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2011 Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions The University of Rhode Island August 2012

Compiled by Pete Rolashevich Master of Environmental & Natural Resource Economics Candidate College of the Environment and Life Sciences University of Rhode Island Kingston, RI

   


Table of Contents Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………1 Institutional Framework………………………………………………………………………...2 ACUPCC………………………………………………………………………………….2 Authority from the University…………………………………………………………….2 Inventory Overview……………………………………………………………………………...3 GHG Gases Inventoried…………………………………………………………………...3 Scope Boundaries………………………………………………………………………….4 Institutional Data…………………………………………………………………………..4 Budgeting and Physical Size………………………………………………………………7 Summary of Emissions…………………………………………………………………………..9 Scope 1 Emissions………………………………………………………………………………11 On-Campus Stationary…………………………………………………………………...12 Direct Transportation…………………………………………………………………….12 Agriculture……………………………………………………………………………….13 Scope 2 Emissions………………………………………………………………………………15 Purchased Electricity…………………………………………………………………….16 Scope 3 Emissions………………………………………………………………………………17 Student, Faculty, and Staff Commuting………………………………………………….18 Directly Financed Travel………………………………………………………………...19 Solid Waste………………………………………………………………………………19 T & D Electricity Losses…………………………………………………………………20 Purchased Paper/Recycling………………………………………………………………20 Other Emissions………………………………………………………………………...............21 NSF Research Vessel Endeavor…………………………………………………………21 Appendix.………………………………………………………………………………………..22 Table 14: Nominal Data………………………………………………………………….22 Table 15: Emission Factors………………………………………………………………23 Table 16: Conversion Factors……………………………………………………………24

   


Introduction The 2011 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory continues the University’s tradition and commitment to tracking, projecting, and reporting the emissions coming from campus owned and operated facilities with the mission of higher education.

Past reports relied on calculations coming from different sources that were compiled by different groups and individuals. There were calculation errors that were apparent and the scope of the emissions data was severely limited to only the main campus in Kingston and often negated several other emission sources. This year, there were several accounting practice changes that were applied to the inventory in an attempt to make it more accurate, more reliable, and easier to calculate and reference. The goal was to create an accurate picture of the emission sources, as outlined in the GHG Protocol, to be used in guiding the University in taking the necessary steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the near future, and ultimately, to become carbon neutral by some conceivable time frame.

This report was generated using new software that was specifically developed for the University of Rhode Island, known as I.C.E. (Inventory and Calculator of Emissions), using an Excel format similar to the CA-CP (Clean Air-Cool Planet) calculator, but much more user friendly and easier to follow. I.C.E. was developed by the author of this report in order to make the process of reporting emissions easier.

The purpose of this report shall be to indicate to the President’s Council on Sustainability the current levels of emissions coming from the University, give historical context comparisons, and to allow them to develop a strategy to reduce emissions coming from University facilities and operations.

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Institutional Framework ACUPCC Following the signing of the ACUPCC by President Robert Carothers, the University of Rhode Island became committed to tracking and reducing its greenhouse gas emissions as the rapid growth in greenhouse gas emissions has caused great concern for its impacts on human health and the well-being of the planet. The act of signing on to the ACUPCC has committed the University to track its emissions every year and report any and all progress toward the goal of attaining carbon neutrality by the end of the century. Authority from the University This project, the collection of data, and the analysis herein was done with the authority of the President’s Council on Sustainability at the University of Rhode Island to update and create an accurate inventory of past data for campus emissions. The Report was compiled by ENRE MS candidate Pete Rolashevich from May 2012 through August 2012. Oversight was given by the following individuals: Robert Weygand

Vice President, Division of Administration and Finance, Council Chair

Thomas Frisbee-Fulton

Director, Campus Planning and Design

Marsha Garcia

Campus Sustainability Officer, Office of Sustainability, Council Coordinator

David Lamb

Utilities Engineer, Facilities Services

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Inventory Overview GHG Gases Inventoried The GHG Inventory done at the University of Rhode Island is consistent with the GHG Protocol and ACUPCC Reporting. The University tracks the gases listed in Table 1. Each gas has a global warming potential, meaning some gases are more harmful than others, based on the same quantity or volume of gas. The global warming potential is based on the 100 year time horizon for each gas. This translates to the amount of heat a specific gas can trap in the atmosphere over a selected time period. A higher number indicates a more potent gas for trapping heat in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide has a value of 1 and all other gases are based on this ratio. These numbers are based on the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report and are used consistently when calculating emissions from current and previous years at the University.

