, rings seco nd , parallel bars 3rd. In th e tryo ut for the las t O lympic , I fell from the high ba r and I could not compete on the last even ts. What made you decide to come over here to the United States? I am very interested in coac hing. In J apa n there are ve ry ma ny coaches a nd the gy mn as iums and equipme nt a re ge nera ll y very poor. T his co untry is great all over: lots of equipmen t and the re a re lots of great things in thi s country. Are you working on a graduate degree? I am going to . At the University of California. How do you structure workouts for your team? I bas ically stress all -aro und. In th is country there are spec iali sts which is ve ry ni ce , bu t under international rules it says all -around. I think in thi s country the a ll-around has a lot of potentia l. 18
How do you think the United States can come up in international competition? It is very easy to practice one or two even ts as a speciali st, but they can 't compete internati onall y. It is pretty difficu lt to push th e allaround man ; he has to stay the w ho le worko ut fo r 6 events every day . The coach has to understand the a ll-a round men. T hey need lots of help. During the seaso n we do routines. Lots of gy mnasts have problems such as poor basics, poor mechanics . .. These kinds of things take work to correct a nd they a re all different problems. Basically yo u have to approach them individua ll y. When we were interviewing George Greenfield, he mentioned that you sometimes go to the half of the move just preceding the one that they are missing. What is behinh this technique? The coac h must always think why is it happe ning, why does he fa ll off? We have to step back a nd look two or three moves to see what is happen ing. Often times the reason that he fai led is in a prior move. I think often he fails for a lack of bas ics . On para lle l bars in a swing pirouette whe n someone falls off, he probably is not doing his swing correctly. We have to find what things he is lack ing in. Do you have trouble teaching these things to Ameri can gymnasts? I n this country there are grea t sw immers and the re are lots of them. Most teen agers are very difficult to teac h; it is a very difficult age. And ye t they a re the best sw immers in th e wo rld . This cou ntry has its ow n style a nd its best way. Like the Japanese , they have th ei r own way. Should we copy the Japanese way? I think this is what oftentimes happens. I think this is the wrong way. Even th ough imitation is th e fas test way , we have to cons ide r the cultu ral things a nd we have to consider w hy th e Japa nes e are the best gymnas ts in th e world. It is impossible to copy some things exact ly. Most Japanese gymnasts are thought of as really dedicated whereas a lot of American gymnasts don 't become that involved. Gymnastics is not an end in itself. In American it seems to be a man-to-man competitive thing. Is our competitive feeling different from the Japanese competitive feeling?
The J apa ne se learn from th e ju ni or hi gh to the coll ege leve l what the coaches e mph as ize. This is a n indiv idual spo rt , yet they emphasize tea m. I think this helps the indi vidual in many things in hi s way of thinking, in hi s approac h. I think the most important thing is how they think abo ut gy mnas tics. Lots of gymnasts in thi s country are doing it for enjoyment , for fun , for very difficu lt or spectac ular moves, but mo st of th e Japanese gym nasts think of it more as a sport. Their approach is differe nt. We can't change it immediately , but I think that if a bi g orga ni za tion pus hes compulsories - yo u know these comp ul so ri es incl ude lots of basicsthi s is very good for th e gymnasts . I think in thi s count ry the top men in the big organizati on have to think li ke thi s. I think even in high school we can not omit the optiona l, but we should emph as ize th e compulsory. We bui ld up the junior high sc hool and high school with bas ics in compu lsories , then it is easy to deve lop the advanced sk ills with this founda ti on. You mentioned the inadequacy of equipment in Japan. How does everybody get so good then? Well , in the last couple yea rs a lo t of gymnasiums have been buil t. Now a ll of the schoo ls have gy mn as iums and equipment. It is much better. What kind of recognition does gymnastics get in Japan? Like here, I think , it is a minor spo rt too. In Japan big meet s are televised , like th e A IIJapan champions hi ps , N H K meet , the tria ls like the Olympics, and the All -Co ll ege C hampionships. I think th e nationa l high schoo l championship is a lso televised. What are your plans after graduation? I wou ld li ke to stay after I graduate. I am preparing for a Mas ter's in PE. I a m pl a nning to app ly for permanent resi den cy. I wou ld li ke to coach gy mn as ts up to my leve ls of skill s. You know I have some internationa l co mpeti tio n experience a nd I think I ca n he lp the more advanced gymnast. I a m a lso interested in the junior high a nd hi gh school gym nast. I cannot say where in the United S ta tes : I have been a yea r in Ca lifornia and here (Phila delphi a) is the first time for me in the East. Are there coaches organizations in Japan? Each prefecture has an organizatio n and the various isla nd s. Japan is a very s ma ll coun try and they are close toget her. The y can get together, the coac hes and the judges, to have the same ideas a nd th ey ca n coac h the gy mnasts th e same. I n this country, it is so big, and it is a very difficult thing. Have you some observation of comments which you would like to pass on? I thin k more coaches have to study techniqu es . They can teach but if they don 't know what and how , they can not do a good job of teac hin g. Especia ll y the junior high a nd hi gh school coaches will find this importan t. Maybe we sho uld have lots of coaches c lini cs instead of gy mn as ts clinics. The gymnasts cl ini c is fine and ve ry good but perhaps every c li nic should have so mething for the coaches too. T here we would discu ss technique s, organization, direc tion of te ac hing and coaching so we a ll have th e sa me ideas.
Extrapo Iati ons by Robert B. Davis Gymnastics coach La Serna High School
When I was at the gymnastic camp at Arbolado, Gary Hoskins (former national side horse champion) and I were sitting around playing a game which went something like this: "Wouldn't it be outasite if. .. " and then we would think of something which we felt would add pzazz and double moxie to a gymnastic meet. Example: Wouldn 't it be outasite if the gymnast could design his own uniform ? Maybe fluorescent orange shirts with purple flare pants or girls with sequined leotards, boa feathers or some such - headbands , etc. - the possibilities are endless. It certainly wou ld make the gymnast look more individualistic. Example: Wouldn 't it be outasite if the lighting was more spectacular and dramatic? How about strobe lights? Black lighting, colored lighting, spot lights - wow! I f that wouldn't add some of the old puncheroo, I'll eat my Japanese gymnastic shoes. Example: Wouldn 't it be outasite if the equipment were more colorful? How about a Pucci design on the side horse? Flowered mats? Beatboards that not only were more colorful but maybe made noise like a foghorn when jumped upon. Maybe the long horse could light up like a neon sign. Macrame straps on the rings anyone? Example: Wouldn't it be outasite if you could have a live rock band play at a meet? After all , gymnastics is really for the generation that is competing. Anyway , those are just a few of the many ideas we came up with. I sometimes think we have a national inferiority complex concerning gymnastics just because we don't tromp all over the Russians and the Japanese in the Olympics , but wouldn ' t they be surprised if the U.S. team showed up wearing ... ?
RESEARCH AND FITNESS IN GYMNASTICS By James S. Bosco , Ph .D. San Jose State College San Jose . California 95114
Rumpf, John F., " Incidence and Seriousness of Trampoline Accidents in Secondary Schools: A Multi-Regional Survey," unpublished Master's Thesis , University of Florida, Zanesville, Florida, 1969. Purpose This study was designed to provide accident data and to analyze the advisability of employing trampolining as an activity in public school physical education programs. Procedures Source of Data - Data used in this study were obtained through questionnaires sent to public secondary schools in California, Florida, Iowa, New Mexico, Pennsylvania and Was hington known to have used trampolines in their physical education programs. It was believed that data collected from these states , each representing a different geographical section of the country, would fairly represent the entire country. Formation of the Questionnaire-The success of the study depended upon the questionnaire; therefore, considerable effort was exerted to ass ure its completeness and clarity. Information sought was divided into the following six divisions : I. length of time the trampoline had been included in the program and estimated number of students involved per year 2. number of accidents suffered by students on the tra mpoline 3. seriousness of accidents 4. circumstances surrounding each acci dent 5. actual cause of each accident 6. opinion of respondent on safeness of trampolining A cover letter explaining the purpose of the study was included with each questionnaire. This letter assured the prospective respondent that information received from individual schools would be confidential and that a summary of results would be provided if desired. A stamped, addressed return envelope was also included with each questionnaire. Reminder cards were sent to all prospective respondents who had not returned the questionnaire two weeks following its receipt. Those who had not returned the completed document by the fourth week were sent a second copy of the questionnaire. Treatment of the Data- Data obtained from the questionnaire were arranged in table form in terms of both raw numbers and percentage of incidence for the items surveyed. Conclusions were reached through logical analysis of the data and recommendations were made. RESULTS An explanation of some of the headings used in the following table should facilitate the reader's understanding of the data. Total- This refers to the combined total number of the para meter reported by all responding schools. Average- This refers to the total number of the parameter reported by each responding school divided by the number of responding schools. Total Years- This heading refers to the total number of yea rs trampoline instruction had been included in the school program. Thus a school that had included a six-week progra m of trampoline instruction in its curriculum for two years would be reported as having had this
activity for two yea rs rat her tha n twelve weeks. T eacher Not Present- This refers to situations in which a teacher or other authorized supervisor was not in the general area of normal supervision for the equipment. Inadequate Spottin g - This heading refers to situations in which there were less than four spotters around the trampoline at the time of the accident. Table I shows a summary of the accumulated data from the six states surveyed. Two hundred and forty questionnaires were sent and 173 were returned. This represents an overall return of 72.08 percent. Fifteen questionnaires were omitted beca use of a lac k of specificity in answering the questions or because some schools did not have trampolines. The data shown on Table I come from responses on 158 questionnaires. Discussion A total of 486,333 students were reported to have used the tra mpoline in the 158 schools from which data were recorded. This is a n average of 3,078 students at each school. These figures came from a n average of 7.82 years use of trampoline at each responding school , and, no doubt , count 'some students more than once since typically they attend a given school for several years. It is clea r that a great many secondary school boys a nd girls are exposed to tram poline activ ity in school physical education programs. Many respondents indicated th at they had more injuries in activities such as flag football, basketball and soccer than they had during trampoline instruction.
