Page 35

RESEARCH AND FITNESS

J a mes S. Bosco, Ph .D. Son J ose State Co llege

HESEARCH AND FITNESS

This is th e last oi a series oi six articles dealillg with th e efiects ol gYlll nastics all lII otor litlless. Motor iitlless has been deiille~1 as illdudillg tl", calli pall ell ts oi st rellg th , agili t.'", balall ce, .i lexibilit.y. pOlVer alld lIIu scula r ell durall ce. An attelllpt has hePII lIIade to bri eily describe the /llIr" ose; lII et huds IIsed alld results oi represeillalire (esear ch ill 'Ihi s area. A II at lelll/it has also beell lIIade . whell e/;er iJOssible, 10 de scrive or diagralll the I.es ts that hare veell u se d to /I/('a sllre Ih e eileets a.; gnll lla sl ie parlieipa tiull. The lI eort seri es a.; arlicles will deal wilh the eiiects oi grill' lIastin parlicipalioll 011 card io vascular (ih e heart alld 6r('u lalioll ) i itness. This will be lollowed by a series oi arlicles dealillg wilh Ih e killesiological or lII echallical allalysis oi grlllllasti es 1II0 ves. Ple ase se lld your articles ill th ese areas directlr to Ih e R esearch Edilor . Ill elude pictllres, diagrams or tables. FORDH A M, S held o n L e l\ oy. "T h e

Effecl o f F o ur Se lec te d Ph ys ical Edu c ali on Activit ies o n Mu s c ular Endurance 'fest Score; ' . U rb ana: :II. S. Th esi,,_ Ph ys ica l Educat io n , Un iver,; il ) of Illi n o is, 1949, Pp. 84.

P U RPO SE The ,'iud y was co n d u cte d in o rd er to d e l e r mi n C': a I Ih e e ff eci of fu ur "e lec t e d activilil'!' I badillinion. ba s ic ph ys ica l cond iti u nin g. indiv idual lumblin ~ , Iunt s_ a nd apparatus s tunl sl o n Ih e nlu sc ldar e ndu rance l e,,1 scon ', o f l11a le .. o ll c~e fr e,hl11l'n and so phonlflrl's dur in g une !'l:' nl es ll'r'::-: wo rk . I) I th e we ig h t c h an~e:; of th e ~ t1bj cc t ::; in the above a c li v i li ('~ du ri ll~ the H·IlI l'~ l e r. I t wa~ jlurpo rt ed 10 dis-

cove r w hidl

of

impro ve lll C' llt

in

Ilt l' fUll r t ) pes o f adi, ili es effec tl' d th e g:rea ll's t mu sc ul ar end urancl' of the ~ lIbj ec t s . indi ca tin g it s supl' ri ur it y a s a n :ntribullir to pli y:, i('a l f itn r~~ . MET H OD Tlt l' 302 ,.u bjl ... !; (If Illi , ex pnil11 l' nt \\t'fe l11el11be r, of fre,ltll1an a nd ,;" pltllin o re Plt y~ i ca l Educal io n "e r vice classes al th e C hi cag:o Di vis iun /I f Ih e U ni v,,' r,i l y o f Illi noi ,.. T it " fllur a c li viti es sl'l e ct ed for l es tin ~ rCl' r e>l' III I'd li !, hl I badl11illl u n I. inlerl11 ed iate I individual s tunl s and aJlparalll ~ st unl ~l . and It eavy I ba s ic co nditi o nin g I t)pe, uf co ursp::;