Chemical  Formula Carbon Dioxide CO₂ Methane CH₄ Nitrous Oxide N₂O Hydrofluorocarbons CxHyFz Perfluorocarbons CxFy SF₆ Sulfur Hexafluoride Table 1: Greenhouse Gases Gas

GWP 1 25 298 various various 23,900

Carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide are the only ones that are apparent at the University, with carbon dioxide representing the largest portion of greenhouse gases emitted from the academic institution. For reporting, the global warming potential (GWP) is used to put the gases on a basis of comparison and equivalency and the unit eCO2 will appear when examining net emissions, representing ‘equivalency of CO2 emissions’ so that each gas emission would not be reported separately, but in a standard metric.

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Scope Boundaries The University of Rhode Island defines the following as the scopes of interest for calculating and reporting the emissions: Scope 1 – Direct Emissions that are owned and controlled by the University. These include the steam plant on the Kingston Campus and produced heating and cooling for on campus stationary sources, the fleet vehicles that belong to the University, and the Agricultural sources which include animals and nitrogen based fertilizers used. Scope 2 – Energy Imports that are indirectly generated in the production of electricity from second party sources are defined by this scope. This includes purchased electricity, steamed water, and chilled water. The University only purchases electricity. Scope 3 – Indirect Emissions that are part of the daily campus operations. These include the commuting by staff, faculty, and students, the direct outsourced travel of air miles and mileage reimbursement, solid waste sent to landfill, purchased paper, and T&D electricity losses from the purchased electricity in scope 2. Other – These emissions are those that do not fall into one of the aforementioned categories and are optionally reported according to the GHG Protocol. For the University, this only includes the NSF Research Vessel Endeavor. Institutional Data The University of Rhode Island encompasses four campuses in the state: the main campus in Kingston, the Bay campus in Narragansett, the W. Alton Jones campus in West Greenwich, and the Providence campus in Providence. For the purposes of reporting, the information that is compiled is aggregated for all four campuses and reported as one entity, unless otherwise specified. The University does not include data from the Providence campus or W. Alton Jones campus as they fall outside the jurisdiction of emissions being outsourced for private events beyond the control of the institution. The Providence campus in particular is only one building that is shared with other government offices and separating the ownership of energy use at the building would prove to be a difficult task. For the purposes of this report, the only campuses that are being tracked are the Kingston and Bay campuses. The map below shows the outline for the Kingston campus, which includes Peckham Farm and East Farm just to the south of the campus.

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Map 1: Kingston Campus, including Peckham Farm. East Farm is just to the South.

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Map 2 shows the outline for the Bay campus in Narragansett, set only a few miles east of the Kingston campus. This includes the operational buildings and facilities on campus. There are no dormitories on this campus. Map 2: Narragansett Bay Campus

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Table 2 shows the institutional population information for all of the campuses for the Academic and Fiscal Year 2011. URI Campus Population 2005 2011 Change Students      14,562      16,009         1,447    Full‐time      10,588      12,732         2,144    Part‐time         3,974         3,277           (697) Faculty            712            756               44 Staff         1,759         1,778               19 Total      17,033      18,543         1,510 Table 2: Population Dynmaics ‐ All campuses   Notes The numbers for faculty are only the total number of full-time faculty. The part-time faculty is not included, as many are only adjuncts that teach one or two classes, may be on sabbatical or leave, or are not on campus regularly. The number for the staff includes all full-time and part-time members. For students, the number includes the total fulltime and part-time students averaged between the Fall 2010 and Spring 2011 semesters. These numbers are used for calculations of campus commuting data as well as normalizing commuting emissions based on campus population to give fair comparison for other institutions in higher education. URI Contact Gary Boden - IT Specialist gboden@uri.edu p: 401-874-4465