Table I Accumulated Data From The Six States Surveyed:
Magnitude of Use
1,236 students involved 486 ,333 In cidence of Accidents number reported 1,569 S eriousness of Accidents recovery period: I day - 8 days 1,393 9 days - 3 wks. 90 4 wks. - 3 mo. 74 4 mo. - I yr. 6 over I year 6 type of injury: mat abras ion 731 sprain 314 strain 415 dislocation 22 fracture 58 paralys is 2 death I other 29 Circumstances of each Accident teacher not present 33 inadequate spotting 85 faulty equipment 9 Injurious Activity back somersault 175 front somersault 127 back drop 78 front drop 224 fold or move equipment 22 other 39 Opinions on Safeness favorable 145 unfavorable 8 no opinion 5
Average Per School 7.82 3,078.00 9.93 8.81 0.57 0.47 0.04 0.04 4.63 1.99 2.63 0. 14 0.37 0.01 0.01 0.18 0.21 0.54 0.06 1.11 0.80 0.49 1.42 0.14 0.25
Thirteen hundred a nd ninet y-t hree of the 1,569 injuries reported by respondents in thi s study required one to eight days for complete recovery . Sprains, strains a nd mat burns accounted for 92 percent of the reported injuries. Less than six percent of the injuries were classified as fractures or dislocations. Twenty-nine injuries were classified as other, the majority of these being cuts. Two cases of paralysis, one resulting in death , were reported. About seven percent of the accidents reported in the survey occurred when there were less than four spotters present or in the absence of an authorized supervisor. Most respondents indicated that the majority of their injuries occurred when performers la nded improperly on the bed of the trampoline. Few insta nces were reported in which the pelformer rebounded off the trampoline and la nded on the floor. Respondents indicated 224 injuries connected with improperly executed front drops . The back somersault was mentioned 175 times while the front so mersault was responsible for 127 injuries. These figures may have been higher had all respondents indicated the injurious activit y. Nine accidents were caused by fault y equipment. I n one of these insta nces a safety belt snap failed . The remai ning eight injuries were caused by a lack of safety matting a round the fra me a nd spring area of the tra mpoline. One hundred and forty-five teachers believed the tram poline to be safe when properly supervised. Eight believed the trampoline to be dangerous and five expressed no opinion. Six respondents indicated that trampoline activit y had been cancelled in their physical educatio n programs because of past accidents. In some instances , parents had entire area progra ms stopped in spite of recommendations by local ph ysical education organizations. CONCLUSIONS I. A large number of secondary school boys and girls use the tra mpoline when it is available. 2. Trampoline accidents a nd resulting injuries occur at a rate a pproximately equal to , or less tha n that for many other physical education activities . 3. The great majority of tra mpoline injuries are minor. 4. Inadequa te spotting and lack of supervision account for some injuries. 5. Most injuries occur when the performer lands improperly on the bed of the trampoline. 6. The front drop , back somersault and front somersault, in that order, appear to be more dangerous than other stunts. 7. Some injuries could be prevented if all trampoline manufacturers provided safety padding around the tra mpoline frame and spring areas. 8. The majority of respondents indicated that they believed the trampoline to be safe if proper spotting and appropriate progressions were enforced. 9. In some instances, parents have been instrumental in having school trampoline programs eliminated. RECOMMENDATIONS : I. It is recommended that trampoline instruction remain a part of the school ph ys ical education progra ms . 2. Trampolines should be folded and locked when not in use. 3. Students should not be allowed to use the tra mpoline unless there are at least four spotters present. A minimum of six spotters should be present for tra mpolines with beds larger than six feet by 12 feet. 4. Teachers should familiarize themselves with proper progressions and insist that stu21
dents adh ere to these. Special care should be taken when working with front drops , back and front somersau lts. 5. Tra mpoline manufacturers s hould include in the stated base price the provision for safety pads. 6. Since the public is appa rent ly unaware of the va lu es of trampoline act ivi ty and the relative safeness of trampolining , it is recommended that the ge ne ral public be educat ed concern ing this activity .
Background and Trends Toward Scientific Analysis in Gymnastics by Lyle Welser, Professor Georgia Institute of Technology In Co ll aborat ion With Dr. T. K. C ureton , Un iversity of Illinois
Gymnastics: Nomenclature - Types and Concepts INTROD UCT ION: Physical Education and Athl e tic s like a ll other fields which encounter myriads' of complicated problems involving the human body must , in their endeavo r to seek out the answers, emp loy the techniques of science with a ll of its resources. Until this is done , we must rely on that information wh ich has been handed down to us from the past. A llen J. Ryan (A -II ) in hi s " Medical History of G ymnastics " relates that the concept of gymnasti cs has not been uniform ever since it s origin in antiquity in the middle ages. Generally speaking, a ll definitions of gy mnastics can be reduced to two: first, that every intensified movement is gymnastic exercise (Cribasius of Pergamon , 326-403 A.D.) ; and second, that in each exercise th ere is the idea of active volition (Ga len and Avicenna). It woul d seem then that gymnast ics is a rather inclus ive term and basic to all vigorous activity. In days of medieval noblemen , it included , as mentioned in th e "Mirror of Knights ," riding wi th ra pid mounting and dismounting , swimming and diving, shooting with the bow and crossbow , climbing ropes, pol es and ladders, fencing , wrestling, pushing stones , jumping , dancing and tournaments, much of which might be labe led military gymnastics. During the Renaissance , Vittorino Da Leltre (1378-1446) made gymnast ics obligatory in the edu cat ional program w ith the purpose of bringing to the highest perfection the three essential elements of man: body , mind and sou l. I t was considered an indispensable preliminary condition for educat ional success. Hi eronym us Mercurialis (1530-1606) and his followers layed the gro und wo rk for medical gymnast ics where health was the major concern. 011hopedic gymnasti cs came around 16 58-1747. Physiology gave gymnas ti cs a scientific basis by such men as Sanctorius (1561-1636). Upon the progress of mechanics there developed an increasing int eres t in human and an imal movement. Athlet ic Gymnastics grew out of a desire to give public exhib ition s of strength and ab ility. Peter Henry Ling ( 1776-1 839) of Sweden
taught and practiced the great benefits to be derived from his medical gymnastics in treatIng the man y conditions ' of ill health , wh il e Ludwig Jahn (1 778-1 852) known as the father of gymnastics, with his system to revive patriotism , attracted the Prussian yout h. H is training an d inspiration contributed in no sma ll degree to the subsequ ent victories of Germany over the Napoleonic a rmies. Trends Toward Scientific Analysis: C ureton , who has compiled a great deal of information relating trends and the Scientific Approach to this field relates that terminology , meaning large ly nomenclature has been the concern of suc h diligent scho lars as Skarstrom (B-5) ( 19 13, 1921) McCurdy (B-3) (1916) and Thulin (B-7) ( 1948-49 ). One of the first motivating factors in engaging in exercises was the desire to improve one's health a nd genera l appearance. Appearance ho wever, has defied strict scientific standard except in fat and weight. T he numerous health clubs are an outgrowth of such interest. Such books as Sport and Health (resu lting from an International Conference at Oslo, Norway, at the time of the Olympic Winter Sports Meeting in 1952 , Santa et Beaute Plastique (E-I ), (Marcel Renet, Paris , 7th Ed. , 195 1) an d a host of such publications testify to the very great interest in this subject according to Cureton. He goes on to state that the scientific st udi es of Yoga are few , a lth ough an Intern ational Cen ter exists for such scientific studies in these or Danish or Swedish modes. Corrective an d therapeutic gymnas tics are epitomized by the great work of Dr. R. Tait McKenzie (A8) who in hi s "Exercise in Education and Medicine" ( 1924) reflects wo rld experience in rehabilitating the unfit and maimed in World War I wit h exercise methods. Therapeutics systems of exercise have long been avai lab le in books such as McFad den 's Encyclopedia of Physical Cu lture and Kellogg 's " Rational Hydrotherapy" (both based upon human experimentation) and Cohen 's (A-2) "System of Physiological Therapeutics" (1907). More modern treatment books include Gardiner's "The Principles of Exercise Therapy. " (London 1960). Kraus ' (A-4) Principles and Practice of Therapeutic Exercise (1950 and 1963) and the great compendium by Sidney Licht , (A-6) the most comprehensive and documented volume " Therapeutic Exercises " ( 1958) totalling 893 pages. Gymnastics is a lso involved in posture work for correction and for positive development , as illustrated by the book by Phelps , (A- IO) Kiphuth and Goff (2nd Ed. , ' 1958) entitled "The Diagnosis and Treatment of Postural Defects ," and in the White House Conference Report (A- 12) by Dr. Robert B. Osgood , " Body Mechanics , Education and Practice " (1930) under President H oover. There IS a lso the excellent te xt by Lowman and Young , (A-7 ) " Postural Fitness" (1960) and literally dozens of others. Further comments from thIS reference reveals that the World Congresses , now numbering abo ut XIX have always featured the use of gymnast ics in the development and maintenance of fitness of men and women , boys a nd girls. The 1948 (V llth ) Congress at Prague resolved: I. The scientific progress of sports-med icine comprises: . (a) Scient ifi c studi es of the morphological and functional characteristics of individuals in relation to different exercises (gymnastics), at hletics and games. (b) The following up of biological reactions of health y or unhealthy people during physical exe rcises and competitions. (c) The inference , physiological limits and
