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Aarhus School of Architecture Master thesis project / January-June 2013 Urmo Mets Supervisor Tom Nielsen

U R B A N

P U B L I C

S P A C E

A GUIDE TO ANALYSE AND ENHANCE URBAN OPEN SPACES IN ESTONIA

INTRODUCTION

KAAS

1


Master studies and the thesis project supported by: The Cultural Endowment of Estonia The Archimedes Foundation and the Ministry of Education and Research of Estonia

2

INTRODUCTION


00 Introduction

INTRODUCTION

3


4

INTRODUCTION


Acknowledgements I would like to thank my tutor Tom Nielsen for his guidance and trust during the process , when I chose a challenging

topic and made

modifications on the way. I am thankful to all the people with whom I have discussed the thesis project in Estonia : Toomas Paaver , Teele Pehk, Marten Kaevats, Anna-Liisa Unt, T천nis Arjus , Hendrik M채nd, Kaja Pae, Kaur Talpsep, Lauri Eltermaa . Thank you for your help : Priit Rohtmets , T천nu Runnel and Tiit Sild . I would like to thank The Cultural Endowment of Estonia , Archimedes Foundation and the Ministry of Education and Research in Estonia who made it possible to focus on my studies . Janek Veeber, for your support. And finally , I am especially grateful to my family . Kristel - for supporting my studies by moving to Denmark for almost two years together with our kids: only a 4-month-old Teodor and 3-year-old Sonja . Sonja and Teodor, thank you for your joy and energy .

INTRODUCTION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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6

INTRODUCTION


Abstract

The thesis project "Urban Public Space , a Guide to Analyse and Enhance Urban Open Spaces in Estonia " is intended as the first draft of a guide to be later revised and published in Estonia . The topic has recently become broadly discussed

in

Estonia and a guide would be useful for many addressees . In absense of local reference material some municipality architects and community members are pointing out the

The guide consists of three main parts . The first part

"Manual for Streets " (The Department of Transport , UK

provides an insight to the main aspects , possibilities and

2007),

(The

restrictions embedded in the phenomenon of UPS. Due to

Department of Transportation , NY 2009) and the EU project

the complexity of the subject and relatively late discussion

"Shared Space" documents. What comes closest in Estonia

of UPS in Estonia , the vocabulary and understanding of

"Street

Design

Manual

of

New

York"

is the "Guide for Participatory Planning " (Kadri Tillermann ,

UPS is currently deficient . The project seeks to put forward

Regina Viljasaar , Tallinn 2012). The guide introduces a

an educational

method of participation for urban planning and does not

comprehensive overview of the main issues .

role

and

fill

the

gap

by providing

focus on the specific issues of urban public space . The second part of the work suggests a universal model of The thesis project aims to deliver the first draft of a

UPS and an analyse tool . The tool is a table of pointing

comprehensive guide for urban public spaces . It is at first

questions that are considered essential and should be

directed to local municipalities and district communities as

asked when the guide is used to analyse a certain site . The

an informative material and an analyse tool . The main task

structural model of UPS provides additional understanding

of the guide regarding local municipalities

is to convey

about the subject by systematic visual organisation , and

nowadays expectations in urban public space and provide

helps to organise questions asked for each sub-category of

an analyse method to help prepare better master plan

the system . The proposed structure intends to follow

assignments when the discussed area constitutes greater

simple logic, there are as many categories

public interest. The main task of the guide regarding

necessary and as few as possible .

as found

district communities is to provide know-how about public spaces to be more successful

when envisioning

their

neighbourhood future and participating in a master plan

The table of questions heads to unveil the characteristics of a place and point to spatial situations that should be avoided. Questions about actors , users, functions and

process.

qualities of UPS are asked . The guide aims to cover all ---

important aspects and yet avoid making an encircling

Public life in public spaces includes multiple disciplines and

ask questions that may be missing but are relevant in

is therefore complex . Yet the guide lies on the assumption

specific cases. The guide has a pointing nature and does

that in today’s European democratic context the framework

not suggest concrete solutions .

system and being too suggestive . The reader is urged to

of

urban

public

space

(UPS)

has

many

universal

characteristics. Jan Gehl, one of the spokesman of public

It has been considered that some aspects of UPS are not

space, divides activities in public space into necessary and

"designable" by a municipality

optional activities . A walk on the street to get from home to

included

work is a necessary activity . A spontaneous walk in a park

necessary background. Directing political activity or solving

on a sunny day is an optional activity . According to Gehl

broader social problems is not the ambition of the guide .

only in the informing

or a community and are part of the work as a

optional activities depend to a great deal on the qualitative characteristics of the space .1 The measure is a human

The third part of the project holds three case studies in

being, his sensations and social behaviour , his basic urban

order to test the second part of the work - the model and

behaviour. In urban context his basic expectations are

the questions . To be more comprehensive , sites of a

certain spatial and aesthetic qualities and access to the

different nature were selected . Feedback of the case

surrounding functions . The argument of the project is that

studies was used to supplement second part of the work .

these characteristics and basic needs can be described in

Case studies also demonstrate what kind of data can be

every urban setting .

found and how it could be used .

1 Jan Gehl (2011) "Life Between Buildings ." Island Press, London (p9) INTRODUCTION

ABSTRACT

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8

INTRODUCTION


Contents

00

5 7 9 11 13 15

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ABSTRACT CONTENTS BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT METHODOLOGY THE GUIDE, FOR WHOM IS IT AND HOW TO USE IT

01

18 18 18 19 20

SPATIAL ASPECT: IMPORTANCE FREEDOM TO MOVE HUMAN BEHAVIOUR EQUAL SPATIAL RIGHTS FOR PEDESTRIANS AND VEHICLES

22 22 22 23 23

SOCIAL ASPECT: IMPORTANCE THE INCLUSIVE ROLE SAFETY ISSUES PROMOTING HEALTHY LIVING

24 24 24 25 25

ECONOMIC ASPECT: IMPORTANCE ECONOMIC BENEFITS SMALL BUSINESSES VS HYPERMARKETS EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC FORCES. THE MEDIEVAL TALLINN, SOLD OUT!

26 26 26 26 27

LEGAL ASPECT: INTRODUCTION OWNERSHIP: PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SEMI-PUBLIC AND SEMI-PRIVATE PUBLIC-PRIVATE-PARTNERSHIP

28 28 28 28 29

POLITICAL ASPECT: INTRODUCTION THE POWER OF PUBLIC SPACE DEMOCRATISATION OF URBAN SPACES URBAN PUBLIC SPACE AND POLITICAL RESPONSIBILITY

30 30 30 30 30

TIME ASPECT: INTRODUCTION SEASONS AND CLIMATE PUBLIC LIFE AND THE RHYTHMS OF USE URBAN PUBLIC SPACE AND TEMPORARY USE

32

PARTICIPATORY PLANNING

36 38

A MODEL OF URBAN PUBLIC SPACE A TABLE OF QUESTIONS

48 64 84

A SUBURB IN VIIMSI THE TARTU NEW CENTER VANA-KALAMAJA STREET

Introduction

Informing part. Embedded aspects of urban public space

02 03

Analyse

Testing Part 2 - Case studies

00

103 111

PROJECT PROCESS REFERENCES

Endnotes

INTRODUCTION

CONTENTS

9


10

INTRODUCTION


Background of the project

Around 2005, I noticed a certain tendency in "magazine architecture"

worldwide.

Public

stairs

and

ramps

incorporated into architectural form, sloping up and down , these spectacular architectural crescendos were breaking out from the inside of the buildings . Since the proposals of architectural competitions started to follow this trend in Estonia,

I

have

questioned

myself ,

what

is

this

phenomenon? Soon I realised this trend being part of a broader popularisation of urban public space , in this case incorporated into architectural language .

that popped up more and more frequently in the Estonian periodicals

dealing with urbanity .

These

discussions were initiated mostly by architects , planners, urbanists and landscape architects . In recent years these discussions have entered into the wider public debate , greatly in hand with the development of citizen society . My conclusion is that the debate in Estonia hence has both global and local reasons .

it’s

independence .

The

following

decades

changed urban life rapidly . The process of privatization and steady economic growth significantly influenced the cityscape. New layers of buildings

and infrastructure

transformed the spatial qualities of it’s cities . A jump into capitalism and liberal politics quickly set private interest ahead of public . Everyday life became very car-centered, many development sites in the cities strategic positions moved into private hands where quick -profit was expected . Professionals working with urbanity have been worried about the disproportional attention to the development of public domain. The development of urban space has been too investor -centered, planning processes include public voice only in a very formal way . The local municipality is still criticised

for insufficient

interest, the public space .

infrastructure

and not a 21st century

social

space .

Hundreds of kilometres of city streets are reconstructed excessive width, the scarce space left for pedestrians is separated by wasteful steel barriers with no regard to the specifics of the area. Cluttered street signs , double- and triple paired traffic lights on the crossings are signs of an over-regulation. Development plans for the light traffic roads, street furniture design , public park refreshments are often prepared separately , without a vision and without public debate. Besides municipalities , the main subscribers of road projects , also the general public is not aware of the alternative possibilities and therefore does not speak out.

The local backdrop goes back to 1991, when Estonia regained

of 2013 the street is still regarded as a technological

according to outdated regulations . Vehicle tracks have

My recognition was supported by simultaneous discussions professional

Street is a central unit in urban public space . In the Estonia

protection of the public

With the emergence of the citizen society , organised networks of people are thriving for a change . The will to speak

for

the

developments

of

the

ones

in

the

neighbourhood is on the rise . Some district communities like Supilinna Selts in Tartu, Uus-Maailm and Telliskivi in Tallinn have already been established

and are making

progress in envisioning their neighbourhood 's future . As communities are usually run by a few people who have knowledge in city planning and jurisdiction , and are able to convey local interests , there is still a lot to do in informing community members, local authorities and investors about the possibilities of urban public space and the benefits of participatory planning. As the new expectations rise , there is a lack of clarity about the phenomenon of

public space . What exactly is public

space, where does it start and where does it end , how does it influence everyone’s life, is it self -organising or can we "design" public life?

The current thesis project aims to

provide a basis for the subject and an analyse tool to seek answers.

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT

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12

INTRODUCTION


Methodology

Urban public space (UPS) is a subject of many research projects in multiple disciplines . As there is a lot of material available,

I asked

myself

about

the

main

aspects

embedded in the subject to frame my research . I ended up with six main aspects : spatial, social, economic, political,

A structured model of UPS proposed in the project uses the

legal and time aspect . Throughout the studies , I first

same principle , in addition to the questions it provides an

avoided looking into the schemes proposing a framework

understanding

of UPS. Based on my readings I designed my own version

organisation. Such categorisation was also helpful when

of a framework for UPS and then looked up the existing

working out the list of questions , specific questions are

materials to find approval or alternatives . The materials I

derived from sub-categories.

about the subject by systematic visual

found helped me to rethink and alter my main diagrams the structured

model of UPS. Based on the created

The other method is based on the Complexity Theory

categories I wrote a list of questions about the factors that

and it’s use in urban planning . In his work "Complexity

determine the character of public space . These questions

Theory and Urban Planning ", Dr. Michael A. McAdams

and categories were tested during the case studies in the

criticises the linear aspect and the static nature of long

three very different sites (see Project Process ).

range planning , static zoning and traditional top-down planning that are in direct opposition to the dynamic nature

The second part of the thesis project - a structured model

of urbanisation .2 The theory suggests methods for urban

of UPS was designed with two methods in mind . In an

planning. One of them is an agent or actor based planning ,

academic respect these two can be called methods with

it includes individuals , organisations and phenomenon’s

reservations, but need

that influence real-time urban developments . In a way it

to be pointed

out as direct

influences.

describes a type of dynamic participatory planning :

Just as writing is a tool to shape and arrange thoughts ,

"Urban planning can easily be framed within the context of

drawing

spatial

complexity

thoughts. When facing complexity of a work , a systematic

politicians,

too is a tool to shape and arrange

visual approach can be helpful .

strategic management template for developing a new or documenting the existing business models .

1

It is a visual

chart with elements describing a firm's value proposition , infrastructure, customers and finances . It assists firms in aligning their activities by illustrating potential trade-offs. a tool to analyse

urban

There

are

planners ,

agents ,

developers,

be

they

citizens,

government officials etc. Agents could also force either natural or man-made such as technology , weather, but

Alexander Osterwalders "Business Model Canvas " is a

Basically

metaphors.

business , it uses visual

organisation of carefully chosen priority categories to provide understanding of a firm and its aims .

technology

is not divorced from humans , as they are

human creations.

Likewise, they

may be framed

as

environments depending on the jurisdictional constraints ." 3

The analyse part of the thesis project questioned what are the determinant variables that could be addressed and managed by a municipality or a community when making urban plans. The project included the metaphor of actors , a field abstract enough to be given different meanings relevant in a specific case . It became clear to me that when planning a change in a public context , interests of involved actors are of a high priority when these plans are facing realisation. The importance

1 Wikipedia (www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_Model_Canvas), accessed 18.05.2013 2 Michael A.McAdams (no data) "Complexity Theory and Urban Planning ."Fatih University , Istanbul (p10) 3 Ibid. (p9) INTRODUCTION

of these actors and their

mutual collaboration needs to be emphasised .

METHODOLOGY

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14

INTRODUCTION


The guide, for whom it is and how to use it

The guide is at first directed to municipalities and district communities

in Estonia to be used as an informative

material and an analysing tool of an area. The main task of the guide regarding district communities is to provide them with know -how about public spaces , so that they can be more successful when envisioning the future of their neighbourhood and participating in a master plan process. The guide offers a method to map the existing values and deficiencies of their neighbourhood , it helps to envision and enhance their everyday environment . Referring

to

reoccurring

spatial

inconveniences

and

It

is

a task

of

a municipality

to

envision

future

available spatial potentials , it encourages creative micro-

developments by making strategies and other planning

scale intervention . The guide calls to discuss about the

documents.

area's connectivity to important public indoor functions .

municipalities

Information about the desired neighbourhood functions

professional architect among the personnel , the task of

can

In

the

situation

make

spatial

where

many

decisions

Estonian

without

a

to be

preparing master plans is delegated to planners chosen by

considered in a master plans process and when handing

investors, and public debates are inclusive only formally , it

out business

is important to stress public interests by independent

be addressed

to the

licences .

local

municipality

With such information

strong

communities could also start to attract investors or agree

parties and cultivate participatory planning .

to make collective investments together . The architecture and planning department of a municipality Directed also to municipalities , the guide aims to bring up

can use the guide and its analyse method to map areas

the importance of urban public spaces and provide an

and deliver more rigorous assignments for other parties

update of today’s expectations for urban open space .

composing master plans. The information provided can also help to assess submitted master plans and influential building projects. For example , the new Tartu centre presented in the third part of the thesis project is well known for it`s "broken" public space. Realisations of recent master plans have proved the planners inability to improve the quality of open public space and the municipalities insufficient assessment of the proposed solutions . A contemporary street standard needs to be addressed to the transportation department of a municipality . Currently prevailing car-centrist culture needs to be balanced by improving conditions for pedestrians , cyclists and public transportation. Until the old standards are used , it is important to stress finer mutual collaboration between different departments of a municipality .

INTRODUCTION

THE GUIDE , FOR WHOM IS IT AND HOW TO USE IT

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16

PART 1


Part 01 Informing part. Embedded aspects of urban public space.

Urban public space is a space in between buildings physically accessible for everyone . "At their best , public spaces act like a self organising public service ; just as hospitals and schools provide a shared resource to improve people’s quality of life, public spaces form a shared spatial resource from which experiences and value are created in ways that are not possible in our private lives alone." Melissa Mean, Charlie Tims (2005) "People Make Spaces : Growing the Public Life of Cities ." Demos, London (p9)

PART 1

17


Tightened public space

Manuel Jesus Florencio

A modernist dream - a lot of space filled with air

Matt H. Wade

SPATIAL ASPECT

A great public space is easy to access and move through.

www.brokensidewalk.com

The extent and character of activities taking place in urban public space (UPS) are greatly influenced by physical planning. Spatial decisions are directly related to user-friendliness and use patterns of an area. Better or worse conditions for outdoor events result in more or less lively urban environment.1 User-friendliness is not only physical and aesthetic conditions. In any given urban situation: walking on a street, looking for a place to sit down and rest, or standing on the corner of a building and talking to a friend, we share common human behaviour as social beings. For successful planning decisions we have to consider our psychology. The field of operation is socio-spatial. Senses shape our urban experience: how we see and hear, in what spatial conditions we feel comfortable and safe. Senses also shape behaviour - what distances we are willing to walk in everyday situations, have the spatial decisions considered climatic conditions - sun, rain and snow. These issues can be described as basic needs - freedom to move, human scale environment and equal spatial rights concerning traffic. The reason why it is so difficult to plan great UPS is the multiple origin of these decisions. Urban reality is a sum of many decisions made by street engineers, city designers, a number of local municipality departments, property owners, architects and landscape designers, etc. To create successful urban places we need to develop better wide-based planning practice and cultivate decisive participation on the level of real users. As streets are central in UPS discussion, many of these issues should be addressed in a street design guide. In Estonia street planning is officially still regulated narrowly in technical terms - it is regarded as a technical planning not as a welcoming-card of the city, a space of social urban experience.

www.onemansblog.com

IMPORTANCE

FREEDOM TO MOVE The rights to use public space and have a sense of control within it are basic and overarching requirements. A great urban public space is easy to access and move through for the young and elderly, people with walking disabilities, for people with baby prams and cyclists. Vehicle and pedestrian traffic has to be planned in a democratic way with an insight to the weaker side - the pedestrian. Convenient use of cityscape also means good access to, and thoroughly planned public transport system. UPS should be accessible both visually and physically, from a distance and up close.

Dull and long facades lacking details make the walk feel unattractive, whereas narrow facades with many windows and doors narrate our pass making the scenery lively.

WALKING

Gary Colet

"Walking is first and foremost a type of transportation, a way to get around, but it also provides an informal and uncomplicated possibility for being present in the public environment. ...The act of walking is often a necessary act but can also merely be an excuse for being present - 'I will just walk by." 2 It is well known that whenever people walk, they prefer direct routes and short-cuts. Only very great obstacles, like dangerous traffic, extensive barriers, and so on, are able to interrupt this pattern. This behaviour is supported by numerous surveys that have resulted in theories like Space Syntax Analysis. According to numerous surveys, the acceptable walking distance for most people in ordinary daily situations has been found to be around 400 to 500 meters. For children, old people and disabled people, it is often considerably less. Acceptable walking distances are an interplay between the length of the street and the quality of the route, both with regard to protection and stimulation. The acceptable walking distance is an important factor in planning the distribution of both indoor functions and open space activities.3 "One of the most important demands on a well-functioning pedestrian system is to organize pedestrian movement to follow the shortest distance between the natural destinations within an area. When the problems of the main traffic layout are solved, however, it becomes important to place and design the individual links in the network so that the entire system becomes highly attractive." 4 Studies on human behaviour in urban spaces also point out the importance of spatial sequences that happen during a route. Dull and long facades lacking details make the walk feel unattractive, whereas narrow facades with many windows and doors narrate our pass making the scenery lively. Sequences and contrasts between small and large refine our spatial experience. The experience of town hall square in many medieval cities is so powerful due to the fact that the streets leading there are usually very narrow.

When analysing an existing urban space, we should not only focus on the building masses but also on the small-scale spatial elements that fill our streets, squares and parks. Street lights and signs, trash bins, fences and other barriers, benches, bushes, trees etc. These are all necessary elements but we should always question the way they are organised. All these utilities we encounter moving through cityscape can also be potential obstructions that cause annoying detours. In a city centre we have all experienced cluttered street inventory that makes our walk rather like a hurdle race. Almost every city has inconsiderate situations like narrow side-walks split by street lighting posts.

18

SPATIAL ASPECT

www.rudi.net

OBSTRUCTIONS

Cluttered street inventory 1 2 3 4

Jan Gehl (2011) "Life Between Buildings ." Island Press, London (p31) Ibid. (p133) Ibid. (p137) Ibid. (p141) PART 1


SPATIAL ASPECT Urban landscape like any other landscape is not flat; bumps and hills, streets that go up and down can equally enrich and degrade our urban experience. Level differences are both interesting possibilities and physiological obstacles. When level difference occurs, we have to consider all possible users from children to people with walking disabilities, or people using bikes. When stairs are used it should be considered that a link in the network of places will not be cut off for some users. Excluding baby prams, cyclists and elderly because of missing or uncomfortable connection can result in keeping a significant user segment away from a larger territory. The moral is not that ramps are better than stairs or every stair should be coupled with a ramp, but in the big picture of a concrete area the connective network should be inclusive. A typical street has pedestrian side-walks that are raised higher for safety reasons. Raised side-walks are not often lowered at street crossings because of out-of-date street planning, making it complicated and annoying to pass with a baby pram, on a bicycle or wheelchair. It can again result in a situation where specific users start to avoid these poor streets. When enhancing street design, an elementary first step to do is lowering the side-walks where other paths depart or streets cross. In areas of low traffic rate an increasingly popular shared street concept can be considered. Another level difference issue is related to our ability to create social contacts. Such ability has clear spatial limitation. This issue is relevant mostly in the phase of city planning but also when deciding to add or rearrange functions of a street. According to Jan Gehl studies, the vertical meaningful contact field is between ground level and five stories (3-meter storey). A level difference up to two stories (6-meters) provides a good social contact with the surrounding events, over three stories this ability decreases. Above fifth floor the connection with ground level and the street are definitely out of touch. In principle activities should not be assembled above one another on different levels. According to Jan Gehl studies, functions located 50 to 100 meters from one another along a street interrelate more readily than functions placed just 3 meters over or under one another.5

apops.mas.org

LEVEL DIFFERENCES

Visually and physically detached functions mostly fail.

HUMAN BEHAVIOUR Standing demonstrates very clearly some important behavioural patterns characteristic to a large number of stationary activities in public spaces. It is important, naturally, to be able to stand in public spaces, but the key word is staying. When a stop lasts longer, people start to demand a certain quality from a place to stand. A Dutch sociologist Derk De Jonge has pinned the term "edge effect". Edge effect happens when people are positioning themselves in a concrete space, a thumb-rule is that they prefer places around the epicentre of a space. The edges of trees, buildings or other clearings are preferred zones for staying, while open plains are not used until the edge zones are occupied. The reasons for this are to keep psychologically safe distance from others and to have the best opportunity for surveying the epicentre of the space and other users. The edge effect is best seen in city squares, where people tend to occupy the edges of the buildings and other spacial units that shape the square. In a book "A Pattern Language", Christopher Alexander summarizes the experiences regarding the edge effect and edge zones in public spaces: "If the edge fails, then the space never becomes lively."7

www.123rf.com

STAYING 6

Stroller trouble on stairs.

The edge effect - the edges are preferred zones for staying, while the open plains are not used until the edge zones are occupied.

www.furnipure.com

Sitting is of a particular importance for public space because it allows stays of any duration. The existence of good opportunities for sitting enables multiple activities: eating, reading, playing, sunbathing, watching people, talking etc. According to Jan Gehl a simple mean to improve quality of outdoor spaces is to create more and better opportunities for sitting. Sitting activities in general take place only when climatic, spatial, and other essential conditions are favourable. Sitting locations are chosen far more carefully than are locations for standing. Places for sitting along facades and spacial boundaries are preferred to sitting areas in the middle of a space. Sitting places in niches, at the end of benches, or at other well-defined spots where ones back is protected are preferred to less precisely defined places. Choosing a right place for seating must be thoroughly planned, both spatial and functional qualities of the location have to be considered. Observations have proved that people prefer seats with an individual local quality such as a good-view or a good micro-climate. Psychological comfort is important and therefore a niche, a corner, or a place that protects one’s back are popular. The placement of seats allows to programme the social scene, seats can be separated for privacy or be combined to encourage dialogue.

www.wikipedia.org

SITTING 8

SEEING Seeing, hearing and talking seem to be arbitrary when discussing the framework of public space, still these sensory abilities determine our active field of space. These communicative senses work within a range of distance. It is therefore often appropriate to dimension large public spaces so that the borders of the space correspond to the limits of the social field of vision. Jan Gehl`s book "Life Between Buildings" provides a comprehensive overview of human senses and spatial context: "One can see others and perceive that they are people at distance from 0,5-1 kilometre, depending on factors such as background and lighting. At approximately 100 meters, figures that can be seen at greater distances become human individuals. It is hardly a coincidence that the length and width of of most Southern European medieval city squares are near to or below this figure. At a distance of between 70 and 100 meters, it begins to be possible to determine with reasonable certainty a person’s sex, approximate age, and what the person is doing. At a distance of approximately 30 meters, facial features, hairstyle, and age can be seen and people met only infrequently can be recognised. When the distance is reduced to 20 to 25 meters, most people can perceive relatively clearly the feeling and moods of others. Jan Gehl (2011) "Life Between Buildings ." Island Press, London (pp98,167) Ibid. (p147) Christopher Alexander (1977) "A Pattern Language " (p600) Jan Gehl (2011) "Life Between Buildings ." Island Press, London (pp155-162)

www.jpgmag.com

5 6 7 8

Urban seats that offer a good micro-climate and encourage social contacts.