in t he c tirricululll. Th t' l'Ollt l-' ll t

I) f

th ese.' ('o u r ses was as

fo ll ows: Apparat u ,. --wor k o il tlt e tral11polin e. f1 y ill ~ rin !!,. s id e h o rse, pa ra llel bar". and I",riwntal hal' III :; Iunl :; lau!!ltt oil eac lt pi ece). Badl11intun -fundallh'nlal :;_ ~ kill" t(,l' ltlliqU I':;_ "s trat eg:y o f Ih e ga 111 !'. Indi vidu a l tllln blin g ~30 different s tUll ts a n d r o u li n es. Ba ~ i c Co n di l i()n ill g-- al't i \' il i( '~' n: lalin g 10 bod y hu!l din~ , end urance alld l1111t o r fitn l',.s wi llt lull' IIr~ani ze d 'gal11es and re la ys. U n l ike the abll\c d C'!-'c ribed n Jur:,l':', participatio n ill thi ~ ac ti\ il y was presc rib ed for th t, Ill ell Oil th e iJa::-i s (If tllt'ir IlI w ~co r l'S ull 1:1 5 -i l e lll m otu r fit ne Ss te, t. Thi " fact , h ou ld il11 pl y Ih e recognilion that Ih ese m e n werl' prac li ce d un " kill " l e, t",1 in Ilt l' endura n Ct' battery a s pa rt o f th e co urse ('n nt l' nl thro u !!ltout th e "c' lll es le r ·\llholl"h th e thes is rc p o rts res ult s o f a ll Ihrl't' i",t,-. u nl y lit e fi rs t' ,; nd tlti7-d were u sed in s ta ti s li ca l t r ea ll11 e nl of th e dala . Tlti s hatll'r y co n s is t e d of: c h in nin g , floor pu s h · up:;. " ill in !,' tu cb. a n d h ops . It wa s adl11ini ~ l e r e d acco rdin g tll tht ' ~ )J l'c ifi('atillll ::; o f per ::,ul1 S t-'xpl' ri f' Il L'l'u in gi vi ng them. Tlt e proce dure fur ad lllin i" lt' rill !,' Ih e t es t ". s l a n da rd " for th e ir apprai >'al fo r I11 l' n a gt's ] :)- 2.1 . and Ih t' ir re li a bilil y and validit y h ad been prev io u :d y e>,la IJl i,lll'd. Thrt'l' 111 L'HS Un',. o~ the wei!!ht o f Ih e subj ec ts were takl'n at tht, ::,a llle li lll (·. U ll till' :-;il ll H' da y, . a ::; th e e ll duran ce tt' sb W( ' rl' g- i vl' ll . TIH'r'l ' WH :::: . h OWl' VtT. Ilo atl l' lllpt (Ill Ih t.: pa ri of th e ill v ( '~ l i ga l () r tu ev aluat e Ih e li ':'-~lIl' cl mt l' nt of th e : : ub · j ee t:: :. . I n unlt'r In d (' l erlllin l' ", hi e- It ~ rnuJl of :-i lud enh I IHldlll int tl ll. ba :-; ic c und iliollill ~. Hpp a r a lu :::. 0 1' indi vid ual :-; t un l:-;) llI ade thl' ~n'a t · t' :'! 1 }ra in in (' IHi uralll'l' ~C lJn':::; . lil l' rl' ~ lIlb (If til e' rir ~ t anil '-third tes ts we n.: c(lmpart-'iI. For ('a eh ::::('t"l ioll flf eac h ('!a::':-i. Iht.' 1llt'Il'S ~ I and ­ anI ~c ()re~ Wt' n ' d t'lt'rlllillt'ti. Th l' "I " It' ~ t wa:.; applied to dl'l(' rlllill t, H il l' s tali ~ ti ('(.t ll y !-' i ~ lIifi l'all t }ra in ill tht· I H~ t l' nduran ce ~c ur e uve r l ilt' fir~ 1. Th" ('(Jillpari~on of wt'ighl n' ~ lIlb wa s m ad'"' in Ih e ~a I11 L'

1I 1Hll l ll' l".

A ~ ha ~ IJ ce ll pre vi ously menli ull ed, Ih l' !'-t-'cond

tes t in !!

I

al 9

weeksl . did nul fealur e in th e ana lys is of th e data ur th e 'cu n clu ,.;,' s ilJ n s draw n Ih e refrom .

RES LTS Th (' r(,~ lI lt :-; o f th e ex pe rilll ent ill t..:ach c1a ~s ~ h ow: J a t!.aill of 12.8'. s tandard :icu re, I th e seco nd hi g h es l ga in of Ih e fuur' acliviti es tc.ted I was found in Ih e appa ralu s da s~es . Of t h e S sect ion s u f apparalu s, th e diffe re n ce b e t wl'e n Ih e fir s t a nd third t es ls I) f e n Juran('e wa~

::: ig:nifi ca n t a t

th e

170

g ro u p ~ .

l e \ (' 1 fo r 4

and

signi -

f ica n t fo r th e rl'mainin g g roup at Ih e 5% leve l. as l11 e a :; ure d b y th e " t " le:it. b I a !!a in o f 3 .07 >, Ianda rd sco res I th e l o\\'~s t o f al l a c tiviti es te s te d I w'as fo und in the b admi n tun c la ss es . F o r Ihree o f th e 5ix sect ion s tes ted.

th e improve m ent

in

enduranc e sc oreS wa:; :: ig ·

nifi ca nt a l Ih e 5 '70 l evel , and for th e re m ai nin g g r o ups , th e "t" tes t sllOw ed th at Ihe res ult s mi g ht b e due t o c han ce. c l Ih e g r eates t imprO Ve llll' n t in e ndu r an ce sco res I a lo la l of 19.35 s t a ndard scores I wa, fo und for th e ba s ic co nditionin !! cla sses , Th e "t" tes t of s ignifi c an ce s h owed th e diffe r e n ce b e lwee;l m e ans fo r a ll gro ups Jo b e significant a t the 1 '1~ lev,'1 b y a w id e margin. d I ' th e secund lo wes l improve m e nt in s iandard scu res, lh a l o f 8.05 , wa s found for t h e .' ndura n ce of m e n in indi v idual tumblin g c la sses. S i x g roup" in the act ivil y WL're te, te d ; o f th ese, 5 s hu wed th e diffe re n ce in ~co r es to be si un if iea nt

a t th l'