Budgeting and Physical Size The budgeting and size information for the University of Rhode Island are used for the purposes of normalizing the data, very similar to how the population data is used. Table 3 shows the operation, research, and energy budgets for 2005 and 2011 as well as the physical size of the Kingston and Bay campuses from the same years.

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Budget and Size 2005 2011 Budget      Operational    Research    Energy Size    Kingston Campus    Bay Campus Total Square Footage Research Space    Kingston Campus    Bay Campus Total Research Space

Change

$  417,616,725 $  579,800,627 $  162,183,902 $    60,295,734 $    74,084,204 $    13,788,470 $    11,336,980 $    13,120,446 $      1,783,466          3,484,381          3,818,304             333,923             241,882             278,005                36,123          3,726,263          4,096,309             370,046             109,258             122,912                13,654             197,742             197,742                           ‐             307,000             320,654                13,654

Table 3: Inflation Adjusted Budget and Campus Square Footage

 

The budgeting used for the campus has consistent grown since 2005, as has the physical size and research space available on the campus. Notes The budgets are adjusted for inflation using 2005 chained USD amounts. The nominal amounts are included in the appendix in Table 14. The area for the research space was found online at http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/facilities. This is a survey that is conducted every two years. The data that is available was used from FY 2009, as it is the most recent available. It is found in Table 10: Academic Research Institutions by state, institution, and field. The University of Rhode Island can be found by scrolling down the page which is available as either a pdf file or an excel file. Research space can also be found in the supporting document that is sent from Cynthia Faria. The amount for the building space includes the amount of all buildings as well as the research space between the Kingston and Bay campuses. URI Contacts Cheryl Hinkson - Budgeting Specialist car@uri.edu p: 401-874-2509

Cynthia Faria – Space Coordinator cyfaria@mail.uri.edu p: 401-874-4282

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Summary of Emissions Table 4 includes the summary of emissions from all of the four campuses by scope and by source for the fiscal years 2005 and 2011, respectively, and includes the total emissions in MT of eCO2, MT per capita, and MT per 1,000 square feet of institutional space. The measurement of MT is short for Metric Ton which is the same as 1 megagram or 1000 kilograms. Net Emissions MT eCO₂  2005 2011 Scope 1 Emissions   Stationary   Fleet Vehicles   Agriculture Total Scope 1 Scope 2 Emissions   Purchased Electricity Total Scope 2 Total Scope 1 & 2 Scope 3 Emissions   Commuting   Mileage Reimbusement   Air Travel   T&D Losses   Solid Waste   Paper Total Scope 3 Net Emissions Other Emissions   NSF R/V Endeavor Total Other Emissions Total

         21,786.02                832.69                  16.47          22,635.18

Emission Intensity MT eCO₂/Full‐time student 2005 2011

         17,911.90                746.73                  96.36          18,754.99

                   2.06                    0.08                    0.00                    2.14

                   1.41                    0.06                    0.01                    1.47

Emission Intensity MT eCO₂/1000 sqft 2005 2011                    5.85                      ‐                    0.00                   (6.07)

                   4.37                      ‐                    0.02                    4.58

         33,055.61          25,339.89                    3.12                    1.99                    8.87                    6.19          33,055.61          25,339.89                    3.12                    1.99                    8.87                    6.19         55,690.79         44,094.88                    5.26                    3.46          12,273.51                      ‐            4,631.78            3,269.24            3,529.82                  52.21          23,756.56         79,447.35

         13,530.62                    1.16                      ‐                      ‐            7,142.39                    0.44            2,506.14                    0.31                397.18                    0.33                100.66                    0.00          23,676.99                    2.24         67,771.87                    7.50