As social beings people like to observe others, street sight lines play a role.

PART 1

SPATIAL ASPECT

19


SPATIAL ASPECT

...Possibilities for seeing are also a question of overview and field of vision without obstructions. These questions include the adequate light on the areas or objects to be seen. Where public spaces have to function in periods of darkness, lighting is crucial. Lighting of the socially relevant subjects is particularly important: lighting of people and faces. Better lighting does not necessarily mean brighter light. It means an adequately bright level of lighting directed or reflected toward the vertical surfaces - faces, walls, street signs, mailboxes, and so forth - in contrast to the lighting of traffic streets. Better light also means warm and friendly light. Today led-technologies offer us the possibility to freely play with the colour of light, it offers an opportunity for variation but should be considered thoroughly - it can easily result in visual noise." 9

To be able to plan sociable urban environment, basic knowledge about the functional range of hearing is necessary. Jan Gehl points to the following principles. "Within distances of up to 7 meters, the ear is quite effective. It is possible to hold conversations with relatively little difficulty up to this distance. At distances up to approximately 35 meters, it is still possible to hear others speaking and establish a question-answer situation, but it is not possible to engage in actual conversations. Beyond 35 meters, the ability to hear others is greatly reduced. It is possible to hear people who shout loudly but difficult to hear what is being shouted." 10 Depending on the concrete street layout and its usage, the noise levels on a pedestrian-only street are usually steadily around 50 decibels, ranging from 40 to 60 decibels. Around 50-60 decibels it is possible to hold conversations, even lower levels - around 45-50 allow to hear soft sounds. On a mixed vehicle-pedestrian city street the average is around 65 decibels, the noise level is dynamic and ranges from 50 to 80 decibels. In this situation it is nearly impossible to have ordinary conversations even in a personal distance.11

Anton Steenbock

HEARING

Saying hello to the street caretaker used to be a norm. Unfortunately many are willing to trade the social aspect for efficiency and noise.

ANSWER "I don’t know from what village you come from but here in Tallinn streets are for driving. There are playgrounds for children to play!"

One of the fundamental functions of public space is that it allows us to move around - on foot, by bicycle, by car, motorbike or public transport. The pedestrian and vehicle traffic has been for a long time inclined towards the dominance of vehicle transport. Well-designed streets and public spaces encourage walking and cycling, and have the power to make our environment a safer one by reducing car speeds and use. A thoroughly planned public transport system is crucial.12 From the second half of 20th century life on streets has degraded due to increased vehicle traffic turnover. Sincethecar became a common commodity for everyone, a great majority of street s were customised for cars, roads became wider, recreational lands were turned into parking spaces, and all that was done largely at the expense of pedestrians. Narrow side-walks, noise, polluted air, physical barriers and detours at the service of safety regulations have been norms for pedestrians. For a long time it was considered inevitable but from the 1960`s and onwards there has been a growing interest to "reclaim" the streets, claim equal spatial rights for cars and pedestrians. The following will introduce street concepts practised occasionally around the world but due to inertia still considered new. These examples demonstrate the benefits of shared streets for cars and pedestrians. Schemes of similar logic are used in the Netherlands (Woonerf), the United States (Complete Street), the United Kingdom (Home Zone), Australia and New Zealand (Shared Zone). In Europe the term "Shared Space" is most common.

www.canvas101.co.uk

A post in a web-forum for families, 2010

Often pedestrian and traffic roads are lit by 12+ meter heigh light posts. Human scale lights do make a difference for pedestrians.

www.zingicom43.net

QUESTION "We’re planning to move from a small village to Tallinn. Please tell me where are the safe areas for children to play in Tallinn? As a criteria of safety first of all I mean that children can play on streets where there is no busy traffic. Thank you."

www.keetsa.com

EQUAL SPATIAL RIGHTS FOR PEDESTRIANS AND VEHICLES

SHARED SPACE 13

www.zingicom43.net

Street-life in London in 1906 and around 1970. The social role of the street is replaced with narrow pedestrian paths.

www.ecolocalizer.com

"Shared Space is a EU-wide urban design approach which seeks to minimise demarcations between vehicle traffic and pedestrians, often by removing features such as curbs, road surface markings, traffic signs, and regulations. The goal of Shared pace is to improve the road safety and vitality of minor roads and junctions within the street hierarchy, particularly ones with high levels of pedestrian traffic by encouraging negotiation of shared areas between different road users. Shared Space minimises demarcations between vehicles and pedestrians. Thereby, according to some authorities including the UK Government, reduces the dominance of motor vehicles and enable all users to share the space. First proposed in 1991, the term is now strongly associated to the work of Hans Monderman who suggested that an individuals behaviour in traffic is more positively affected by the built environment of the public space than by conventional traffic control devices and regulations. By creating a greater sense of uncertainty and making it unclear who had right of way, drivers reduce their speed, and everyone reduces their level of risk compensation. The perception of risk may be a means or even a prerequisite for increasing objective safety. When a situation feels unsafe, people are more alert and there are fewer accidents. Monderman quotes "When you don't exactly know who has right of way, you tend to seek eye contact with other road users. You automatically reduce your speed, you have contact with other people and you take greater care. We're losing our capacity for socially responsible behaviour... The greater the number of prescriptions, the more people's sense of personal responsibility dwindles. The introduction of such schemes has had positive effect on road safety, traffic volume, economic vitality, and community cohesion where a user's behaviour becomes influenced and controlled by natural human interactions rather than by artificial regulation. This design method is however bitterly opposed by many organisations representing the blind, partially sighted and deaf who prefer a clear separation of pedestrian and vehicular traffic. Supporters of Shared Space propose the use of street furniture, vegetation and a different road cover material to meet their needs." 13 9 Jan Gehl (2011) "Life Between Buildings ." Island Press, London (pp63-65,163-167) 10 Ibid. (p64) 11 Ibid. (p166-167) 12 CABE Space (2004) "The Value of Public Space ." CABE Space, London (p14) 13 Wikipedia (www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shared_space), accessed 17.05.2013 20

SPATIAL ASPECT

PART 1


Shared space approach has been applied also to busier roads. Exhibition Road in Kensington , London.

www.londononline.co.uk

www.londononline.co.uk

SPATIAL ASPECT

Exhibition Road before the transformation .

A SHARED SPACE TOWN IN GERMANY 14

HOME ZONE 15

www.bohmte.de

In 2007 a German town Bohmte decided to transform the streets according to the shared space idea. Officials wanted to test the theory that the 13,000 drivers who use the town every day would take extra care and show each other greater consideration if they were not told what to do. They secured a 2,1 million Euro grant from the European Union to set up the scheme. The town banned traffic lights and warning signs, including those instructing drivers to give way or stop. Only two rules remained – drivers cannot go above 30 km/h, the German speed limit for city driving, and everyone has to yield to the right, regardless of whether it is a car, a bike or a mother with a pushchair. Since shared space was started the town of Bohmte is saving near 6000 Euros a month replacing and repairing signs damaged through normal wear and tear or by vandals. Comparing the total number of traffic accidents 3 years before and after the scheme, there is a 46% decrease. The proportion of accidents including personal damage have decreased to 8,7%. Shared Space in the town of Bohmte.

www.methleys.org.uk

"A Home Zone is a living street (or group of streets) as implemented in the United Kingdom, which are designed primarily to meet the needs of pedestrians, cyclists, children and residents and where the speeds and dominance of the cars is reduced. Home Zone street is not strongly divided into exclusive pedestrian and traffic areas, encouraging children's play and free movement through the spaces. Home Zones have a very good safety record, but are not primarily designed as road safety schemes. Home Zones are encouraged by the UK Government as part of new residential areas. Residents are consulted by the local Traffic Authority on the precise uses that can take place on the street (specified through a 'Use Order') and the appropriate speed of traffic on the street (specified through a 'Speed Order') before the Home Zone can be legally designated and signed. Concerns have been expressed over the inability of blind and partially sighted people to use Home Zone streets. Providing a clear route for pedestrians that is kept free of traffic, by using street furniture for example, is one way of meeting the needs of the visually impaired. Well-designed Home Zones often include features such as benches, tables and play equipment to encourage social interaction. Street trees and areas of planting, ideally maintained by residents, will often feature. On-street parking also forms part of the layout in most schemes. Traffic speeds are kept low - with a typical target speed being around 20 km/h (10-15 mph) - through the overall design of the street and features such as sharp changes of direction for traffic and narrowings where only one motor vehicle can pass at a time. Traditional traffic calming features such as road humps can also be used, but should be integrated into the design rather than being added as an engineered afterthought. Examples of UK practice include Staiths South Bank in Gateshead, which at over 600 homes was the largest new-build Home Zone development in the UK at the time it received planning consent. Most contemporary UK schemes have involved public realm works to existing streets in older Victorian housing areas, often to meet regeneration or traffic calming objectives."

WOONERF 16

14 15 16

Wolfgang Bode (2009) "Verkehrsuntersuchung in der Gemeinde Bohmte unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Wirkungen des Shared Space Bereiches ." Auftraggeber: Gemeinde Bohmte. Osnabrück CABE Space (2004) "The Value of Public Space ." CABE Space, London (p14) Wikipedia (www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shared_space), accessed 17.05.2013

PART 1

Home Zone residential street in England.

John Newcomb

"A Woonerf (literally translates as 'living yard') is a living street where pedestrians and cyclists have legal priority over motorists as implemented in the Netherlands and in Flanders. Techniques include shared space, traffic calming, and low speed limits. Under Article 44 of the Dutch traffic code, motorised traffic in a Woonerf or 'recreation area' is restricted to walking pace. Woonerf streets started to appear in the Netherlands already in the 1970s. "In 1999 the Netherlands had over 6000 Woonerfs. In 2006 it was reported that people of Hesselterbrink were disillusioned about how the Woonerf principle had become another traffic engineering measure that 'entailed precious little more than signs and uniform standards'. They have now encompassed the shared space principles as a way of rethinking the Woonerf. They are reported to 'now know that car drivers should become residents. Eye contact and human interaction are more effective means to achieve and maintain attractive and safe areas than signs and rules. Today around 2 million Dutch people are living in Woonerfs. The benefits of the Woonerf are promoted by 'Woonerfgoed', a network of professionals and residents."

The Dutch Woonerf. SPATIAL ASPECT

21


SOCIAL ASPECT

William H. Whyte

Iwan Baan

www.buro24.ru

“What attracts people most, it would appear , is other people .” 1

IMPORTANCE

Iwan Baan

Social aspect cannot be overestimated when discussing public spaces, sociability is a prerequisite for such phenomenon to take place at all. In the 21st century the role of cities, towns and villages is changing. Urban city centers are no longer the only places for the exhange of goods, services and information. Decentralised urban developments and Internet allow people to enjoy qualities that were once present only in the centers. Today urban and rural places are expected to fulfil deeper human needs, social interaction and the expression of civic beliefs. Sociability is based on peoples need to affirm and interact with others. Such affiliation involves people participating in a supportive social system to receive psychological comfort. Once people satisfy their basic needs, such as survival and security, they feel the need to belong and become member of a group or set of groups, which will provide affection, support and identity for them.2 Shared Space, a European co-operation project that aims to develop public space policy at the European level, describes social implications for public space in the following sections. "Public spaces form the heart of society. They are areas where you stay, where you meet others, where you observe, where you undertake something with or without others, where you relax, where you become familiar and part of the living environment. Staying in a public space enables us to remain up to date with the world and the environment in which we live or stay. Public spaces also enable you to look at what people are saying about themselves - in the way in which they present themselves or in the way they design and modify their own spaces, their house or their garden. The layout of the public space tells us what society looks like, who forms part of it, how people deal with each other and what they consider important. It is a window on and a mirror of society." 3 According to William H. Whyte, a long-term researcher on human behaviour in urban settings, "The social life in public spaces contributes to the quality of life of individuals and society in a such fundamental way that we have a moral responsibility to create physical places that facilitate civic engagement and community interaction." 4

In European context we understand inclusion in a democratic way - a call for everyone regardless of ethnic origin, age or gender, social or economic position. For everyday users who form the local community, public spaces function as a social hub. Whether chatting over the garden fence, meeting in the local market, park or playground, these situations create an opportunity for small, personal interactions that reveal the local tendencies. These tendencies sooner or later become established as a local identity. The same happens on a larger scale. In a city, icounty, or a state, public spaces can bring people from different ages and cultures together and help to create a sense of local identity. Public spaces are a medium where cultural codes are practised and established. In these spaces we see a variety of behaviours and we render the norms of tolerance in the society. To follow the true democratic idea of inclusion, public spaces also have an adopting role. These spaces should encourage people with different backgrounds to blend in to the society and help them to find self-expression in the open public spaces. Different cultural groups might have different patterns in the ways they use parks and other public land. Depending on their ethnic or cultural background, they might have a radically different way of observing nature and using a park. The ideas of adoption also apply to the "problematic" segment of people who happen to be hanging around in public spaces because they have nowhere else in particular to go. It is quite possible to engage with such people to help them meet their underlying needs or resolve their difficulties, thus diverting them from crime and antisocial behaviour. Besides the elementary homeless shelters for dining and accommodation, several successful projects across Europe have been delivered. In Britain the magazine "Big Issue" is sold by homeless people as an alternative to begging, a project in Rotterdam, Netherlands, recruited young people who were hanging arond and intimidating shoppers in a central street and offered them a meeting place, support and activities in an adjacent building. The function of city's public spaces is to permit, and indeed to encourage the greatest possible number of meetings, encounters, challenges between various persons and groups, as it were a stage upon which drama of social life can be enacted, with the actors taking their turn, too, as spectators. William Whyte claims that the increases in private travel and electronic communication, rather than turning us in on ourselves, have actually stimulated a greater need for face-to-face contact. "We are, after all, a social and sociable species and we need affirmative interaction with other humans for our health and well-being." 5 22

SOCIAL

ASPECT

Iwan Baan

THE INCLUSIVE ROLE

Superkilen (2012) Nørrebro, Copenhagen Authors - Superflex, BIG, Topotek1 The project is part of an urban improvement plan coordinated by the City of Copenhagen in a partnership with private association Realdania. The park is intended to celebrate diversity. Filled with objects from around the globe, it is designed as a kind of world exposition for the local inhabitants, covering over 50 nationalities, who have been able to contribute their own ideas and artefacts to the project.6

1 William H. Whyte (1980) "The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces ." (p19) 2 Jon Lang (1994) "Urban Design: The American Experience ." John Wiley & Sons, New York (p252) 3 Shared Space, A European co-operation project (2005) "Shared Space: Room for Everyone : A New Vision for Public Spaces ." (p9) 4 William H. Whyte (www.pps.org/reference/wwhyte/), accessed 22.05.2013 5 William H. Whyte (1988) "City: Rediscovering the Center." Doubleday, New York (p335) 6 Wikipedia (www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superkilen), accessed 17.05.2013

PART 1


UPS AND SAFETY ISSUES

SOCIAL ASPECT

www.lexleader.net

The feeling of safety is a factor that can influence the use of urban public spaces to a great deal. Well-designed and managed places seem safer and people tend to use them more, whereas we have all experienced desolate urban places that are so run down that people feel scared to use them. The disintegration of living public spaces and the gradual transformation of the street areas into an area that is of no real interest to anyone is an important factor contributing to vandalism and crime on the streets. All-inclusive public space is and should be an ideal, in reality it is difficult to realise and we are continuously making decisions on behalf of some user groups. It is an ever-actual question of majority and minority. Homeless, drinking youngster groups and people exercising extreme urban sports like parkour are often disfavoured by some people. For some countries and cities the way to deal with it comprises schemes of various control measures. According to Henfry Shaftoe, the outcome of this is a series of exclusionary initiatives ranging from legal controls, such as alcohol bans and dispersal orders, to increased video- and police surveillance. "At worst it can become an intrusive, humiliating and repressive means for controlling excluded populations." 1 This policy is criticised as it does not deal with the actual cause of problem but with the aftermath. "In reality, there are very few career criminals; people who commit offences often do so out of boredom, frustration, desperation or as a by-product of a personal problem such as addiction, psychopathology or homelessness. ...Many 'offenders' are bored young people who would engage in more legitimate pursuits if they were given the chance. Instead of excluding undesirables and creating, in the process, an environment that is undesirable to everyone, our streets and town centres could be made more attractive, in the hope that crime and antisocial behaviour will be 'crowded out' by the range of legitimate activities and the behavioural norms of the majority of law-abiding citizens. At the same time, it is important to engage with the minority who are displaying unwelcome or desperate behaviour - they may need help, diversion or intensive support." 2 "The argument in favour of inclusive public spaces goes considerably beyond a narrow focus on security to include health, well-being and even the very nature of ‘civilization’. Richard Sennett (1986) has argued that "people grow only by the processes of encountering the unknown" and the best places to encounter difference and the unfamiliar are public spaces, where all segments of society can cross paths, mingle and be observed. Without this observation and engagement with 'difference', Sennett claims in his book The Uses of Disorder (1973), we are in danger of becoming increasingly prejudiced and narrow-minded, as we only choose the company of like-minded individuals in our cocooned daily routines." 3 Henry Shaftoe argues that not all "shadowed" spaces are illegal and intolerable. As human beings, we are often looking for privacy also within the public sphere, it is normal that sometimes people do not want to be seen or heard by others. Efforts to sanitize and control every inch of public space risk with eliminating all screened areas. Harmless deviant activities are valuable as the articulations of resistance to the status quo. The vitality of an urban space requires some degree of human unpredictability.4 In a democratic society the sustainable way to handle the grey areas is citizens self-regulation. A civilized society is tolerant towards homeless people, alcoholics, people receiving "care" in the community, and "tribes" of young people. As long as their presence is not causing a real threat to the safety of others, their citizenship and therefore a right to occupy public spaces should be respected equally with everyone else. "The safest places are well-populated with both users and casual passers-by who provide more "eyes on the street" to informally police public spaces (Jacobs 1961, Gehl 2003). When a society stops policing itself, it has failed. If everyone in a society can’t enjoy all the public spaces within a town then it can’t police itself. In order to achieve that, we need a public realm … which is inclusive." 5

Amanda Mustard

Disfavoured behaviour.

www.publicintelligence.net

`Different` use of urban space, parkour - the art of movement.

Repressive public control.

UPS, PROMOTING HEALTHY LIVING

Attractive urban design encourages people to spend more time on foot and bikes.

Andriy Prokopenko

Henry Shaftoe (2008) "Convivial Urban Spaces ." Earthscan, London (p20) Ibid. (pp19-21) Ibid. (p19) Ibid. (p21) Ibid. (pp19,27) Adam Taylor (Business Insider International ) (2011) (http://www.businessinsider.com/fattest-countries-in-europe-obesity2011-9?op=1), accessed 20.04.2013 IASO (2006) "Obesity in the EU27" (www.iaso.org/site_media/uploads/Adult_EU_27_January_2012.pdf), accessed 22.05.2013 CABE Space (2004)"The Value of Public Space ." CABE Space, London (p6)

Maria Da Schio

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

www.turenscape.com

Across Europe, obesity is a growing concern. In 2011 Business Insider International writes: "In recent weeks, Europe has begun to panic about a growing obesity problem. Hungary, a country that loves its cakes, has implemented a tax on fatty food. Even Italy, long an example of the benefits of a Mediterranean diet, has seen a worrying trend amongst its rapidly fattening youth. Perhaps they're still small fry compared to the US, but they're catching up." 6 There is growing concern about the health of the nation and particularly that of our children and young people. According to 2006 Eurostat statistics obesity rate in Europe is 15,5% of the population, among children 30%. In Estonia there are 33,8% people overweight and 15% obese. This increase in obesity is linked to ever more motionless lifestyles and a reduction in outdoor activity. Evidence shows that adult patterns of exercise are set early on in life.7 A lack of exercise in childhood can lead to problems in adulthood, diabetes and heart diseases are typical in cases of excessive inactivity. Not only a concern of physical health, inactivity influences people`s mental well-being by increasing stess risk. Each year economy loses working hours and days due to stress-related employee absence. These problems clearly need to be addessed and dealt with. Public open spaces can contribute to better health by encouraging us to walk more, to play sport, or simply spend more leisure time outdoors. Access to good-quality, well-maintained public spaces can help to improve physical and mental health.8

PART 1

SOCIAL

ASPECT

23


IMPORTANCE

www.commercewa.gov.au

ECONOMIC ASPECT

Generally speaking, economic aspects influence the realm of UPS mainly in two ways. Firstly, overall national and regional economic capacity determines the financial possibilities for UPS management and development, the living standards of a society are projected to the urban fabric. The financial ability is linked to the qualities present in between buildings: the condition of streets and buildings, the extent and quality of the physical elements concerned. Secondly, the effect that business-driven functions have on public transit in a given area. Whether the services are used as a necessity or for leisure, these functions act as attractors that animate urban open spaces. Far from being the only and the most important factor, (business) functions play a role in generating activity in between buildings. For example, a dominant business area has vital public spaces but in an extreme case it might also have additional effects, it becomes too mono-functional and exclusive, dispelling more intimate social activity and excluding some user groups. In case of a quiet residential district, basic public functions are essential for the residents' well-being. A grocery, a cafe or a hair-dresser inearby has an influential effect on the use of public spaces, open spaces are used more frequently and periodically. When the basic functions are far away, the urban set favours commuter life-style and makes it more challenging to have lively public spaces.

CABE Space (2004)"The Value of Public Space ." CABE Space, London (pp4-5) Ibid. (pp4-5) City of Toronto (1999) "Economic Benefits of Pedestrianisation for Toronto" Jan Gehl, Lars Gemzøe (1996) "Public Space-Public Life."Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts , Copenhagen (p51) CABE Space (2004)"The Value of Public Space ." CABE Space, London (pp4-5) Anna Semlyen (www.cuttingyourcaruse.co.uk/carbust37a.htm), accessed 20.05.2013 Ibid. Project for Public Spaces (www.pps.org/reference/measuring-the-impact-of-public-markets-and-farmers-markets-on-local-economies/), accessed 22.05.2013

In 2006 the New Economics Foundation conducted a report in London Queens indoor/outdoor market. According to the report every 10 pounds ($19) spent at the market generates an additional 25 pounds ($48) in economic activity. This compares with only an additional 14 pounds ($26.50) generated by a traditional supermarket. It also revealed that the local market creates twice as many jobs per square foot of retail space as nearby supermarkets do.8

Guðmundur Albertsson

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Properties with good access to desirable public spaces are more valuable.

Jan Kennedy

According to CABE, thegovernment’s advisor on architecture, urban design and public space in England, a high-quality public environment can have a significant impact on the economic life of urban centres, whether big or small, and is therefore an essential part of any successful regeneration strategy. As towns increasingly compete with each other to attract investment and to increase tax revenue, the existence of good parks, squares, gardens and other public spaces becomes a vital business and marketing tool: companies are attracted to locations that offer well-designed, well-managed public places and these in turn attract customers, employees and services.1 In a booklet "The Value of Public Space" CABE states: "Redevelopment of high-quality public spaces aids the regeneration of an area, with commercial property prices increasing in those locations. Well-planned, well-managed public space has a positive impact on the price of nearby domestic properties. According to a study in Berlin in 2000, proximity to playgrounds in residential areas was found to increase land values by up to 16 per cent. In the same study, a high number of street trees resulted in an increase of 17 per cent in land values. In the towns of Emmen, Appledoorn and Leiden in the Netherlands, it has been shown that a gardens bordering water or proximity to water can boost the land price approximately 10%." 2 The City of Toronto's report "Economic Benefits of Pedestrianisation Toronto" found out that pedestrian-orientated retail streets can provide significant environmental improvements and increase local retail sales. Pedestrian traffic, otherwise known as "footfall", tends to increase dramatically after a pedestrian friendly area is created.3 When Strøget street in Copenhagen in Denmark was converted to pedestrian-only street in 1962, the following years proved pedestrian traffic increase 20-40%. The local business owners who in the beginning were sceptical about the conversion , had remarkably increased turnovers and some of them even started to claim the idea being theirs from the first place.4 According to CABE, local trade of the town of Coventry in England also benefited after transforming the centre. The centre became much more attractive and footfall rose when pedestrianisation was improved, a new civic square was built, clearer signage and enhanced placement of street furniture was introduced.5 Successful regeneration projects world-wide explain such economic success with pleasant shopping experience, safety, improved air quality and low noise levels. According to Anna Semlyen far more pedestrianisation schemes have had a positive effect on retail turnover (49%) than a negative (2%).6 Based on Peter Newman she concludes: "Around the world, cities where people mostly walk, cycle or use public transit, have greater wealth (gross regional product per capita) than cities with heavy car use. Newman attributes the negative impact of heavy car use on city wealth to: (1) greater road expenditure, (2) greater percentage of wealth spent on commuting, (3) reduced transit cost recovery, (4) increased transportation deaths, and (5) increased pollution from vehicle emissions." 7

www.architectsjournal.co.uk

UPS and economic benefits

The famous Strøget street in Copenhagen. Since the pedestrianisation of the street footfall and business turnovers increased.

