CRICKET FACTS: Cricket is 2nd most popular game (Just behind Soccer) in the world. It’s not an Olympic sport. The first ever International cricket match was played in the USA against Canada who came away with the victory and won the match.
HISTORY: Cricket was first played in Southern England in the 16th century. By the end of 18th century it had developed into the national sport of England, as well as a Global sport where the British went to various parts of world.
OBJECTIVE: To hit the ball (aim) and score runs (goal). The team with the most combined runs scored by all (batters) batsman wins the game.
OFFENSE: Batter (aka Batsman) scores runs for the team with the bat
DEFENSE: Bowler (pitcher) and Fielder(s) try to restrict batsman from scoring runs or get them out.
PLAYERS: There are 11 players in the field in International Matches
EQUIPMENT: Ball & Bat are most important. More equipment is needed based on the skill level and environment the game is being played.
CONCEPT OF CRICKET: The batsman hits the ball (allowed to hit 360 degree) anywhere / anyway the ball comes off of the flat bat to score runs. The bowler tries to get the batsman out or restrict him/her from scoring runs with the help of the fielders, who either catch the ball to get batsman out, or grab and throw the ball to restrict the batsman from scoring runs.
BASIC RULES OF CRICKET: ℗ Cricket is a team sport, where one team at a time bats (offense) & other team fields or bowls (defense). ℗ An inning consists of a number of set of overs, or after a set period of time ℗ The bowler must bowl over hand (pitch / deliver) the ball to the batter, with no more than one bounce. ℗ A catch must be taken with bare hand(s) before the ball touches the ground/grass ℗ A batsman must make it back to the CREASE (home) before the ball reaches / contacts the stumps (which are 22 yards apart in a straight line), otherwise the batsman is RUN OUT Two batsmen have to run past each other to score one run in a real game. ℗ A batsman remains up to bat until he/she get OUT, or lost all of his/her partners, thus leaving the batsman without a partner to run with. If there are at least two batsman left, the batsman continue until the time runs out, or all the overs are completed, whichever comes first.
SCORING RUNS: ℗ ONE run is awarded each time both batsman run pass each other and successfully make it back to the opposite CREASE before the ball contacts the stumps (which is a RUN OUT) ℗ FOUR runs are awarded when the ball rolls or bounces past the boundary (fence), or if the batsman runs for it while ball is in play. ℗ SIX runs are awarded when the ball lands past the boundary (fence) without touching the ground (like a homerun in baseball)
℗ Penalty runs are awarded when the fielding team (defense) or the bowler (pitcher) commits an error(s), such as no ball, wide ball, or commit an over throw while trying to run out the batsman.
FORMATION: ℗ Two batsman begin the game with one batsman facing the bowler at a time ℗ One bowler bowls (pitches) the first complete over from one end of the pitch. That bowler is not allowed to bowl the another over until the opposite bowler has bowled at least one complete over at the opposite end of the pitch ℗ The Wicket Keeper is the fielder located behind the stumps (aka wickets). This is the only fielder who is allowed to wear hand gloves and other safety equipments. ℗ The remaining fielders spread out to cover the remaining ground based on the team’s game plan. ℗ After a bowler completes his/her over (which is six legal bowls or deliveries to the batsman) the entire team has to reshape their formation on the field before the next bowler begins his over on the opposite end of the pitch. The batsman do not change their ends. ℗ Batsman can not bat twice in the same inning.
PLAYERS BY POSITION / ROLE: BATSMAN - the player with the bat, who uses the bat to hit the ball and/or to run with it, in order to score run(s). (This term is used for both genders. BOWLER - the player bowling (pitching) the ball to the batsman. The ball can not bounce more than once before it reaches the batsman. A bowl (pitch) delivered without any bounce below the belt of the batsman is allowed. A no ball penalty applies if the bowl is above the belt of the batsman. FIELDER - stands in the field (grass) and attempts to catch the ball that is hit by the batsman, resulting in the batsman being out. If a ball hits the ground (grass), the fielder then grabs and throws the ball to limit the batsman from scoring more runs. WICKET KEEPER - the fielder positioned behind the batsman and wickets. This is the only fielder who is allowed to wear a special type of gloves (which are used to collect / receive the ball after it is bowled or thrown at the wickets or stumps) and other safety equipment as needed. OUT - also known as dismiss & wicket - The most common ways to get out are as follows: 1. BOWLED - when the ball hits the stumps batsman tries to hit OR Miss. 2. CAUGHT / CATCH - when a fielding player (defense) catches the ball that was hit by the batsman, before ball touches the ground or grass 3. RUN OUT - as the batsman attempts to score runs, if the fielding side (defense) throws and hits the wickets with the ball before the batsman makes it back to the crease with his body or with the bat in his possession (on the line), the batsman is out 4. STUMPED - when the batsman moves forward by leaving the crease to play the ball and misses. The wicket keeper must collect ball from behind the stumps and hit the stumps at the time batsman is not in the crease (it is like being run out) 5. HIT WICKET - an instance of a batsman breaking the wicket with the bat or a part of the body while playing a stroke and so being out. (Falls on stumps due to lost balance while playing shot) Author(s) & Contributor(s) Stan Heidi – Hamilton Southeastern School Kelley Newman – Beech Grove Schools Eileen Richards – New Albany Floyd County Schools Mathew Shirk – Indianapolis Public Schools Kristine Stafford – Avon Schools
Katherine Langdon - Indianapolis Public Schools Paul Newman – Other Jatin Patel - Coach Rev: 20130909
Cricketing terms glossary All out when an inning is ended due to ten of the eleven batsmen on the batting side being either dismissed or enable to bat because of injury or illness All-rounder a player adept at batting and bowling Appeal the act of a bowler or fielder(s) shouting at the umpire to ask, if his last ball took the batsman’s wicket. Usually phrased in the form of howzat (how-is-that?). Common variations include ‘Howzee?’ (How is he?), or simply turning to the umpire and shouting “Aaaaaah”. NB It is an offence for the bowler to appeal when he knows the batsman is clearly not out.