                   1.06                      ‐                    0.56                    0.20                    0.03                    0.01                    1.86                    5.32

           1,844.23            1,783.76            1,844.23            1,783.76          81,291.58          69,555.63                    7.68                    5.46 Table 4: Inventory Emission Overview by Source

Notes There was a change in accounting practice for the campus emissions starting in FY 2011. This attempted to create a more accurate picture of the campus emissions by include data from all campuses that were previously left out, including new sources such as agriculture, and creating a more accurate commuting picture. Previous numbers reported for these years have changed, specifically numbers reported to the ACUPCC. Agriculture, specifically fertilizer use on East Farm has been declared de minimus as only a few pounds are used every year on a very small plot of land. The exact amount would only be estimated.

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Refrigerants are also declared as de minimus, as they are much harder to track and only represent a fractional amount of total emissions.

Figure 1 shows the pie chart of FY 2011 emissions by source.

Figure 1: Emissions by Source

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Scope 1 Emissions Scope 1 Emissions include Direct Emissions that are owned and controlled by the University. These include the steam plant on the Kingston Campus and produced heating and cooling for on campus stationary sources, the fleet vehicles that belong to the University, and the Agricultural sources which include animals and nitrogen based fertilizers used.

Figure 2: Scope 1 Emissions

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On-Campus Stationary This category includes all of the fuel used for heating and cooling on the campuses for the University. There are only three fuels that are used; these include Distillate Oil #2, Natural Gas, and LPG (Propane) which are either used in the steam plant on campus or individually in the buildings that are not connected to the steam plant at the Kingston Campus. Table 5 reports the emissions coming from the University from the three major fuel sources. MT eCO₂ Emissions Fuel 2005 2011 Distillate Oil          1,045.85          4,033.64 Natural Gas       20,493.15       13,758.96 Propane             247.02             119.30    Total       21,786.02       17,911.90 Table 5: On Campus Stationary Emissions   Notes The amounts are based on the aggregate totals for the campuses from the sources previously mentioned. The amounts were from the data collected from the Utilities department and were used with the emissions factors to calculate the emissions in eCO2. The natural gas amount had to be converted into MMBtu in order to use with the listed emission factors that appear in Table 14 in the appendix. URI Contact David Lamb - Facilities Engineer dlamb@uri.edu p: 401-874-7896

Direct Transportation These emission sources include all of the various Fleet Vehicles in the University’s motor pool used at all campuses, primarily the Kingston Campus. The three primary sources of fuel used by the Fleet are Regular Unleaded Gasoline, Diesel, and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). Table 6 shows the emissions measure in eCO2 for these three fuels for FY 2005 and 2011. MT eCO₂ Emissions Vehicle Type 2005 2011 Gasoline             654.62             539.64 Diesel             107.44             134.51 Natural Gas               70.63                72.58    Total             832.69             746.73 Table 6: Direct Transportation Emissions   Notes The numbers for the CNG were received in a format of gas gallon equivalents and were then calculated to MMBtu using the conversion factor of 1gge = 125,000 Btu or 0.125 MMBtu. Once this was done, the amount could be used

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to multiply the emissions factors to figure out the levels of eCO2 emissions coming from CNG. Numbers given in the past were checked to ensure that this metric was being used consistently for the calculations of the emissions. In the past, the wrong conversion was used to calculate gas gallon equivalent to MMBtu. By dividing this factor out and multiplying by the correct conversion factor of 0.125, the data was able to be adjusted. Any previously reported data will not show this correction and should be largely ignored for the sake of comparison or historical reference. RI Contact Barbara Phayre – State Fleet Operations Officer Barbara.phayre@doa.ri.gov p: 401-222-6212

Agriculture The Agricultural emissions come from two major sources: use of nitrogen-based fertilizers and the use of animals. The University operates Peckham farm next to the Kingston Campus and uses both of these sources. An inventory list of animals was used to calculate the emissions and appears in the appendix in Table 14. Table 7 depicts the eCO2 emissions coming from agricultural sources at the University.