24

ECONOMIC

ASPECT

PART 1


ECONOMIC ASPECT

Public life on an ordinary day in Kalamaja 1972. The building to the left is a small grocery shop. The same place in 2010. After a long struggle the shop to the left shut down.

Tiit Blaat

Public life in open urban spaces needs users, functions and qualities. Among all possible functions, access to basic goods and services is crucial. 22 years ago, when Estonia gained independence again and took off towards the possibilities of capitalism long dreamt of, the streets of Estonian city centres were quite lively dispersed with a variety of little businesses: groceries, shops for dairy products, clothing retails, bakeries, cafes, restaurants, hairdressers etc. Over the 22-year transformation, one of the tendencies has been the clusterisation of basic business functions. Suburban sprawl and increased car-use have eased the development of super- and hypermarkets which have grown in size and number. The dominance that these centres have due to the market forces crowded in numerous occasions off small businesses from the city centres and local districts. With less footfall in those areas, small businesses have been slowly disappearing. For example in Kalamaja, in a small intact district of Tallinn, the emergence of rather peripheral supermarkets and car-centered life-style have pushed out once well-distributed small grocery stores. The same has happened in the historical centres of Tallinn and Tartu, the grocery stores and retails are almost completely gone making the centres less valuable and usable for nearby residents. From the UPS point of view, these changes are controversial. Today there are far more activities happening in between buildings, higher living standards have to some extent transferred to the spatial and aesthetic qualities present in urban environment. At the same time the indoor economic functions have accumulated to fewer attractive places, leaving some areas with poor public life on the streets. The negative impacts of suburbanisation, car-centered life and clusterisation of some basic business functions are wellknown. It is also well known that these problems were acknowledged already half a century ago in America and later across Europe. It is understandable that in the beginning of 1990`s a young nation like Estonia had other priorities than public life, but with reason the Estonians can claim that there was a failure in inadequate socio-spatial and economic analysis. Those issues should have been predicted and addressed. Today the business function clusterisation can be dealt with stricter planning rules. For example, Sweden practices limitations for both hypermarket location and floor area in relation to regional user pattern. To help small down-town businesses flourish again they need to adjust to new market needs, appropriate economic and spatial conditions.

Tiit Blaat

SMALL BUSINESSES VS HYPERMARKETS

A typical hypermarket in Tallinn.

Ekaterina Zhiteneva

For a long time the medieval part of Tallinn has been the centre of the city and the main orientation point. Listed in the UNESCO world heritage list, the old-Tallinn is a trademark of Estonia. Adorable architecture, human scale streets and buildings, pedestrian-priviledged traffic and a green belt around the town make it a perfect setting for a lively public space. Every inhabitant of Tallinn is proud to present the old town to visitors but at the same time has mixed-feelings about it. With the beginning of the development of vigorous tourism, the locals have started to see the old town not as a perfect place to go out and enjoy various activities but rather as an exclusive museum sold out for tourists. The famous quote "show me your city and I'll tell you who you are" is not relevant any more, the Old Town has long lost it’s meaning as a mirror of local public life and is managed as straight- forward business model. Even though active tourist season lasts for half a year, the inertia of the (under)development tendencies has impoverished everyday public life. Souvenir shops, jewellery, entertainment, high-end bars and restaurants form the majority of functions the town has to offer. Even though there are some cultural institutions and parks, the Old Town does not invite a greater variety of local users. A 1984 conference "The Old Town as a living environment" was engaged in controversial debate about what could the town offer for children, how to manage the dictation of entertainment business, how to lessen the segment of uncultured townspeople and visitors and how to encourage sport activities. Seems like these issues are as relevant as 30 years ago. A number of problems have sustained the "exclusive" image of the Old Town.9 Firstly, there has been an overall lack of political and local will to make a change. Secondly, the absence of truly public places to sit down and enjoy the medieval settings. The Old Town operates exactly like a shopping-mall, there are just a few public seats available to attract only paying customers. The main plaza of the Old Town - the Town Hall Square has not a single public bench to sit down and enjoy the scenery. In 2009 an urbanist Kadri Klementi organised two experiments on the Town Hall Square, 9-10 simple coloured chairs were put out for people to place and use them as they wish. The chairs were popular and the experiment clearly addressed the lack of seats available.10 Thirdly, as the 1984.-year-conference stated, the functions and activities available cover a rather poor spectrum. This is linked to the fact that the number of local residents is very low, out of 3868 registered residents only a fragment is actively living there.11 Proposals to deal with these problems include support for local community, shared-space streets without raised narrow side-walk areas, city subsidies to support the new desired functions, more seats and active places for local families, licences for souvenir shops that currently sell items without local origin and therefore harm the true local identity. These measures will not endanger the beneficial tourism in any way and help to balance commercial and public interests.

www.nsking.eu

EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC FORCES. MEDIEVAL TALLINN - SOLD OUT!

The most prominent place of old Tallinn - the town hall square is a place without a single unpaid seat. To sit and rest one has to be a customer in one of many cafes.

Kadri Klementi

9 Kadri Klementi , Martin Allik, Teele Pehk (2011) (www.epl.ee/news/kultuur/vana-linn-tahab-koju.d?id=51297955), accessed 23.05.2013 10 Kadri Klementi (2010) "The Street. The Present and Future of Tallinn Street -scape."Estonian Academy of Arts, Tallinn (p31) 11 Tallinn Municipality (2013) "Tallinn in numbers 2012" (p155)

An experiment by city activist Kadri Klementi in 2009. Chairs, free to use and place.

PART 1

ECONOMIC

ASPECT

25


Toomas Huik (Postimees)

LEGAL ASPECT

www.flickr.com (neoroma)

www.buildmyfence.com

A restricted dwelling area in Tiskre

Up - Closed private / Down - Open semi-private front-yard

Private property, no trespassing

INTRODUCTION

www.hbdchick.wordpress.com

In the public space discussion in general, the legal aspect is a concern that often includes conflicting interests. Questions arise around the land ownership, the proportion of public property in a municipal unit, the private interests of the land owner vs public interests, the conflicting grey shades between the public and the private, both written and unwritten rights and restrictions in the use of public spaces. Most of these concerns are broader discussions in the field of philosophy, politics, planning discourse, social sciences and law. This chapter focuses on illustrating types of ownership, the grey shades between the public and the private, and examplifies the benefits of public-private partnership.

OWNERSHIP: PUBLIC AND PRIVATE

Raido Kuurmaa

There are 3 general types of ownership: collective, private and common. Urban public spaces are mostly dependent on collective, public form of ownership. By popular definition public property is a property dedicated to the use of the public, a subset of state property. The street-scape is a typical embodiment of public property. For example in Tallinn, there are 13km2 of streets, that makes 8% of the whole city area. These figures allow us to imagine the impact of such spatial category in our everyday lives. In Tallinn public land forms 23% of the city area, it is not much compared with Amsterdam and Helsinki where the majority of land is in municipal hands.1 Nevertheless it does not necessarily mean that a direct link can be drawn between the city owned land and the potentials of urban public space. The land itself does not provide us with pleasant places, it is rather a task of design and usage management, co-operation and the other created by the users themselves. But when there is a lack of public owned land the local municipality has to acknowledge a challenging work in leading the local planning processes to find a balance between the private and public interests. A premise of this balance is thorough planning law, transparent and inclusive planning process. From the perspective of public space, a knowledge about the factors that generate the quality of urban environment are more important than the laws regulating the private property. When there is a demand for quality-UPS, many situations of potential conflict might be solved in a self-regulatory way. Let's imagine for instance a city street girded by front yards of private houses. The way that these front yards are arranged, facades of the buildings coloured, vegetation and fences organized, also influences the way we perceive the street-scape as a whole. The private edge overlaps with the public. The local municipality, local communities and other urban environment institutions should put forward an educational role. These situations should be questioned in a regeneration process.

SEMI-PUBLIC / SEMI-PRIVATE The transition from private to public does not happen suddenly, for these transitions, the terms of semi-public and semiprivate are used. A cafe, a cinema and a shopping mall are examples of semi-public spaces. They are defined as public spaces with some clear limitations for entrance. When the main function is the economic one, everyone is welcome as long as he/she pays for it. In a shopping mall everybody can enter and look around without obligation to buy, but activities unrelated to the purpose of the shop are not unlimitedly permitted. For a semi-public space stricter rules may be applied than are outside, e.g. regarding dress code, trading, begging, advertising, photography, propaganda, riding roller-skates, skateboards, etc.2 As cafes, restaurants, cinemas etc. are part of public life, these functions act as a necessary component in the structure of public spaces. It is important how these functions are distributed in and how they communicate with outdoor spaces. Yet, some of these semi-public functions are a potential threat for the vitality of outdoor public spaces. Offering a great variety of attractive services as a decoy, they convey different user groups from the streets with a democratic ambition to the interior that cleverly serves business interests. Creating an illusion of a freedom to choose, these environments impoverish the multitude of social and cultural exchange present on the streets. Semi-private spaces are private spaces that spatially and visually communicate with public spaces. Semi-private spaces can be all kinds of private land between the private building and the street or paths surrounding the territory. Usually these spaces are used for an access, i.e gardens and strips of vegetation. For example, a front yard of a house facing the street is perceived as an extension of the street-scape. When the inhabitants of the house are using their front yard, they create possibilities for social contacts with neighbours and people passing by. For this reason semi-private spaces contribute to 1 Kadri Klementi (2010) "The Street. The Present and Future of Tallinn Street -scape."Estonian Academy of Arts, Tallinn (p4) 2 Wikipedia (www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_space), accessed 17.05.2013 26

LEGAL

ASPECT

Soola 8, Tartu. The street space between the two buildings was used to extend the mall. The connective link remained as a commercial corridor. With commercial constraints the link is no longer a democratic space.

PRIVATE

SEMI-PRIVATE

SEMI-PUBLIC

PUBLIC

PART 1


the urban public spaces, they function as 'soft-edges' (Jan Gehl). Here the visual and spatial relation to the surrounding public spaces is most important. Often front yards are blocked by a fence or spacious vegetation, as a result safe and nice private territory sacrifices public look, communications are cut off. Even in areas with seemingly low potential for such social exchange, it is worth to keep in mind that places change in time. Functions, users and use patterns change and in planning situations soft-edge possibilities should be considered, they have the ability to self-generate activity.

LEGAL ASPECT

UPS AND PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP For an urban planner it is well known that in most cases there is a gap between what is useful for the area and for the city, and what are the realistic possibilities regarding the constraints of the plot borders and property owners. In such cases public-private-partnership (PPP) can be a tool to overcome difficulties of legal restrictions. The municipally owned land is not the only way to create lively urban environment. From the mid-1990-s and onward, public-private-partnership (PPP) has become a more often used form of co-operation around the world. A typical PPP involves a contract between a public sector authority and a private party. The reasons for using PPP are many. A need to share the financial burden of large projects or a situation of private land and public interest or vice versa; temporary usage of both private and public spaces without current function. The following three examples give an idea of temporary usage in different situations.

BADESCHIFF, BATHS IN RIVER SPREE, BERLIN 3

URBAN ALLOTMENTS 5

DETECTORS, AN URBAN INSTALLATION 6

NAME Badeschiff, baths in river Spree, Berlin LOCATION Arena-Site, Eichenstrasse 4, Treptow OWNER State of Berlin TIMEFRAME Temporary lease 2005-2010 INITIATED BY event promoters, Kulturarena LOCAL AUTHORITY granted planning permission LEGAL FRAME lease agreement VISITED BY Berliners and tourists FINANCE Capital Culture Foundation and TIP (city listings magazine) together covered 25% of total costs, rest financed by Kulturarena from bar, catering and door receipts.

NAME Tootsipeenar LOCATION Rõõmu street, Tartu INITIATED BY Avo Rosenvald DEVELOPMENT TIMEFRAME 2011-2016 LAND OWNER Municipality of Tartu LOCAL AUTHORITY Granted free use of land LEGAL FRAME Land lease agreement with non-profit organisation TARGET GROUP Local people interested in allotment gardening FINANCE Private funding for allotments, plough by Tatoli enterprise

NAME Detectors, installations by Raul Kalvo LOCATION Lasnamäe, Tallinn INITIATED BY MTÜ Kaos /Kaos Architects DEVELOPMENT TIMEFRAME (Aug-Oct.) 2011 LAND OWNER Municipality of Tallinn LOCAL AUTHORITY Granted planning permission TARGET GROUP Local people, people passing by FINANCE Tallinn 2011 European Capital of Culture programme + festival sponsors.

"In 2002, various international architects and artists were invited to deal with bridges in the context of connecting elements in cities. Instead of creating a bridge over the Spree, the Badeschiff team proposed a bridge to the Spree. Following a tradition of public bathing in the river at the turn of the century, the project encouraged a closer connection between the city and its river by floating a pool on it. A 30 year old barge was modified in a nearby dockyard. It was reduced to its shell and filled with pre-heated and chlorinated water to form a 32m long pool complemented with a wooden bridge and a sun terrace. All technical installations are concealed in the edge profile and yet allow an unobstructed view across the river when swimming. During the winter, a three-part membrane structure divides the Badeschiff (bathing ship) and its jetty into three separate areas: a lounge, sauna and the pool ship itself. These areas are connected via additional boxes containing technical and service functions. A two-layered membrane is spanned over elliptical wooden trusses maintaining a combination of translucent and transparent surfaces. The space between the membranes is filled with air to optimise insulation and guarantee a comfortable interior temperature of 25°C even when it is extremely cold outside." 4

An individual interested in allotment gardening asked the city municipality if there are available lands for temporary allotments. The city offered a plot reserved for future residential developments. A lease for five years was given to non-profit organisation "Juurikas". Every citizen had a chance to apply for a piece of land and make a one year contract. The first season brought together 45 participants, a strip of 100m2 of land was given to each. Cultivation included potatoes, turnips, beans, pumpkins, zucchini, carrots, icelettuce, rucola, calendula, parsley, mint, basil, broccoli, dill, coriander, black radish and more.

The two massive sculptures appeared on the banks of "Lasnamäe Channel" (i.e. the Laagna Road cutting) as part of the Tallinn 2011 - European Capital of Culture programme. An open competition was held to choose the installations. Detectors drew attention to the 'ordinary' of a city, attention to something that lacks tourist appeal and is simply part of everyday environment for locals. Like many other residents of Lasnamäe, the author, who used to live there, claimed his personal experience of Lasnamäe very boring, the environment did not call up for more than taking bus routes between the city centre and home. With detectors Raul Kalvo attempted to bring out the special qualities of the place - the limestone bank. The installation invited both locals and visitors to experience Lasnamäe from a slightly different angle.

3 Jovis Verlag GmbH (2007) "Urban Pioneers . Temporary use and development in Berlin " Jovis, Berlin (p58) 4 Convertible City (www.convertiblecity.de/projekte_projekt29_en.html), accessed 22.05.2013 5 Tootsi Peenar (www.tootsipeenar.wordpress.com/uudised-blogi/page/2/), accessed 22.05.2013

PART 1

Aivo Tasso

www.lift11.ee

Preparing the soil at Rõõmu street.

The detectors

Eesti Ekspress

www.picturereport.net

Badeschiff baths

www.lift11.ee

www.picturereport.net

6 LIFT 11 (www.lift11.ee/installatsioon/uurijad), accessed 22.05.2013

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ASPECT

27


INTRODUCTION

POLITICAL ASPECT

Urban public space is where political ideas are expressed in public, it is a place for the emergence of freedom, expression and identity. It is where local lifestyles and activities happen and take many shapes, it is a scenery for public life to happen. Public life again, is one of our most democratic rights, it contributes to the progress of free society and public resolve.

THE POWER OF PUBLIC SPACE "Public spaces is the living room of the young, the old, the rich and the poor, it is an advertisement of a city's image. In today’s democratic society we manifest it as belonging to "everyone". Yet throughout history, besides their practical function, these spaces have been arenas for the ruling powers to demonstrate and exercise their power. Whoever controls public space sets the "program" for representing society." 1

The predecessors of public space are believed to be the Agora of ancient Greek and the Roman Forum. Both the settings of open spaces surrounded by civic buildings, they are still surprisingly valid archetypes of today’s urban public spaces with regard to creating contacts, functional arrangements and spatial qualities. Though ancient Greek democracy is often discussed as exemplary in many ways, the major difference with contemporary urban public space is the understanding of inclusion. In ancient Greek the majority of population were not really considered citizens. Immigrants, slaves, women and children had limited rights and privileges. For example women had a restricted right to walk around in public and were very segregated from men. Whereas today In the European context we regard urban public space in a democratic way - it is a call for everyone regardless of his ethnic origin, age or gender, social or economic position. Every age has it’s societal ideal and these norms are in constant adjustment, this process can be called - the democratisation of public spaces. Tom Nielsen discusses democratic urban spaces in the following excerpt: "From Antiquity to the Baroque, urban spaces, beyond their practical function, primarily were arenas for the powers that be to demonstrate and exercise their power. With Modernism and the big industrial cities arose the idea of the democratic urban space. The idea is generally attributed to the landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted and 19th-century America. Olmsted was interested in how planning and landscape architecture could be used to support the democratic experiment that was the young United States. He developed the idea of the modern city park – New York’s Central Park in is his best known project – which he saw as a democratic space. A democratic space had three important functions: it should create a point of identification that the city’s inhabitants could be proud of and unite around; it should edify people’s character and morals by putting city dwellers in touch with nature (or, more accurately, natural materials cultivated by humans); and, most important, it should create a space in the dense and class-stratified industrial cities with free and equal access for everyone, where everyone could meet, or at least pass by one another, regardless of social class or race. The city park functioned as a kind of pressure release valve in cities with big differences between rich and poor." 3 After the modernist re-development that followed the World War II, the criticism of urban environments was found on a new level. The experience of separation of functions across the city and dramatically increased traffic turnovers helped to recognise the degradation of life on the streets. The critique was addressed towards urban planning and vehicle traffic causing the obstruction on streets. This can be seen as the starting point for upcoming interest towards the revival of streets and public life on streets, for demanding equal democratic rights both pedestrians. About the same time ideas about democratic (participatory) planning started to gain more popularity. "In Barcelona, an urban-space project from the late 1970s was central in reformulating the city after industrialization and, not least, the fall of the Franco dictatorship. Founded on the idea of the democratic space, the project became a reference for the development of urban spaces in many other places in the world. The project played a central role in

abcnews.go.com

DEMOCRATISATION OF URBAN SPACES

The headquarters of Estonian Communist Party, built in 1968. The architects initial idea was to design the first glass-facade in Tallinn. The Communist Party declined the idea and "proposed" a clear background for the Lenin statue.

Occupy Wall Street protest, New York 2011.

Dmitri Korobtsov

Along with the governing forces, the power of urban spaces is continually exercised by the public in form of political activity. Political activity is manifested in several ways, for example statements, happenings, street art, debates and demonstrations. On the streets individuals and groups can make active statements by simply having a speech or performing a certain conceptual act or passively, by wearing polemising message of political, economical, societal, cultural or any other issue. Street art can take many forms by using posters, stickers, sculptural or installational mediums. These messages lay around us in everyday situations constituting a collective forum of information. The most influential form of political activity is still considered demonstrations. Today " the third power" - the media is in unprecedented status, the emergence of Internet media such as blogs, Facebook, Twitter etc. has made the spreading of information easy and quick. Symbolic meetings and protests can be organized literally in no time. It is heatedly discussed weather these new possibilities lessen the need for physical stage of discussion but the recent examples around the world seem to disprove these opinions. Recent street demonstrations against ACTA restrictions (intellectual property laws for Internet media) in Estonia and around the world, the Occupy Wall Street movement argue, that the new media just makes it easier to organize people to stand for common concerns. Quite naturally, the physical presence still seems to be the most transparent, direct and convincing method of political and any type of communication.

www.artishok.blogspot.com

The shaping of urban environment can be politically instrumentalized. Planning decisions have an economic and demographic impact, architecture itself can serve as a regulatory force to control human behaviour. These decisions can implement symbolic meanings. To a large extent city tourism is fed on the public art and architecture of the past societies. Notorious historic monuments, decorations and sculptures are often politically ideological. Streets named after rulers, squares used for symbolic national celebrations, these acts represent and affirm the historic and ideological meanings. Even city layouts can be used strategically. It has been argued that the remodelling of Paris in the second half of 19th century was not intended to deal only with the poor conditioned slum in the city center. In he’s book "Militant Modernism", Owen Hatherley calls Baron Geoges-Eugene Hausmann`s new city plans for Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte as 'militaristically planned'. The true goal was argued to be securing the city against the Civil War, making the erection of barricades in Paris impossible for all time. The streets were widened to make the erection of barricades impossible, and new streets were to furnish the shortest route between the barracks and the workers districts. The Haussmann project also involved the planning of straight avenues as a method of crowd control, so that artillery could fire down them at barricaded masses.2

ACTA protest, Tallinn 2012.

www.bbc.com

Winston Churchill waving to the crowd . Speaking to the people from heights is a gesture of power that is rare in today `s democratic society

www.wikipedia.org

Sharon Zukin

1 Sharon Zukin (1998) (http://www.publicspace.org/es/texto-biblioteca/eng/ 2 Dan Lockton (2011) (www.architectures.danlockton.co.uk/2011/09/12/architecture-urbanism-design-and-behaviour-a-brief-review/), accessed 21.05.2013 3 Tom Nielsen (2013) )"Informal co-existence and amenities for all. Democratic urban spaces in the Nordic countries ." Arhus University , Arhus (p171)

In urban planning Barcelona soon became known as ‘the Barcelona model‘ of urban transformation. 28

POLITICAL

ASPECT

PART 1


www.bp.blogspot com

POLITICAL ASPECT

www.delfi.ee

A skate park and an urban dog walking area - "narrowly defined units" of public space.

www.flickr.com (mardytardy)

building new faith in the political system and in democracy as a fair and attractive societal form. As the 1980s wore on, a string of market places, squares, and city parks of very high quality were established or renovated all over the city following an extensive process of public inclusion. This inclusion of the users was a new thing in terms of understanding the democratic space, and it was quite central to the process of democratization that was the objective. Parks and plazas were seen as an important medium for having people meet again and freely discuss their lives and maybe even political and societal developments, too. The dictatorship had strictly controlled the use of urban spaces, with the result that people stopped using them for anything other than rudimentary activities. The initiative helped create a whole new identity for the city, serving both as a frame of identification for the citizens and as a signal point for tourists and visitors. The urban spaces became a central part of the city and its life." 4 In the 21st century the democratisation of urban public space (UPS) is increasingly influenced by the features of globalisation - integration of national economies with the global systems of production, consumption, and distribution; and space-time contraction that is the effect of technological advances in transport, communication, and computer technology.5 The internet is revolutionary in the exchange of ideas, cultural and political activities taking place in the UPS are quickly spreading across countries. Architecture and design are influenced more by global trends than local customs. In the next section Nielsen elaborates on the global features. "Urban spaces today play a significant role in helping people to understand and live positively with the variety of cultural and political positions that characterize today’s globalized society. It can help to constructively and positively express the experience of ‘multiplicity’ (Gilles Deleuze, Ash Amin) and of ‘thrown-togetherness’ (Doreen Massey) in cities with people who are total strangers and very different from oneself, which is characteristic for urbanities today. While the Industrial and Modernist city were characterized by the separation of functions, people, and urban life, today’s globalization society is characterized by the segmentation of everything and everyone into cultural and social subgroups. While Industrialism was defined by a logic of control and the idea that the city should be ordered and optimized on a general level, globalization is defined by market logic in which we try to adapt products and urban spaces to increasingly narrowly defined units." 6 Nielsen speaks of "narrowly defined units" as public spaces being designed for increasingly specific segment of the society.7 A change is apparent when urban public life at the times of Soviet Estonia is juxtaposed to public life in independent Estonia. When the idealistic image of a proper Soviet fellow citizen or "comrade" had to be just like everyone else, then urban space was designed to support and sustain uniformity. Today more and more specific urban designs can be observed, e.g. skate parks for mainly teenagers and dog walking gardens for pet owners. To conclude, urban public spaces in Estonia are increasingly reflecting democratic ideas. Active district communities expecting to be accepted as equal partners in neighbourhood planning and specifically targeted urban activities are heading for public resolve. Though from the ironical point of view, the concept of the free world without borders is slowly heading towards global uniformity, the will to decide locally within narrowly defined units promises to create and protect local identities.

