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The Modern Mafia Liberated by the dark web. An article on HiddenWiki and its doors into the hidden world of the internet. Interview with Paul Duchaine: professor of military law of cyber security and cyber operations

10 things you need to know about Anonymous



CONTENTS ................................................... Preface


Liberated by the Dark Web


Study Trip: Israel and Palestina


Interview Paul Ducheine


5 facts about Anonymous


Report: PIMUN 16 Symposium: Russia vs. The West


Member’s Page 19

The cover picture shows the phenomenon of ‘Phishing’. “Phishing is a kind of social engineering attack in which criminals use spoofed emails to trick people into sharing sensitive information or installing malware on their computers. Victims perceive these emails as associated with a trusted brand, while in reality they are the work of con artists. Rather than directly targeting the systems people use, phishing attacks target the people using those systems.”1 An example of cyber crime, which is the central theme to this issue of Curious. Forbes magazine calls cyber crime the “Modern-Day Mafia”.2

J. Hong, “The State of Phishing Attacks,” Communications of the ACM, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 74–81, 2012. 2 Tony Bradley, “Cybercrime is the Modern-Day Mafia”, Forbes Magazine, October 16, 2015. 1





ROOS BOS Editor-in-Chief

Dear readers,


Ten years ago you would go to a thrift store nearby, when you were interested in buying a cheap new stereo installation or you were in need of a new kitchen cabinet. When Internet made its debut on almost every computer in the world, a drive to a musty remote store was not necessary any more. With just one click of the mouse you can nowadays enter an enormous digital warehouse called Ebay, where you can sell and buy products and services. But which URL do you type in your browser if you are longing to buy an AK-47 or if you’d like something more delicate like a pocket pistol? The answer is: Download a tor browser and enter the depths of the dark net. The upswing of anonymous untraceable Internet behaviour can give a voice to the voiceless, because this kind of Internet use, veils all physical appearances of inequalities and power relations. On the other hand, the Darknet also creates millions of obscure alleyways in which the most notorious criminals can disappear in the shadows. The Dutch police recently sounded the alarm bells about the lack of control over cyber criminals, and a new bill was submitted that would allow for more police powers in the area of online criminality. It seems that even the EU feels hounded by modern cyber criminals, since the European parliament recently approved new powers for Europol in their fight against electronic offences. Besides the use of modern technology by individuals on their criminal career paths, governments have also integrated the use of cyber strategies in several policy plans. Governments are interested in comprehending and influencing global social relationships and because individuals nowadays interact on a different level than before, surveillance too has a new global and technological dimension. Having access to information about people in a foreign jurisdiction gives a state influence. Reaching or retaining a strong position in international cyber surveillance, is beneficiary for securing economy, territory and culture. This month the Pentagon revealed some of her concerns about China’s cyber warfare capacities. Also in Europe we have been treated with screaming headlines about cyber warfare. Germany’s intelligence service accused Russia of attacking the German parliament, NATO members and the French TV, with modern cyber undertakings. In this issue we discuss one of the most current ways of committing crimes, practicing politics, and fully exercising your right to privacy. When you finish reading the fifth issue of Curious you’ll know a lot more about the new vaguely defined area of cybercrime.




Liberated by the

DARK WEB By Alina Chakh

It is no secret anymore that nowadays we are able to make a full profile of a person, by analysing their online behaviour. We’re leaving data all over the place. It makes the internet more accessible and more user-friendly, but it also makes you more vulnerable. Like the case of a 13-year old boy, getting arrested for making a joke about possessing a gun on twitter. Or people that are being watched closely, because of using the words ‘bombing’ or ‘terrorists’ in their conversations on WhatsApp. Do we even dare to google ‘how to make a bomb?’ without being afraid of the intelligence services crushing in?