consecutive pathological changes resu lting from exerc ises ; games and sports. (d) The designation of diagnosis and the treatment of consecuti ve organic and functional changes, interna l and surgical. (e) Judging the abi lit y or disability to take part. It is worthy of note that 60 sc ientists contributed scientific papers at the Lingiaden Kongressen at Stockholm (1940) , the subjects being "The H ygiene of Physical Exercise" " Th e Science of Body-Building. " The World Congress of Physical Education in Melbourne, Australi a in 1956 dealt extensively with the " Scien tific Development of Young rough Athletics and Gymnastic Training Exercises." Of very worthy note , during the St. Louis Convent ion of the America n Association of Health , Physical Education and Recreation as presented in the latest issue of their magazone the JOHPER , (Nov.-Dec. 1968) , there is an up-to-the minute presentation of seven scientific papers separating scientifi c foundations from unsupported c laims for psychological , soc iological and physiological benefits of physical exercise and ph ysical education. These reviews are we ll documented and are timely. In this same issue of the JOHPER , it is interesting to note that Miss Judith Ann Ford , gymnast and trampoline champion and a member of the gymnas tic team which represented States at the Gymnaestra in Vienna , Austria , was Miss Ameri ca for 1969. While competitive Gymnastics has grown up a bit like " Topsy ," its evolution has been slow because of its complexity. Again , the sport has been ruled by tradit ion , s ubjective thinking, biased opinions, a lack of uniformit y and in the United States , political greed. In spite of its internal troubles , the sport is becoming more and more recogmzed , not only for the sat isfaction derived from physical achievements defying the laws of grav it y, but for its artistry , where grace , poise and synchron y of movements are superb. Measuring the arts has always been rather intangib le , but this has been the concerns of those who fee l we fall far short in our measurement techniques. Many times the true champ ions have gone undeclared. As for the science of understand ing, the teaching and coaching of the sport has recently come in for intensive sc ientific stud y, which wi ll undoubtedly continue for many yea rs . These studies are mainly cine-mechani cal, cons isting of slow-mot ion analysis and app lications to each and every movement. These studi es can only be briefly sketched. A few studi es exist on energy cost of eac h movement and of several combination routines . Coach Charles Pond , Gymnastic Coac h of the University of Illinois , has been blazing the trail in utilizing the Video-tape for teaching an d coach ing. Its appl ication is in valu ab le as an a id in improving performance. One of the most difficult moves , involving great risk and a hi gh calibre of ph ysica l fitness is the double back so mersau lt. Austin 's study and Hatano 's stud y reveal the great complexity of the laws of acce leration , velocit y, force angle of take-off, angles of flight , paths of the center of gravi ty , degrees of rotation , etc. Some other interest ing stud ies are li sted as follows and wi ll be follo wed by Dr. James S. Bosco's studies in relation to Physical Fitness. I. Austi n, Jeffrey Miner-C inematographic Ana lys is of the Backward Somersau lt (1959) Univ. of III. (Sponsor, Dr. A. W. Hubbard) 2. Bare, Frank L. - A Cinematog raphic
Analysis of the Stutzkehre on the Parallel Ba rs (1955) Univ. of III. (Sponsor, Dr. A. W. Hubbard). 3. Bird, Patrick J . - Comparison of Olympic - leve l a nd Va rsity G y mnasts on Physical Fitness C haracteristics ( 1962) U niv. III. (Sponsor, Dr. T. K. C ureton). 4. Ferriter, Kathleen Joyce - A C inematographic Analysis of Front H and spring Vaults of Women Gymnas ts ( 1964) Univ. of III. (Sponsor, Dr. A. W. Hubbard) 5. Frey , H arold J . - Analysis of Beginning Tumbling ( 1951 ) Univ. of III. (Sponsor, Dr. T. K. C ureton) â€˘ 6. Gadbout , Pa ul- Organic Effects of Gymnastic C ircuit Training ( 1965) U niv. of III. (Sponsor, Dr. T. K. C ureton) 7. Grosfield , Abraham - The Underbar Somersault of the Parallel Ba rs (t962) Univ. of III. (Sponsor, Dr. A. W. Hubba rd) 8. Hatano , Yoshiro - The Mechanics of the Double-Back Somersault (1962) Mi~h. State Univ. (S ponsor, Dr. Way ne D . V an Hu ss) 9. Landers , Daniel M. - A Co mparison of Two Methods of Judging Gymnast ics (1965 ) Univ. of III. (Sponsor, Dr. T. K. C ureton) 10. Leonh ardt , William Ru ssell- Aspiration Levels of Co mpetitive Co llege Gymnasts and Rel ated Measures ( 1954) Univ. of III. (Sponsor, Dr. A. W. Hubbard) II. Lundien , Edwi n Charles - A Ci nematograph ic Analysis of the Double Backward Somersau lt (1951 ) Univ . of III. (Sponsor, Dr. T. K. C ureton) 12. Matz , Grace Elaine - The Effect of Gy mnas tics on the Motor Fitness of Boys (1954) Univ. of III. (Sponsor, Dr. T. K. C ureton) 13. Olsson, Frederick J. - Th e Effects of Gymnast ic Training of the Feet of Young (1954) U niv. of III. (S ponsor, Dr. T. K. C ureton) 14. Roby , Frederick B. - The Effect of Training in Gymnastics on the Electrocardiogram (1054) Univ. of III. (Sponsor, Dr. T. K. C ureton) 15. Runkle , Ray mond J ohn - A C inematogra phic Analysis of the F lyaway ( 1949) Un iv. of III. (Sponsor, Dr. T. K. C ureton) 16. Sullivan , Robert Melvin - The Forward Somersa ult on the Parallel Bars. (1955 ) Univ. of III. (Sponsor, Dr. A. W. Hubbard) 17. Vanis , George John - A Cinematographic An alys is of the Yam as hit a Vault Over the Long Horse (1965) Univ. of III. (Sponsor, Dr. T. K. C ureton) 18. Wikstrom , Robert Bruce - Effects of Gymnast ic Tra ining on the Progress ive Pulse Ratio Test (1954) Univ. of III. (Sponsor, Dr. T. K. C ureton) 19. Wil so n, Glenn G. - A C inematographic Analysis of the Round-Off. (1955) Univ . of III. (Sponsor, Dr. A. W. Hubbard) 20. Wright , J a mes Nelson - The Effects of Gymnast ic Training on the Heartograms of Young Boys ( 1954) Univ. of III. (S ponsor, Dr. T. K. C ureton) 2 1. Zimmerma n, Forres t V. - The Effects of Tumbling a nd Trampoline Activities on the Ph ys iques of Young Boys ( 195 4) Univ. of III. (Sponsor, Dr. T. N . C ureton) 22 . Zuber, Rich ard Hugh - The Effect of In st'r uction in the Laws of Motion on learning Gymnastic Stunts (1957) Univ. of III. (Sponsor, Dr. A. W. Hubbard ) In conc lu sion , the problems a nd ra mification s of Gymnastics appear limitless in numbers and there are many seemingly insurmountable pressing questions w hi ch need solution and only diligent application of science can c lose the gap between the facts and theory.
BIBLIOGRAPHY A. Gymnastic Therapeutics and Corrective Gymnastics I. Am. Med. Assn. - " Medica l History of the Ol ympic Games," Journal of the Olympic Games , 205 :9 1-96 (Sept. 9 , 1968) . 2. Cohen , Soloman S., A System of Physio logic Therapeutics, (includes Luther H alsey Gulick' s section on Mu scul a r Exercise) Philadelphia: P. Blak iston 's Son an C o., 1907. Pp. 446. 3. Gard iner, M. D ., The Principles of Exercise Therapy, London: G . Bell and Sons , Ltd. , 1960 Pp. 295. 4. Krau s, H ans , Therapeutic Exercises, Springfield , 111. : C . G. Thomas and Co., 1949. Pp. 309. (Foreword by Dr. Howa rd Ru sk) a nd , 2nd ed. 1963 . 5. Kraus , Han s and Wilhe lm Raab, Hypokinetic Disease, Springfield , 111. : C . G. Thomas and Co. , 1961. Pp. 19.3. 6. Licht , Sidney, Therapeutic Exercise, New H ave n, Conn. : Elizabeth Licht, 360 Fountain St. , 1958. Pp. 893. 7. Lowman , C. L. , a nd C. H. Young, Posture Fitness, Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1960. Pp. 341. 8. McKenzie, R., Tait , Exercise in Education and Medicine, Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders C o. , 1924. Pp. 601. 9. Peebler, J. R. , Controlled Exercise for Physical Fitness, Springfield, III. : C. G. Tho ma s and Co., 1962. Pp. 188. 10. Phelps, W. M. , R. J. H. Kiphuth and C. W. Goff, The Diagnosis and Treatment of Postural Defects, Springfield , 111.: C. G. Thomas and Co., 193 2. (2nd Ed. , 1956.) Pp. 190. II. Ryan, A la n, J. , A Medical Hi story of the Olympic Games, Journal of the Am. Med. Ass n., 162: 111 2-111 5 (Nov. 17, 1956) . 12. White Hou se Co nference , Bod y Mechanics , Education a nd Practice (Ed. by Robert B. Osgood, C hmn. ), New York: The Ce ntury C o. , 1932. Pp. 166. B. Gymnastic Teaching and Developmental Aspects I. Ba ley, Ja mes A. - Principles for Learning Tumbling. Journal of Health , Physical Education a n Recreation. Oct. 1968 Pp. 30-33. 2. C ureton , T. K., Endurance of Young Men, Was hington , D .C.: Society fo r Resea rch in C hild Deve lopment, Nation al Re search Counc il , Vol. X , Serial No. 40 , Nov . I , 1945. Pp. 284. 3. McCurdy , J . H .. Gymnastic Nomenclature, Springfield , Mass.: Am. P. E. Assn. , 1916. Pp.63. 4. Skarstrom , Willi am, Gymnastic Kinesiology, Springfield , Mass. , 1913 . Pp. 142 . 5. Skarstrom , Willi a m, G ymn astic Teachmg, Springfield , Mass.: 1921. Pp. 334. 6. Thulin , J. G. , The Key to the Gymnastic Atlas, Lund : Sydsvenska G y mnastik-Institutet. 1949. Pp. 83 . 7. Thulin , J . G., Gymnastik At las, (Textbook of Swedish Gymnastics) Stockholm : Svenska Bokforiaget , 1948. Pp. 186. C. Weight Training I. Gawer, Herman and Herbert Michelman , Body Control (How to Build Up , Reduce or Strength en any Pa rt of Your Bod y), New York : Crown Publishers, 1950. Pp. 134. 2. Hettinge r, Theodor, Physiology of Strength, Springfield , 111. : C. G. Thomas and Co. , 1961. Pp.84. 3. Hook s , Gene, Application of Weight Training to Athletics, Englewood C liffs , N ew York: Pre ntice H a ll , In c., 1962. Pp. 254. 4. Johnso n, D. G. and O. Heihenstam, Modern Body Building, London: Faber and Faber, 1955. Pp. 173. 5. Rodahl , Kaa re , and Steve n M. Horvath , Muscle as a Tissue , New York : McGraw-Hili Book C o. , Inc., Pp. 331. D. Rough and Tumble, Judo, Karate I. Kenne y, H. E ., Rough and Tumble Fighting,
C ha mpa ign , III.: Stipee Publishing Co., 1942. Pp.48. E. Plastique, BBeauty Culture by Gymnastic I. Roust , Marcel , Sante'et Beaute Plastique , Paris: J . Oliven (65 Ave. De las Bourdonnais, VII) 1947. Pp. 319 . F. Danish Gymnastics I. Sumption , Doroth y , Fundamentals of Danish Gymnastics for Women. G. Gymnastics, Competitive Aspects Manufacturers a nd Suppliers: I. American Athletic Equipment Co. Catalog of Gymnastic Equipment and Audio-Visual Materials , Jeffe rson , Iowa. 2. Atlas Ath letic Equipment Co., Catalog of Gymnast ic Equipment , 2339 H a mpton Ave., St. Louis , Mo. 63139. 3. Gym Mas ter C o. , G y mn astic Equipment Speciali sts , 3200 S. Zunie St. Englewood , Co lorado 80 I 10. 4. Gymnast ic Supply Co. , Catalog of Athletic Equipment , 247 W. Si xth Street , San Pedro, Calif. 90733 5. Nissen Co rp ., Cata log Gymnasium Equipment a nd Audio-V isua l Aids , 930 27th Aven ue , S. W. , C edar Rapids , Iowa 52406. 6. Porter Ath let ic Equ ipment (Porter-Lea vitt Co.), Catalog of G y mnasti c Equipment , 9555 Irving Park Road , Schiller Pa rk , Illinoi s 60176. .. 7. Premier Produ cts , Catalog Gymnasium Equipment, River V a le , N.J. 8. Program Aids C o. Catalog of Gym Equipment a nd C ha rts , 550 Garden Ave. , Mount V e rnon , New York. 9. School Equipment Corp. Cata log Gymnas ium Apparatus , P .O . B,ox 17 5, Fole y, Mo. Teaching - Coaching Periodicals: I. American Turner Topics , 1550 C linton Ave., N. Rochester, N.Y. 1462 1. 2. The Modern Gym nast Magaz ine , C urrent New s Medium with Accumu lative 10 Year Bibli ographics (F rederick), P.O. Box 61 I , Santa Monica, Ca lifornia 90406. 3. Mademoise lle Gymnast, Magazine for the Ladies , P.O. Bo x 777 , Santa Monica , Ca lifornia 90406 4. U .S. Gymn ast Magaz ine, N ews Medium ( Publications tempora ril y suspended). 5. Olympische Turnkunst MagjlZme , German Publication (a lso English), P.O. Box 777, Santa onica, California 90406. 6. News Letters - Published by American , At las a nd Nissen Mfg. C o's. A lso by the United States Gymn astics Federation , P.O. Box 4699. Organizations s ponso ring G y mn astic Competition: (N ationa l a nd Internation al) I. Amateur Athletic Union 2. American Turners 3. Federation of Intern ationa l Gymnast ics (F IG) 4. N ational High School Orga ni zation 5. National Sokol s 6. N ational Co llegiate Athletic Association 7. United States Gymnastics Federation 8. Young Men 's C hristian Association C linics (Nat ional): I. Eastern Gymnastic Cl ini c, Nov. 29 -30, Abington High School , Abington , Pa. Info rma tion Eastern Gymnastic C linic, I 180 Lindsey Lane, Rydel , Pa. 19046. 2. New England Gymnastic C linic , Nov. 29- 30. Coas t Guard Academy , Information - Jeff Cardin alli , C oas t Gu ard Academy, Ne", London, Conn. 3. USGF Eastern Gymnas ti c C linic, Dec. 26-30, Fort Lauderdale, Fla. Informat ionDick Hol zae pfe l, University of Iowa, Iowa C ity , Iowa. 4. N ation al Gymnastic C linic , Dec. 25 -30 , Continued on page 26
COMPETITION CALENDAR N- Night A-Afternoon November 7 Kansas Invitational - at - l awrence, Kansas November 14 Kansas State U.lnvitational - at - Manhattan, Kansas fri ., November 20 East Stroudsburg - at - Cit y College, N.Y. - N Sat., November 21 Odessa Invitational - at - Odessa, Texas Western Illinois U. - at - Eastern Mich. - A Tues., November 24 U. III.··Chicaga & Oshkosh - at - Triton College (River Grove, III)-N November 27·28 Midwest Open - at - Add ison Trails, Illinois - A New England Clinic - at - lowell Tech Wed., December 2 Stevens Point - at - St. Cloud - A West Ches ter State College - at - Temple Univ. - A fri. De cem ber 4 So. Conn - a T - Montclair Stote - N Northern Iowa - at - Stout State - N Stevens Point & Wheaton - at - Ma rquette Rocky Mountain Open - at - Colorado State Univ.