UPS AND POLITICAL RESPONSIBILITY Urban public space (UPS) as an integral part of broader urban environment is in constant flux of change, influenced by a multitude of decisions in spatial, economic and social categories. These local, global and technological variables that shape our urban reality are a matter of political choice. It is clearly difficult, if not impossible, to politically address an interdisciplinary set of demands to the whole spectre of urban development policy but it should be a political challenge to develop our planning reality towards a more sustainable future, to move from the modernist planning heritage, which is claimed static and hierarchy powered, to a more flexible and dynamic planning with regard to the complexity of the world that is in constant flux. Looking at the big picture it means to have thorough spatial policy and state institutions able to follow the principles of state-wide importance. The spatial decisions that influence the future of Estonia are made in 7 different state institution departments and in 15 county planning departments that lack mutual collaboration. The Union of Estonian Architects suggest introducing a communicative institution - the state architect. Whether the state architect is a solution or not, more rigorous collaboration of state institutions has to be politically addressed. According to numerous research and analyse documents a premise of successful UPS is the participation of people directly influenced by the planning decisions. On a micro level the political challenge is to foster the development of citizen society, to call local municipalities for a more inclusive participation when public interests are involved. In a current situation local municipalities too often mistake public initiative in planning discussions as oppositional action. Future customs are in the hands of the electorate and of the political will of the local government.

People reclaiming the street for pedestrians.

4 Tom Nielsen (2013) )"Informal co-existence and amenities for all. Democratic urban spaces in the Nordic countries ." Arhus University , Arhus (pp171-173) 5 The Economic Times (2009) Globalisation and the urban space . 6 Tom Nielsen (2013) )"Informal co-existence and amenities for all. Democratic urban spaces in the Nordic countries ." Arhus University , Arhus (p178) 7 Ibid. (p178)

PART 1

BIG

BIG

The new Tallinn Town Hall by BIG is an example of a democratic ambition in architecture. The public ground floor and a huge indoor mirror, projecting the daily work to the outside, symbolise transparent governing.

POLITICAL

ASPECT

29


INTRODUCTION Many types of public spaces are accessible only in a certain time-frame. Playgrounds and parks may have a limited time-window when the gates are open. Same goes for the indoor functions, in the night-time the street-life can disappear totally or transform its nature radically. Festivals and happenings act as acupuncture activating certain places at certain time. In Estonia the Nordic climate means a dramatic change from winter to summer, the time spent outdoor varies greatly. For urban public space managing time aspect is both a restraint and a possibility. Steve Passlow

TIME ASPECT

"It is our sense of time, our sense of ritual, which in the long run creates our sense of place, and of community. In our urban environment, which is con-stantly undergoing irreversible changes, a cyclical sense of time, the regular recurrence of events and celebrations, is what gives us reassurance and a sense of unity and continuity." 1 A light installation in winter.

John Brinckerhoff Jackson

Temporary snow-city in Tartu Estonia.

Colin Grover

When the Strøget street was converted to a pedestrian street in Copenhagen in 1962, there was a lot of scepticism. It was argued that pedestrian streets in Denmark would never work. Newspapers made statements like "We are Danes, not Italians", and "Using public space is contrary to Nordic mentality".2 Though the debates were aggressive, the new carfree environment from the very first day proved extremely popular among the people of Copenhagen. Today Denmark is known for its spectacular bike culture and progressive urban design. For Estonia Copenhagen is a role-model and a proof that developing urban public space in Nordic climate is worth a try. In Estonian climate the main challenge is to encourage outdoor activities in cold and dark period from late October to early April, and especially during snowy period. One of the main snow-period issues is how to manage snow . On the roads snow is piled up on the roadsides, both side-walks and traffic lanes get narrower. In vehicle traffic this experience proves that narrower lanes are not a problem in means of sustaining traffic turnover. The situation on side-walks is more problematic, with piles of snow the side-walks are often too narrow to allow a free pass. Due to poor visibility such piles also increase the accident risk on the streets. When snow stays on the side-walks for a long time it transforms into a thick layer of ice hard to remove and very tricky to walk on. In spring it takes time to melt on the shadowy sides of the roads and extends the inconvenient period. These everyday issues ask for a better snow management strategy, in a more active citizen society public-private co-operation programs can be discussed. In winter period a typical Estonian desires to travel abroad to spend there a sunny and warm vacation. In order to avoid stress and lack of physical activity, new urban possibilities should be explored and dared to test out. Positive pilots are already part of our winter life: light festivals, ice-skating and cross-country skying in urban situations, also ice- and snowsculptures and playgrounds. A step forward would be creating mix-use winter shelters, place them strategically in urban tissue and allow a variety of activities to pop-up. There is still a lot to improve. The main challenge is how to encourage people to spend more time outdoors. In winter period it is not so much up to physical urban conditions but rather a question of altering everyday outdoor behaviour patterns.

www.delfi.ee

SEASONS AND CLIMATE

PUBLIC LIFE AND THE RHYTHMS OF USE A winter shelter with a chimney and kitchen.

www.snowcastle.net/fi/

There are distinct rhythms and patterns related to the use of public spaces, depending on the time of a day, day of a week and a season. On weekdays It is typical that older people spend their shopping time often at the beginning of a day, there are more teenagers out at the end of a school day, at night young adults dominate the town centre. On weekends again the number of people going out is usually higher than on weekdays. Streets are busy in the beginning and at the end of the a day. For example in the city of Tartu, in Estonia, about 20% of the registered residents are either students or working for the University, the city has a totally different flux in summertime when the majority of students are gone. Clearly the specific usage trend depends on a particular place and particular time. The complexity present in urban environment is to be seen as a poly-rhythmic field of usage. When planning changes in UPS, the ability to understand these fluctuations allows us to make modifications.

Temporary use of urban spaces is a renowned method for generating attention and activity in concrete places and in larger areas. An elementary example is a festival held in a quiet and easy-going district, it gathers local and distant people, creating a vibe that differs greatly from the areas' everyday rhythm. The event creates attention and helps the citizens to sustain awareness about the district and its character, the people who participated. Occurring activities contribute to the overall vitality and attractiveness of the place. When the place is in use, it has a greater value, there is more care, it is easier to maintain and renew it when necessary. Besides temporary events that take place only in a certain time-frame, another influential tool for interventions is temporary public art. Super-graphics, posters and installations draw attention and make a place more attractive while allowing a group of people to find self-expression. As many forms of street-art are practised unauthorised and without too careful location-planning, the overall artistic quality is often poor, hence the broader public opinion often discredits it. At the same time such discontentment only illustrates how influential urban art is. Urban public space management offers a major difference from self-emerging art, a possibility to find an specific output for public art. In carefully chosen official locations super-graphics can aesthetically improve the urban experience and site-specific installations comment on urban or social content. The idea of temporality gets more interesting when the use of currently unused property is discussed (also see Legal Aspect). In a much similar way than described above it is possible to use temporary activity as a tool to catalyse new activity in currently neglected places, abandoned buildings or areas that have a slow development process. The principle is sustainability - instead of wasting space without an output, make use of its potential. Temporary usage can be an advantageous tool for communities, subcultural groups, municipalities and real-estate developers. 1 John Brinckerhoff Jackson (1995) (http://newcities.ku.edu/media/pdf/SenseOfPlaceSenseOfTime-JBJackson.pdf), accessed 22.04.2013 2 Jan Gehl, Lars Gemzøe (1996) "Public Space-Public Life" Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts , Copenhagen (p11)

www.snowcastle.net/fi/

UPS AND TEMPORARY USE

Snow Castle in Kemi, Finland is rebuilt every winter with a different architecture. In 1996 the first snow castle drew 300,000 visitors. The castle hosts a hotel and a restaurant, an adventure land for children, a theatre and ice art exhibitions.3

3 Wikipedia (www.wikipedia.org/wiki/SnowCastle_of_Kemi), accessed 17.05.2013

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TIME

ASPECT

PART 1


"1. Citizens become temporary users in order to follow different aims. Temporary users are motivated by the aim to claim vacant spaces as breeding grounds for the development of ideas, as niches or as a parallel universe in relation to the regulated urban environment. 2. Specific vacant sites attract specific temporary uses. While choosing certain sites or buildings, temporary users follow precise spatial criteria such as retreat, exposure or niche. 3. Temporary uses can flourish with a minimum of investment. Temporary uses can recycle and appropriate existing structures and spaces with minimal interventions – "urbanism light". 4. Temporary uses are mostly organised in networks and use clusters. The temporary use clusters are characterised by distinguished use profiles. A cluster is sustained by complex internal networks, which generate synergy effects. Initial temporary programs often attract similar uses to the same or a nearby site. 5. Temporary uses are initiated through agents. In many cases, temporary uses only become possible through the determined action of key agents, who bridge the gap between the different milieus of the users, the site owner and municipal authorities and therefore create a protective umbrella which allows for the flourishing of temporary use. The agents are mostly unpaid individuals without institutional associations, following an idealistic agenda, or sometimes highly motivated "submarines" within the municipal bureaucracies. 6. Temporary uses are a laboratory for new cultures and economies. Temporary uses can create a unique environment of experiment, where ideas can mature in time, leading to the foundation of may start-up companies." 6

www.time.com

TIME ASPECT

www.lunarlightning.wordpress.com

Temporary (pop-up) greenery.

Temporary urban design - tree knitting.

www.nordicgbc.org

All over Europe there are numerous examples of abandoned or unused buildings taken over by initiative group who has an idea and who is willing to invest time and work to refurbish the place with a minimum budget. The backdrop of the initiative is usually some form of start-up. The premise in such case is usually a partnership with the property owner and/or local authority. Ideally a win-win situation, the owner gets a free maintenance service and the initiative group gets the space for free. In addition to that, the neighbourhood benefits from the new emerging activities created by the initiative group. "Even though temporary uses start often as niches, they are still connected to the economic sphere - for instance in that they have better chances to evolve in urban areas with lower economic pressure. However, the non-monetary character of temporary uses rather suggests, that these uses put forward alternative economies. These are especially economies based on barter, on social capital, and on recycling of existing value. Such forms of value production can often be translated into monetary value. Many of the temporary uses mix these economies and try to establish a self-containing enterprise, which sooner or later should be able to move out of the temporary niche. Examples for this would be arts and design galleries that start off in recycled abandoned buildings, but develop a professional standing, which allows them to stay in the market even when the residual space gets developed." 4 Another possibility for temporary usage are sites with long-span development plans. If a site becomes vacant, it is expected to be re-planned, build over and used as soon as possible. These processes, though, can take years to plan and realise, in case of large-scale development the time-span can be 5-10 years or even longer. Especially in new development areas without an existing public life or a poor one, it becomes useful to support the genesis of public activity by creating temporary uses. It depends on the site context and the targeted user group upon which the temporary function is to be decided. For a real-estate developer it should be of a clear interest to get the place on the map, for people to acknowledge its presence and have some kind of attractor to sustain the public curiosity. An example could be a temporary cafe, a park or a playground, why not a public centre for creative workshops. In short, public-private partnership is a way to overcome legal difficulties. In 2003 a research project "Urban Catalyst" made an in-depth study of existing clusters of temporary use in Berlin, Helsinki, Amsterdam, Vienna and Naples.5 The project proved that temporary uses can become extremely successful, inclusive and innovative part of contemporary urban culture. The detailed case-studies of spontaneous and unplanned uses revealed patterns and mechanisms. Temporary uses do not emerge accidentally but are guided by different factors and rules. Temporary users are urban players that act deliberately and follow certain visions. The research team came to the following conclusions:

Sometimes a temporary use becomes established. Kaabelitehdas, Helsinki. The building is recycled for a cluster of cultural entrepreneurs.

C) TEMPORARY USERS:

make there own real estate available for temporary use stand security for temporary users toward owners provide benefits for owners who support temporary users (e.g. planning gain) integrate the different sectors of administration to an one-stop-office dealing with all aspects of temporary use (permissions, initiation, etc.) founding of a round table with all relevant stake holders, a new alliance for urban development in European cities

forming of collisions, which ensure the liability for potential partners communication of developed know-how to others

realistic evaluation of there real estate and its marketability taking in to account non-monetary values in relationship to temporary use courage for new solutions and innovative ways of marketing and development taking responsibility for the development of neighbourhoods beyond the own property, foundation of a pool for free available spaces generating of new uses to create new demands for real estate

D) LEGISLATOR: new planning laws should accelerate development permits, enable temporary use and allow for reduce standards for temporary use developing a low of property, which reduces the rights and duties connected to property: Real estate, which is vacant for more than a year, should be available for the general public. In the same time the liability of the owner should be reduced to ease temporary use.

A temporary theatre "Jellyfish" in London. The spontaneous building is called junkitecture.

4 Studio Urban Catalysts (2003) "Strategies for temporary uses potential for development of urban residual areas in European metropolises" Berlin (p7) 5 Ibid. (pp5-6)

Paul Aguraiuja

B) OWNERS:

Copenhagen Harbour Baths. An example of development catalyst. The harbour area is undergoing a transformation from an industrial and transportation junction into the cultural and social centre of the city.8

www.openbuildings.com

A) MUNICIPALITIES:

Felipe Pilotto

The project also suggests tips for implementation.7

6 Ibid. (p23) 7 Ibid. (p23) 8 Wikipedia (www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copenhagen_Harbour_Baths), accessed 17.05.2013

The Straw Theatre was built for 6 months to celebrate The European Capital of Culture - Tallinn 2011. The location is a forgotten park right by the medieval town. The project stresses the importance of the place that once used to be part of the old town fortifications and is an unused urban hotspot.

PART 1

TIME

ASPECT

31


PARTICIPATORY PLANNING

PARTICIPATORY PLANNING For a small low-density country like Estonia, lack of space is not a concern. Even the building boom of 2000-2008 did not succeed in filling all the spatial gaps in the major city centres. Due to spatial reserve and the historic background there are and will be numerous planning cases that influence urban public space to a great deal. Almost every urban planning process is a clash of different interests and a challenge to find a balanced result. The main parties involved in the process are the public sector, the private sector, the general public and the planner. Though the public sector has lawful responsibility to protect public interest, the current planning practice involves public voice only formally and has resulted in growing public discontentment. Today the first successful steps in establishing a civil society have signalled new expectations for a more transparent and inclusive planning management - participatory planning. Principles for participatory planning have recently been published in a booklet "A Guide for Participatory Planning." 1 The authors Kadri Tillermann (OĂœ Vesterra) and Regina Viljasaar (MTĂœ Linnalabor) have compiled a comprehensive guide about the planning process, the roles of different parties, the legal background and the methods of participation. Hereby this document is recommended as exemplary, the following provides excerpts from the guide.

THE PARTIES OF A PLANNING PROCESS "The public sector includes local municipalities, county governments and different state institutions (ministries, Estonian Rescue Service, National Heritage Board etc.) These institutions share a common objective to organise a functional society and stand for the public interests. At the same time the interests within the public sector might conflict. According to the EU directives, constitution law and laws regulating local government, the local municipality has the full rights in planning decision made in the local territory. Therefore the local municipality is also responsible for the lawful execution and the relevance of the planning decisions. The private sector, land owners and investors, influence local life directly. Usually the private sector is a driver of planning processes and heads to re-evaluate the land. Realisation of the plans usually influence public space and it’s socioeconomic nature. According to the constitution law everyone has the right to use their property when public interests are not harmed. The general public is the most complicated party as it includes practically everyone. A master plan process should regard neighbours of the planned area, local residents, value-based citizen communities, district communities, disorganised value-based groups and other interest groups. Different groups and different individuals might have different interests and values but together they formulate the public interest that should balance private interests and be considered in a planning process. The planner is an independent consultant commissioned by the private sector to design master plans and by the public sector when general-, county- or state plans are compiled. The planners' task is to analyse the existing situations based on professional knowledge, to centralise and balance the opinions of the parties involved and to propose a qualitative spatial solution based on the former. As an ideal the planner synthesises information and negotiates in a comprehensive manner to provide the local municipality sufficient information to make broad-based decisions." 2

PRINCIPLES OF PARTICIPATION "In current planning practice inclusion often means the delivery of information by the local municipality. In simpler cases such minimal informing might be justified, but when complex and often controversial planning dilemmas arise, informative inclusion is not sufficient and participatory planning should precede decision making. participatory planning lies at first on the premise that every segment of the society has the right and option to speak for the developments that influence them. And secondly, every segment of a society is capable to do so. That embraces all the participants making decisions that shape the plan and everyone being able to argument and/or contribute to the realisation of the decision. The final decision and validation is still in the hands of the local municipality, but everyone has a chance to contribute. Participatory planning does not work out when parties do not have equal possibilities in the process and when some parties are not willing to be responsible for their decisions. The following principles are important in the attitude and action of all parties, the local municipality, the representatives of public and the investors, regardless of whether simple informing or participatory planning is used. Principles like trust, respect, equality of treatment, shared responsibility, openness and transparency, diversity and comprehension are all common sense definitions that can be summarised as two columns of civil society - every opinion counts and all parties act in good deeds and for the best result. The essence of planning is negotiation and finding the best among many options. When principles described here are followed, it is more likely to happen that the decided solutions are best in given time and space. The result of open process goes further, there is more trust between the parties, local identity gets stronger, and the realised planning outcome is more personal; the local residents and communities get a better understanding of the municipality and the investor, and their actions are made more legible because of the amount of information considered. For the local municipality it becomes easier to stand for transparent public interest and everyday bureaucratic procedures become less demanding when community groups and individuals are experienced and strong partners." 3 1. Kadri Tillermann , Regina Viljasaar 2. Ibid. (pp6-7) 3. Ibid. (p8)

32

PARTICIPATORY PLANNING

(2012) "A Guide for Participatory Planning ." National Foundation of Civil Society , Tallinn

PART 1


1 / 40

PARTICIPATORY PLANNING

KAASAVA PLANEERIMISE JUHEND Koostajad: Tellija: Kadri Tillemann OÜ Vesterra Regina Viljasaar MTÜ Linnalabor

PART 1

SA Kodanikuühiskonna Sihtkapital

Tallinn 2012

PARTICIPATORY PLANNING

33


34

PART 2


Part 02 A model of urban public space and a table of questions.

PART 2

35


DEMAND

ATTRACT

USERS

QUALITIES

PUBLIC LIFE HAPPENS ONLY THROUGH USERS AND THEIR D Y N A M I C I N T E R A C T I O N . VITALITY OF A PLACE AND INCLUSION OF DIFFERENT USER GROUPS DETERMINE THE POTENTIALS OF URBAN PUBLIC SPACE

OUTDOOR SPACES ARE USED MORE FREQUENTLY WHEN THE ENVIRONMENT OFFERS A SENSE OF QUALITY: IT HAS A CHARACTER, IT IS COMFORTABLE, INCLUSIVE, SAFE AND PLEASING

WHAT MAKES A SUCCESFUL

URBAN PUBLIC SPACE?

M

AN

D

DE T

T AC AT

AC

TR

D

TR

DE

M

AN

AT

FUNCTIONS THERE ARE NECESSARY AND OPTIONAL ACTIVITIES IN URBAN PUBLIC SPACE. USABILITY OF THESE SPACES IS INFLUENCED BY THE VARIETY AND MULTIPLICITY OF IN- A N D OUTDOOR FUNCTIONS.

URBAN PUBLIC SPACE A SPACE IN BETWEEN BUILDINGS PHYSICALLY ACCESSIBLE FOR EVERYONE

LOCAL SPACIAL

PEOPLE

SOCIAL

LOCAL MUNICIPALITY

POLITICIANS ECONOMIC

DISTANT USERS

LEGAL

GLOBAL TRENDS POLITICAL

LOCAL TRENDS

TIME ECONOMIC STATE

MAIN ASPECTS OF URBAN PUBLIC SPACE

PART 2

EXAMPLE OF POSSIBLE 'ACTORS' INFLUENCING THE STATE OF UPS

A MODEL OF URBAN PUBLIC SPACE

36


A model of UPS

FUNCTIONS THERE ARE NECESSARY AND OPTIONAL ACTIVITIES IN URBAN PUBLIC SPACE. USABILITY OF THESE SPACES IS INFLUENCED BY THE VARIETY AND MULTIPLICITY OF IN- A N D OUTDOOR FUNCTIONS.

INDOOR SPACES

OUTDOOR SPACES

IN TERMS OF HOW IT INFLUENCES UPS

EXTRAVERSIVE FUNCTIONS

NO CURRENT ROLE

INTROVERT FUNCTIONS

CONNECTING ROLE

UNUSED SPACE

PROACTIVE ROLE

NO CURRENT ROLE

PASSIVE ROLE

SCHOOL

DWELLING

VEHICLE NETWORK

PLAZA

PRIVATE SPACES

EMPTY LOTS

KINDERGARTEN

OFFICE

PEDESTRIAN NETWORK

PUBLIC SEATING

GREENERY

RESIDUAL SPACE

HOSPITAL

INDUSTRIAL

BICYCLE NETWORK

PARK

BODY OF WATER

LIBRARY

WAREHOUSE

PUBLIC TRANSP. NETW.

MARKETPLACE

OTHER PLACE OF

CITY HALL

...ETC

OPEN AIR BUSINESS

NATURE

COACH STATION

SPORT ACTIVITY

RAILWAY STATION

PLAYGROUND

MUSEUM

PUBLIC BEACH

CAFE

ALLOTMENT

RESTAURANT

OPEN-AIR CINEMA

SHOP

... ETC

CLUB BATH CINEMA THEATER CONCERT HALL ...ETC

QUALITIES

USERS

OUTDOOR SPACES ARE USED MORE FREQUENTLY WHEN THE ENVIRONMENT OFFERS A SENSE OF QUALITY: IT HAS A CHARACTER, IT IS COMFORTABLE, INCLUSIVE, SAFE AND PLEASING

PUBLIC LIFE HAPPENS ONLY THROUGH USERS AND THEIR D Y N A M I C I N T E R A C T I O N . VITALITY OF A PLACE AND INCLUSION OF DIFFERENT USER GROUPS DETERMINE THE POTENTIALS OF URBAN PUBLIC SPACE

QUALITY OF OUTDOOR SPACES

INDOOR SPACES IN TERMS OF HOW IT INFLUENCES UPS

ACCESSIBILITY

LINKS TO OUTDOOR

IDENTITY

ATTRACTIVITY

CONVENIENCE

CLEANLINESS

SAFETY

CLIMATIC

PEDESTRIANS

WINDOWS

LOCAL

STREET DESIGN

GROUND LEVELS

CLEANLINESS

PEDESTRIAN

WIND

STROLLERS

DOORS

CHARACTER

INVENTORY DESIGN

GROUND MATERIALS

TRASH BINS

CYCLIST

RAIN

WHEELCHAIRS

PORTALS

ACTIVITY PLACE DESIGN

OBSTUCTIVE BARRIERS

VISUAL NOISE

DESIGN

SNOW

CYCLISTS

TERRACES

HISTORY

PUBLIC ART

ACCESS TO ACTIVITY

AUDIBLE

SAFETY

SUN

SIGNS

NATURE

VISUAL EXPERIENCES

PLACES

NOISE

STREET

FENCES

CULTURE

VEGETATION

AIR QUALITY

LIGHTING

ETC... CONDITION OF BUILT ENVIRONMENT

37

A MODEL OF URBAN PUBLIC SPACE

PART 2


Functions - Indoor spaces There are necessary and optional activities in urban public space. Usability of these spaces is influenced by the variety and multiplicity of in- and outdoor functions.

EXTRAVERSIVE FUNCTIONS

Buildings or sections of buildings that generate activity in nearby public spaces.

SCHOOL KINDERGARTEN HOSPITAL LIBRARY CITY HALL COACH STATION

www.weburbanist.com

RAILWAY STATION

QUESTIONS

MUSEUM

Erina Zhiteneva

www.lively-cities.eu

CAFE

1. What are the most extraversive functions generating activity in the area?

RESTAURANT

2. Is there a demand for new businesses / services? Where and what would you propose?

SHOP

3. Do you think the area could benefit when extending or cutting the open hours of cafe`s, bars etc?

CLUB

4. Is the area well connected to extraversive services? What would you change? Try to be objective.

BATH CINEMA THEATER CONCERT HALL ...ETC

INTROVERT FUNCTIONS

Buildings or sections of buildings that do not generate significant public activity and rather supply users for public spaces.