MT eCO₂ Emissions Source 2005 2011 Fertilizers/lime                    ‐                14.05 Cows                    ‐                19.46 Swine                    ‐                43.31 Goats                  0.45                  1.96 Sheep                13.53                16.49 Horses                  2.49                  0.62 Poultry                    ‐                  0.47    Total                16.47                96.36 Table 7: Agricultural Emissions   Notes Previous year GHG calculations did not include a section for agriculture so historical data was gathered back to FY 2005 to keep the calculations of Net eCO2 emissions consistent. Each animal type has its own level of emissions, primarily CH4 and N2O that get calculated and then summed into the final calculation for agriculture. We count chicken and turkey as poultry emissions and use the same emission factors for both given the similarities. The only animal that does not get accounted for is a lone llama, which has been at the University since 2008. The fertilizers come from use at Peckham Farm. There are two separate types of nitrogen-based fertilizers which differ only in nitrogen content. There is also a sufficient amount of lime used in agriculture. The numbers for fertilizer use was not tracked prior to FY 2009, so no previous data is available for FY 2005. Also, the fertilizer data is from the point of delivery or sale, not for application use on the farm. It is possible for fertilizer to have been purchased at the end of a fiscal year, but not applied until the next fiscal year. URI Contact Katie Horton - Peckham Farm Manager khorton@mail.uri.edu p: 401-874-4183

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Scope 2 Emissions Scope 2 Emissions include purchased electricity, purchased steam water, and purchased chilled water. The University of Rhode Island only purchases electricity from an outside source. Figure 3 shows the historical electrical usage for the Kingston and Bay campuses measured in kilowatt hours (kWh).

Figure 3: Electricity Use by year

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Purchased Electricity This section is reserved for the purchased electricity emissions for the University that is generated at a power plant and imported to the campus. Table 8 shows the emissions coming from purchased electricity going to both the Kingston and Bay campuses.

MT eCO₂ Emissions 2005 2011 Electricity       33,055.61       25,339.89 Table 8: Purchased Electricity   Notes Historically, only data from the Kingston Campus was used in the calculations for electrical consumption. Data was found for the Bay campus ranging back to FY 2005. These numbers have been updated in the campus inventory and will differ from those appearing in other, previously reported sources such as the ACUPCC. URI Contact David Lamb - Facilities Engineer dlamb@uri.edu p: 401-874-7896

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Scope 3 Emissions Scope 3 Emissions are the indirect sources that the University cannot directly control such commuting to campus by the students, faculty, and staff, directly financed travel by car or airplane, transmission and distribution losses from the production of purchased electricity, paper used, and solid waste to landfill. Figure 4 below shows the scope 3 emissions for FY 2005 and 2011.