Yet, despite the fact that internet is making us less anonymous, we can’t imagine a world without it. The internet feels like the universe; we can’t make up our minds about where it starts and where it ends. But there is a black hole. There is a darker side of the internet. Internet where you can’t get access to, using your regular Firefox browser. To get to the dark web, you have to dig deeper. And no, using ‘incognito mode’ on Chrome is not enough. The Hiddenwiki holds the key to this secret part of the internet. Yes, it is the kind of Wikipedia where well known whistleblower Edward Snowden posted his

findings. Places like HiddenWiki contain lists of dark sites. You can get to this place by using your regular browser, but you are not able to click on the links. In order to really get to the dark sites, you have to download the Tor browser, which is, surprisingly, legal. What Tor basically does, is sending your data to servers all over the world, so it is not traceable to your own computer. You might as well be surfing from Japan or somewhere in Guatamala. The URL’s of these dark sites all end with .onion, since Tor is based on the principle of layering, like onions themselves. Within a few steps you can get access to this sinister place that is called the dark web.



By using special search engines, like DuckDuckGo, you can get to sites that are not indexable by the conventional search engines. These sites don’t have common URL’s, but contain numbers and letters, mixed together. On the dark web, you can find virtual marketplaces, where you can buy anything. We’re talking about Spotify accounts for two dollars, software, medicine and drugs, but you can even hire a hacker. If you want to hack someone’s Facebook account, just hire a hacker for 100 dollars. But it doesn’t stop there. You can also buy weapons and complete US identities, with social security numbers, a new birthday and credentials. Hiring a hitman costs around 600 dollars. The payment goes through the Bitcoin system, which makes your transactions untraceable. This dark web is used by whistleblowers, journalists and special agents, and even by people in China, since many sites are censored by Chinese authorities. But more often, the dark web is used for illegal purposes and terrible things, like child pornography. Or hiring a hitman to assassinate someone. But none of above where in the original purpose of the creator of the very first dark marketplace, called ‘Silk Road’. Ross Ulbricht, a bright student from the metropolitan area in Austin, Texas, is now serving a life sentence without the possibility of parole. Ulbricht created Silk Road to evade law enforcement. It is even said so that he made possible statements about creating this illegal website on his Linkedin profile. Ulbricht began to grow hallucinogenic mushrooms and sell them on the internet almost a decade ago. He didn’t see himself as a Mafioso or cybercriminal, but he was driven by libertarian thoughts. He declared his intention to build an economic simulation, and create an economic theory, as a means to abolish the use of coercion and aggression against mankind. He wanted to show to people what it would feel like to live in a world without the ‘systemic use of force’. The libertarian hope to create one day an entirely free market system. They also want to contribute to a drugwar free world. Since the drugs are being sold and shipped anonymously, drugdealers won’t be able to put up fights on the


streets. People weren’t encouraged to buy drugs, but to do it in the safest way. On the Silk Road forums, there were discussions about philosophy, the free market system and restraining from the government of the United States. Dread Pirate Roberts was their preacher. They were developing a world, a secret, hidden world, where law enforcement couldn’t get access to. A place where you could call yourself safe. But, Ulbricht got caught and arrested. US law enforcement was spying on Silk Road, and one agent in particular, became close to DPR. DPR got threatened by one of the users of Silk Road, threatening that he would expose all the information he got on the moderators. DPR was alleged to hire a hitman to assassinate the traitor. And that is the moment that Ulbricht was caught. The problem with the dark web is, is that law enforcement can work in the dark as well. As said before, in the dark web, there are no rules and no legislation. Does that count for the law enforcement as well? The libertarian view didn’t die with the prosecution of Ulbricht. Many more virtual marketplaces came up, and a war began between law enforcement and authorities against the cybercriminals/libertarian thinkers. The cybercriminals will always find a way to hack the system and come up with a new, encrypted marketplace. Despite the fact that the dark web is used for horrible things, the people behind it leave us thinking. Have we just agreed with the fact that our lives aren’t private anymore? The technologies advance much more fast than our laws do. There are, not yet, very strict rules upon spying. Those people, who are spending their days encrypting and decoding, have a vision, a goal to achieve. They want to set us free. And maybe, that isn’t a bad thing after all.