DWELLING OFFICE INDUSTRIAL WAREHOUSE ...ETC Julius Jansson

www.asjadest.blogspot.com

QUESTIONS 1. Which functions in the area are introvert? 2. Could additional introvert functions support area development by providing more users?

NO CURRENT ROLE

Indoor spaces that have stayed unused for some resasons. Spaces unused over longer time periods are often deteriorated and might have negative effects on the surrounding public spaces.

UNUSED INDOOR SPACE

www.apartmenttherapy.com

http://www.flickr.com/photos/eemeez/7858933828/

QUESTIONS 1. Do you know any unused/abandoned buildings or rooms? 2. What functions could suit these spaces? Do they have potential for temporary use? 3. Who might be the "actors" interested in reviving those vacant spaces?

38

A TABLE OF QUESTIONS

PART 2


Functions - Outdoor spaces There are necessary and optional activities in urban public space. Usability of these spaces is influenced by the variety and multiplicity of in- and outdoor functions.

CONNECTING ROLE

The primary function of streets and paths is the connectivity. Well distributed and connected pedestrian and cycle paths are a matter of quality, providing well-being in public spaces. Lack of basic connections discourages use in these spaces. Poor connections often result in unoffical paths that ruin lawns and create higher traffic accident risk on steets when pedestrians make shortcuts. Well distributed public transport stops and sufficient timetables contribute to the use of public spaces, sustainable thinking, healthy living, and help to solve car congestion problems.

VECHICLE NETWORK PEDESTRIAN NETWORK BICYCLE NETWORK PUBLIC TRANSP. NETW.

www.flickr.com (vancelester)

Mikael Colville -Andersen

www.flickr.com (Amsterdamized)

Chip Litherland

QUESTIONS 1. Which streets are considered main for pedestrians/cyclists/vehicle traffic? 2. Which streets do you mostly use as a pedestrian/cyclist/car driver? 3. Are the public transport stops placed well in the area? Try to think objectively. Would you change stop locations? 4. Have you experienced uncomfortable connections in the area? What would you change? 5. Do you think there could be new useful connecive paths? Where?

PROACTIVE ROLE

Proactive role category covers all urban outdoor activities. Outdoor activities are those that invite people to stay outdoor for a longer time and favor spontaneous optional activities. Open air activities in Estonia are on the rise, recent years have introduced urban gardening, urban chess and ping-pong, special snow tube parks. Trekking, cross country skying, ice-skating, open-air cinema and small local marketplaces are increasingly popular.

PLAZA PUBLIC SEATING PARK MARKETPLACE OPEN AIR BUSINESS SPORT ACTIVITY PLAYGROUND PUBLIC BEACH

www.designscout.dk

Anu Wintschalek

www.woohome.com

www.flickr.com (rob7812)

ALLOTMENT OPEN-AIR CINEMA CAFE TERRACES ... ETC

www.flickr.com (ocnidius)

www.globalpost.com

Maria Da Schio

Sean Lowcay

QUESTIONS 1. What are the main outdoor activities in the area and where are they located? 2. What are the main outdoor activities for you? 3. Would you relocate any existing outdoor activities? 4. Do you sometimes preactice spontaneous walks or bike-rides in the area? Where? 5. What kind of new outdoor activities would you like to see? Where? Think visionary! 6. Do you know any outdoor business or service in the area (cafe terrace, marketplace, seasonal outdoor library etc.)? Could there be more alternatives, permanent or temporary? How to favor such developments? 7. Are there enough possibilities for outdoor sports? 8. Are there open-air events held in the area? Where? Could there be more event places? 9. If there could be more parks and green areas, where would you place them? 10. Are there main public meeting places? 11. Do you know existing public seats/places that you never use, why? Where and why would you place extra seats? 12. Name pleasing outdoor places to sit down and chat with friends?

PART 2

A TABLE OF QUESTIONS

39


Functions - Outdoor spaces There are necessary and optional activities in urban public space. Usability of these spaces is influenced by the variety and multiplicity of in- and outdoor functions.

PASSIVE ROLE

Passive role category covers all outdoor spaces perceived as public but are without a clear function. Passive role also includes introvert private spaces edging public territory. An example of this is a city street girded by fences of private houses. The public territory is cut off shaply and left poorer. In case of public-private mutual interest, these situations have potential to enhance the public sphere.

PRIVATE SPACES PASSIVE NATURE PARKING LOTS PARKING MANAGEMENT

www.pathtothepossible.wordpress.com

www.buildmyfence.com

QUESTIONS 1. Do you know private spaces that could contribute to public space? (Closed yards, shared street management etc.) 2. Are there places of nature or elements of nature that could contribute to public space? 3. Are there parking issues in the area? Where? What quick and long-run solutions would you propose? 4. Are there parking management issues? Where? How and who to address these issues?

NO CURRENT ROLE

There are always some empty lots in the city fabric. Depending on the lands development perspective these spaces could temporarily be used in public interest. As empty land needs security and management these situations can offer mutual benefits for the owner and the public party when free rent is exchanged for management service. Residual spaces are currently ineffectively used spaces. Oversized roads, parking lots not used in specific times, useless plain lawns are just a few examples.

EMPTY LOTS RESIDUAL SPACE

www.globalsiteplans.com

www.patmiddleborn.com

www.transportblog.co.nz

QUESTIONS 1. Are there empty lots in the area? 2. What are the future developments of these spaces? Collect information about master plan developments and consider all future proposals. 3. What developments are favored by locals/ other actors? 4. What functions would you propose for undeveloped empty lots? 5. Do you know any underused residual spaces that could contribute to public space? 6. Propose temporary uses for empty lots or residual spaces.

40

A TABLE OF QUESTIONS

PART 2


Qualities - Indoor spaces Public spaces are used more frequently when extraversive public indoor functions are inclusive for all user groups.

ACCESSIBILITY

This category focuses on access quality of public indoor functions. People are naturally convenient and prefer public functions on ground level to functions high up or underground. Same goes for ground level acess quality, if it is complicated for some reason they prefer other options when alternatives are available. To maximise urban public space activity it is important to provide inclusive conditions also for minority user groups. This category has clearer effect in smaller areas where complicated access to the the few available district shops might drive off a segment of people and leave proximity streets clearly less lively.

PEDESTRIANS STROLLERS WHEELCHAIRS CYCLISTS

Alvin Pastrana

Den Nation

www.metroparkstacoma.org

www.flickr.com/cyclingforpositivity

QUESTIONS 1. Have you noticed shops, cafe`s or other extraversive indoor functions that are poorly accessible for strollers, elderly, disabled people? 2. Are there problematic places where lack of cycle parking is holding back bike users?

LINKS TO OUTDOOR

Links to outdoor spaces is about the communicative ability of indoor functions. For a pedestrian , vast spaces with no interesting visual details, blank and uncommunicative facades and long boring fences make the pass dull. Frequent users start to prefer better routes when alternatives are available. For new visitors it is important to naturally "read" what activities the streets and buildings have to offer. Lack of doors and windows, reflective glass-facades and hidden entrances are especially important for businesses.

WINDOWS DOORS PORTALS TERRACES SIGNS FENCES

www.brokensidewalk.com

www.pixelimagebank.photoshelter.com

Martin Gr端ner Larsen

www.weekendnotes.co.uk

www.northlandfencemn.wordpress.com

www.eyestylist.com

QUESTIONS 1. Are extraversive functions like shops, cafes etc. easily noticed on the sreet? Do they communicate on streetlevel (windows, doors, signs)? Consider other spatial difficulties like blocking fences. 2. Do you know any problematic mute building facades that are not communicating on streetlevel or have huge blank facades with a negative effect on public space? 3. Are there problematic window commercials or business signs? Name attractive and disturbing examples?

PART 2

A TABLE OF QUESTIONS

41


Qualities - Outdoor spaces Outdoor spaces are used more frequently when the environment offers a sense of quality: it has a character, it is comfortable, inclusive, safe and pleasing.

This category collects information about the characteristics and identity of the area.

IDENTITY

LOCAL CHARACTER HISTORY NATURE CULTURE

www.vetmed.vt.edu

ETC...

QUESTIONS 1. Does the area have an established identity? If yes then describe it. 2. What identifies the area for you? 3. What elements / phenomenas characterise the area and make it special? 4. If there is no clear identity what goal would you propose?

ATTRACTIVITY

Outdoor activities depend to a great deal on the qualitative characteristics of the space. Attractivity is both about the variety of available extraversive in- and outdoor functions and the overall image of the area. Attractivity of a specific area should be considered togeher with the character and identity of the area. For a quiet community district attractivity may not be about the multiplicity of functions but rather about the basic spatial qualities.

STREET DESIGN INVENTORY DESIGN PUBLIC ART VEGETATION ACTIVITY PLACE DESIGN CONDITION OF BUILT ENVIORNMENT Matt Cheetham

Lucie Crausier

Iwan Baan

www.flickr.com/Necoglyph

www.archdaily.com

Katrin Lipp

www.sxsweco.com

Jae Min Lim

QUESTIONS 1. Do you think that street layouts in the area are convenient for pedestrians / cyclists? Name good and bad examples. 2. What would you do to make streets more attractive for pedestrians? 3. Could shared-space street concept be considered in some places? (Cars and pedestrians share the street on same level. No intensive traffic regulation). 4. Are you pleased with the area`s street inventory (trash bins, seats, signs etc.) Name good and poor design? 5. Are srteetlights for pedestrians and bikers in human scale? Could street or activity place lighting be more attractive in fall/ winter season? 6. Can you name squares, playgrounds and other activity places with great and poor design? What makes the design poor? 7. Could public art play a bigger role in making the area more attractive? What art formats and could be used and where? 8. Evaluate the quality of parks and green areas. Name ways to make them more pleasing. 9. Is there enough greenery / vegetation that improves aesthetic quality? Where would you make a change? 10. Name a street or place where buildigns are well maintained and form a pleasant environment to walk by. Name a street or place where buildigns make your pass unpleasant. What could be done to make the overall look better?

42

A TABLE OF QUESTIONS

PART 2


Qualities - Outdoor spaces Outdoor spaces are used more frequently when the environment offers a sense of quality: it has a character, it is comfortable, inclusive, safe and pleasing.

CONVENIENCE

A great urban public space is easy to access and move through for young and elderly, people with walking disabilities, for cyclists and people with baby prams. The vehicle and pedestrian traffic has to be planned in a democratic way with the weaker side - the pedestrian in focus.

GROUND LEVELS STREET COVERS OBSTRUCTIVE BARRIERS ACCESS TO ACTIVITY PLACES

www.flickr.com/Amsterdamized

www.123rf.com

www.thoughtsjoinletters.blogspot.com

www.llpelling.com

www.vavaveteran.co.uk

QUESTIONS 1. Are streets generally convenient for strollers, disabled people, pedestrians, cyclists (road width, barriers, different levels etc)? 2. Raised pedestrian and bike road edges at crossings are inconvenient and may cause problems for some users. Map problematic places? 3. Have you experienced annoying pedestrian detours? Where? 4. Are there annoying ground surfaces? 5. Do you know places that are unconvenient to pass through freely because of obstructive barriers like street inventory, sidewalk safety barriers, commercial signs, parking etc? 6. Are there problematic fences? (Obstruction, aesthetics, scale). 7. Can you name other problematic visual obstructions? (Overgrown trees etc.) 8. The design of activity places like public squares or playgrounds can sometimes be inconvenient for children, elderly, disabled people. Do you know places where this is a problem ?

CLEANLINESS

Generalised as cleaniness, the category stands for all aesthetically disturbing aspects. Poor trash management, visual and audial noise can ruin potentially great places.

CLEANLINESS TRASH BINS VISUAL NOISE AUDIBLE NOISE AIR QUALITY www.urbed.coop

Dave Bullock

QUESTIONS 1. How do you evaluate the overall cleaniness of the area? Do you know places that need more care? 2. Are there enough trash bins on the streets? Where would you place an extra one? 3. Are there aesthetic problems? Visible trash containers, unsuitable commercial stands etc. 4. Are there noise issues in public spaces? Where? 5. How do you evaluate the overall quality of air in the area? Do you know places where air pollution is critical and needs intervention?

PART 2

A TABLE OF QUESTIONS

43


Qualities - Outdoor spaces Outdoor spaces are used more frequently when the environment offers a sense of quality: it has a character, it is comfortable, inclusive, safe and pleasing.

SAFETY

Safety is a quality that influences usability of urban public spaces. Insufficient street lighting, shadowy places, fear of criminality, traffic safety are all important aspects that should be considered. Pedestrian casualties in traffic accidents often happen due to inconvenient spatial conditions prescribed by traffic regulations, expanding the pallete of practiced solutions by focusing more on particularity of places could increase safety.

PEDESTRIAN CYCLIST DESIGN SAFETY STREET LIGHTING SHADOWY PLACES

www.focussion.com

www.featureshoot.com

www.bmwblog.com

QUESTIONS 1. Are there places of increased traffic accident risk? What would you change? 2. Are there places of higher criminality risk? 3. Do you know public space designs that lack safety measurements? Level differences and railings, kids safety on playgrounds, waterbodys etc. 4. Sufficient street lighting provides safe walks in dark period. How do you evaluate the overall quality of street lighting in the area? Do you know frequently used places were lighting is an issue? 5. Are there any other safety issues in the area? (Shadowy places or any other) 6. Is neighbourhood watch practiced in the area? Where could it be beneficial?

CLIMATIC

Climatic category questions spatial design solutions on micro scale. How could the elements within public space be enhanced to protect us from the climatic difficulties and how to use the positive potentials of different climatic factors. In Estonian climate the main challenge is to encourage outdoor activities in cold and dark period from from October to April.

WIND RAIN SNOW SUN

www.archdaily.com

Colin Grover

www.genx-cjw.blogspot.com

QUESTIONS 1. How could the analysed area encourage outdoor activities in fall/winter season? Is it only about people`s habits or are there certain requirements to make it happen? 2. Do you know outdoor places that could benefit by having (better) rain/wind shelter? (Bus stops, playgrounds, event places etc.) 3. Are there places where spatial conditions are causing snow or rainwater problems? 4. Can something be done better in winter snow management? (Management agreements, snow sculptures etc.) 5. Are there public activity places that fail because of unsuitable sun orientation?

44

A TABLE OF QUESTIONS

PART 2


Users Public life happens only through users and their dynamic interaction. Vitality of a place and inclusion of different user groups determine the potentials of urban public space.

QUESTIONS 1. Define main user segments of the area (in example local residents, shoppers, daily workers, families, youngsters, tourists). 2. Are the main users local or from a distance ? 3. Is there a pattern for distant users being from concrete neighbouring areas? Where? 4. Is there an average age pattern among local and distant users? 5. Who or what are the main "actors" influencing the state of area ? In example local residents, community, municipality, real-estate market, specific institutions etc. 6. Is there an active community speaking for the state of the area? If not then why? 7. Is there a user segment activity pattern? (Certain times of day/week/season) 8. What are the main modes of transport used in the area (pedestrians, bicycles, public transport, cars)?

General questions General questions about the specific analysed area.

1. What are the keywords that characterise the area? 2. What is the best and the worst thing that comes to your mind about the area? 3. Does the area have an active center? 4. Is the area important for bordering areas? 5. Does the area have physical or cultural phenomenas that need some sort of protection? (spatial, environmental, historic, cultural, or any other issues). 6. What are the local trends that influence the area? Changes in user group patterns, real-estate or market trends, new influential owners, migration trends, any other. 7. Are global trends influencing the area? Reconstruction trends for energy saving measures, high fuel prices encouraging public transport use or any other. 8. In the broadest sense how could (tehcnological) innovations influence the area? In example innovative parking systems, shared-car consepts, new digital possibilities in street design, new types of open space activities, the use of social media etc. 9. Usability of urban public spaces is not only about necessary functions and attractive environmental conditions, but also a matter of lifestyle and habits. What could be done to encourage users in this specific area to spend more time outdoors? 10. What could be the 'other' that makes urban public space 'alive' in this specific area? Endnote - The collection of questions provided does not apply to be finite and can be cut and / or supplemented when relevant for the particular area

PART 2

A TABLE OF QUESTIONS

45


46

C A S E S T U D Y -1


Part 03 Testing part 2 - case studies.

C A S E S T U D Y -1

47


48

AVAPILT

C A S E S T U D Y -1


TEST CASE 1

A SUBURB IN VIIMSI

photo Sven Zacek C A S E S T U D Y -1

AVAPILT

4499


TO VIIMSI CENTER

AI

AN

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AA

RE

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TO VIIMSI CENTER

IE

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VEH

5500

AERO

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C A S E S T U D Y -1


VI IM SI

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SI IM VI NK BA 240 P R I V A T E H O U S E S A N D A P A R T M E N T S 700 I N H A B I T A N T S 4 ,3 % O F V I I M S I (17000 IN TOTAL) all maps - w w w .m a a a m e t .e e

100m 51

AERO

500m C A S E S T U D Y -1 51


Site plan

VIIMSI PARISH CENTRE

VIIM SI BA N (ALT 0 -3 0 K m)

GULF OF HAABNEEME

VI (A I M S LT I 0- BA 15 N m K )

THE SITE

MIIDURANNA HARBOUR (T R A N S I T )

SOOSEPA BOG

TALLINN CENTER 9k m

The lower and upper Viimsi

52

C A S E S T U D Y -1

Mysterious caves

ANALYSE

1km

Kalli Piht

www.envir.ee

500m

On the plateau a snowpark is opened in 2013


The site and the proximity Viimsi is a small bu populous parish located North-East of Tallinn centre . Historically a an area known for fisherman villages, the current centre was formed in 1 9 5 0 s, w h e n Viimsi was an established area of collective farming and fishing industry. The Viimsi landscape is strongly determined by the Viimsi plateau that divides the centre into lower and upper part. The upper part, where the site is located, used to be a farmland till the new developments appeared in the late 1 9 9 0 s and most of all during the last decade when the building boom raised the population from around 6000 to almost 1 7 000 inhabitants.

Though the pond has been used for swimming it is currently permitted.

The site in the P채rnam채e village is a typical suburb built at the times of rapid change in the society. At the time owning a personal house was a dream for many and the general public did not have high demands for the surrounding infrastructure.

A typical street layout.

The site is surrounded by many picturesque places of nature: the Viimsi bank and the sea; old farm lands c a p e s , a bog and woods.

There are no bars nearby

The bank plateau is covered with fully grown trees

Kalli Piht

Peep Kirbits

Viimsi snowpark

The main road of the site - Viievelle tee

A lighthouse at the bank plateau

ANALYSE

C A S E S T U D Y -1

53


Indoor functions and the context FUNCTIONS: I N D O O R S P A C E S:

FUNCTIONS: I N D O O R S P A C E S:

FUNCTIONS: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

EXTRAVERSIVE FUNCTIONS

INTROVERT FUNCTIONS

CONNECTING ROLE

NOTES: * In terms of public space and walkable distances, the site is disconnected from all primary functions.

GROCERY 25min

MALL

15min

CONSTRUCTION SHOP

8min

RESTAURANT/CAFE 10min

BAR

5min

HOTEL

4min

SPA SA

GAS STATION

LE

S SA LE

BANK / ATM OTHER SHOP OR SERVICE SPORTS HALL

S

CHURCH MUSEUM

CLOSEST SCHOOL 2,4 KM

S

MANOR

6min

SA

S

22min

SA

LE

LIBRARY

CLOSEST GROCERY

15min

CULTURE HALL

LE

SA

LE

MUNICIPAL SCHOOL CLOSEST MUNICIPAL KINDERGARTEN

MUSIC SCHOOL MUNICIPAL KINDERGARTEN

MUNICIPALITY 1,9 KM

S

PRIVATE KINDERG. / DAYCARE SA SA

LE

LE

HOSPITAL

5min SA

PHARMACY

LE

22min

PANSION

8min

LOCAL MUNICIPALITY 500m

Public transport

POST OFFICE

1km

VIIMSI PARISH CENTER PAEKAARE VIIEVELLE TEE

FUNCTIONS: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

CONNECTING ROLE

THE SITE VEHEMA

NOTES: There are three bus stops and two bus lines in the service of the area. Timetable is sparse, V4 line is operating only 3 times a weekday. TALLINN CENTER 12km

54

C A S E S T U D Y -1

ANALYSE


Outdoor functions and the context NOTES: * The centre offers a variety of outdoor activities, on the site the only activity takes place on e light traffic roads.

FUNCTIONS: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

FUNCTIONS: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

CONNECTING ROLE

PROACTIVE ROLE

BAR 25min

RESTAURANT

15min

MANOR

8min 10min 5min

PARK

4min

PLAYGROUND STADIUM SPORT FIELD BEACH

PANSION GARDEN

HIKING / TREKKING SKYING SNOW TUBE

SINGLE FAMILY HOUSES ROW-HOUSES, 3-8 APARTMENTS SOCIAL / BUSINESS LAND PUBLIC GREENERY 500m

1km

Current land function

AI

D AN

S

UU

I

ST

K R-

YIELD PROPERTY

P

.

A

AR

E.

S KE

VI

IE

LL

E

AR

A

M

Ä

E

S

T.

E

E

.

IK

ST

N

Ä -K

CONNECTING ROLE

VE

KA

R

V

FUNCTIONS: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

K-

Ä

A A R E

TI IG I

NOTES: * Only one social / business land function

VEH

EMA

ST.

ANALYSE

C A S E S T U D Y -1

55


Site indoor functions, outdoor activity FUNCTIONS:

NOTES: I N D O O R S P A C E S: * The site and the surroundings are suitable EXTRAVERSIVE for recreational activities like walking, jogging, FUNCTIONS biking, hiking etc. There are no extraversive functions besides the private kindergarten.

FUNCTIONS: I N D O O R S P A C E S:

FUNCTIONS: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

INTROVERT FUNCTIONS

PROACTIVE ROLE

INDOOR FUNCTIONS DWELLINGS PRIVATE KINDERGARTEN / DAYCARE

OUTDOOR FUNCTIONS ROLLER-SKATING JOGGING TREKKING / HIKING BIKING BUS STOPS

100m

Future developments FUNCTIONS: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

Future developments of nearby territories according to the general plan of Viimsi parish.

THE CENTRE

NO CURRENT ROLE

NOTES: * Future plans to the North-West of the site are favorable. New light traffic roads on the bank plateau promise to become popular and encourage outdoor activities.

MAINLY DWELLINGS BUSINESS LAND MAINLY INDUSTRIAL LAND PUBLIC GREENERY MAJOR LIGHT TRAFFIC ROADS

56

C A S E S T U D Y -1

ANALYSE

THE SITE


Users

USERS

LOCAL RESIDENTS AIANDI AND PÄRNAMÄE LIGHT TRAFFIC USERS FROM NEIGBOURING AREAS

age 2 5 -4 5

NOTES: * Quite predictably activities in a suburb public space are rare, most of the people use these spaces to arrive or leave. Public space is used with some frequency by cycling kids, mothers with baby prams, and recreational sports.

USERS

age 0 -1 2 age 6 0 -8 5

SELDOM LAGEDA STREET VECHILE TRANSIT USERS

The site is situated in Viimsi Parish and is part of Pärnamäe Village. Due to the fact that the site has been developed from a pasture land in the last 10 years, the village has no sense of belonging. In 2013 there are 1300 inhabitants in the village, among them about 700 who live on the site (4,1% of all inhabitants in Viimsi Parish). Site users are local residents only. To some extent there are users from the neigbouring areas using the benefits of good-conditioned pedestrian and bike roads on street Aiandi and Pärnamäe. In rare cases the main distribution street Lageda is used by the vechile traffic users bordering in the south of the site.

MODE OF TRANSPORT IN VIIMSI

Majority of local users are young families with kids. Most of the adults are middle-aged, some families live together with grandparents. There is currently no active community on the site. Among the reasons is the short history of the site, after 10 years the site is still not yet fully occupied. Though there is a general trend among Estonians at the age of 20-35 to become more involved and organised in their neigbourhood, it has happened only in the proximity of city centers and in established districts with a character and history.

CAR

PUBLIC TRANSPORT

WALKING BIKING

NOTE - The given data is based on personal observations: field mapping and empirical knowledge as a frequent user (the author has lived and in the proximity of the site from 1984 to 2004). Field mapping was carried out on two days: 24-25 April 2013.