Scope 3 Emissions 25,000.00 

MT eCO2 emissions

20,000.00 

15,000.00  T & D Losses Paper Solid Waste Financed Travel

10,000.00 

Commuting

5,000.00 

‐ 2005

2011 Fiscal Year

Figure 4: Scope 3 Emissions

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Student, Faculty, and Staff Commuting Commuting to campus everyday for the students, faculty, and staff is one of the greatest sources of emissions, and the largest source of mobile combustion emissions on campus. The numbers for the RIPTA Bus Commuting are based on a ‘University Zone of Control’ in which we establish the portions of the bus routes the University is responsible for based on where students live and would likely take the bus from to get to class every day. Table 9 shows the eCO2 emissions on campus for traveling by car and by bus. MT eCO₂ Emissions Commuting 2005 2011 Student          6,221.22          7,328.93 Faculty/Staff          5,859.82          6,009.22 Bus             192.47             192.47    Total        12,273.51       13,530.62 Table 9: Commuting Emissions    Notes Previous campus emissions from commuting behavior neglected to incorporate the RIPTA bus commuters. Previous calculations also assumed that all full-time and half of the part-time students were commuters, which was inaccurate, as commuters only make up roughly 30% of the campus. The remainder of the students live on campus or in housing provided by the University (Graduate Village, Greek Life). These corrections were made to all of the previous years in the campus inventory. The current calculations of commuter emissions assumes that 90% of current student get to campus in a Single Occupancy Vehicle (SOV) while 95% of faculty/staff get to campus in a SOV, which shows 10% and 5% carpooling, respectively. This information was based on research conducted on the campus and is fairly accurate as the majority of vehicles on campus are SOV. We took the following information: Average number of miles commuted to campus each day per member Number of trips per day Number of weeks in the academic year And multiplied by the number of drivers for student, faculty or staff to reach the total miles commuted to campus in a single year. We assumed the average trip was 10 miles for a student and 20 miles for a faculty/staff member, applied twice (once for each way), 5 times per week, and assuming that students were on campus for 16 weeks and faculty/staff were here 40 weeks for the academic year. For the summer calculations, we assumed the same data, only added 50% of the faculty and staff to the campus commuting, as many are away on vacation or away for research. For students, we assumed that roughly 100 vehicles were commuting to campus each day, as we conducted a separate study counting the individual cars in the commuter lot each day for a month during the summer. We assumed that the summer period lasted 10 weeks. The information from the purchased RIPTA passes was not able to be included in our calculations due to the formatting of the data and the lack of information available on the buses used by the service provider. The amounts are very small, but do represent an increase in rider usage since FY 2005. Instead, we established a University Zone of Control that is based on the routes of the two prominent bus routes in the area, the 66 which travels to Galilee and Point Judith, then to the University, and the 64 which travels from

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Kingston Station, to the Kingston Campus, then out to the Bay Campus in Narragansett. The calculations are based on the academic school year only and are an over estimate, as it based on the mileage the bus travels, rather than the number of individual traveling on the bus. We assumed that the buses had an average of 6 miles per gallon and made full trips based on the schedule of 12 trips per day x 2 ways (inbound and outbound) for the 66 and 12 trips per day x 2 ways for the 64. The total mileage for the trips multiplied by 5 days per week and 32 weeks in the academic year gave us the total mileage which was then divided out by the mpg for the buses. In essence, the University takes responsibility for the RIPTA bus operations in the Zone of Control. URI Contacts J. Verne Wyman jvern@uri.edu p: 401-874-2501

Donna Buckley dbuckley@uri.edu p: 401-874-2501

Directly Financed Travel The two major sources of outsourced travel that gets financed by the University directly are air fare and mileage reimbursement. The air miles are tracked by Shorts Travel Management and reported for all students, faculty, and staff. Mileage Reimbursement is tracked by the Controller’s Office. Table 10 below shows the emissions coming from directly financed travel. MT eCO₂ Emissions Travel Type 2005 2011 Driving Mileage                    ‐                    ‐ Air Mileage          4,631.78          7,142.39    Total          4,631.78          7,142.39 Table 10: Directly Financed Travel Emissions   Notes Previously, these two amounts were omitted from the inventory and are new for FY 2011. Previous data could not be tracked for the air mileage and the only data that is available is from FY 2009. We estimated the air miles for previous years based on the allocation of the operating budgets (information that we had) and figured out an amount based on that calculation. While the number for FY 2005 is not entirely correct, it represents an estimate calculation that falls within a 90% accuracy range. Mileage numbers were not available due to a formatting issue on the expense reports. They are not tracked separately on expense reports. In the current year, the software that the University uses to keep track of the data will be updated to track all of this information for the purposes of reporting. URI Contact Patricia Casey patriciacasey@uri.edu p: 401-874-4422

Shorts Travel Management Contact Erin Holst - Account Manager eholst@shorttravel.com p:

Solid Waste Solid Waste includes the amount of waste that gets sent to landfill from the University. Table 11 includes the amounts for FY 2005 and 2011.