Urios Study Trip

Israel and Palestina April 26th to May 4th

By Carlijn Spijkers

On 26 April, we, a group of 22 very excited students, travelled to Israel. We had no idea we were about to embark on an amazing adventure. We had a bit of a rocky start – one flight was cancelled –, but we arrived safely in Tel Aviv-Yafo late at night. The next few days, we visited, among other things, a private university and the law firm Herzog, Fox & Neeman. We also went on a tour in the beautiful neighbourhood of Yafo. Luckily, we had enough spare time to explore everything Tel Aviv has to offer, such as the beach, good food, and a great nightlife. Before we knew it, it was time to go to Jerusalem. Jerusalem is a very interesting and beautiful city. We were in Israel during Passover (Jewish Easter), which made it even more impressive. We visited the Parliament and the Supreme Court. The Yad Vashem Holocaust Remembrance Centre was very impressive. We also visited a NGO that helps Palestinian people with legal issues. We realised that the situation of Palestinians is even more complicated than we thought.


Although it was rather peaceful in Israel, the conflict between the Israeli and the Palestinians is visible. We were lucky enough to meet many locals, and we have noticed that all they want is to live in peace. Israel is a very complicated country. Most of us were able to go on a tour to the Palestinian territories. It felt surreal to see the Wall with our own eyes instead of on TV. Some of us visited a refugee camp near Bethlehem. Hundreds of people share a space that is not bigger than 1 km². As families expand, so do their houses by adding new floors on top. The streets are narrow and there is no grass on which children can play. Almost all Palestinians that live there are educated, but their future is uncertain because they cannot move out of the camp. This tour really made us realise how lucky we are to live in the Netherlands. In Bethlehem, our tour guide told us that, due to the many attacks, there had not been big groups of tourists for over a decade. This is very sad considering most of the people living there depend on tourism as their main source of income. Beth-


lehem is also the birthplace of Jesus, so of course we visited the church that was built where Jesus was born. Walking through the old city of Jerusalem felt like going back in time. It is called the Holy City for a reason. Many religions are represented in this city. One of the most important Mosques in the world is located right next to the Western Wall. The Via Dolorosa (which is the last walk Jesus supposedly walked before he got crucified) and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre are very impressive. As if all of this was not adventurous enough, most of us went to the Dead Sea as well. We floated happily and scrubbed our bodies with the famous Dead Sea Mud. All in all, we learned a lot about the situation of the country, met the most friendly locals ever, learned about international law in Israel, and we explored the country as well. The Urios trip to Israel is one we will never forget.

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Talking with Paul Ducheine Curious had the chance to interview professor Paul Ducheine, an expert on military law of cyber security and cyber operations, he had some very interesting insights and findings on this relatively new field of law! BY ROOS BOS

Hi Paul Ducheine, it’s great to have the chance to interview you. To start off, can you tell us a little bit about yourself, how did you end up in your line of work? When I finished high school, I didn’t go to university like you did, I went to the military academy. After ten years I went to work for the military legal services and got my law degree in Utrecht. In 2003 I finished my PHD, my research was focused on the legal framework in the fight against terrorism. I answered the dual question: When should we deploy armed forces and how should we deploy them? When in 2011 it became clear that defence was going to enter the world of cyber warfare, information had to be gathered and research teams were set up. The same question that I had answered in my PHD had to be answered in the context of cyber warfare, so this how I got involved in this field of work. In 2011 cyber security became an important item on the political agenda, what triggered this focus?