Average A bowler’s bowling average is defined as the total number of runs conceded by the bowler (including wides and no-balls) divided by the number of wickets taken by the bowler. A batsman’s batting average is defined as the total number of runs scored by the batsman divided by the number of times he has been dismissed.
Bail one of the two small pieces of wood that lie on top of the stumps to form the wicket. Boundary the perimeter of the ground marking, mostly rope, line or series of flags or small portable markers, Also used to mention a four (Boundary) and a six (Over the Boundary) run collectively.
Bowl - the Single delivery of the ball Bowl Out a method of determining the result in a limited overs match that has been tied. One bowler from each side bowls one over, where other team bats to score run of this one over, to decide winner. Century an individual score of at least 100 runs, a significant landmark for a batsman. Sometimes used ironically to describe a bowler conceding over 100 runs in an innings.
Duck a batsman’s score of naught (zero), as in “he was out for a duck” or “she hasn’t got off her duck yet”. Originally called a “duck’s egg” because of the “0” shape in the scorebook.
Four a ball on any shot that reaches the boundary after bouncing one or more times on the ground, so called because it scores four runs to the batting side. Golden duck a dismissal for naught (zero), from the very first ball faced in a batsman’s innings Googly a deceptive spinning delivery by a leg spin bowler, also known (particularly in Australia) as the wrong ‘un. For a righthander bowler and a right-handed batsman, a googly will turn from the off side to the leg side. Developed by Bosanquet around 1900, and formerly called a bosie or bosey.
Gully a close fielder near the slip fielders. A fielder standing in Gully is on the imaginary straight line that extends from the corner of batter’s popping crease (on the on-side) to the middle stump. Half Century an individual score of over 50 runs, reasonably significant landmark for a batsman and more so for the lower order and the tail-enders.
Hat-trick a bowler taking a wicket off each of three consecutive deliveries that he bowls (whether in the same over or split up in two consecutive overs, or two overs in two different spells).
Hit wicket a batsman getting out by dislodging the bails of the wicket behind him either with his bat or body as he tries to play the ball or set off for a run.
“How’s that?” (or “Howzat?”) The cry of a fielding team when appealing, notable because an umpire is not obliged to give the batsman ‘out’ unless the question is asked. .. Same as Appeal.
Infield the region of the field that lies inside the 30 yard circle (27m). Innings one players or one team’s turn to bat (or bowl). Unlike in baseball, and perhaps somewhat confusingly, in cricket The term “innings” is both singular and plural.
Leg before wicket (LBW) a way of dismissing the batsman. In brief, the batsman is out if, in the opinion of the umpire, the ball hits any part of the batsman’s body (usually the leg) before hitting the bat and would have gone on to hit the stumps
Light short for “bad light.” Umpires offer the batsmen light if conditions become too dark to be safe for batting. Limited Overs match a one-innings match where each side may only face a set number of overs. Another name for one-day cricket. (50, 45, 40, 35, 30, 25, 20, 15, 12, 10, 8 over matches are all limited over matches)
Maiden over an over in which no runs are scored off the bat, and no wides or no balls are bowled by Bowler. Nervous nineties the period of batsman’s innings when his or her score is between 90 and 99. During this phase many players bat extremely cautiously in order to avoid being out before they obtain a century.
Net run rate (NRR) the run rate scored by the winning team subtracted by run rate scored by the losing team. The winning team gets positive value, losing team the negative value. In a series, the mean of the NRR for all matches played by the team is taken. Alternatively, for a series, a team’s NRR can be calculated as (total runs scored) / (total overs received) – (total runs conceded) / (total overs bowled).
No Ball - is a penalty against the fielding team, usually as a result of an illegal delivery (pitch) by the bowler, such as the height of the ball at the time the batsman tries to play at his crease. The delivery of a no ball results in one run being added to the batting team’s score, and an additional ball must be bowled. Non-striker the batsman standing at the bowling end. One Day International (ODI) a match between two national sides limited to 50 overs per innings, played over one day. One-day cricket an abbreviated form of the game, with just one innings per team, usually with a limited number of overs and played over one day.