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MT eCO₂ Emissions 2005 2011 Solid Waste          3,529.82             397.18 Table: 11 Solid Waste Emissions Notes The solid waste on campus has steadily declined since FY 2005 as there has been a dramatic increase in recycling, especially since the state of Rhode Island began single-stream recycling in 2012. URI Contacts David Lamb - Facilities Engineer dlamb@uri.edu p: 401-874-7896

Mary Brennan – Recycling Coordinator mbrennan@uri.edu p: 401-874-2840

T & D Electricity Losses Transmission and Distribution Losses come from purchased electricity. They are the electricity that is lost from the point of generation to the point of distribution, in this case, from the power plant to the campus. The T & D losses for the State of Rhode Island are estimated at roughly 9% and are based on the amount of proportionately purchased electricity. Purchased Paper The University purchases the bulk of its paper as standard printer paper from W.B. Mason. The emissions calculated for the purchased paper appear in Table 12.

Paper

MT eCO₂ Emissions 2005 2011                52.21             100.66 Table 12: Purchased Paper  

Notes The University uses many types of paper and in various quantities. Printer paper is undoubtedly the most important, as it is used by students, staff, and faculty alike for projects and work. Paper is delivered by the truck load to the campus almost daily and creates an issue for both campus emissions and campus sustainability. The amounts above represent the aggregate total of paper used by the University converted into metric tons. WB Mason Contacts Glenn Mark P: 401-255-3644

Sandi Medeiros P: 1-888-926-2766 ext: 1706

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Other Emissions NSF Research Vessel Endeavor The University Research Vessel Endeavor is operated by the Graduate School of Oceanography on the Bay Campus in Narragansett, RI. The vessel travels all over the world to conduct research with scientists and teachers. As of 2010, the Endeavor had made more than 480 trips, ranging from Narragansett Bay to the Black Sea.

MT eCO₂ Emissions Vessel 2005 2011 R/V Endeavor          1,844.23          1,783.76 Table 13: NSF R/V Endeavor Emissions Notes The vessel is 185’ in length and fills up its 53,000 gallon fuel tank with a low sulfur diesel fuel. Beginning in 2012, the vessel started using B-5 bio-fuel which is 5% bio-fuel and 95% diesel by volume. In the future, the University plans to use B-20 bio-fuel, which is 20% bio-fuel and 80% diesel by volume. URI Contact Tom Glennon Director of Marine Operations tglennon@gso.uri.edu p: 401-874-6554

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Appendix The Nominal Data Institutional Data Measurement Kingston Budget    Operational    Research    Energy Size    Physical Space    Research Space Population    Part‐time    Full‐Time    Summer Faculty    All Staff    All On Campus Stationary    Distillate Oil    Natural Gas    Propane Direct Transportation    Gasoline    Diesel    Natural Gas Agriculture    Fertilizers ‐ Type 1    Fertilizers ‐ Type 2    Lime    Cows    Swine    Goats    Sheep    Horses    Chickens Electricity    Purchased Electricity Commuting    SOV    Bus Financed Travel    Driven Mileage    Air Mileage Waste    Solid Waste Paper    Purchased Paper    Recycled Paper Research Vessels    Diesel    B‐5    B‐20

Bay

Nominal Dollars Nominal Dollars Nominal Dollars

$             662,114,923 $                84,601,393 $                14,983,156

‐ ‐ ‐

Square Footage Square Footage

                    3,818,304                         278,005                         122,912                         197,742

Head Count Head Count Head Count

                             3,277                           12,732                              5,760

‐ ‐ ‐

Head Count

                                756

Head Count                              1,778 ‐ Scope 1 Measurement Kingston Bay Gallons                         401,380 ‐ MMBtu                         252,075                                 235 Gallons                              6,053                              1,235 Gallons Gallons MMBtu

                          59,097                           13,347                              1,364 Peckham Farm                              1,500                              2,515                           32,000                                      7                                 111                                    13                                    78                                      1                                    95