Sacramento Stote Invitational - at - Sacramento State College- N Central Michigan - at - Boll Sta te - A Ft. Hays State - at - Univ. Nebraska - N Sat., December 5 Temple University - at - long Island Univ. - A U. New Hampshire & PlattsburQ - at - Coast Guard Acad. - A Univ. Pi tt sburgh - at - Army Springfield College - at - Navy Slippery Rock - at - Oneonta State - A Cortland State - at - Queens College - A Cornell Univ. - at - Yale Univ. - A Frostburg Stote - at - West Vi rginia Univ. - A Big Ten Invita tional - Michigan Stote Univ. Southern Illinois Univ. - at - Illinois State (Normal) - A Bemedji Invita tional - at - Bemedji, Minn. - A Univ. of Wisconsin - at - Oshkosh (Wisc.) - A Central Michigan - at - E. Illinois - A Milwaukee Tech. - at - Lacrosse (Wisc.) - A Holiday Classic - at - Calif. State los Angeles - N Rocky Mountain Open - at - Colorado State Univ. Indiana State Univ. - aT - Univ. lit-Chicago (Naperville) Mon .. December 7 Frostburg State - at - Slippery Rock - N Wed., December9 Merchant Morine Acad. - at - Queens College (Flushing, NY) - N Prince ton Univ. - at - Trenton State - N fri ., December 11 Slippery Rock - at - West Cheste r - N East Stroudsburg - at - Army (B) - A lowo Open - at - Iowa State Univ. Indiana Collegiate Open - at - Central High (Indianapolis) - N Son Fernando Volley Invitational - at - Son Fernando, Calif. Son Jose Invitational - at - Son Jose, Calif. - N Sat., December 12 Syracuse Univ. - at - Navy Slippery Rock - at - E. Stroudsburg - A Univ. Moss - at - So. Conn. - A Wes t. Vi rginia & East. Ken tucky - at - Univ. Kentucky - A Glassboro State - at - Fros tburg - A Cornell Univ. - at - Mon tclair - A Merchant Morine Acad. - at - Army - A Trenton Sta te - at - long Island U.-A Iowa Open - at - Iowa State Univ. - N Lacrosse - at - Univ. of Wisconsin - A No. Michigan & Bowling Green - at - East. Michigan - A No. Michigan & Bowling Green - at - Eas t. Michigan - A Eau Claire - at - St. Olaf - A Indiana Univ. & U. III.·Chicaga - at - Boll State Univ. - A U. So. Dakota & No. Dakota St.U. - at - So. Dakota St. U. - A Mon., December 14 Univ.· III.-Chicaga - at - Univ. North Carolina - N Tues., December 15 Univ. IlL-C hicago - at - Georgia Sou thern Unlv. - N Wed., De cember 16 Northern Michigan Univ. - at - Slippery Rock - N Thurs., December 17 Univ. III.·Chicaga - at - Miami·Oade Junior College Fri., December 18 Manka to Sta te - at - Iowa State Univ. - N Sat., December 19 Army - at - Univ. Moss. Queens - at - long Island Univ. - A Huron Invitational _ at - Eastern Michigan December 22 E. Stroudsburg - at - l.S.U. New Orleans Christmas Clinics Dec. 26·30 - Ft. lauderdale Sarasota Tucson Berkeley December 30 Mankato State - at - Arizona State Univ. - N North South meet - at - Sarasota, Florida
January 2 Queens College - at - City Callege·N.Y. - A Col. St. Fullerton - at - Col Poly. Pomona Fri .. January 8 N.w. louisiana - at - l .S.U. New Orleans - N St. Cloud State - at - Univ. Minnesota - N Univ. Michigan - at - Western Michigan Univ. - N Southern Illinois Univ. - at - U.North Carolina - N Manka to Stote - at - Western Illinois Univ. - N Pomona, Univ. Calif. & San to Ba rbara-at - Son Fernando Volley - N Sacramento Sta te - of - Univ. Colif.-Berkeley - N Eastern Michigan - at - Boll State Univ. - N Indiana University - at - Indiana State Univ. - N Sat., January 9 Penn State Univ. - at - Springfiel d College Syracuse Univ. - at - Temple Univ. - A Slippery Rock - at - Univ. Pittsburgh - A Montclair & Yale Univ. - at - Coast Gua rd Acad. - A So. Conn. State - at - West Chester - A Southern Illinois - at - Memphis State Cortland State - at - Eas t Stroudsburg - A St. Cloud Sta te - Stou t State - A Wrigh t State - of - Northern Michigan Eau Claire - at - Mil. Tech. - A Eastern III. & Mankato - at - Illinois State - Normal - A Univ. Arizona - at - Arizona Sta te Univ. - N Cen tral Wash. & Wash. State Univ. - at - Eastern Washington-A Univ. Illinois-Chicago - at - Univ. of Chicago - A Northern Illinois - at - Boll State - A Western Illinois - at - University of Iowa Bemidji - at - So. Dakota St. U. - A Old Dominion, W. Carolina & Go. South - at - Ci tadel - A Tues., January 12 Trenton State - at - Mon tclair Stote - N Thurs., January 14 Univ. Colorado - at - Univ. Arizona - N Glassboro State - at - Tren ton State - N Fri., January 15 Ohio State Univ. - at - Slippery Rock - N Univ. Minnesota - at - Monkot State - N Univ. Illinois - at Eastern Illinois - N Illinois State Univ. - at - Indiana Univ. - N Memphis Sta te Univ. & Univ. Nebraska - at - Univ. of Oklahoma - N Western Illinois - at - Lacrosse Stout State - at - St. Olaf Son Fernando Volley - at - Chico Sta te Stanford Univ. - at - Sacramento Sta te - N Hayward State - at - Col. St. los Angeles - N Univ. Col. Santo Barbaro - at - Son Diego State - A Univ. Chicago - at - Trit on College W. Mich. Bowling Green & Kent State - at - Miami Univ. (Ohia)-N Sat., January 16 Boston State - at - Coast Guard Acad. - A Navy - at - Temple Univ. - A Penn State Univ. - at - Syracuse Univ. PittsburQh - at - SprinQfield Colleae Bemedji State - at - Wisc. Sta te-Superior - A Univ. lit-Chicago - at - Univ. Minnesota - A Iowa State Univ. - at - So. Illinois Univ. Georgia Southern - at - Indiana Univ. - A Wes tern Illinois - at - Stout State - A Eau Claire - at - St. Cloud - A Konsos State Univ. - at - Manka to State - N Colorado State College - at - Caloroda State Univ. San Ferna ndo Volley - at - Univ. Colifornia - A Oregon College - at - East. Washi ngton - A Col. State Fullerton - at - Sacromenta State - N All University of California Inv. - at - U.L Son Diego Boll Sta te - at - Ohio State - A 111inois State Univ. - at - Indiana State U. - A Michigan State Univ. - ot - Univ. of Illinois So. Dakota State Univ. - at - No. Iowa - A Dickenson State - at - Eastern Mon to no Univ. Chicago - at - Whea ton College Miami Univ. (Ohio) & Kent State - at - Univ. Cincinna ti - A Wed .. January 20 Temple University - at - Springfield College - N Wes t Virginia Univ. - at - Univ. Pittsburgh Thurs., January 21 Southerjlll iinois Univ. - ot - Michigan State Univ. - N Fri., January 22 Ithaca College - at - Tren ton State College - N West Vi rginia - at - Towson College - N Platteville, West. Michigan - at - Ea stern Illinois - N Sou thern Illinois, Kenosha - at all State Univ. - N Mankato - at - Denver Universi ty - A University of Colorado - at - Colorado State University - N Eastern Washington - at - Portland State Univ. - N Univ. Oregon & San Jose State - at - Univ. California - N Hayward State - at - Son Jose State U.L Davis - at - Son Francisco Stote - N Sat., January 23 West Chester - at - Coast Guard Acad. - A Springfield College - at - Army Penn State Univ. - at - Navy Univ. Univ. Pittsburgh - at - Kent State West Vi rginia - at - Temple Univ. - A Frostburg - at - William & Mary Ithaca - at - Montclair - A Stou t High School Invitational - at - Menomonie, Wisc. - A Western Illinois, W. Michigan - at - Univ. III.-Chicoga Iowa State Univ. - at - Univ. Kansas Interstate Invitational - at - Stou t State - AM Michigan State - at - Univ. Minnesota - A Easte rn Michigan - at - Univ. Michigan Boll State - at - Eastern Illinois - A Mankato - at - Air Force Acad. - A Univ. egan - Stanford Univ. - A Kent State & Wright State - hia State Univ. - A Univ. Florida - at - Florida State