OUT or Ways to get out There are ten methods of dismissal (10 ways to get out) 1• Bowled – ball hits stumps from the bowler while batsman try to play the shot or Miss the shot 2• Caught – after the batsman hits the ball, it is caught by a fielder without bouncing and before ball touches the ground or grass 3• LBW – Leg before wicket, When ball hits body of the batsman if the ball would have struck the wicket but was intercepted by any part of the batsman's body except the hand holding his bat
4• Stumped – A batsman is stumped should he leave his crease when attempting a shot and the wicketkeeper removes the bails before the batsman regains his ground
5• Run Out – dismissal by a member of the fielding side breaking the wicket while the batsman is outside his/her crease in the process of making a run. 6• Hit Wicket – an instance of a batsman breaking the wicket with the bat or a part of the body while playing a stroke and so
7• Handled ball – when the batsman deliberately handles the ball to prevent dismissal 8• Double hit – when the batsman deliberately hits the ball twice 9• Obstructing the field – when the batsman deliberately obstructs a fielder 10• Timed out – a batsman is timed out if he is not ready to play within three minutes of the previous batsman
Outfield the part of the field lying outside the 30 yard (27 m) circle measured from the centre of the pitch. Over the delivery of six consecutive balls by one bowler. - When six legal deliveries (pitches) are completed by one or more bowler towards one direction of the pitch
Over rate the number of overs bowled per hour. Partnership the number of runs scored between a pair of batsmen before one of them gets dismissed. Pitch • the rectangular surface in the centre of the field where most of the action takes place, usually made of earth or clay. It is 22 yards in length. • Of the ball, to bounce before reaching the batsman after delivery. • The spot where the ball pitches (sense 2). Power play A block of five overs in a one day match where either the fielding or batting captain can designate as being subject to fielding restrictions. There are two ‘power play’ blocks in each innings – one to be used by either captain.
Rain rule any of various methods of determining which team wins a rain-shortened one-day match. Also due to snow. Run rate the average number of runs scored per over. Seam the stitching on the ball. Silly A modifier to the names of some fielding positions to denote that they are unusually close to the batsman, most often silly mid-off, silly mid-on, silly midwicket and silly point.
Single a run scored by the batsmen physically running once only between the wickets. (2 = Double, 3 = Triple) Six (or Sixer) a shot which passes over the boundary without having bounced, so called because it scores six runs to the batting side.
Spin bowling a style of bowling in which a spin bowler (“spinner”) attempts to deceive the batsman by imparting spin on the ball using either their fingers or their wrist. Spin bowling is most effective when the ball is travelling relatively slowly, and so most spinners bowl at a pace between 40 and 55mph.
Sticky wicket a difficult wet pitch. Stump 1 one of the three vertical posts making up the wicket (“off stump”, “middle stump” and “leg stump”); 2 a way of dismissing a batsman; or 3 (“stumps”) the end of a day’s play. Twenty20 (T20) a new, fast paced, form of cricket limited to twenty overs per innings, plus some other rules changes, specifically designed to broaden the appeal of the game. (T20 = 20 overs / inning & T10 = overs / Inning ) Umpire one of the two (or three) enforcers of the rules and adjudicators of play. Wicket* - 1. Pitch itself with the three stump(s) set on each side of straight line – 22 yards apart. 2. The
main target located just behind the batsman, which is made up of three sticks, each stick is called a stump may have pair of bails at the top. 3 Fall of Wicket means batsman is out or dismissed. 4 At the wickets means batsman are not out and active to continue to score runs Wicket-keeper the player on the fielding side who stands immediately behind the batting end wicket. A specialist position, used throughout the game.
Wide Ball - is a penalty against the fielding team, usually as a result of a ball being bowled too wide or too high to be hit by the batsman. The delivery of a wide ball results in one run being added to the runs scored off that ball, and is scored as extras that are added to the team’s total, but are not added to any batsman’s total.
Terms also used in International Cricket Declaration the act of a captain voluntarily bringing his side’s innings to a close, in the belief that their score is now great enough to prevent defeat. Occurs almost exclusively in timed forms of cricket where a draw is a possible result (such as first class cricket), in order that the side declaring have enough time to bowl the opposition out and therefore win. Doosra an off spin ball turns away as leg spin for the batsman even it was bowl as off spin. (wrist trick) Draw a result in timed matches where the team batting last is not all out, but fail to exceed their opponent’s total. Not to be confused with a tie, in which the side batting last is all out or run out of overs with the scores level. Duckworth-Lewis method a mathematically based rule that derives a target score for the side batting second in a rainaffected one-day match. Hawk-Eye a computer-generated graphic showing the probable trajectory of the ball if it were not hindered by the batsman. Used by commentators to estimate whether an LBW decision was correctly made by an umpire, as well as to assess bowlers’ deliveries
Author(s) & Contributor(s) Stan Heidi – Hamilton Southeastern School Kelley Newman – Beech Grove Schools Eileen Richards – New Albany Floyd County Schools Mathew Shirk – Indianapolis Public Schools
Kristine Stafford – Avon Schools Katherine Langdon - Indianapolis Public Schools
Paul Newman – Other Jatin Patel – Coach Rev: 20130909