Formally a resolution of Raymond Knops in the parliament. The resolution was very broad but its main focus was on rethinking security issues in the digital domain. In the meanwhile, the Dutch defence team and the commander of the armed forces especially, already thought about future scenarios in the context of strategic reconnaissance. In 2011, nine years after 9/11 the physical manifestations of the war on terror decreased, troops were withdrawn from Iraq and Afghanistan, but the Snowden files revealed that governmental actions surrounding cyber security increased immensely. Which country is the cyber security hegemony and what position does the Netherlands hold on the worldwide stage? The United states definitely holds the strongest position; they are approximately 5 to 8 years ahead of the competition. There are a few competitors, Israel for example developed various ICT services and cyber infrastructures that can be used for military operations. China

also has a lot of know-how on cyber services, the US and China recently agreed on ceasing all economic spying activities. The Dutch position in the cyber domain has been on the frontline, especially when cyber security was still in its children shoes, the Netherlands developed quite quickly. Countries from all over the world, often look at the Netherlands to see how we did that back then. One of your expertise is cyber warfare, what does this entail? Everything that we use in our daily lives in the digital domain, can be used in cyber warfare. Your fantasy is the limit of what you can employ as a cyber “weapon”. The most important question you should ask is: Is it effective and legitimate? Not to be forgotten, you must be in an armed conflict, otherwise law of war does not apply. I’ll give you some examples of the use of digital instruments in a current conflict. In the fight against ISIS, twitter accounts were hacked, communication dis-



rupted and files manipulated.

ent approach.

When is the intensity of cyber violence enough to cause an armed conflict?

People often say that legislation about cybersecurity is outdated, what is your opinion on that statement?

There are two types of situations in which cyber-attacks are used. First a “normal” physical armed conflict, in which one of the weapons used is cyber related. For example, in the war with Syria and Iraq, parties publicly declared to have used digital weapons. The second situation arises when there are only digital weapons used and no other forms of physical means are deployed. In theory the use of digital combat methods can activate law of war. In order to do so, there must be a minimum of two armed combating parties and the level of violence must be of a certain intensity. These kinds of situations haven’t arisen yet, but will without a doubt in the future exist. I can give you some examples of situations in which the “intensity” will probably activate law of war. There are known tests of generators exploding due to digital activities, we know that uranium processes can be disrupted by digital attacks and when you use your imagination you can think of situation in which the direct consequences of the use cyber weapons can cause deaths. The more connections we built between human beings and software and the more we are dependent on that software, the more vulnerable we will be. What are the biggest problems and pitfalls in the field of cyber warfare? There are a few important questions that have to be answered. The first is what is the effect of the cyber weapons and how far do these effects extend. The question whether, for example, the communication of ISIS is a military target is a “normal” physical question. It gets hard when the effect of the attack does not translate in material damage, but stay virtual. The biggest question that has to be answered is whether we should keep using the analogy of the physical situation in cases where a new digital situation arises, or we should use a fundamentally differ-


case. This might be against your privilege against self-incrimination. There are plenty of exciting legal developments in this field, definitely interesting to keep your eye on!

First it is important to note that there are all kinds of security issues in the digital domain, but it is crucial to see the differences. There is a different framework for every subdomain, for example there is a framework for cyber criminality, and cyber warfare or countering cyber spying. These frameworks are shaped by legal, executive and organizationally paradigms. A legal paradigm is only incomplete when it doesn’t meet your requirements. I find it immoral to ask security from the legislator and at the same time not willing to give up some privileges, either rights or paying more tax money. I hammer on a balance between security and privacy, I am happy that I am not the legislator it is a very difficult and complex job. Do you have any insights on future legislation surrounding cyber security? Two new bills have been submitted to the second chamber, one is about intelligence and the other about criminal law. There are some major criticisms on both bills. The previous act on intelligence and security services is from 2002, but was drafted 10 years before. In this era phones were still attached by wires so the act was already outdated when it was enacted. There are two types of connections, phone connections and connections via radio signals. Nowadays 99,9% of all communication goes through fiberglass, the legislator did not anticipate on this development and the act does not arrange anything about intelligence on communication via fiberglass. The current situation is like checking car speeding on sand roads instead of the highway. The other bill submitted to the second chamber made it possible to force suspects to give up their encryptions for, for example, their computers like in the Robert M.