Dupage Invitational - at - Dupage College Eastern Ken tucky - at Miami Univ. (Ohio) Wed., January 27 East Stroud sburg - at - Tren ton Sta te - N Thurs., January 28 Illinois Sta te Univ. - at - Colorado Sta te Univ. - N Univ. Oklahoma - at - University of Iowa fri. , January 29 Coast Guard Academy - at - Ithaca Syracuse Univ. - at - Univ. Moss. Slippery Rock - at - Central Michigan - N Southern Illinois U. & Air Force - at - Northern Illinois Univ. Arizona - at - Son Fernando Volley - N UClA - at - Univ. Oregon - N Hayward State - at - Chico Sta te - N Kent State - at Eas tern Michigan - N Geogia Tech - at - Florida State Univ. Illinois Sta te Univ. - at - Denver University - N Eastern Montana College - at Washington State Univ. - N lSU (New Orleans) - at - Citadel - N
Sat., January 30 Army - at - Penn State Univ. Univ. Pittsburgh - at - Temple Univ. - A Syrocuse Univ. - at - Spring field College East Stroudsbu rg - at - West Chester - A Coast Guard Academy - at - Cortland State Slippery Rock - at - Eastern Michigan - A M.I.T. - at - Yale Univ. - A Vi rginia Tech & Univ. Vi rginia - at - West Virginia - A City College of N.Y. - at - Montclair Sta te - A Superior (Wisc.) - at - St. Olaf's - A Sou thern Illinois Uni v. - at - Uni v. Illinois at Chicago Univ. Iowa & Indiana Sta te U. - at - Univ. of Michigan Univ. Minnesota - at - Indiana Univ. - A Univ. Wisconsin - at - Michigan State Univ. - A Stou t State - at - Northern Michigan Eastern Illinois - at - Western Illinois Univ. - A Northern Iowa - at - Mankato Sta te - A Univ. Arizona - at - Calif. State at Los Angeles Eastern Montano & Cent. Wash. - at - Eastern Washington - A San Jose State - at - Stanford Univ. - N Univ. Nevada (Reno) & long Beach st. - at - Sacramen to State - A Univ. Oklo homo - at - Iowa Sta te Univ. Univ. of Illinois - at - Ohio State Univ. - A Wes tern Michigan & Wrigh t Sta te - at - Boll State Univ. - A Illinois State Univ. - at - Calaroda State College Kenosha & Mil. Tech - at - Univ. Chicago Mon .. February 1 Univ. Wisconsin - at - Michigan State Univ. - N Wed., February 3 Montclai r State - at - Glassboro State - N Fri., February 5 Univ. Moss - at - Unlv. Pittsburgh Kent State Univ. - at - Slippery Rock - N N.Y. State-Oneonta - at - Mon tclair - N Denver Univ. - at - Colorado Sta te Univ. Univ. Nebraska - at - Northern Iowa (Cedar Falls) - A Sou thern Illinois Univ. - at - Univ. Arizona - N Bemedji Stat e - at - Stou t State - N Eastern Washing ton - at - Univ. of Washing ton - N Chico State - at - Sacramento State - N Col. St. los Angeles & Son Francisco St. - at - Univ. Calif. at Santo Barbaro - N Western Illinois - at - Boll State Univ. - N Merchant Morine Acad. - at - Long Island Univ. - N Univ. Chicago - at - Marquette Univ. Ci tadel & Braward at - Univ. Florida - N
Sat., February 6 Temple University - at - Army - A Univ. Moss - at - Penn State Univ. Navy - at - Univ. of Pi tt sburgh Oneonta State - at - Ea st Stroudsburg - A Citadel & Flo. St. - at - Georgia Southern Odessa J.c. & Miami-Dade - at - N.w. l ouisiana - N long Island Univ. - at - Coast Guard Acad. - A Wrigh t State - at - Slippery Rock Queens College - at - Wes t Chester - A Pri nceton Univ. - at - Yale University - A Navy - at - Southern Conn Old Dominion & West Virginia - at - William & Mary - A Frostburg - at - Vi rginia Poly Cortland State - at - Montclair - A No. Michigan, Dupage Univ. & Mil. Tech. - at - Stevens Point (W ise.) Ohio State Univ. - at - Univ. Wisconsin - A University of Michigan - at - Univ. Minnesota - A Kenosha & Eastern Illinois - at - Univ. Illinois-Chicago - A Michigan State - at - University of Iowa Sou thern Illinois Univ. - at - Univ. California-Berkeley High School In vi tational - at - Mankato Sta te Bemedji State - at - la Crosse (Wisc.) Air Force & long Beach State - at - Col. State l os Angeles Brigham Young Univ. - at - Univ. of Arizona Univ. Nebraska - at - Iowa State Univ. - A Indiana University - at - Univ. of Illinois - A Wash. State U. & U. British Columbia - at - Univ. Washington _ A S.F. Sta te & Son Diego St. - at - Col Poly· Pomona - A Eastern Montano College - at - Univ. Albe rto (Canada) Wisconsin Open - at - Milwaukee Miami Univ. (Ohio) - at - Eastern Kentucky - A Mon., February 9 Sou thern Illinois Univ. - at - Univ. of New Mexico - N Ci ty College of New York - at - Trenton State - N Tues .. february 9 Yale Univ. - at - Dart mou th - N
Coo sf Guard Academy - of - M.LT. (Cambridge) - N Wed., February 10 Kenosha , Eastern Illinois - at - Indiana Stote Univ. - N Syracuse Univ. - at - Cortland Stote Thurs., February 11 louisiana Stote Univ. - at - N.W. Loui siana - N Fri., February 12 Springfield College - of - Univ. Moss - N Slippery Rock - of - Monfcloi r - N
So. Conn - at - Merchant Mo rine Acad. - N Univ. Arizona - Of - Calif. Sfo fe Long Beach - N Florida State Univ. - at - Univ. of Georgia Univ. III.·Chicogo - of - Wheofon College - N No. Michigan & No. Iowa - of - La Crosse Sfofe Uni v. Oregon - at - Ea stern Wash ington - N
Sacramento Stote - at - Hayward Stote - N UC·Sonfo Borboro & Chico - of - Son Jose Sfofe - N Iowa State Univ. - at - Univ. of Colorado Eostern Michigan & Indiana Univ. - at - Michigan State Univ. Ball State Univ. - at - Indiana State Univ. - N Western Illinois Univ. - 01 - Illinois Stote Univ. So. Dokofo Sf. Univ. - of - Univ. No. Dokofo - N Oneonta Stote - at - Long Island Univ. Triton & West n. Michigan - at - Univ. of Chicago Sat., February 13 Temple Univ. - at - Penn State Univ. - N Queens College - Of - Tren fon Sfofe - A Yo Ie Univ. - at - Univ. Penn - A Navy - Of - Univ. Piffsburgh Oneonfo & Lowell - of - Coosf Guard Aco d. - A Army - of - Cornell Montclair & West Virginia - at - East Stroudsburg - A Superior - at - Eau Claire - A George Williams & No. Michigan - of - Sf. Cloud Univ. of Illinois - at - Univ. of Wisconsin - A Univ. of Iowa - at - Univ. of Minnesota - A Indiana Univ. & East. M ich igan - at - Michigan State Univ. - A Univ. IIlinois·Chicogo - at - Downers Grove, III. - A Northern Illinois - at - Illinois State - A Stout State & La Crosse - at - Stevens Point - A Ohio State Univ. - at - Univ. Michigan Monkofo - Of - Univ. of Nebra ska - A Air Force - at - Univ. Colorado Unlv. New Mexico - at - Colorado State Univ. Univ. of Arizona - Of - UClA - N Univ. Oregon - at - Was hington State Univ. - N U('Sonfo Barbaro - of - Sfonford Univ. - N Son Fran cisco State - at - Univ. Nevada Iowa State Univ. - at - Denver Univ. So. Dokofo Sf. Univ. - of - No. Dokofo Sfofe Univ. - A Cify College of New York - of - Long Island Univ. - A Eosfern Monfono - of - Ricks College (Rexburg, Idaho) Univ. of Chicago - of - Dupoge College Cifodel - of - William & Mary - A Mon., February 15 Indiana State Univ. - at -
Southern lIIinois Univ.