A TYPICAL PUBLIC SPACE ACTIVITY PATTERN (I L L U S T R A T I V E )

"A C T O R S " I N F L U E N C I N G THE STATE OF AREA WORKING-AGE LEAVING HOME

ARRIVING

WEEKDAYS

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00

WEEKENDS

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 SPORTS

KIDS LEAVING HOME

ARRIVING

BIKING

WEEKDAYS

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00

WEEKENDS

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 BIKING BIKING

LOCAL RESIDENTS

STROLLING

PEOPLE STAYING HOME

LOCAL POLITICIANS

GARDENING / A WALK WITH BABIES/ SPORTS

WEEKDAYS

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00

WEEKENDS

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 GARDENING / A WALK WITH BABIES/ SPORTS

LOCAL MUNICIPALITY

ANALYSE

C A S E S T U D Y -1

57


Attractivity, convenience issues FUNCTIONS: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

QUALITIES: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

QUALITIES: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

CONNECTING ROLE

ATTRACTIVITY

CONVENIENCE

1

2 ,3 ,8

2

1

10

11

3

3

4

5

9 7 6

8 100m 3

1 MISSING SHORTCUT

6 MISSING PEDESTRIAN LINK

Due to the Viimsi Bank landscape, access to parish center takes a long detour. Currently it takes approximately 22 minutes to walk to Viimsi center. When a light traffic road would be made over the plateau, it would shorten the trip to 12 minutes, offering a pleasant trip through an evironment that shapes Viimsi. Descent from the bank can be included in the currently planned snowing track in the proximity of school and kindergarten.

Väike-Kaare road currently has a dead end. As this direction leads to another private kidergarten on Vehema road 6, it would enhance the pedestrian access, especially because of the natural landscape surrounfing the link, reminding the past of the site agriculture. The land is not agriculturally used any more and though in private hands, a temporary lowbudget pedestrian path could be discussed. 4

2/3/8 AWFUL BUS STOP

7 WATER ACTIVITIES BANNED

Bus stops are cruicial to access the center and Tallinn. Currently the stops are without a hard road coverage and bus shelter, not speaking of trash bin and aesthetics.These places are unpleasant and unsafely close to the vechicle road, discouraging the use of public transport.

The master plan of the site has reserved the pond and its south-facing shore for public use. To drive off the hastle around allowing water activities officially, the municipality has put out a sign that bannes swimming. The pond is potentially a place to go out for swimming, small hobby boats, fishing, ice-skating in the winter. To enjoy the environment in general.

3 RAISED SIDEWALK EDGE Bus stops are cruicial to access the center and Tallinn. Currently the stops are without a hard road coverage and bus shelter, not speaking of trash bin and aesthetics.These places are unpleasant and unsafely close to the vechicle road, discouraging the use of public transport.

4 ROAD COVER / ATTRACTIVITY The Viievelle road acts as the main distribution road, slightly decending to the South-East it offers nice views. Currently the road coverage is rough asphalt, not allowing alternative recreational uses like roller-skating and roller-skying. Both sides of the road are empty and unwelcoming. Attractivity of this main road plays a role in encouraging the locals to spend more time outdoors.

5/9 ROAD COVER

Both road segments have been in unfinished state over a period of time. The reason for that is not known. As there is a child daycare on Suure-Kaare road, it is important for the locals to have reasonable access to it by foot, bikes and cars. The lack of municipality kindergartens in Viimsi is an argument to put pressure on the municipality to fix elementary issues.

58

C A S E S T U D Y -1

ANALYSE

10 MISSING ROAD LINK It is a matter of covenience to have a street network with a good connectivity. Pleasant conditions determine how much we spend time outdoors and weakens sociability between people living on the same street. If a family at the north part of SuurKaare street wants to access the child daycare at the other end of the street, today they probably use a car to deal with the detour.

6

11 MISSING PEDESTRIAN LINK The site master plan has reserved a narrow piece of land between the private houses to allow pedestrian and bike connection between Kesk-Kaare road and Pärnamäe road. Pärnamäe road offers access to hiking / trakking paths and therefore makes this connection important for the local residents. For some reason today this link is missing, plus the master plan has not planned further connection to the site main road Viievelle. With some houses unbuilt, today there is a possibility to replan this section, whether by the municipality buing a piece of land back from private owners or by agreeing with the owners to allow pedestrian passage.

7


1

2

Unused / Residual space / Potentials

NOTES: * There is enough residual space for interventions

FUNCTIONS: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

FUNCTIONS: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

PASSIVE ROLE

NO CURRENT ROLE

2

3

3

2 4

7

9

5 8

1

6

3

100m 4

1 EMPTY BUILDING

6 POTENTIAL ACTIVITY PLACE

One of the last recollections of the Viimsi Manor agricultural past, the old hay barn. The building is abandoned and in bad shape.

The master plan of the site has reserved the pond and its south-facing shore for public use. To drive off the hastle around allowing water activities officially, the municipality has put out a sign that bannes swimming. The pond is potentially a place to go out for swimming, small hobby boats, fishing, ice-skating in the winter. To enjoy the environment in general.

2 RESIDUAL LAND ON THE ROADSIDE OF AIANDI TEE Space around the main light traffic road seems vast and is certainly not in human scale. Currently the territory is covered mostly by lawn and with some rare bushes. 7

3 RESIDUAL LAND ON THE ROADSIDES

4/5 PLEASANT PLACES Both street crossings are pleasant plases because of the spatial arrangement, vegetation, slight topographic changes and views. On these crossings the fences of the private gardens create a square-like feeling, both the road and the lawn strips included form a 15x20m crossing space. The sharp edges of the private lots facing "squares" are hard to include in private gardening and are not used. These private edges could potentially work as extensions of the "squares". 12m

8,5m

When foundations for private houses are built there is a significant quantity of earth that is left over and is freighted off the site. These piles of earth can easily be used to make public landscape more personal and playful.

8 UNUSED FUNCTIONAL LOT

Again a lot of unused space around the main distribution road making the spatial experience dull and inpersonal. Currently the territory is covered just by lawn. On both sides of the 6m wide road there is 8,5m that could potentially be taken into some form of use.

9

7 RESIDUAL EARTH PILES

For the whole living district the master plan reserved only one lot for business and social function. In private hands building a business and for example kindergarten for such a small community is not attractive for investors. The nearest crocery being within 22 minute walk from the site, the use of public space and the quality of local life would benefit a lot from a small shop that would cover basic needs. Perspectives for social function are supported by favorable position and good views from the place.

9 EMPTY BUILDINGS There are two 40-50 years old cow barns that have not been used for about 5 years. According to Viimsi general plan the land is marked for business function. In a broader context of local developments it is highly probable that the transformation will not realise before 5 years. Has potential for temporary use. 5+1m

8,5m

7m

SECTION OF THE MAIN ROAD VIIEVELLE TEE The "streetscape" has residual space

THE STREET 23m

ANALYSE

C A S E S T U D Y -1

59


Conclusion

Quite predictably a typical suburb layout is introverted and does not favor sociability and the use of public space. In case of local initiative though, there are spatial potentials to increase activity in between buildings.

60

1

In terms of walkable distances and the the potential use of open spaces the site is disconnected from the Viimsi centre.

2

The spatial layout and the location of the suburb does not favor sociability, when there are people interested in creating it, it is possible to do so by getting organised.

3

Separate from the Viimsi centre, the quality of the public space on the site relies greatly on the interest and activity of local residents. To make a change there has to be an organised initiative group.

4

In principle the site has enough residual space to develop public activity.

5

Establishing a small community shop and and a simple meeting place (e.g playground) would be a good first move.

6

The site and the surroundings are a good setting for recreational sports.

7

People spend more time in public spaces when they use public transport. The timetable and poor quality bus stops discourage the use of public transport.

C A S E S T U D Y -1

PROPOSAL


a schematic

Proposal

1 10 min. walk - a crucial shortcut NEW ACCESS TO THE CENTRE. THE DISTANCE IS CUT FROM 2,4KM TO ONLY 900 METERS MAKING IT CA 10 MIN. WALK FROM THE SITE. RAMP AND STAIRS.

EXISTING 700M SECTION OF AN OLD GRAVEL ROAD. THE ROAD COVER NEEDS TO BE CHANGED.

VIIMSI PARISH CENTER

THE SITE

1 Proposed identity Future goal for all nearby villages - exeptional outdoor sport possibilities

THE VIIMSI BANK

A FUTURE GOAL - LIGHT TRAFFIC ROADS FOR RECREATIONAL SPORTS.

THE SOOSEPA BOG

PROPOSAL

C A S E S T U D Y -1

61


a schematic

Proposal

1

3

UNMOWED LAWN VEGETATION

2

SIDEWALK EDGE LOWERED

BUS STOP ENHANCEMENT

4

NEW ASPHALT COVER

9

62

C A S E S T U D Y -1

10

6

NEW PEDESTRIAN PATH NEW CROSSWALK

7

NEW ASPHALT COVER, STREET EXTENSION

15

PROMOTED NEIGHBOURHOOD TRACK FOR SKYING, ROLLER SKATING, BIKING ETC.

13

TEMPORARY PEDESTRIAN PATH

NEW ACTIVITY PLACE ON THE CROSSING

PROPOSAL

MAIN STREET ENHANCEMENT: NEW SMOOTH ASPHALT, ACTIVITY POCKETS ...

UNMOWED LAWN VEGETATION

11

8

5

12

TEMPORARY USE OF THE ABANDONED BARN. EXPERIENCE SPACE FOR KIDS

BUS STOP ENHANCEMENT

THE POND AS AN ACTIVITY PLACE. ENHANCEMENT - A PATH, SEATS AND SMALL BOAT DOCK

14

SOCIAL / BUSINESS LAND DEVELOPMENT PHASES: 1. PLAYGROUND 2. SHOP 3. KINDERGARTEN


a schematic

Proposal

1 Unmowed lawn / Vegetation

9 New activity place on the crossing

For a pedestrian many of the street layouts are perceived "empty" and boring, there is too much residual space on the roadsides to feel cosy, a narrower street or a street with more versatile sequences can enrich the walking experience. In summertime the lawn could just be left untouched, a grown wild lawn with many different species can better define the space and offer a difference. These spaces could also be vegetated with desired plants.

There are a few places with a nice view and cosy spatial layout, this is one of them. With good views to four directions, the crossing is a potential meeting place. Adding a small and simple wooden terrace with a public seat and a human scale streetlight could make this place a nice social hub for children to meet and play. The asphalt on the crossing could be painted (temporarily) and used to play the hoppers game.

2 Bus stop enhancement

10 Temporary pedestrian path

The bus stops need a proper pavement and a shelter. A standard shelter could be customised in a desired way.

Till there is no other funcion on the old farmland a temporary pedestrian path could be founded. A simple gravel covered path would provide the shortest distance from the centre of the site to the nearby municipal kindergarten. The descending landscape allows nice South views.

3 Sidewalk edge lowered 4 Unmowed lawn / Vegetation 5 Main street enhancement

11 Promoted track

The Viievelle road is 23 meters wide (space between garden fences) and just feels bleak. The rough asphalt cover should be changed in ideal, a smooth cover allows to use already existing good quality light traffic roads in circular routes (roller-skating) that run through the site. The road has nice views towards the South, the residual space on roadsides could be enriched with a few social hubs e.g. small wooden terracces with a public seat or two and a human scale street light. The main road could be a neighbourhood meeting place, a place to rest when taking a walk.

12 The pond as an activity place

6 New pedestrian path and crosswalk The missing street link could be realised when the nearby owners are willing to give a narrow strip of land for the public use. When a crosswalk will be added to pass the P채rnam채e street, it is possible to get to an existing hiking path and also get a more sociable street network.

7 New asphalt cover, street extension The road is currently without a proper cover, while the closest child daycare is situated on this street it is essential to provide an elementary street quality. The road needs to be extended to North-West, to eliminate the current detours when the residents of North-West area want to get to the child daycare.

8 New asphalt cover Provide an elementary steet quality and allow circular sport routes (roller-skating, trekking, biking).

The central Viievelle road and the boundary roads could be promoted in the community to be used for different recreational sports like roller-skating, trekking, biking etc. In winter it is quite easy to create a cross-country skying route, it only needs a first activist and an agreement with the municipality, not to destroy the track during the snow management.

Though the pond has been used for swimming in the past there is currently a sign that prohibits it. Probalby the reason of the sign is the municipalities wish to be carefree about the use of the pond. The North shore is a potential activity place, when the locals are interested, it would not be difficult nor costly to create a walkable path, a small terracce with seats and a small boat dock.

13 Bus stop enhancement 14 Social / Business land Though most of the private house plots have now been built, the only plot of land for business and social function is still vacant. When the locals are willing to collaborate, the plot could be advanced in phases. First a community playground is establishe (use the leftover soil brom the building sites to form bumps for snow tube). Then a small shop for simple daily products, that the locals wont have to drive to the Viimsi centre for a botlle of milk or bread. Third, find push the municipality to build a kindergarten (the existing ones already have long waiting lines).

15 Temporary use of the abandoned barn Find the owner of the old abandoned barn and discuss temporary use. The old barn is a reminiscence of the past times - the collective farming period. It would be interesting for kids to get to know these times and see how an old barn worked in the old days.

PROPOSAL

C A S E S T U D Y -1

63


64

AVAPILT

C A S E S T U D Y -2


TEST CASE 2

THE NEW TARTU CENTER

photo Arne Maasik C A S E S T U D Y -2

AVAPILT

6655


PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE

18

17

19

16

13

15

14

3

VÄIKE TURU

12 VÕIDU BRIDGE

8 1

4

11

SADAMA

SOOLA

7 KALURI

2 5

6

9

10

RIIA

TURU

OLD TOWN 6666

AERO

C A S E S T U D Y -2


TO ANNELINN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

THE ANNE CHANNEL

O F F I C E B U I L I D I N G "P L A S K U " "T A S K U " M A L L HOTEL DORPAT COACH STATION GAS STATION MCDONALDS NORDEA BANK HOTEL TARTU SPORTS CENTER W A T E R C E N T E R "A U R A " S C I E N C E C E N T E R "A H H A A " R E S I D E N T I A L H I G H -R I S E "T I G U T O R N " ESTONIAN MATRITIME ADMINISTRATION OFFICES O P E N -A I R M A R K E T INDOOR MARKET P R O J E C T -B A S E D T H E A T E R BOAT HARBOUR WAREHOUSE LEISURE BOAT HARBOUR H O B B Y -B O A T H A R B O U R ZEPPELIN MALL OLD BOILERHOUSE OLD RAILSHELTER

all maps - w w w .m a a a m e t .e e

RIVER EMAJÕGI

23 20

21 22

100m C A S E S T U D Y -2

300m AERO

67


www.ikodu.com

Site plan

The only residential house on the site - the Snailtower

Meelis Lokk

1 2

Aapo Haapanen

The city centre promenade

Outdoor marketplace

Rein Urbel

1k m

1 HISTORIC CITY CENTER The site is situated in the center of Tartu city, Estonia. With its 100 000 inhabitants, the status of the second city in Estonia, the image of a university city and an easy-going m o o d , Tartu has many similarities with Arhus in Denmark.

2 THE NEW CITY CENTER - THE SITE A hypermarket

www.stuudiolegend.ee

The site is situated North-East from the old cityand is clearly defined by Emaj천gi river in the North and two major connecting streets: Riia street running North-South and Turu street running East-W e s t . The area used to be an outskirt before the bombings in early 1 9 4 0 `s . F r o m 1 9 6 0 `s to 1 9 9 0 `s the regeneration added only afew functions : the main coach station, outdoor market and a few buildings with minor importance . In 1 9 9 0 `s the development accelerated and around 2000 the area started to be labeled as the new center. Today the area is mainly known for the first Tartu high-rise "plasku", residential high-rise "snailtower", commercial mall "Tasku", Tartu coach station, popular science center "A h h a a " a n d o p e n -air markerplace. Developments in the area have lately been under criticism because of planning the area piece by piece with small master plans while lacking vision. The developments have this far resulted in poor quality open spaces.

www.balcone2012.ee

A popular museum - Ahhaa Science centre

The first Tartu high-rise and the main mall

68

C A S E S T U D Y -2

ANALYSE


Site functions / Users FUNCTIONS: I N D O O R S P A C E S:

FUNCTIONS: I N D O O R S P A C E S:

EXTRAVERSIVE FUNCTIONS

INTROVERT FUNCTIONS

PROJECT BASED THEATER

NOTES: * Due to malls and hypermarkets with introvert ground floor, the open spaces lack evening activity. There could be many more bars and cafes open till late hours. * There is only one apartment building, the site needs more local residents

USERS

BOAT HARBOUR WAREHOUSE

INDOOR MARKETPLACE

LEISURE BOAT HARBOUR

PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE "TURUSILD"

CANAL ANNE

ESTONIAN MARITIME ADMINISTRATION OFFICE

OPEN-AIR MARKETPLACE VECHICLE AND PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE "VÕIDUSILD"

OFFICES

RESIDENTIAL HIGHRISE "TIGUTORN" OLD RAILSHELTER

HOTEL DORPAT

RIVER EMAJÕGI

HOBBY-BOAT HARBOUR

OFFICE BUILDING "PLASKU" MIX-USE CENTER "TASKU"

HOTEL TARTU COACH STATION

NORDEA BANK

MCDONALDS RESTAURANT

SCIENCE CENTER "AHHAA" SPORTS CENTER

GAS-STATION STATOIL

WATERCENTER "AURA"

ELECTRICAL TERMINAL

HYPERMARKET ZEPPELIN

WEEKDAYS OFFICE BUILIDING "PLASKU" OFFICES OFFICE BUILIDING "PLASKU" RETAIL MIX-USE CENTER "TASKU" RETAIL "TASKU" RESTAURANTS "TASKU" CONFERENCE "TASKU" PHARMACY "TASKU" SUPERMARKET "TASKU" PIZZA "TASKU" CINEMA HOTEL DORPAT HOTEL DORPAT RESTAURANT HOTEL DORPAT CONFERENCE HOTEL DORPAT CASINO COACH STATION TRAVEL SERVICE COACH STATION KIOSK COACH STATION RESTAURANT COACH STATION CARGO SERVICE GAS STATION MCDONALDS NORDEA BANK HOTEL TARTU HOTEL TARTU CONFERENCE HOTEL TARTU SPA HOTEL TARTU CAFE SPORTS CENTER WATER CENTER "AURA" POOLS WATER CENTER "AURA" CAFE SCIENCE CENTER "AHHAA" "AHHAA" RENT FOR EVENTS "AHHAA" RESTAURANT RESIDENTIAL HIGH-RISE "TIGUTORN" "TIGUTORN" PET SHOP "TIGUTORN" AQUALIFE SHOP ESTONIAN MATRITIME ADMINISTRATION OFFICES OPEN-AIR MARKET INDOOR MARKET PROJECT-BASED THEATER BOAT HARBOUR WAREHOUSE LEISURE BOAT HARBOUR HOBBY-BOAT HARBOUR ZEPPELIN MALL

7 7 7 7

8 8 8 8

9 9 9 9

7 7 7 7 7 7

8 8 8 8 8 8

9 9 9 9 9 9

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

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7 7 7 7 7 7

8 8 8 8 8 8

9 9 9 9 9 9

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

7 8 9 7 8 9

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 ON DEMAND 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 ON DEMAND 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 ON DEMAND 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 ON DEMAND 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 ONLY SPECIFIC TIMES 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06

OLD BOILERHOUSE

100m

WEEKENDS 7 7 7 7

8 8 8 8

9 9 9 9

7 7 7 7 7 7

8 8 8 8 8 8

9 9 9 9 9 9

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

7 7 7 7 7 7

8 8 8 8 8 8

9 9 9 9 9 9

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

7 8 9 7 8 9

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 ON DEMAND 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 ON DEMAND 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 ON DEMAND 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 ON DEMAND 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 ONLY SPECIFIC TIMES 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06

ANALYSE

C A S E S T U D Y -2

69


Extraversive indoor functions FUNCTIONS: I N D O O R S P A C E S:

EXTRAVERSIVE FUNCTIONS

MARKETPLACE NOTES: * Though a great variety of assembled functions the open spaces lack active ground floors

MALL SA

LE

OTHER SHOP OR SERVICE RESTAURANT/CAFE BAR HOTEL SPA GAS STATION

S SA

SA

LE

SA

LE

BANK / ATM SPORTS HALL

LE

SA

LE

EVENT PLACE

S

POST SERVICE COACH STATION

S

100m

Outdoor activity

WATER CENTER

OPEN-AIR MARKETPLACE PUBLIC "SQUARE" FISHING

FUNCTIONS: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

PROACTIVE ROLE

RESTAURANT TERRACE

NOTES: * The icons represent possibilities for oudoor activity, in reality many of the places are underused

HOBBY BOATS / LEISURE BOAT SKYING ROLLER SKATING BIKING BUS STOP

100m

Prevailing winds Estonian Environmental Research Centre (2008) 70

C A S E S T U D Y -2

ANALYSE


Users

MAIN USERS

TOURISTS ESTONIA+ABROAD

The site attracts a diverse set of user groups from all over Tartu and even further.

COMMERCE

LEISURE AND SPORTS

WORKPLACES

LOCAL RESIDENTS

USER MAGNETS

USERS

The Ahhaa Science Centre (museum) is very popular among young people, the marketplace is frequently used by mid-age and older people, the theatre calls for people interested in culture, the malls have something to offer for everyone. Hotels, the coach station and the Ahhaa Centre also bring in distant visitors and tourists. NOTES: * The main problem regarding the use of open public spaces is the dominance of commercial function, the typology of a mall is built around the idea of an interior public spaces. The model of a hypermarket user is an user with a car. The most influential function - the Tasku mall is also situated in the corner of the site - people arrive and leave without having the pass through the area. The area has a dramatically few ground floor functions that communicate on street level.

TASKU MALL COACH STATION MARKETPLACE AHHAA SCIENCE MUSEUM

*The dominance of the car, unattractive and incomplete open spaces and unused river potentials are keeping the footfall on the streets low.

CAR

* Regarding future developments the site needs more apartments and local residents.

PUBLIC TRANSPORT MODES OF TRANSPORT

NOTE - The given data is based on personal observations: field mapping and empirical knowledge as a frequent user (the author has lived and worked in the proximity of the site from 2008). Field mapping was carried out on three days: 2729 April 2013.

WALKING BIKING

T

Identity

"A C T O R S " I N F L U E N C I N G THE STATE OF THE AREA

QUALITIES: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

IDENTITY

The epithet " Tartu new center" is very young, the whole territory has taken contours within a rather short period. Currently there is no clear established identity but there are many contestants. When the first office high-rise "Plasku" arose, the area was conceived as a place of wealth and exclusivity. Soon the Tasku mall and sport centers brought the territory to the map of broader range of users. The recent addition Ahhaa popular Science Center, basically a museum, attracts young people and families, both estonian and foreign tourists. The open-air marketplace has stayed popular through the years, especially among older generation, but recent eco-trends have also started to attract the younger generation. The strongest natural character, the river Emajõgi, has always been important for Tartu. The river is cherished but in an everyday scene, it is not mentally apparent, it`s presence is not visible. In that sense Tartu is still suffering from the wreckage of the World War II, there is not enough building mass at the riverbanks to sustain activity and keep it stabile. Though the site constitutes an interesting combination of mixed functions where users are not homogenous, it might be generalised that the clearest image the site bares is a consumerist one. This thesis is supported by a well visible fact that people visit the site out of specific necessity and not spontaneity.

REALESTATE MARKET

LAND OWNERS

THE CITY OF TARTU COMPANY "GIGA" COMPANY "ESTIKO" OWNER OF VÄIKE-TURU 7 OWNER OF TURU 6

GLOBAL ECONOMICS LOCAL POLITICIANS

LOCAL RESIDENTS

LOCAL MUNICIPALITY

EU DEVELOPMENT FUNDS

GENERAL PUBLIC

POTENTIAL ACTORS

THE STATE (COACH STATION) THE MARKETPLACE AHHAA SCIENCE CENTER LOCAL RESIDENTS

ANALYSE

C A S E S T U D Y -2

71


1

Vehicle congestion FUNCTIONS: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

QUALITIES: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

QUALITIES: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

CONNECTING ROLE

ATTRACTIVITY

CONVENIENCE

NOTES: * The number of parking lots and incomplete pedestrian network discourage the use of open public spaces. 2

48%

of open space vehicle defined

MARKET ENTRANCE ? 2

2 1 6

5

ENTRANCE?

3

4

3

7

100m MAIN PEDESTRIAN PATH

Pedestrian network FUNCTIONS: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

CONNECTING ROLE

Vehicle network

NOTES: * Pedestrian network is incomplete and dysfunctional

NOTES: * The vehicle network is fine with current traffic turnover and has some reserve to keep running without major inconveniences when the turnover increases

FUNCTIONS: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

CONNECTING ROLE

OFFICIAL PEDESTRIAN PATHS ADDITIONAL UNOFFICIAL PATHS

SOOLA

SADAMA

10 9 12

VĂ„

IK

E-

TU

RU

KALURI

8

14

13

TURU

11

100m

72

C A S E S T U D Y -2

ANALYSE

100m


4

7

11

15

PARKING SPACE 150 CARS VS. 5 BIKES 4

8

12

16

9

13

17

PROMENADE?