19'0

Ievt-' l

and tlt e r Cl1luinin u

UT O LIP

al 5% . T h e w~ i gh l c h a n gL's fo r all g r;)ll p s we r e full y d i:c ~sse d . H uwl',e r . Ih e aU lh o r conclud es th a t Ihi s da la is o f n o va lu e, s in ce Ih e li ~s u e cU lllpon c nt s of th e s ubj ects is unkn (\\\' n. In s u c h a case, a n y loss or ~a iJl in wei g ht (' a n nol h e th e ba s i ~ fur any sO llnd co n c lu s io n s a s 10 the relati ve IIIl'rit , "f th e acli vil i", in w hi c h sub j ec t s wt're e n !!a!!c d. H L' c "ncludl':; . n ever tll e les,. Ihal hi , res ult , would indi ca te Ih~ tlvt.: r wt' i}rht indi vid ual i ~ lII or c apt to ha ve a IlIw pb y:=: ica l fi tn !'ss sco rt' th a n Ih o se o f n o r ma l we ig hl (or th c under wei!! ht l. S ummari zi n g Ih e re, ult s of th e fo ll ow in g tab le , it was flJund~ 11 Th t.: r a nge of e nduran ce scu rt'~ is hi g h es t for th e ba sic co nditi onin g c la ~'L's, and lowcs i fllr indi vidual tumblin g . 21 Appara t u ;o c1a sse:;

h ad I h e hi g; h est lII l'a n uf s tandard sco r es, fo ll u we d 'in d ecre a s in g urdcr b y bad nlinl o n. indi vidua l l umblin g. a nd bas ic cu n d ili o llin g. 31 Il asic cu ndilio n in g, as mi g hl be e xp ect ed , ~ h owe d Ih e lllo~1 illl p r u\,e lll e ill in e nduran ce sco re >', fo ll uwed by appara l u s wo rk a n d in d ividua l IUlllbliil~ . Badmin lon appare ntl y did nut cll nlribu lc s ignifi can ll y. III all-round Illu sc ul ar c ndurall ct' . Th e s ig nifi ca n ce of th e diffe re nc e in e n du ran c I' sco r es o f th e firs t three acti vil ics in d ica le d th a i Illi " cl iff('l'c n ce wa , n ul du e t o c h a n cl' . a ll h oug h il doe:, n"t pru ve il 10 1)(' du e tu Ih e differe n ce in a c ti vily t y p es. CONCLUS IO NS

1.

Ba ~ i c

cO ll d iti on i ll~

con tribut es

Illo st

lu

im provcmc nt

uf

IhL'

Illu :-:t.: u lar l' nduf"C.uH.: e of stud t..: l1t s alllO I1 .!! 4h e fOllr ac ti viti es h':-i led. 2. S t uden l,. c h oosi n g appara t u s I le~ in th e ir co ur,.e w ith hi ~h t' r e ndurance sc" res th an Ih ose ·in th e lI lhe r activ iti es tes le d. 3 . S tucl e n ls in badmint o n illlprU VL' less in e n d urance th a n Ih o~c In Ih c o ther a c ti v iti es tes te d. 4

is

\V ei«(ht

of 11 01

<ra in ..;

we r e

~a l u (~ 1I1;1e!'!:' it

negli gible includ es

in

thi s stud y

a kn owkdge

flf

~ ill Ce thi ~ da t a compon ent ti ::;.-

Su e o f the bod y. H oweVt' r , th e r e is a n ill di c a li on Ih al Ih ose wh u a r e ovc rw e i~ hl le n d t o h a ve poo r e r ph ys ical fi ln ess than Ih o:ie who are nn l. 'I' Ill' rt' an' fur th e r in d ica ti ons th at th e l inear Iy pe o f man w ill e h""se l\llllb l in p: in Ih e se r vice c urri cu lum if h e ha:, a c hoi ce . T a hulal l'd n':-iull:-i of th e l'x (l t' rilll l'n t are a!-' [o ll ow:-:' Acti v it y

Apparatus Badminton BaSIC Condo Ind . Stu n ts

No. of Cases

74 78 79 71

Range o f Mea n o f Standard Standard Scores Scores

35-100 15 -95 5-95 25-85

70.61 62.46 56.66 57.59

tmprove Stand- Standa rd n1ent o f o rd Erro r of Mean ( I sf Devia- Mean & 3rd tests)ti on

12.84 3 .07 19.35 8.05

9.68 9.89 13.11 9.97

2.54 2.87 2.93 2.91

35

Profile for USA Gymnastics

Modern Gymnast - November 1964  

Modern Gymnast - November 1964