Wed., February 17 Trenton State - at - Towson State - N Montclair State - at - Queens - N So. Conn. - of - Temple Univ. - A Thurs., February 18 Colorado State Univ., Utah & Ariz. State - at - Univ. of Arizona No. Ea st Louisiana - at - No. West l ouisiana Fri., February 19 Cornell Univ. - at - Temple Univ. - A Monfcloir - of - Long Island Univ. - N University Michigan - at - Univ. of Illinois - N Southern 1IIinois Univ. - at - Univ. of Oklahoma - N Monkofo - Of - La Crosse - N Colorado State Univ. - at - Arizona State Univ. Univ. Utah - at - Uni v. Arizona - N Col. Sf. Long Beach & Son Jose Sfofe - of - Son Fernando Volley - N Stanford Univ. - at - Univ. California - N Haywa rd Sfofe - of - Univ. Nevada - N Chico State - at - Son Fran cisco State - N Konsas State U - at - Iowa State Univ. - N Sf. Cloud Sfofe - at - Illinois Sfofe Univ. - N Sf. Olaf - of - So. Dokofo Sf. U. - A David Liscomb - Of - Cifodel Cenf. Michigan & Wrighf Sfofe - of - Univ. Miami (Ohio) - N Sat., February 20 Trenton State - at - Oneonta State - NY - A Coosf Guard Acod. - of - Cify College NY - A Army - at - Syracuse Univ. Mass - at' - Navy Penn State Univ. - at - So. Conn - A Slippery Rock & Brockport - of - Wes f Virginia - N Eosf Sfroudsburg - of - Queens - A Merchant Ma rine Acad. - ot - Yale Univ. - A Frosfburg - of - Old Dominion West Chester - at - Montclai r - A Plottville & Superior - at - laCrosse - A Univ. Wisconsin - at - Univ. Minnesota - A Sf auf Sfofe & RiverFolis - of - Oshkosh - A Stevens Point & Marquette - at - Eau Claire - A Univ. Michigan - at - Indiana University - A George Williams - at - Eastern Illinois - A Denver Univ. - at - Air Force Colorado State Univ. - at - Unlv. Arizona E. Washing fan & Washing fan Sf. U - of - Cenfrol Woshingfon-A Univ. Southern Calif. - at - Univ. Oregon - N Sf. Cloud & Eosfern Michigan - of - Univ. III·Chicogo - A Ohio State Univ. - at - Michigan Sta te Uni v. - A
Ball Stote Univ. - at - Illinois Stote Unlv. - A Kansas State Univ. - at - Univ. Nebraska - A Univ. Illinois - at - Univ. Iowa Cali f. Sfofe·Los Angeles - of - Col Poly - Pomona - A Eastern Mon tana & No. Dakota State - at - Di ckenson Cifodel - of - Univ. of Gecrgio Fri., February 26 Michigan Sta te Univ. - at - University of Michigan Pla ttville - at - Stevens Point - A Mankato - at - Sou thern Illinois Univ. - N Sf. Cloud - of - LaCrosse - N Son Fernando Volley - of - Col. Sfofe Los Angeles - N E. Woshing fon Sfofe - of - Woshingfon Sfofe Univ. - N Stanford Univ. - at - Uni ve rsity of Southern Calif. - N U.c. Davis - of - Hayward Sfofe - N Sat., February 21 Navy - at - Army Temple Univ. - at - Univ. Moss. - N Univ. Pittsburgh - at - Syracuse Univ. Trenton - at - West Chester - A Eosf Sfroudsburg - of - Ithaca - N West Virgi nia - at - Penn Stote Univ. - A Georgia Soufhern - of - Slippery Rock Coosf Guard Academy - Of - Queens College - A Ivy League Championships - at - Univ. Penn Boston State - at - So. Conn. - A Towson, William & Mary, & Mont. J.c. - of - Frosfburg Bemedji & Cenfrol Michigan - of - Northern Michigan Univ. Iowa - at - Univ. Wisconsin Univ. Minnesota - at - Univ. 1IIinois Stout State - at - Superior Lacrosse & Eou Claire - of - Oshkosh - A Kansas Sta te U. - at - Southern Illinois Colorado State Univ. - at - Air force Univ. Washington - ot - Univ. Oregon - N Sfoncord Univ. - of - U.C.l.A - A Son Francisco State - at - Sacramento State - N Fullerton Sfofe - of - U.c. Sonfo Borboro Iowa State Univ. - at - Univ. Illinois-Chicago Indiana Univ. - at - Ohio State - A Illinois Sfofe U. - of - Memphis Sfofe - A Univ. Kansas - at - Univ. Nebraska - A Georgia Tech - of - Cifodel Triton Invitational - at - Triton (River Grove, 1IIinois) Mon., March 1 Univ. Pittsburgh - at - Penn State Univ. Wed., March 3 Univ. Iliinois·Chicogo - of - Dupogo College Fri .. March 5 North Atlonfic Conference Chps. - of - Coosf Guard Academy Soufhern Infercollegiofe Conf. Chps. - of - Univ. North Carolina - N Big Ten Conference Chps. - of - Ohio Sfofe Univ. - A Midwesf Conf. Chps. - of - Soufhern Illinois Univ. Univ. Ufoh - of - Colorado Sfofe Univ. Univ. Ari zona - at - New Mexico State Son Fernando Vo lley - of - Co l. Sfofe Fullerton Pacific North West Championships - at - Washington State Uni v. U.c. Son fa Barbaro - Of - Col. Sf. Long Beach - N Hayward State - at - Son Francisco State - N Lake Eire Conf. Chps. - Of - Slippery Rock
Sat., March 6 Midwest Con feren ceChps. - at - South ern Illinois Univ. Big Ten Conferen ce Chps. - of - Ohio Sfofe Univ. Lake Eire Conference Chps. - of - Slippery Rock - N Soufhern Infercollegio fe Conf. Chps. - of - No. Carolina Univ. - A Air Force Academy & Sacramento St. - at - Son Jose State New England Championships - Of - Bosfon Sfofe North Atlonfic Conf. Chps. - of - Coosf Guard Pacific North West Championships - at - Washington State Univ. Oshkosh & Sfevens Poinf - of - Superior - A Eou Claire & Ploffeville - of - Sfouf Sfofe - A Univ. Ari zona - at - U. New Mexico Univ. Colorado - at - Univ. Nebraska - N San Diego State - at - San Francisco State - A Thurs., March 11 Monkofo - of - Sf. Olaf Fri., March 12 Eastern Intercollegia te Conf. Chps. - University of Moss. Wisconsin State Univ. Conf. Chps. - at - Superior Circle Invi fofionol - of - Univ. of 111·Chicogo Circle Calif. Collegio fe Conf. Chps. - of - Co l. Sfofe Fullerton - N Oregon StJte High School Chps. - at - University of Oregon For Wes tern Conference Chps. - at - Sacramento Sta te - N Sat., March 13 Eastern Intercollegiate Conf. Chps. - at - Uni versity of Moss. Wisc. State Univ. Conf. Chps. - at - Superior North Carolina State Univ. - at - Air Force Academy Buckeye Invitational - at - Ohio State Univ. - A So. Dokofo Stofe Univ. - of - Univ. of Soufh Dokofo - A Fri., March 19 N. A. I.A. Notional Championships - at - North Western l ouisiana (18·19·20) Minnesota State High School Chps. - at - University of Minnesota Indiana State Univ. Invitational - at - Indiana State Univ. Arizona State Univ. - at - Univ. Arizona Big Eighf Conf. Chps. - Of - Univ. of Colorado California Sfofe College Chps. - of - Son Fernand o Volley Sfofe - N Sat., March 20 N.A. I.A. National Championships - at - N.W.louisiana Midwes t Conference Chps. - at - Indiana State University N.C.C. Conference Chps. - Of - Cedar Falls (No. Iowa) Colorado State Univ. - at - Univ. of New Mexico Big Eight Conference Chps. - of - Universify of Colorado Fri., March 26 - Sat., March 21 NCAA College Div. Nof. - of - Univ. 111.·Chicogo Circl e (25·26·27) Wesf. Afhlef. Conf. Chps. - of - Univ. of Ufoh (So If Loke)(26"27·27) Pacific Eighf Conf. Chps. - of - Univ. of Cali f. (25·26·27) NOf. Junior Call. Chps. - of - Odessa Jun. Col. Odessa, Texas (26·27) Pacific Coosf Con f. Chps. - of - Univ.Col. of Son fa Borboro (26·27)
April 1·2-3 NC AA University Division Nationals- at - University of Michigan April 22·23-24 U.S.G.F. Notional Championships- at - Site undetermined May?? Notional AAU Championsh ip s - at - Site undetermined May 21·22 Washing fan Sfofe High School Chps. - of - Pullman, Wash. Northern California High Schools Chps - of -
June?? Pan American Games Trials - at - Site undetermined
Late Additions Sat., Hoyember 21 We sf Chesfer - of - Army - A Wed., December 2 Onf~n ntn State - at - Cortland - N Fri., December 4 Memphis Sfofe & LSU·Bofon Rouge - of - LSU·New Orleans Sat., December 5 Wheaton, Stevens Point - at - Marquette - A Bosfon Sfofe - Of - Moss. Insf. Tech Oneonfo Sfofe - of - Brockport - A Wed., December 9 Wheofon College - of - Dupoge College - N Univ. New Hampshire - at - M.I.T. Fri., December 11 Ploffsburg - of - Oneonfo Sfofe - N Tue .. December 15 Sfouf Sf - of - Sf. Olaf - N Northeast Louisiana - at - lSU-New Orlean s Wesf Chesfer - of - Cify ColleQe·New York - A Thur., December 11 Plymoufh Sf. - of - Bosfon Sfofe fri. , December 18 LonQ Island Univ. - of - Wesf Chesfer - A Wed., January 6 Cornell - of - Oneonfo Sfofe - N Thur.. January 1 Boston Sf - of - Plymoufh Sf. Sat., January 9 Univ. So. Dakota - at - Northern Iowa Dortmoufh - of - Bosfon Sfofe Royal Milifory Acod. - of - Oneonfo Sfofe - A Thur., January 14 Univ. Denver - at - Arizona State Univ. - N Fri., January 15 Univ. Colorado - at - Arizona Stote Uni v. - N Sat., January 16 Univ. Denver - ot - Univ. New Mexico - A Long Beach Sfofe - of - Univ. Soufhern Calif. - N Wesf Chesfer State - of - Oneonfo - A Tue., Jan. 19 U. New Hampshire - Of - Lowell Tech Fri .. January 22 Sf. Olaf - of - Northern Iowa UCLA Invifofionol - of - UCLA - N Ari zo na State Uni v. - at - Kansas Sta te Univ. - N Sat., January 23 Cenfrol Michigan - Of - Wheofon College - A Univ. New Mexico - Of - Col. Sfofe·Fulierton - N Arizona State Univ. - at - Univ. Oklahoma - N Wed., January 21 Univ. New Mexico - at - Oklahomo - N LSU·New Orleans - of - Georgia Tech Thur., January 28 Univ. New Mexico - at - Kansas State - N Fri .. January 29 LSU·New Orleans - of - Georgia Soufhern Arizona State Univ. - at - Calif. Stote-Los Angeles- N Sat., January 30 Bosfon Sfofe - of - Cornell Oneonfo Sfofe - of - Ifhoco Collepe - N Fri., February 5 Oneonfo Sfofe - of - Monfcloir (N.J.l - N WSU, Trifon and Wheofon - of - Oshkosh - N Arizona State - at - Univ. New Mexico - N Sf. Olaf & Ploffeville - of - Sf. Cloud - N Eostern Kentucky - at - Univ. Kentucky UCLA - of - Col. Sfofe-Lonp Beach - N Sat., February 6 Oneonfo Sfofe - of - E. Sfroudsburg - A Ploffeville - Of - Northern Iowa - A Bosfon Sfofe - of - Plymoufh Mon., February 8 Southern Illinois Univ. - at - Univ. of New Mexico - N Fri., February 12 Oneonfo Sfofe - of - Lana Island U. - N Univ. New Mexico - at - Univ. Denver - N LUfher College - of - Sf. Olaf - A Georgefown College - Of - Eosfern Kenfucky - N LSU·New Orleans & Georgia Soufhern - of - LSU·Bofon Rouge Wesf Chesfer - Of - Ifhoco Sat., February 13 Oneonfo Sfofe - of - Coast Guard Acod. - A Wrighf Sfofe - of - Eosfern Kenfucky - A Wesf Chesfer & Bosfon Sfofe - of - Cortland Sfofe - A Thur., February 18 lSU-Baton Route - at - Memohis State Univ. Fri., February 19 Wheofon - Of - Ploffeville University of Kentucky - at - Eastern Kentucky - N Sat., February 20 Trenton State - at - Oneonta State - A Eastern Kentucky - at - Univ. Cincinnati - A LSU·New Orleans & Old Dominion - Of - Virg inia Poly (Blocksbu rg , Va.) University of Ufoh - of - Arizona Sfofe (Cgronodo H.S.l - N
(Continued on page 31)
Continued from page 23
Sarasota, Fla. Information - Dr. Anthony Riccardi, 200 E. Dudley, Westfield, N.J. 5. Ca lifornia Winter Gymnastic C linic , Dec. 30. University of Ca lif. I nformation - Hal Frey, Gymnastics Coach, Univ. of Ca lif. , Berkeley, Ca lif. 6. Western Gymnastic Clinic, Dec. 26-30. University of Arizona at Tucson , Arizona. Info rmat ion G lenn Wilson , Gymnastics .Coach, University of Arizona , Tucson , Arizona. Research in Gymnastics. (Various C linics) I. Sponsored by American Equipment Co mpany , Nissen Corp et aI., Chairman Dr. Hartley Price, Department of Physical Education for Men, Florida State University, Tallahassee, la. 2. Dr. James S . Bosco, Research Editor, Modern Gymnastics Magazine. 3. James A . Farkas, Milwaukee Turners , Contributing Editors , Mod. Gymnast.