5

INCONVENIENT ENTRANCE TO THE SITE 6

10

14

18

LACK OF CYCLE PARKING

Public transport NOTES: * Bus stop locations are in principle well distributed buthave quality problems. The coach station is a representative public function of a city, it is clearly too small and very modest. The general public is nostalgic about the old coach station.

FUNCTIONS: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

CONNECTING ROLE

Cycle network FUNCTIONS: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

CONNECTING ROLE

NOTES: * Cycle network incomplete. * Lack of parking possibilities discourages bike use. The local workplaces should promote bike use.

OFFICIAL CYCLE PATHS MISSING LINKS EXISTING BIKE PARKING

SADAMA

SOOLA

LACK OF PARKING

VĂ„

IK

E-

TU

2 RU

TURU

18 15 16 16 17 100m

100m

ANALYSE

C A S E S T U D Y -2

73


Free pedestrian movement problems FUNCTIONS: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

QUALITIES: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

QUALITIES: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

CONNECTING ROLE

ATTRACTIVITY

CONVENIENCE

NOTES: * The site swarms of problems

4 5

4 4

7 23

6

19

8 18

3

2

24

9 10

22

12

14

20

15

11

16 13

1

21

17

100m

Attractivity f laws QUALITIES: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

QUALITIES: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

ATTRACTIVITY

CLEANLINESS

NOTES: * The site swarms of problems

PUBLIC SEATS

26 27

27 25

28 29 35 34

30 31 32

36 31

31

38

39

37 33

100m

74

C A S E S T U D Y -2

ANALYSE

1. 22. People coming from the old city have to take Tasku Mall entrance connects pedestrian long detours to get to the center of the site, flow between the marketplace and the coach missing diagonal crosswalk makes the pass station. People have to cross a huge parking unconvenient. area where also coaches are manouvering. 2. Official paths are rarely used beacause of Bridge stairs are not accessible for strollers, detours. cycles, wheelchairs. Detour option takes 23. 150m and is not visible. The Dorpat Hotel coach parking obstructs 3. the traffic and cuts off visual contacts with An example of public space privatisation, one of the main pedestrian roads. lately the municipality gave green light to 24. extend the commercial center and loose the According to the law the banks of street. Doors at the both end leave a chance waterbodies have to be publicly accessible. to pass through the commercial corridor. At this point the passage is closed with a 4. metal fence with the exeption of a 1,5m wide The riverbank levels are connected by stairs, gap. for the 220m section there are only two 25. soviet time ramps, both of them do not meet The riverbank design has deteriorated and nowaday requirements. needs refreshment. Due to unattractivity the 5. general public perceives the place as rather According to laws the banks of waterbodies distant and "shadowy" area. have to be accessible for public. At this point 26. the passage is closed with a metal fence. The Sadamateater (Port Theatre) 6. architecture has made a public building A sovet time "aesthetic park" with trees, extremely introverted. The building turns it`s grass, paths and no seats is outdated in back towards the main pedestrian arrival, current spatial situation. Dorpat hotel and it`s the main entrance of the building is not parking area have changed the way clearly visible. Windows are constantly marketplace is approached. The hedges and blinded. paths are not spatially and visibly logical. 27. 7. The marketplace is organised around the Car parking management obstructs the main courtyard, the "walls" are mostly "mute", entrance to the marketplace. without too many entrances and windows. 8. The current state is unaesthetical. A popular Official pedestrian movement has a broken marketplace needs to be upstanding, open logic, long detours have to be taken when to the river and nearby activities. The indoor approached along the river and towrds the market building is separated. coach station. Pedestrian movement 28. patterns show that the crossing is used in all A sovet time "aesthetic park" with directions. Crossing has raised edges. trees,grass, paths and no seats is outdated 9. in todays spatial situation. Dorpat hotel and Tasku mall and coach station are the most its parking area have changed the way vital functions in the area. These functions marketplace is approached. The hedges and create pedestrian flow which is drawn to paths are not spatially and visibly logical. move between Turu street and to the 29. marketplace using the west side of Soola The main local bus-line stop is situated on a street. The narrow pavement is literally a 25cm high narrow sidewalk strip. Between bus stop. Overcrowded and obstructed by the parking lot and a frquently used traffic columns the path is annoying to use. Official road this bus stop location is extremely pedestrian path is on the other side of the unwelcoming. road. 30. 10. City`s main international coach station is The North section of the main pedestrian tightly attached to tasku mall. There is not path suddenly makes a 6m step and is not enough space in- and outdoor. Arhitectural visually perceived as a whole. When image is not suitable for a representative approaching the marketplace from the function. The reason for current situation is South, the entrance is not visible. the municipalitys decision that gave 11. resposnibility for organising the building to Peculiar sidewalk edges - 3m wide sidewalk tasku mall owners. has raised edges and 1m wide ramp 31. resulting in potentially dangerous situations Exhibited trash containers ruin public space when pedestrians and cycles are passing at in several places. the same time. Edges should be fully 32. lowered. Well exponated electricity center and 12. congestion of different signs ruin the overall According to the master plan Kaluri street is expression. a pedestrian promenade, in reality it ends 33. with a vehicle road, detours have to be taken Even when the barrier is made of glass, it to get to the sidewalk. The sidewalk is rather makes the narrow sidewalk feel spatially narrow and passes between parking cars harassing. and Nordea bank. The promenade is 34. spatially and visually incomplete. For some reason snow management is 13. prioritised for vehicle traffic streets. Raised sidewalk edges. 35. 14. High-rise "tigutorn" facade facing the river is Unclear traffic regulation, pedestians rather inactive. 100 meters of mute wall makes it cross the parking lot. hard to create convivial public space. 15. / 16. 36. The sport club is accessible only by stairs. On the pedestrian road the entrance to the 17. "Ahhaa" Center and it`s restaurant are Sidewalk ends with a large grass field. Many invisible and not provided with signs. Ground people prefere to take a detour and cross level windows facing the promenade are the grass to be in a safe distance form Turu reflective and do not communicate whats street traffic and noise. indoor. 18. 36. 37. Pedestrian use pattern proves the need for The sport center facades are not in human diagonal passage through the area. scale and do not communicate what`s Pedestrian paths are arranged indoor. Vast and empty green fields make a uncomfortably making detours. A section of walk as unattractive as possible. One of the the official path is right in front of "Ahhaa reasons why pedestrian promenade with Center" parking entrance, making it many seats and table tennis is rarely used is potentially dangerous. the muteness of the surrounding artificial 19. environment. Inarticulate pedestrian movement. Some 38. sidewalks just end up on the grass. The pedestrian promenade is sided by Practically people move across the messy "Aura" Water Center. The ventilation system parking area. There is no crosswalk between on a low roof creates constant loud noise. A the pedestrian bridge and Tigutorn high-rise. stay in the public promenade is very short A traffic sign right in the middle of the narrow and only out of neccesity. sidewalk. 20. Aura center glass-facade facing the The Zeppelin mall has two entrances, the promenade is too far out to see what main one and a supporting one. The path happens indoor, the current situation is from the main entrance to the pedestrian though attractive in the dark period when promenade crosses parking area and is not indoor lights are lit. marked. For a pedestrian this link is 39. perceived as a territory of the car. Failed location for a public space. An 21. example of planning public spaces by People entering from the South move master plans that cover only fragmented towards the site center across the lawn. The territories. A place is chosen within the path to the Zeppelin main entrance runs limitations of the owners plot, between the between cars and the building, and is really parking lot and the mute mall facade. narrow.


1

3

4

8

10

12

15 16

DETOUR

9

ONE OF THE MAIN PATHS?

WHEELCHAIRS? 17

19 29

19

20

NO PASS

PATH TO THE PROMENADE 22

23

25

26

TASKU

MARKETPLACE VIEW 27

AN INTROVERT THEATER

28

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

36

37

37

38

38

39

39

WELCOMING?

ANALYSE

C A S E S T U D Y -2

75


1

Safety issues QUALITIES: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

SAFETY

NOTES: * The numerous unofficial pedestrian paths increase accident risk. In many places the streets are literally used as shared spaces.

2

OFFICIAL PATH DE FACTO

1

2 6

3 ,4

3

7 4

5 100m

5 1. Potentially a great place, there are several issues. First the riverbank design has deteriorated and needs refreshment, due to unattractivity the general public perceives the place as rather distant and "s h a d o w y ". T h e main users are elderly people on mornings and afternoon, in the evenings young and mid-age street drinkers. Unclarity makes railings at some spots unsafe. 2. Pedestrian user patterns prove that traffic is de facto used as shared space by both vehicles and pedestrians. Holding on to the official regulation creates a higher accident risk. 3. 4. Only 1 m wide ramp creates potentially dangerous situations when pedestrians and cycles are passing at the same time. Sidewalk edges should be lowered. 5. Higher accident risk when cars make the right turn and drive to the parking lot. 6. Pedestrian crosswalk is placed in right in front of garage entrance. W h e n cars are leaving the concrete barrier blocks their view. There are no safety mirrors provided.

76

C A S E S T U D Y -2

ANALYSE

6


1

Future developments, unused and residual spaces NOTES: * The upcoming developments need to consider the area as a whole (recently the site has been developed by fragmented master plan envelopes)

FUNCTIONS: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

FUNCTIONS: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

PASSIVE ROLE

NO CURRENT ROLE

1 Future developments according to the general plan of Tartu center (2013)

BUSINESS/RESIDENTIAL NEW MARKETPLACE

MIXED-USE

1

MIXED-USE 3 -5

3 -5 3 -4

1

MIXED-USE

4

MIXED-USE 4 -6

MALL AND COACH STATION EXTENSION

2

1

MIXED-USE

3 4 -6

COACH STATION STOPS

3 -5

6

2

4 -6

3

4 6

7

MIXED-USE

5 HOTEL EXTENSION

2 3

6

4 -6

MALL EXTENSION

4 -6

100m

5

6

1. The riverbank has potential for a continuous public promenade. 2. These passive grass fields currently do not contribute to public space and could be reevaluated.

6

3. A park -like green area with fully grown trees is currently inactive. Active public park or other use may be considered. 4. The grass lawn territory could be used to enhance public space. 5. Another empty grass field bordered by two mute facades .

7

6. A vast unused asphalt field. 7. An empty grass field, used by pedestrians to make shortcuts.

ANALYSE

C A S E S T U D Y -2

77


Conclusion

The new center is a place to go out of necessity and not spontaneity The poor public space of the new center is a result of different planning decisions and the slow development process - the area is still not established. The main aspect of the current failiure is spatial - a combination of car congestion, large and undefined open spaces and incomplete pedestrian street network, open spaces are clearly difficult and inconvenient to navigate. Planning and building according to master plans that cover only small territories has resulted in incomplete and alogical solutions. In addition to the official pedestrian paths there is the same amount of unofficial paths, often these shortcuts ignore traffic regulations and create a higher accident risk. Many recent developments have been dictated by investors while the public voice has stayed modest. In a situation where the city land is still waiting to be cultivated and there are very few local residents, there is not enough sense of ownership.

1

78

Car congestion - 48% of open space is vehicle defined, there are too many open parking lots and the parking management is poor.

2

Unclarity of the pedestrian street network

3

Lack of local residents and sense of ownership

4

Unused outdoor activity potentials

5

Lack of outdoor- and evening activitiy in public spaces

6

No clear identity (also a potential)

C A S E S T U D Y -2

PROPOSAL


a schematic

Proposal

1 Enhanced entrances FENCE DEMOLISHED AND THE RIVERBANK OPENED

TRAFFIC LIGHT THAT INCLUDES CYCLISTS

TRANSFORMATION OF THE OLD BRIDGE (RAMPS ADDED)

NEW CROSSWALK BRIGHT COLURED STREET COVER TO MARK THE MAIN ENTRANCE

2 Quick public space quality fixes BUS STOP REPOSITIONED TEMPORARY PEDESTRIAN PATH COVER

SEATS IN FRONT OF THE MARKETPLACE

ADD MISSING CROSSWALK. WIDER PEDESTRIAN PATH (BRIGHT ROAD COVER) VÄIKE-TURU FACADE MADE ATTRACTIVE

ENHANCE THEATER FACADES ROOF-TERRACE FOR PUBLIC USE + NEW CAFE

MARK ENTRANCES, REPLACE REFLECTIVE GROUND FLOOR WINDOWS VENTILATION NOISE REMOVED PEDESTRIAN PAVEMENT HIGHLIGHTED (BRIGHT ROAD COVER)

BEFORE COSTLY RE-DESIGN TEST SHARED SPACE. STREET COVER TEMPORARILY COLORED BEFORE COLSTLY BRIDGE TRANSFORMATION SAVE 70M DETOUR BY TEMPORARY RAMP. ADD VISIBLE SIGNS

General:

MAKE SPORT CENTRE FACADES MORE ATTRACTIVE. LARGE BLANK WALLS ARE SUITABLE FOR GRAPHIC ART. ADD RAMP ACCESS

ROAD PAINTINGS ON THE ASPHALT PEDESTRIAN PATH PAVEMENT

TEMPORARY BALL-GAMES FIELD BY THE SPORT CENTRE (VACANT SPACE 28x41M)

Big trash containers repositioned and camouflaged Sidewalk edges lowered Additional bike lane markings and parking places More public seats in carefully chosen locations Sidewalk obstructions removed Dangerous traffic situations fixed

PROPOSAL

C A S E S T U D Y -2

79


a schematic

Proposal

3 Quick parking fixes open parking lots compressed, organised cross-use of parking houses REMOVED PARKING

REMAINING PARKING

4 A continuous river promenade 1. CUTTING COPSE AND REDUNDANT TREES 1. TEMPORARY SMALL TERRACES AND SEATS AS ACTIVITY GENERATORS

1. FENCE REMOVED 1. PROMOTE LEISURE BOAT ACTIVITY

2. TRANSFORM THE EXISTING PUBLIC AREA

3. FULL-SCALE PROMENADE DESIGN, ARCHITECTURAL COMPETITION

80

C A S E S T U D Y -2

PROPOSAL

1. EXISTING HOBBY BOAT SHELTERS MOVED CLOSER TO THE SITE CENTRE. PROMOTE ACTIVITY


a schematic

Proposal

5 New proactive open-spaces ACTIVATING THE UNUSED PARK. A PLACE TO REST AND PLAY. USERS: OFFICE WORKERS, YOUNG FAMILIES, ELDERLY PEOPLE.

NEW MARKETPLACE OPENED TO THE RIVER. SOLUTION PRINCIPLE - OPEN SQUARE AND BORDERING SHELTERS. CITY-WIDE MULTIFUNCTIONAL EVENT SPACE

OLD BOILERHOUSE TECHNOLOGICAL SCULPTURES PARK. OIL RESERVUARES ARRANGED INTO OFFICE, CAFE AND PERFORMANCE SPACE.

A REPRESENTATIVE SQUARE. WITH THE 2013-14 COACH STATION EXTENSION, CREATE AN OUTDOOR WAITING AREA / SHELTER / PUBLIC PLAZA. ARHITECTURAL COMPETITION

EXISTING PLAZA - MORE SCIENCE CENTER OUTDOOR ATTRACTIONS

6 Proposed street network

TRANSFORMED INTO PUBLIC PLAZA. THEMESPORT ACTIVITY. SPORT ATTRACTIONS, EXTREME SPORT FIELD. USERS: YOUNG AND MID-AGE PEOPLE.

PEDESTRIANISED ROADS

TRADITIONAL TRAFFIC STREETS (PEDESTRIANS SEGREGATED)

SHARED SPACE

VEHICLE ALLOWANCE LIMITED FOR COACH STATION, MARKETPLACE, TASKU PARKING HOUSE, NORDEA BANK, TARTU AND DORPAT HOTEL

PROPOSAL

C A S E S T U D Y -2

81


a schematic

Proposal

7 Changes in general plan more pedestrian streets, denser environment, smaller buildings

WHEN ADDITIONAL BUILDINGS ARISE, VÄIKE-TURU STREET VEHICLE USE WILL BE RELATIVELY HIGH, THEREFORE ADDITIONAL PEDESTRIAN-ONLY STREET IS PROPOSED AND THE NORTH SECTOR ENVISIONED AS PARKINGFREE ZONE. THE STREET SHOULD NOT BE COMPLETELY STRAIGHT.

RECONFIGURED TO BLOCK VEHICLE ROAD AND DEFINE THE YARD.

THE BOILERHOUSE WILL STOP IN 2014. THE BUILDING STRUCTURE (+YARD) CAN BE REUSED, STRONG TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTER OFFERS A MARKET PRIVILEDGE WHEN DEVELOPED. PROPOSED MODEL CULTURE+CREATIVE BUSINESSES.

PROPOSED PEDESTRIAN ROAD NEEDS SPATIAL DEFINITION - A MARKETPLACE SHELTER TO THE NORTH AND A LOW EXTENSION VOLUME TO THE SOUTH. THE COACH STATION OUTDOOR AREA AND THE PARK NEED SPATIAL DEFINITION SOOLA STREET IS TOO WIDE, COACH STATION "SQUARE" BENEFITS FROM A MORE DEFINED SPACE + TURU ST. NOISE IS KEPT AWAY.

UNSUITABLE FOR OUTDOOR USES. PROMENADE NEEDS MORE SPATIAL DEFINITION. POSSIBLE EXTENSION.

NEW BUILDINGS

8 Long run parking principle OPEN PARKING LOTS

PARKING INTEGRATED TO BUILDINGS

82

C A S E S T U D Y -2

PROPOSAL


a schematic

Proposal

9 Human scale implicaitons "FRAGMENTED" BUILDINGS INSTEAD OF MONUMENTAL MASS RATHER NARROW HUMAN SCALE STREETS CORRESPONDING TO BUILDING HEIGHTS

1 0 Sun and shadow implications TO KEEP PEDESTRIAN PATHS APPEALING BUILDINGS NEED TO HAVE "BREAKS" OR "GRADIENT" HEIGHTS NOT TO OVERSHADOW THE STREETS

PROPOSAL

C A S E S T U D Y -2

83


84 84

AVAPILT

C A S E S T U D Y -3


TEST CASE 3

VANAKALAMAJA STREET

photo Arne Maasik C A S E S T U D Y -3

AVAPILT

8855


SO

TÖÖ

STU

O

SE

NIIN

UE

V A N A -K A L A M A J A

KOTZEB

E

H PÕ

JA

-

I PU

ES

TE

E

OLD TOWN 8866

AERO

C A S E S T U D Y -3


THE GULF OF TALLINN

KA

LAR

AN

NA

S

TI

IK

E-

PA

TA

R

U

U

R

-P

AT

AR

EI

EI

K Ö IE JA

SO C A S E S T U D Y -3

O

HU

100m

300m AERO

87


Tallinn centre The site is situated in the Kalamaja district North-West to the centre of Tallinn - the medieval town. A garde ning, farming and fishing area in the medieval times, Kalamaja is known for the small wooden houses and a rare preserved milieu created in the late 1 9 th and early 2 0 th century. T h e p o p ulation of Kalamaja is roughly about 9000 people.

1

In addition to the prominent location the district is admired for it`s easy-going and green neighbourhood, t h e h u m a n scale buildings and small gardens. T h e spatial character of Kalamaja is perfect for generating and supporting sociability, some of the most established communities are located here.

2

500m

The site - Vana-Kalamaja street (Kalamaja district) and bordering attractors

PEETRI YACHT HARBOUR

MARITIME MUSEUM PATAREI SEA-FORTRESS PRISON MUSEUM KALARAND SHORE LINNAHALL ROOFSCAPE

1 ,1 K M 13 M I N . WALK

THE MUSEUM OF CONTEMPORARY ART / CULTURE CLUSTER TORNIVĂ„LJAK PARK

BALTI JAAM MARKETPLACE TRAINAND BUS STATION

88

C A S E S T U D Y -3

ANALYSE

THE OLD TOWN SHNELLI PARK

500m

Today the district is popular among young families and people working in the creative sector.

1 THE KALAMAJA DISTRICT 2 THE MEDIEVAL TOWN OF TALLINN


www.kalamaja.info

www.flickr.com (kailiuu)

www.flickr.com (kalamaja7)

www.flickr.com (kailiuu)

www.patarei.org

www.flickr.com (kailiuu)

Marko Leppik

The maritime museum

www.patarei.org

www.retsiem.blogspot.com

www.flickr.com (conzaquenza)

Vana-Kalamaja street

The sea-fortress prison museum

ANALYSE

C A S E S T U D Y -3

89

Marko Leppik


Functions in the proximity FUNCTIONS: I N D O O R S P A C E S:

FUNCTIONS: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

EXTRAVERSIVE FUNCTIONS

PROACTIVE ROLE

NOTES: * Functions are assembled around the South end of Vana-Kalamaja street (the train station) and to the East - by the cultural cluster.

SA SA

LE

LE

SA

LE

SA

SA

LE

SA SA

SA

LE

SA

SA

SA

LE

LE

LE

SA

LE

SA

90

C A S E S T U D Y -3

ANALYSE

LE

LE

LE

LE


Main vehicle trafic

INDOOR: GROCERY RESTAURANT/CAFE

NOTES: * Main traffic runs on East-West axis. The nearfuture transit road will have a calming effect for Kalamaja district.

BAR OTHER SHOP OR SERVICE

FUNCTIONS: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

CONNECTING ROLE

PHARMACY HOTEL GUEST APARTMENT GAS STATION CHURCH MUSEUM LIBRARY EVENT SPACE THEATER CONCERT PLACE ART GALLERY HOBBY SCHOOL MUNICIPAL SCHOOL MUNICIPAL KINDERGARTEN DISTRICT HEALT SERVICE LOCAL MUNICIPALITY POST OFFICE SOCIAL SERVICE SPORT CLUB TRAIN STATION

N E A R -F U T U R E T R A N S I T R O A D

OUTDOOR: TRANSIT

BAR RESTAURANT PARK VIEWS HEALTHSPORT GROUND

TRANSIT

PLAYGROUND TRANSIT

STADIUM SPORT FIELD SEASONAL FISH MARKET BOAT HARBOR MUSEUM YARD BUS STATION

ANALYSE

C A S E S T U D Y -3

91


Indoor / Outdoor functions FUNCTIONS: I N D O O R S P A C E S:

FUNCTIONS: I N D O O R S P A C E S:

EXTRAVERSIVE FUNCTIONS

INTROVERT FUNCTIONS

NOTES: * There are too few extraversive indoor functions and working places * The area lacks outdoor activity places * No public seats on Vana-Kalamaja street

Street vitality would benefit from add itional office space, cafes and shops

PATAREI SEA-FORTRESS PRISON MUSEUM

LOGISTICS TERMINAL DISTRICT COMMUNITY CENTER

WELLNESS STUDIO

a single outdoor activity place

BAKERY, CAFE PLAYGROUND

KINDERGARTEN LIQUER STORE

no cafe terraces AUDIO-VIDEO STORE

CHILD DAYCARE KINDERGARTEN

GALLERY 'MÄSU'

PROJECT THATER 'TEOTEATER' CREATIVE BUSINESS CLUSTER

SAUNA 'KALMA'

CAFE-RESTAURANT 'SESOON'

SOCK AND STOCKING STORE ADULT GYMNASIUM

CHILDREN MUSEUM

POST OFFICE / PHARMACY LIQUER STORE HAIRDRESSER

KALAMAJA LIBRARY HOTEL CAFE-RESTAURANT SECOND HAND CURRENCY EXCHANGE TAILORING PHARMACY HAIRDRESSER PARTY RENTAL CAFE-RESTAURANT 'VANA VAKSAL' BAKERY/SMALL STORE LIQUER STORE

92

C A S E S T U D Y -3

ANALYSE

SMALL HOUSEHOLD STORE SMALL TEXTILE STORE JEWEL STORE SMALL ASIA STORE RESTAURANT 'GUSTO' BEEKEEPING SHOP HOTEL 'ECONOMY' BAR 'VOLLI'

500m

200m


Users USERS

SPECIAL MENTION: CREATIVE SECTOR

WORKING IN THE AREA

The users of Kalamaja are of all ages. A visibly distinguishable group (trend) is the young families and the unmarried young people who have replaced a great number of elderly people during the last decade.

LOCAL RESIDENTS

USERS

Many of the young and mid-age people are working in the creative sector. There is one creative cluster on Niine street and two more in the proximity. Mostly these two aforemention groups are organised in communities: the Kalamaja selts and the Telliskivi selts.

PEOPLE OF ALL AGES SPECIAL MENTION: YOUNG FAMILIES

NOTES: * Majority of local residents are working outside Kalamaja, the district lacks local working places and therefore the footall on the streets is often very low.

PASSING BY FROM DISTANT AREAS

* There are currently too few extraversive businesses on the Vana-Kalamaja street to keep the street vital throughout the day.