Paul Ducheine was born in 1965 and graduated in Political Science / Public Administration (VU University Amsterdam) and Law (Utrecht University). He is extraordinary professor in Cyber ​​Operations and Military (Operational) law. Ducheine is guest lecturer International Humanitarian Law at the University of Amsterdam, the University of Groningen and Maastricht University. Furthermore, Ducheine is (guest) lecturer Military & Constitutional Law and senior researcher (Amsterdam Centre of International Law) at the University of Amsterdam. He also is professor of Cyber Warfare at the Faculty of Milirary Sciences of the Dutch Defense Academy. Together with Eric Pouw he gives lectures about Targeted Killing, Targeting and Targeting in Counterinsurgencies ( T.M.C. Asser Institute, in cooperation with the International Centre for Counter- Terrorism, Summer School Programme Countering Terriorism in the Post 9/11 World).

Source: organisatie/medewerkers/content/d/u/ p.a.l.ducheine/p.a.l.ducheine.html




“We are Anonymous. We are Legion. We do not forgive. We do not forget. Expect us.”

5 things you didn’t know about

ANONYMOUS By Judith Bel By Judith Bel

More than 10 years after they first arose, hacker group Anonymous still doesn’t sleep. Last October, after the Paris attacks, they declared war with ISIS. The beginning the of this month, they announced to attack several banks around the world to fight the “global financial system”. Anonymous is famous for their videos and masks, yet there still is a lot of mysterie around the group. Hopefully, these 5 facts will give you a little bit more insight in the world of these hackers.



They birthed birthed out out of of an an ininThey nocent online online board board nocent

There’s a story a story behind There’s behind their their mask mask

4chan is is the the most most popular popular British British 4chan board, dedicated dedicated to to Japanese Japanese culture culture board, and such. It’s actually mostly used and such. It’s actually mostly used for for sharing pictures commenting sharing pictures andand commenting on them; many memes have actually on them; many memes have actually originated from from this this board. board. On On 4chan, 4chan, originated everyone is is anonymous, anonymous, it it is is not not even even everyone possible to use a name. These are possible to use a name. These are great great circumstances for hackers, since circumstances for hackers, since no no one will find out who they are. one will find out who they are. OrigiOriginating this board, the group nating from from this board, the group of of ‘hacktivists’ came around ‘hacktivists’ came to to lifelife around 2003. 2003.

Anonymous is is easily easily recognized recognized bebeAnonymous cause of of the the use use of of the the Guy Guy Fawkes Fawkes cause mask. Guy Fawkes was a famous Britmask. Guy Fawkes was a famous British activist activistininthe the 17th century, ish 17th century, and and the the mask stands for activism and mask nownow stands for activism and proprotest in general. was originally test in general. It was It originally used in usedmovie in theV movie V for Vendetta, but the for Vendetta, but became became part of the Anonymous idenpart of the Anonymous identity during tity Scientology during the Church Scientology Church the protests in protests infact: 2008. FunWarner, fact: Time 2008. Fun Time who Warproner, who the Vmovie, for Vendetta duced theproduced V for Vendetta still has movie, stilltohas rights the monmask the rights thethe mask andto earns and earns money every time someone ey every time someone buys the Guy buys the Fawkes the mask Fawkes mask National Gathe National Gazette which was Washopenzette which was openly against ly againstadministration. Washington’s administration. ington’s Nevertheless, Nevertheless, on of the principle freeon the principle freedom of of speech dom of speech it was allowed and even it was allowed and even encouraged to encouraged to stand. stand.





then didn’t support any money transfers to WikiLeaks anymore. Anonymous took great efforts to block the actions of these websites

5. 5.

Anyone can be a member Their philosophy may differ from time to time The members of Anonymous are literalThe members of Anonymous

ly anonymous, even for other members. are literally anonymous, even If you want to be a member, all you refor other members. If youyourself want as ally have to do is proclaim to be a member, all you really one. Thus, Anonymous cannot be seen as have a structured to do is proclaim group that yourself exists of certain members with specific functions; as one. Thus, Anonymous cannot several Anonymous attacks could be seen as a structured groupeven be done by completely different people that exists of certain members around the world who have no real life with specific functions; several connection at all.