LATE HIGH SCHOOL RESULTS: Wisconsin Interscholastic Athletic Association Gymnastic Championships 1970 Homestead High School Report from John GrahamCoach of 1970 C hampionship Tea m The State Gymnastic competition in Wisconsin once again made great strides in 196970. We feel that last year's competition showed the best performance in the history of gymnastics in our state. Pat O'Brien finished his high sc hool career by winning top honors in the meet , by w inning the All-around event, a long with defending his State C hampionship Honors of 1969 on the Horizontal Bar. Another first in the history of the state! RESULTS : Teams: Homestead 93.0 ; Washington 71.0; Green Bay Preble 60.0; Waukesha 43.5; Milw. Marshall 40.5 ; Individuals : A.A. Pat O-Brien (Homestead) ' 43.085; L.H . Mark Paternostro (Milw. Marshall) 8.275; FI. Ex. Dave Cout ley (Green Bay P. 8.00; S.H . Alan Przyworski (Milw. Madison) 7.00 ; St. R. Warren Vogel (Homestead) 8.25; H.B. Pat O'Brien (Homestead) 7.75.
Shreveport Gymnastic Supply Company P. O . Box 5374 Shreveport, La. 71105 Suppl iers of 1968 U. S. Women's Olympic Gymnastic Team 1968 World Trampoline Team WHY WAIT FOR YOUR ORDER? Our stock items are shipped the day your order is received We stock most gymnastic cloth i,lg items and accessories . Send for our catalog
LETTERS Dear Sir: [ would like to know if you have any informatioll or could help me with a problem / have with hallds tearing. [ work rillgs , and even with hand guards [ have mOllY tea rs from workouts - do you have allY suggestions or kllow where [ could get some help on toughelling up my hands? Dave Weeks Williamsport , PA Dave , we just got in a very informative artic le on the subject you are inquiring about from Mr. Walt Zwickle of Zwickle Gymnastic Tailors. The following is the text of Mr. Zwickles' findings. A few years ago, we started a research program that was directed towards the development of a product that could be ma rketed under the name of " Insta nt Callou se." Needless to say , we failed ... we got results but not dramatic enough to be called " Insta nt." However, we did make a few discoveries that , while not commercially valuable, could be of interest to the boys with sore hands . The key to avoiding rips seems to be the condition of the skin itself. A dry , flaky , callouse will rip off, a nd a soft one will rub off. Most dermatologists will recommend a good hand cream. However, most hand creams soften th e skin too much and a lso leave a greasy fee l. One thing we found tha t could be the ideal hill1d cream was ordinary PROPYLENE GLYCOL. It goes for pennies a gallon, can be had without prescription and works better than most hand creams on the market. Carry it aro und in a small squeeze bottle, put on three or four drop s a nd rub it in. It will disappear complete ly, leaving the skin clean , and it will keep the callouse s upple without making it soft. What's even better is th a t you can't overdo it. You could bathe in the stuff without any side effects. Now, if you want to st imul ate the growth of callouse, get a prescription for the same stuff with 3% SALACYTI C AC ID a dded. Here you use three-four drops and no more than four times a day. If you overdo it , it will make the skin PEEL. Used as directed it will speed up the growth of the skin ... not dramatically .. . but definitely. If you want a nice tingly feel , have a little menthol a dded . Naturally yo u can all the plain glycol you want with the prescription blend. JUST DON 'T OVERDO THE PRESCRIPTION STUFF. Something else th a t can greatly help to get you shape AFTER a rip has he a led is Cortisone. This MUST be used under medica l supervision and can on ly be used when the rip has COMPLETELY HEALED. If used before healing is comp lete, it can cause the normal skin bacteria to fl a re up into a major infection. After healing , it can dra ma ticall y stimulate skin growth. Gelleral problems: In the course of thi s research we also found that man y problem hands can be the result of underl y ing causes ... electrolytic imbalance , fungus infection . . . even mental hangups. So, if you have problem hands that don 't seem to respond to normal care, see a qualified dermatologist. Have him check for fungus infection especially. it's more common than you'd think. No results are guaran-
teed , but at least yo u' ll have eliminated some of the suspected causes. The above is what we learned from our product research . Now here 's a c losing word of a dvice .... Listen to your coach. Take care of your hands the way he tells you . . . . He 's ripped many more times than you ha ve, and you can bet your handguards that he knows a lot more than yo u.
BOOK REVIEWS: THE ART AND SCIENCE OF JUDGING MEN'S GYMNASTICS by Rich a rd M. Aronson. (Richard Aronson , 52 Evelyn Road , Needham Heights , Mass. 02194. $3 .50) Editor Aronson has assemb led a cast of starstudded names to contribute to this valiant effort to eluc id ate the mysteries of judging men 's gymnastics. This seven-section anthology is well worth it s low purchase price of $3.50. It should , however, be pursued with a copy of the FIG Code close at ha nd. To set the stage for things to come, a potpourri of information about a number of iss ues confronts the reader. It may be " First Things First," but the ra nge of topics - the beginning judge to fees for judges to post-meet conferences - is a bit too diverse. Bob H a nscom 's "The Beginning Judge" and Paul Uram and D a le Mc Kinnis ' essay on sty le are two of the more informative pieces. Section 2, on clinics , is short and sweet, but the two articles by Bill Roetzheim and Ted Mu zycz ko and Jeff Cardinali are meaty. One wonders , however , who the mysterious Frank Bare is as there is no real introduction to expl a in hi s connection to na tiona l judging cards . On the other hand , maybe everyone in U.S. gymnastics knows of the U.S .G.F . and its versatile executive director, but a n uniniti ated reade r will feel left out. Schwaben-who? The gymnas tic events , FX , SH, LH , R , PB , H B a nd trampol in e , are finally introduced in the third section. The quality of definition varies greatly . 1 persona ll y liked Aronson's treatment of FX, particularly his notes on trends and the element of s urprise. Don Tonry did an outstandin g job in di scussing side horse judging by using ma ny examples. Fred OrIofsky likewise brought out more than a repetition of the FIG Code in hi s hand ling of the pa rallel bars. The lon g horse ha s rece ntl y been the s ubject of closer sc rutin y a nd more exacting judging. I felt a more thorough elaboration of the eve nt would have been in st ructive , especially to define the double asterisk vau lt s and the problems of vaults with ratings other than 10.00. The F IG Code may be useful as a supplement here.
As to the treatment of the other events, only Joe Massimo's observations on ring trends added much new information. Hennessy's treatment of trampoline judging had to be limited, but some appreciation for the problems of the judge in this specialized sport is gained. I would like also to have seen a piece on judging tumbling as this is still an extant event in some parts of the country. I never did find out what a schwabenflanke was. A bit of idealism was injected into Section 4. The subject was ethics. Now no one disagrees that judging must be. ethical , but I felt only Jon Culbertson came near to bringing out the issues involved. It may be likened to dragging out old skeletons , but a bit of history would have perhaps made a much stronger case for a code of ethics. Eric Kjeldsen made some excellent points about notation as an aid to the honest justification of a score, and Frank Wolcott made many fine suggestions for the coach in his relationship to the judges. The nature of gymnastics is such that a measuring stick or stopwatch cannot evaluate a performance , and this was the basis for Section 5's discussion of the art of judging. Frederick Steeves characterized the judge as an agent of quality control - not a bad parallel at that! Some of the better selections are those of Abie G rossfeld (judging difficulty with faulty execution), Don Nelson (evaluating combination) and Jerry Wright (to hold or not to hold). Short and missed exercises are discussed along with mounts, dismounts and parts of no value. Coaches and gymnasts , as well as judges , will find this section of interest. One is surprised not to find a contribution from Dan Millman here in light of his many articles in the Modern Gymnast, but his efforts on behalf of science appear in the next section. Psy-ence The bias test (Bastuscheck amI Wettstone) which appeared in the ethics section might very well have been combined with statistical and computer techniques in the science of gymnastics judging. Relieving this mechanical approach is Dr. Massimo's diagnosis of complicating psychological factors which will be eagerly read by judges looking for new symptoms to display. Writing as fluidly as ever, Dan Millman treats us to some food for thought in advocating that numerical ratings of suppleness, balance, strength and agility become the bases for rerating moves of difficulty. I cannot help but contrast his suggestion that " specialization [of judges] would mean excellence" with the deemphasis on specialization in the sport itself. An anticlimax is reached with the somewhat ominous warning that N OW you are ajudge .... Tom Maloney makes the point that Risk , Originality and Virtuosity (ROV) are to be considered as mitigation for faults rather than awards for something special. Frank Wells could have written pages on judging compulsories - in fact , I wish he had because of increased emphasis on their use in gymnastics. The international and superior judge are described, but one could also wish for an additional article or two providing standards for the high school and college judge. Finally, a score must be lodged for this literary performance: Difficulty: 3.4 (especially in assembling all the stars and editing the manuscripts); Combination: 1.1 (0.5 lost on 1, 6, 7) ; Execution: 4.4 (-0.6 for misspellings , typos , inadequate citations and omissions) ; ROV*: 0.2 ; Value 9.1.