‐ ‐ ‐ East Farm ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐

Miles Miles

N/A                     9,199,739

‐ ‐

Short Tons

                                337

Pounds Pounds

                          78,000 N/A

‐ ‐

Pounds Pounds Pounds Number Number Number Number Number Number Scope 2 Measurement Kingston Bay kWh                   54,118,346                     5,999,882 Scope 3 Measurement Kingston Bay Miles                   33,014,139 ‐ Miles N/A ‐

Other Measurement Kingston Gallons ‐ Gallons ‐ Gallons ‐ Table 14: FY 2011 Nominal Data

Bay                         177,000 ‐ ‐

Notes Table 14 represents the raw or nominal data as it is received from a variety of sources. These numbers are given to the individuals compiling the annual emissions report and are not tampered with or unaltered in any way, shape, or form, with the exception of numbers that need to be converted into other units to put into the emissions calculator,

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such as natural gas conversions, as we receive the numbers in gas gallon equivalents (gge) or compressed cubic feet (ccf)/Mcf.

On Campus Stationary Distillate Oil Natural Gas Propane Direct Transportation Gasoline Diesel Natural Gas Agriculture Fertilizers Cows Swine Goats Sheep Horses Chickens Electricity Purchased Electricity Commuting SOV Bus Financed Travel Driven Mileage Air Mileage Waste Solid Waste Paper Purchased Paper Recycled Paper Research Vessels Diesel B‐5 B‐20

Emission Factors Scope 1 Measurement CO2 Gallons 9.9870057 MMBtu 52.755741 Gallons 5.41 Measurement CO2 Gallons 8.91 Gallons 9.9870057 MMBtu 52.755741 Measurement CO2 (% of pounds) ‐ # ‐ # ‐ # ‐ # ‐ # ‐ # ‐ Scope 2 Measurement CO2 kWh 0.42 Scope 3 Measurement CO2 Miles 0.39396 Miles 0.251747998 Measurement CO2 Miles 0.39396 Miles 0.773 Measurement CO2 Short tons ‐ Measurement Pounds Pounds Other Measurement CO2 Gallons 9.9870057 Gallons 9.447092215 Gallons 7.852970713 Table 15: Emission Factors 22 

 

CH4 0.0014559 0.005275 0.0009 CH4 0.0017 0.000567 0.014 CH4 ‐ 99.62 15.322 5.5 8.28 23.66 0.0622

N2O 0.000087354 0.001055 0.0367 N2O 0.0006 0.000257 0.000412 N2O 0.0140749 0.969 0.0237 0.05 0.004 0.1 0.011

CH4 0.00000308

N2O 0.00000213

CH4 7.88043E‐05 1.12927E‐05 CH4 7.88043E‐05

N2O 0.00002712 6.47834E‐06 N2O 0.00002712 0.00000876 N2O ‐

CH4 47.14285714 eCO2 0.0012905 ‐0.00047811 CH4 0.000567 0.000567 0.000567

N2O 0.000257 0.000257 0.000257  


Notes All emissions are measured in kg of emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O) and the emission factors are based on this conversion from the unit of measurement given. Emission factors are subject to change on a yearly basis as carbon content or heating values may change without notice. Although these numbers may change ever so slightly, it is prudent to check the appropriate sources to see if they have changed and update them as often as necessary. The main source of the emission factors are from the US EPA Emissions Inventory and Sinks which is updated every few years.

Converstion Factors From

To

Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Unit pound short ton ton metric ton US gallons Btu MMBtu kWh gge CO2

Unit kilograms pounds kilograms short ton liters Joules Btu MMBtu MMBtu CO

Quantity 0.45359237 2000 907.185 1.10231 3.785412 1055.055853 1000000 0.003412142 125000 0.27291153

1

CO 

CO2

3.664191096

Table: 16: Conversion Factors Notes Table 16 represents the general conversion factors that are used in this report and factors that may be needed in running a greenhouse gas emissions inventory at a later date. It is not a complete list of every factor that may be needed in the future, as the scope definitions, fuel types, or even selected items may change. In any event, any additional conversion factors may be found on the internet and if used, added to this list.

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2011 Inventory of Green House Gas Emissions