KOPLI RESIDENTS

* The creative cluster on Niine street and the seaside museums should participate in the making of the Vana-Kalamaja street. MODE OF TRANSPORT IN KALAMAJA

NOTE - The given data is based on personal observations: field mapping and empirical knowledge as a frequent user (the author has lived and worked in the area since 2005). Field mapping was carried out on two days: 18-19 April 2013.

CAR CARS ARE MAINLY USED TO MOVE IN AND OUT OF KALAMAJA.

PUBLIC TRANSPORT

WALKING BIKING

ACTORS INFLUENCING THE STATE OF THE AREA

R E A L -E S T A T E MARKET

GLOBAL ECONOMICS

LOCAL COMMUNITY

C O M M U N I T Y 'T E L L I S K I V I S E L T S' C O M M U N I T Y 'K A L A M A J A S E L T S'

THE SEASIDE MUSEUMS LOCAL MUNICIPALITY

LOCAL POLITICIANS PARKING REGULATIONS

OTHER LOCAL RESIDENTS

ANALYSE

C A S E S T U D Y -3

93


1

Unused / Residual space Future developments

FUNCTIONS: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

FUNCTIONS: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

PASSIVE ROLE

NO CURRENT ROLE

NOTES: * Lot of potential for temporary uses and desired developments 2

LOT OF OPEN SPACE

100% APARTMENTS

3

LOT OF OPEN SPACE

80% APARTMENTS 20% BUSINESS

90% APARTMENTS 10% BUSINESS

LOT OF OPEN SPACE

4

100% APARTMENTS

90% APARTMENTS 10% BUSINESS

100% APARTMENTS LOT OF OPEN SPACE

5

100% OFFICE AND BUSINESS

UNUSED GREEN SPACE

UNUSED RESIDUAL SPACE

6

70% APARTMENTS 30% BUSINESS

8

UNUSED GREEN AREA LOT OF OPEN SPACE

A GARAGE ON A H I G H -V A L U E LAND

9

CURRENTLY UNUSED OR RESIDUAL SPACE FUTURE MASTER PLANS 500m

94

C A S E S T U D Y -3

ANALYSE

200m

VALIDATED MASTER PLANS


10

Free pedestrian movement problems

10

FUNCTIONS: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

QUALITIES: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

QUALITIES: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

CONNECTING ROLE

ATTRACTIVITY

CONVENIENCE

1

OFFICIAL PATH DE FACTO

2

1 3 2

4 6

7 8

9

5

10 11 6 12

7 8

9

10

11

11

12

12

500m

200m

1. Landscape level difference 2-4 meters. The only straight access is provided by an old stair not suitable for strollers and people with walking disability. Detour 140 meters. 2. A lightpost obstructs the sidewalk. 3. The 1-meter wide sidewalk is too narrow. 4. The 1-meter wide sidewalk is too narrow, streetlight obstructs the path. 5. The Soo and Vana-Kalamaja junction has only one crosswalk, in other directions traffic is unregulated. Regarding the idea of a prominent street connecting the medieval town and the sea, the crossing should be safe and easily crossed in all directions. 6. The end of TÜÜstuse street is offset and contiues as Niine street. Official pedestrian movement makes a significant detour and therefore shortcuts are frequent. Inconvenient and high risk crossing. 7. The corner at Niine 12 and 20 has a 0,8-meter wide sidewalk. Not usable with slush and high rainwater. 8. Free movement obstruction: streetlight, electricity terminal and traffic sign. 9. Obstructive parking management. The famous Kalma Sauna is often blocked by cars. 10. Old trees and a traffic sign obstruct free movement. Ruined asfalt. 11. The tree and a streetlight obstruct free movement. 12. Official crossings are limited, shortcuts are frequent. Approaching the square from the South the crosswalk is dangerous, cars park right by the crossing and block visibility.

ANALYSE

C A S E S T U D Y -3

95


Attractivity f laws QUALITIES: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

QUALITIES: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

ATTRACTIVITY

CLEANLINESS

NOTES: * No extraversive functions at the end of the street (North) * The street has no public seats * The South "entrance" of the street is unaesthetical and not welcoming

UNTENDED TREES BLOCK VIEWS TO THE SEA, MARITIMEAND PRISON MUSEUM

NO INFORMATION SIGNS ABOUT MARITIME- AND PRISON MUSEUM

TRASH CONTAINER ON THE STREET CAFE/ BAKERY ACCESS NOT VISIBLE

UNTENDED TREES BLOCK THE STORE ACCESS

the street has no public seats

UNTENDED TREES SHADE THE STREET

WORN BLANK WALL

RUINED SIDEWALK

GREEN SPACE COMPLETEL Y SHADED BY TREES

PARKING CONGESTION BLOCKING THE FAMOUS SAUNA

TREES COMPLETELY BLOCK THE ELABORATELY ORNAMENTED FACADE

UNATTRACTIVE BLANK WALL TREES HIDE THE MUSEUM

UNATTRACTIVE BLANK WALL

UGLY CORRUGATED IRON FENCE

DECAYED FENCE UGLY CONCRETE FENCE

UNATTRACTIVE BLANK WALL UNATTRACTIVE BLANK WALL

Unwelcoming entrance

500m

96

C A S E S T U D Y -3

ANALYSE

200m


Safety issues QUALITIES: O U T D O O R S P A C E S:

SAFETY

NOTES: * The unofficial pedestrian paths increase accident risk. The Kotzebue / Vana-Kalamaja crossing and Tööstuse / Vana-Kalamaja crossing are literally used as shared spaces.

THE SOO AND VANAKALAMAJA CROSSING HAS ONLY ONE CROSSWALK. UNOFFICIAL SHORTCUTS INCREASE ACCIDENT RISK.

THIS ANONYMOUS GREEN SPACE IS 'SHADOWY' IN MANY WAYS. IN DAYTIME OVERGROWN TREES HARDLY LET LIGHT THROUGH, IN THE DARK PERIOD THE SPACE REMAINS DARK AS THERE ARE NO LIGHTS PROVIDED. THE SPACE IS USED BY HOMELESS, DRUNKS AND SOMETIMES JUNKIES.

TÖÖSTUSE STREET MAKES AN OFFSET AND CONTIUES TO NIINE. OFFICIAL PEDESTRIAN MOVEMENT MAKES A SIGNIFICANT DETOUR AND THEREROFE SHORTCUTS ARE FREQUENT. UNCONVENIENT AND HIGH RISK CROSSING.

OFFICIAL CROSSINGS ARE LIMITED, SHORTCUTS ARE FREQUENT. COMING FROM VANA-KALAMAJA DIRECTION THE CROSSWALK IS DANGEROUS AS PARKING CARS BLOCK THE VISIBILITY.

500m

200m

ANALYSE

C A S E S T U D Y -3

97


Conclusion

1

The Vana-Kalamaja street has potential to become a prominent street of Kalamaja. The idea of a pedestrian gateway between the sea and the old town is feasible and supported by the site potentials - there are many vacant plots of land yet to be built, these functions can be directed to adapt the idea of an active pedestrian street. The general traffic logic is backing North-South pedestrian street.

2

There are many residual or otherwise inefficient spaces that could contribute to the idea of a vital street.

3

To gain vital public-life the street needs more extraversive indoor functions and more local workplaces. The few extraversive indoor functions situated on the street on are not enough to sustain active use of the street throughout the day. To become lively there should be more cafes and restaurants, small shops and other functions that communicate on ground level. Currently the North part of the street has no extraversive functions at all. The already valid master plans tend to give too little proportion for businesses and office-space. Even when the street is promoted as a gate to the sea, there will be not enough people to sustain the activity throughout the week and the seasons. The street, and the whole district would benefit from more local workplaces.

98

4

The street needs more outdoor activities.

5

The current condition of the street is poor (street cover, many minor pedestrian inconveniences)

6

Most of all the South end of the street needs attractivity repairs, the beginning of the street is not invitive.

C A S E S T U D Y -3

Currently there is only one playground that counts as an activity place that generates longer stays. Appart from that the street is used mostly for necessity - to get from one place to the other. There are no public seats and no cafe terraces. To increase footfall there should be more activity places for the general public and for specific users.

PROPOSAL


New street concept

For the local community the street could play a role of the main street, a street of many in- and outdoor activities. Playgrounds, green areas, cafes, streetart, a square for community meetings and festivals. To animate the street the number of extraversive indoor functions and local offices should be raised and street design made more attractive. The development plan calls all major actors to participate in the specific design idea: the community, other local residents and workers, land owners and the municipality.

Vana-Kalamaja street has historically been an active street connecting the medieval town and the sea. Today the attractive seaside functions and the human scale district with a valuable milieu favor a pedestrian friendly street. The new street concept regards both local residents and distant visitors, among them tourists who currently visit the area seldom. An active pedestrian street could be presented as a gateway to the sea, increased pedestrian footfall envisions new possibilities for businesses located on the street.

a schematic

Proposal

1 Implement shared space concept KA

LA

RA

NN

Vana-Kalamaja street converted to shared space street in full lenght. For safety precautions the main traffic junctions at Soo, Niine and Kotzebue crossing will be provided with vehicle traffic bumpers to slow down at the crossing. The street cover at these crossings should be different from the rest of the street (e.g. alarming colour) to make everyone more alert and consider others in traffic flow. The street is arranged on one level for everyone, cars, bikes and pedestrians. Traffic signs are removed and speed limit is set to 20 km/h. Loosing the segregation of pedestrian and traffic zones saves space and allows carefully chosen parking places on street.

A

Overgrown trees cut, views cleared New stair and ramp for cyclists and pedestrians. Signs of seaside attractions.

K

Ü

2 Increasing the active hours of the street

TI SU UR AT

Ö

-P

K

Public seats / a meeting place

New park with attractions for different user groups SO

JA

Ä

IK

EI

V

AR

IE

E

-P

A

TA

R

E

3 Presenting/ marketing the street I

HU

New walking path to the sea O

Overgrown trees cut, views cleared (6) Road bumpers and different street cover at the crossing (1) SO

TÖÖ

STU

O

Phase 1 - temporary use (e.g dogwalking area). Phase 2 - see nr. 2

SE

Public seats, cafe terracces on the street. See nr. 4 NIIN

Phase 1 - Temporary garden by Niine 11 creative cluster. Phase 2 - see nr. 2

E

Seats in front of the sauna New parking management Road bumpers and different street cover at the crossing (1)

KOTZEB

K

O

TZ

EB

U

E

Overgrown trees cut, views cleared

UE

To sustain public activity the street needs more extraversive indoor (+outdoor) functions: cafes, restaurants, small shops etc. All approved master plans should be checked and the percentage of allowed business function increased. With only a few offices or other working places the daytime activity is poor, the proportion of offices should be raised.

Public square - a meeting place Multi-event space (festivals, markets etc.) Container vegetation and seats Community shared car parking Phase 1 - temporary seats and specific user group activity place (e.g health sports field) Phase 2 - see nr. 2

New cafe (4). Transformed fences. Street art on building sides and solid fences.

To attract more users to use Vana-Kalamaja street, the idea of the access street should be presented by the seaside museums and all other public businesses (press release for relevant parties e.g tourism office).

4 Community run investor management To create suitable and desired functions (businesses) the community could start an investor programme: 1. find a place and and idea (cafe) 2. discuss with the owner 3. find a suitable operator to run it. E.g at the South of the street there is a low value garage on a high-value land.

5 Development phases - temporary uses It takes time till the empty lots on the street get built. Organise temporary activities (community) in exchange for the land maintenance. Depending on the location and time it is suitable to create: 1. allotments 2. snow gardens 3. dog-walking areas 4. growing a wild garden etc.

6 Aesthetic improvements Tend the overgrown trees on the corner of Kotzebue street (the school), by the Soo st. shop and by the sea to clear views. At the South end of the street transform the unaesthetic fences. Provide more trash bins.

7 Improved attractivity In addition to all other points: 1.organise (community) street artists to paint the blank walls of the area. Some old buildings have blank plastered side walls (fire precaution) that could be painted by artists. 2. temporary use could implement installations e.g blank side walls provided with public stairs to observe the hidden places. 3. Bar-code tiles on building facades to be read with smart-phones. Collect and present stories of the place.

8 Public seats on the street Find suitable locations for public seats e.g in front of the old sauna, the Kotzebue square, Tööstuse/ V-K corner etc.

9

A public square

Create a public square at the corner of Kotzebue st.

10

A new park for different users

New park by the Kalma sauna (different user groups).

P Õ H J A -P U I E S T E E

Shared space street (1) Temporary uses

11

Community run shared car program

To promote sustainable ideas, organise a shared car parking at the Kotzebue public square.

PROPOSAL

C A S E S T U D Y -3

99


100

ENDNOTES


00 Endnotes

ENDNOTES

101


102

PROJECT PROCESS

ENDNOTES


Project process The process Methodology

of the project

is described

part (p13), the following

in the

is series of

sketces illustrating how the proposed model of urban public space and a table of questions was conceived .

ENDNOTES

PROJECT PROCESS

103


The model of UPS in progress

1

FUNCTIONS business public services recreation

cafes restaurants clubs services shops

active

passive

streets green spots

parks event-s p a c e s quality accessibility attractivity safety

quality accessibility attractivity safety

sports cultural social playgrounds?

ACCESSIBILITY

Q U A L I T Y O F O P E N -S P A C E S

pedestrians cyclists public transport cars to to to to

busineesses public services active recreation passive recreation

STREETSCAPE

ATTRACTIVITY AMENITIES -

lawn trees vegetation clean air cleanliness trash bins

pedestrians cyclists public transport cars

PARKS

E V E N T -S P A C E S

-

-

M e t h o d o f a n a l y s e: 1 . Mapping of the known future developments 2 . Mapping unused areas as potentials 3 . Assessment of the current values - random users (street survey) - locals (directed survey) - municipality (directed survey) - land owners (directed survey) 4 . Public forum for all interested participants 5 . Conclusion of the mappings, a ssessm en t a n d f o rum

104

PROJECT PROCESS

Jan Gehl classifies users as follows : Everyday users . People who live and work in the area. Visitors and customers . People who visit the area from beyond. P a s s e r s b y . People passing through the area, going or coming from other places. Recreational visitors. Those who visit the park because of its beauty or to use the space for recreation. Visitors to events. People who come for special programs

ENDNOTES


The model of UPS in progress

2

DEMAND FOR ATTRACTS

MEASURE AVG USERS PER AREA? WHATS A GOOD RATIO?

ATTRACTS MORE PEOPLE

A GOOD PROPORTION OF USERS AND THE AREA CREATE SOCIAL CONTACTS - PLEASING

WHAT MAKES A GOOD URBAN PS?

MEASURE QUALITY? HOW

NUMBER OF USERS IN THE AREA U S E R -F R I E N D L Y N E S S O F T H E A R E A ACTIVITIES IN THE AREA

CREATES MORE ACTIVITIES

DEMAND FOR

DIVERSITY

ATTRACTS

LIVING BUSINESS P U B L I C S E R V C I C E S (S C H O O L , P O S T , P H O N E ...) RECREATION

MEASURE DIVERSITY? HOW

WHAT MAKES URBAN PUBLIC SPACE A GOOD ONE ? 1. A PRECONDITION OF QUALITY URBAN PUBLIC SPACE IS IT`S S U B J E C T - T H E P U B L I C - T H E P E O P L E 2. THE QUALITY OF THE SPACE AND ITS INGREDIENTS 3. THE DIVERSITY OF FUNCTIONS

ENDNOTES

PROJECT PROCESS

105


The model of UPS in progress

3

ACTIVITIES IN THE AREA

BUSINESS cafes restaurants clubs services like hair dresser shops etc.

RECREATION

PUBLIC TRANSPORT

distribution accessibility

RELATION?

ACTIVE

PASSIVE

E V E N T -S P A C E S sports cultural quality social accessibility attractivity PARKS safety SQUARES

PASSERBY SPACES streets buildings undefined spots

GROUP ORIENTED AVTIVITIES

SKATERS KIDS PLAYGROUNDS PING PONG RUNNING OTHER SPORT GAMES

QUALITY

SCHOOLS KINDERGARTENS POST OFFICE ETC.

QUALITY

diversity distribution accesibility

PUBLIC SERVCICES

QUALITY

QUALITY

LIVING ?

quality accessibility attractivity safety

U S E R -F R I E N D L Y N E S S OF OPEN SPACES

STREETSCAPE

E V E N T -S P A C E S

PASSERBYSPACES

ATTRACTIVITY

ACCESSIBILITY AESTHETIC/ SOFT AMENITIES lown trees vegetation clean air cleaniness trash bins visual info

M E D I A / V I R T U A L P U B L I C S P A C E?

Gehl - I N B E T W E E N BUILDINGS

necessary activities

106

PROJECT PROCESS

optional activities

social activities

ENDNOTES


The model of UPS in progress

4 DE

AT

DENSITY AND FREQUENCY PLAY A MAJOR ROLE IN THE USE OF AN AREA, DETERMINING THE VITALITY OF UPS. VITALITY OF A PLACE IS A PREMISE OF ALL ASPECTS OF UPS.

A TR

C

MA

ND

S

TS

QUALITIES

USERS WHAT MAKES A GOOD

URBAN PUBLIC SPACE S

ATT

AND

RAC TS

DEM

A PLACE IS USED MORE FREQUENTLY WHEN ITS ENVIROMENT OFFERS A SENSE OF QUALITY: IT HAS CHARACTER, IT IS IN HUMAN S C A L E , IT IS INCLUSICE, SAFE AND PLEASING

FUNCTIONS DE

MA

ND

A COMMON CHARACHTER FOR ALL GREAT URBAN PUBLIC SPACES IS A R I C H , M I X E D -U S E ENVIRONMENT THAT KEEPS A PLACE VIBRANT THROUGHOUT DAYS AND SEASONS

S

AT

TR

AC

TS

ACTIVITIES

LIVING?

BUSINESS

PUBLIC SERVCICES

RECREATION

public transport

CAFES RESTAURANTS CLUBS D I F F . S E R V I C E S (H A I R DRESSER) SHOPS CINEMA ETC.

SCHOOLS KINDERGARTENS LIBRARY CITY HALL OTHER PUBLIC SERVICES (P O S T E T C )

ACTIVE sports cultural social

THEATER MUSIC FEST

STREETSCAPE SQUARES GROUP ORIENTED AVTIVITIES

U S E R -F R I E N D L Y N E S S / Q U A L I T Y OF OPEN SPACES

STREETSCAPE

E V E N T -S P A C E S

P A S S E R B Y -S P A C E S

O P E N -S P A C E S

necessary act

CONNECTIONS (STREETS, PATHS) PUBLIC TRANSPORT

ENDNOTES

ATTRACTIVITY

PASSIVE streets parks buildings undefined spots

ACCESSIBILITY

AESTHETIC/ SOFT AMENITIES

diversity distribution

optional act

diversity distribution connections

PARKS SQUARES GROUP ORIENTED AVTIVITIES SKATERS KIDS PLAYGROUNDS PING PONG RUNNING OTHER SPORT GAMES

ACTIVE sports cultural social

PASSIVE

STREETSCAPE SQUARES GROUP ORIENTED AVTIVITIES

streets parks buildings undefined spots

PROJECT PROCESS

107


The model of UPS in progress

5 considered references for the questions

Characteristics of great UPS. G u i d e l i n e s American Planning Association (http://w w w .planning.org/greatplaces/s p a c e s / characteristics.h t m ), accessed 2 0 .0 2 .2 0 1 3 Description of the Public Space It is important to identify the geographic, d e m o g r a p h i c , a n d social characteristics of the public space. Tell us about its location (i.e . urban, s u b u r b a n , rural, etc.), layout and connectivity; e c o n o m i c , social, and ethnic diversity; a n d functionality. We also want to know whether a plan or specific planning efforts contributed to or sustained the character of the public space, or if the space formed more organically and not through a formal planning process. Public Space Features and Elements How does the public space ... Capitalize on building design, scale, architecture, a n d proportionality to create interesting visual experiences, vistas, or other qualities? Accommodate multiple uses? Accommodate multiple users? It is accessible via walking, biking, or public transit? U s e , protect, and enhance the environment and natural features?

Description of the Public Space Where is the space located, and what is its setting? (D o w n t o w n , neighborhood, waterfront, city center, business or entertainment districts, historic area, parks, etc.) What role, if any, did plans and planning contribute to the creation of the space? Is there special zoning or ordinances that allowed for the creation of the space? How large is the area? When was the space created ? Guidelines for Great Public Spaces 1 .0 F e a t u r e s a n d E l e m e n t s (not all may apply) 1.1 What landscape and hardscape features are present? How do they contribute to the unique or special nature of the space? 1.2 How does the space accommodate pedestrians or others whose access to the space is by transit, bicycles, or other m e a n s ? Is the space welcoming to those with physical disabilities or others with special needs? 1.3 Does the space accommodate multiple activities? 1.4 What purpose does it serve for the surrounding community? 1.5 How does the space utilize existing topography, vistas, or g e o g r a p h y ? Does it provide interesting visual experiences, vistas, or other qualities? 1.6 How are murals or other public art incorporated into the space?

Public Space Activities and Sociability 2 .0 Activities and Sociability How does the public space... Reflect the community's local character and personality? Foster social interaction and create a sense of community and neighborliness? Provide a sense of comfort or safety to people gathering and using the space? Encourage use and interaction among a diverse cross section of the public? Characteristics and Guidelines for Designation A public space may be a gathering spot or part of a neighborhood, d o w n t o w n , special district, waterfront, or other area within the public realm that helps promote social interaction and a sense of community. Examples include spaces such as plazas, town squares , parks, marketplaces, p u b l i c c o m m o n s and malls, public greens, piers, special areas within convention centers or grounds, sites within public buildings, lobbies, c o n c o u r s e s , or public spaces within private buildings. As with all categories of Great Places, it is important to identify what sets a space apart from others spaces to qualify it for a Great Spaces designation. Public Spaces must be at least 10 years old. Characteristics of a Great Public Space include : Promotes human contact and social activities. Is safe, w e l c o m i n g , and accommodating for all users. Has design and architectural features that are visually interesting. Promotes community involvement. Reflects the local culture or history. Relates well to bordering uses. Is well maintained. Has a unique or special character.

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PROJECT PROCESS

2.1 What activities make the space attractive to people and encourage social interaction? (C o m m e r c e , entertainment or p e r f o r m a n c e s , recreational or sporting, cultural, markets or vending, exhibits, fairs, festivals, special events, etc.) 2.2 Does the space provide a sense of comfort and safety to people gathering and using the space? Does the space provide a friendly and welcoming atmosphere ? 2.3 How do people interact with one another? Does the space encourage communication or interaction between strangers? 2.4 How does this place encourage use by a diverse cross section of the public? 3 .0 Unique Qualities, Traits, and Characteristics 3.1 What makes this public space stand out? What makes it extraordinary or memorable? 3.2 Is there variety, a sense of whimsy, or an atmosphere of discovery or pleasant surprise? 3.3 Is there commitment to maintain the space and to keep it a usable space over time? Does the public have a sense of ownership about the space? How has it changed over time? 3.4 Is there a sense of importance about the space? W h a t characteristics or qualities contribute to this? 3.5 What is the history of the space, and how is it remembered or passed on from one generation to the next? 3.6 Does the space serve as a place of inspiration or contemplation, or is it considered sacred? 3.7 What is it about the space that contributes to a sense of community? 3.8 What makes this space special and worthy of designation as a Great Space?

ENDNOTES


The model of UPS in progress

5 considered references

A diagram by PPS - Project for Public Space (w w w .p p s .org)

n u m b e r o f w o m e n, children and elderly

local business ownership

social networks

diverse stewardship

volunteerism

active

cooperative evening use

land-use patterns

fun

neighborly

friendly interactive

rent levels

special

pride

street life

property values

vital

Sociability

real

Uses & Activities

retail sales

useful indigenous

welcoming

celebratory

Place continuity

safe

proximity traffic data

clean

connected readable

mode splits transit usage

Access & Linkage

sittable

walkable convenient accessible

pedestrian activity

green

Comfort & Image

crime statistics

spiritual charming

sanitation rating

attractive building conditions

historic

parking usage patterns

environmental data

MEASUREMENTS / INTANGIBLES / KEY ATTRIBUTES

A neighbourhood vision document by the Uue Maailma community (Tallinn, 2012)

ENDNOTES

PROJECT PROCESS

109


110

ENDNOTES


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ENDNOTES

REFERENCES

111

A Guide to analyse and enhance urban public spaces in Estonia  

Master Thesis project at Arhus School of Architecture 2013.

A Guide to analyse and enhance urban public spaces in Estonia  

Master Thesis project at Arhus School of Architecture 2013.

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