Mitigations: 0.1 (Aronson underwrote the whole publication cost without knowing if it would sell; Originality: 0 (After all, G. George did publish a volume of collected gymnastics
writings): Virtuosity: 0.1 (But never before such a concentrated effort onjudging!) Dick Criley MEN'S GYMNASTICS JUDGES CORRESPONDENCE COURSE. Compiled by Helen Sjursen , Edited by Frank Cumiskey . (Available from Helen Sjursen, 46 Poplar Place, Fanwood , N.J. 07023 ; $3.00 , plus 18c postage.) Using a format similar to her successful Women 's Gymnastic Judges Correspondence Course, Helen Siursen has compiled a correspondence course for menjudges. In this effort , she was aided by Frank Cumiskey , international known and ranked judge and longtime national judge. The main purpose in issuing the men 's correspondence course is the development of many more new judges within local areas. For this reason , the book strays at times from international standards but only with the admonition that deviations may be applied locally only. Actually , the course content pretty well parallels the FIG Code of Points and , in most instances , only elaborates to clarify a point. The book is kept up to date with the inclusion of correction sheets which cite rule changes in effect but not incorporated into the 1968 printing of the code. Nonetheless , a copy of the men's FIG Code of Points and an accompanying issue of the A-8-C parts for men are necessary adjuncts to the course. The style of the men 's book is more succinct than the women 's (a general characteristic, I have noted , in other comparisons of judging of gymnastics exercises by the two sexes) and not provided with as many examples. Nearly half the book merely recites the A-B-C parts with no illustrations and few additions to the existing FIG ratings. The deductions, too , follow the FIG Code without discussion to clarify the discrepancies which have been noted (refer to judging by Jerry Wright in previous issues of the Moden: Gymnast). Somewhat more discussion of the judging of compul.sory exercises could have been developed , especially in view of their increased usage at all levels of gymnastics. Fortunately for the judging of local meets , some suggestions for judging routines of low caliber are included. The alternative judging system employed by Mrs. Sjursen in the women's book might also have been included here, likewise some of the schemes previously published in the Modern Gymnast. The self-administered test might be well to take in doses after studying each event. An expert judge might be able to answer the 267 questions in an hour, but the correspondent will need more time. He is encouraged to retake the test as often as necessary to pass it after restudying the text. The goal, after all, is the development of a judging capability, not the ability of pass tests. As with the women 's course, the men 's correspondence course would probably be more useful when used as a text in a clinic situation than as a study guide over a cup of coffee on the kitchen table. With all the judging courses being offered, it is nice to have a written guide to follow , and this will do until more elaborate efforts are complete.
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A -169-W UNEVEN PARALLEL BAR PAD Ideal for practicing hip circles. Only 15". Long enough to provide ample protection yet will not interfere with hand position. 9.50
A -169 PARALLEL BAR PADS Ny-a-Lite filler with bonded Powerhyde fasteners. Lightweight padding allows bar complete protection for beginners as well formers attempting difficult routines. Set sections.
cover , and velcro to flex, yet gives as advanced perof four, five foot 59.95
A -164 PARALLEL BAR UPRIGHT PADS Manufactured to fit late model parallel bars . Provides added protection while practicing skills and under bar work. Will not interfere with adjustment and locking devices. Manufactured from tubular Ny-O-Lite filler with bonded Powerhyde cover. Velcro fasteners secure pads to uprights. Set of 4 pads. 39.50
1 A -170 BALANCE BEAM PAD Added protection in learning backward rolls, hand stands, and other skills. 5'5" in length for partial bea m covering . 21.00
PRICES THIS PAGE INCLUDE DELIVERY
U-35 GYMNASTIC HEAD PROTECTOR. Lightweight 'foam plastic protector. 5.00
1970 USGF National Championships Super 8 film - in color Complete -routines of the highest scores, on each event, can be observed, See our finest gymnasts in semi-slow motion (24 fps) held at the fabulous Las Vegas Convention Center, 1970 world compulsories included in women 's events, Men - 265 ft. .......... ... .. ......$24.00 Ppd. Women's - 255 ft. ............. .. ..$24.00 Ppd.
EDUCATIONAL C'O'LOR SLIDES
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116 Color Slides $40.00 Ppd. • The world 's best educational color slides, Excellent for classroom study. lectures and clinics.
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Order from: NEWI Side horse chorls are now available. Six exercises ranging from beginner to high interme· diate levels have just been completed. Write to GYMNASTICS AIDES CO . Northbridge. Moss,
SUNDBY PUBLICATIONS Box 777
Santa Monica, California 90406
BE A BETTER GYMNAST -
START THE SEASON RIGHT. DON'T LET BAD FORM STOP YOU FROM BECOMING A CHAMPION GYMNAST. GYMNASTICS RESEARCH 649 Copeland Ct., Santa Monica , Calif. 90405
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MAGIC of GYMNASTICS $6.95
• Designed for Teacher, Coach, Professional and Student! 250 page • Covers the Current Available hardbound text Literature in the Field! .----------• Includes Teaching SUNDBY PUBLICATIONS Methodology for all levels! Box 777 • Elementary, Secondary and Santa Monica, California 90406 College Level Physical Please ~nd me THE MAGtC OF GYMNASTICS, Education Gymnastics! Enclosed you will lind a check or money order 01 • Kinesiology, Physiology; and $6.95 NAME _______________________ Psychology of Gymnastics! • Lists Current Equipment and ADDRESS___________________ Supply Companies! Str •• • Exhibition Gymnastics! t
If not tOlilfied , l undeniond thotl may reTurn th e merchandi1e within 10 days lor a fu ll refund. N~E
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Fantas tic new teaching aid gives you that winning style-au tomatically! Fasten this revolutionarv new product on vour feet and they'll stay pointed and together as vou glide through vour routine. Then take it off. Your fabu lous - - - - form remains because the "feel" of the trick, done correctlv, stavs with vou, Made of clurablecanvas and elastic. it stretches to a safe position for di smounts or emergencies.
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New Gymnastic Figure Trophies _ __ From $3.95 and up. For Orders and further price list write : THE GYM SHOP
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Cong ratu lations! 20th Anniversary
National Gymnastic Clinic, Inc. Sarasota, Florida 25-30 December, 1970
YOU ARE INVITED TO ATTEND .. .The 1970
WESTERN GYMNASTIC CLINIC at The University of Arizona December 26-30, 1970
Staff: Staff members will include: Rusty Mitchell - Don Robinson - Glenn Wilson Francis Allen - Jim Howard - Bill Holmes - and many others
Program: Staff FRANK CUMISKEY - President ANTHONY RICCIARDI - Registrar FRANK WELLS - Director JEFF HENNESSY - Director-Trampoline GEORGE SZYPULA - Director-Men CAP CAUDILL - Director-Women VINCENT D'AUTORIO - Director-C hildren To Register: Write ToDR. ANTHONY RICCIARDI 200 East Dud ley Ave. Westfield, New Jersey 07090
Inst ruction at EVERY level-with Specia l emphasis to be placed on Master Clinic Sessions, which will give more extensive instruction for Coaches, Teachers and Athletes.
Women's Program: Will be headed by Maria Bilski (64 Olympian) and her staff.
Competition: The Annual EAST-WEST All-Star Meet Plus a High School age and under Open Meet. Fee: The Clinic fee will be $12.50 for those registered before Dec. 20th, 1970 and $15.00 on the opening day. A group of eight (8) or more registering before Dec. 20th, 1970 may register for just $10.00 per person.
Send Registrations to: CORRECTION : The Gymnastic Clinic ad on page 31 of the October MG should have read: Eastern Gymnastics Clinic Not: Fort Lauderdale, Florida National Gymnastics Clinic Fort Lauderdale, Fl orida
Jeff Bennon Gymnastic Coach University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona 85721
Fri., March 5
(C ontin ued from page 25)
East ern Ken t ucky -
Wed., Feb. 14 Bos ton State - at - l owetl Tech Fri., February 16 Colorado State Univ. - at - Univ. of New Mexico - N
Co l. State路 long Beach - a t - Son Diego State - N E. Stroudsbu rg - at - West Ches ter - N Sat., February 17 George Williams - at - Whea ton College Northern Iowa -
Nort hern Illinois -
Fri., Sat., March 5, 6 North Atlant ic Conference - at - Coas t Gua rd Acod. Fri., March 11 SI. Cloud - at - No rthern Iowa - N Univ. New Mexico - at - Brigham You ng - N No. Ca lif. Notional Invitational - at - Home stea d Hioh Sr:hnnl
Sat. , March 13
Univ. New M ex ico -
Uni v. Utah -
LSU-New Orleans - at - Nort heas tern Louisiana
No. Calif. No tional Inv ita tional - at - Dia blo Volley College Fri., Sat., March 11, 13 Texas State YMCA Championships - at - Arl inoton, Te xas Fri., AprillH long Beach Notional Invitational - at - Col. State路 l ong Beach
Coion Open - l SU路New Orleans Br igham Young Univ. - at - Arizona Stote Univ. - N
Wed., March 3 SI. Olaf - at - l uthe r College (Decorah, Iowa) - A
WINTER CLINICS NATIONAL GYMNASTIC CLINIC, Saras ota, Florida, December 25-30, 1970, Fees: Individual $ 15 , Mr. & Mrs. $2 5, team (6 or more) $ 12 per gymnast , coach free . Paya ble to N ational Gymnas tic C linic, Inc. Send all inquiries to: Dr. Anthony Ricciardi , 200 E. Dudle y Ave., Westfield , New Jerse y 07090, (Free 20th anniversary shirt to pre-registrants!)
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT BERKELEY CLINIC, Berkeley , C alif. , December 26-30, 1970. Instruction for gy mnast and coach with special emph asi s on instruction this year. Send all inquiries to : Dr. H al Frey, Room 103 , H armon G y m, Universit y of California, Berkeley , Calif. 94 72 0 ; phone (415 ) 642-6350,
MEN'S GYMNASTIC SHOE STYLE # TL-2 This certificate is good for one pair only. Regular price is $2.75. State your street shoe size. Satisfaction guaranteed. U.S.A. only.
EASTERN GYMNASTIC CLINIC, Abington , Pa., November 27 -28, 1970. Fee: $20.00 per person payable in advance. Send all inquiries to: Eastern Gymnastic C linic , Inc. , 1131 Cumberl and Road , Abington , Pa. 1900 I .
INTERNATIONAL TRAMPOLINE & TUMBLING CLINIC AND MEET, C edar Rapids, Iowa, December 28-31 , 1970, Send all inquiries to: Ron Munn , 5056 Brewster Drive, C olumbus , Ohio 43227.
12200 South Berendo Ave" Los Angeles, Cal if. 90044
SARASOTA GYMNASTIC & TRAMPOLINE CLINIC AND MEET, Saras ota, Florida, December 25-30 , 1970, Send all inquiries to : Jeff Hennessy , Box 672 , USL, L afa yette, La. 70501.
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