Anonymous attacks could even be done by completely different people around the world who have no real life connection at all.

4. 4.

They have connections with WikiLeaks? It is often said that some members of Anonymous have close bonds with the They have connections people behind WikiLeaks. We can nevwith WikiLeaks? er be sure of this, but we know that in 2010 Anonymous has chosen the side of WikiLeaks when they were on great It is often said that some mempressure to stop publishing secret bers of Anonymous close diplomatic documents ofhave the United bondsSeveral with websites, the people behind States. like PayPal and Amazon WikiLeaks. thenWe didn’t can support neverany bemoney sure transfers to WikiLeaks anymore. Anonyof this, but we know that in 2010 mous took great efforts to block theside acAnonymous has chosen the tions of these websites of WikiLeaks when they were on

great pressure to stop publishing secret diplomatic documents of the United States. Several websites, like PayPal and Amazon

There have been many attacks since the start of Anonymous. After the Paris attacks many of jihadists Twitter accounts Their philosophy may were hacked, and in another event even some address jihadists differ fromdetails timeof to timewere published online. In the Netherlands, There have been many attacks they hacked the website of pedophile since the start of Anonymous. association MARTIJN after a law suit on After offenses. the Paris of sexual Yet,attacks hackingmany does not jihadists Twitter were always happen is suchaccounts a setting against such an ‘evil’. and hacked, andEven in governments another event many companies havedetails experienced even some address of jitrouble because of Anonymous. hadists were published online.The In hacker group sometimes proclaims the Netherlands, they hacked the that there philosophy is about ‘freedom website of pedophile of expession’, for exampleassociation when they MARTIJN after a law suit onalways sexuhacked WikiLeaks. Yet this is not applicable. thathacking sense, anonymous al offenses.InYet, does not stays mysterious and unpredictable. always happen is such a setting

against such an ‘evil’. Even governments and many companies have experienced trouble because of Anonymous. The hacker group sometimes proclaims that there philosophy is about ‘freedom of expession’, for example when they hacked WikiLeaks. Yet this is not always applicable. In that sense, anonymous stays mysterious and unpredictable.








PIMUN 2016 By Vidette Adjorlolo

On the 24th of May ten us from the URIOS MUN delegation set forth on a journey to Paris, the city of light, to participate in the Model United Nations simulation, many of us being first and second time participants in this conference. Despite having to endure a six-hour coach ride to Paris we were all bubbling with pure joy and excitement not aware of what to expect. We arrived in Paris at 6am, had the chance to have some breakfast and walk around the beautiful city for a while. It was soon time to attend the Welcoming Ceremony, which was hosted in the OECD institute. We were greeted with amazing speeches where we were told quite rightly that ‘agreements make headlines but implementation changes lives’. With this speech in mind, free wine, macaroons and finger food we prepared ourselves mentally for four unforgettable days of debating. On Tuesday we were all up by 8:00am, suited and booted, ready to pass a useful draft resolution. In the presence of nerves and euphoria, we each set off to our committees where we participated in 8 hours of intense debating (and shouting), arguing with other member states in order for our point of view to be heard. Occasionally each of us would be

visited by two familiar faces in our delegation who were part of the UN news and as such bestowed with the mandate of documenting our intellectual screams. The following days proceeded in a similar fashion, except with each day our delegates got closer to the different individuals they met and better with each speech they made. With every passing day we all had something to share. If it was not Maxime telling us about how she had started war with North Korea, it was probably Alina ranting about how upset she was that the big 5 were consistently vetoing her resolution. The various socials we had also created an avenue for us to meet with delegates from different places. Through this we were all able to build deep friendships by merely clicking ‘accept’ on Facebook. The morning after our last social, there was consensus that we had just experienced one of the best nights as a delegation. The cherry on top of our trip was when four of our delegates received certificates for their excellent performance in their committees. We could not have asked for a better experience, new friendships and new perspectives on life were gained.









FEATURED IN CURIOUS: OLAF VAN DEN DOOL My name is Olaf van den Dool and I am a sixth-year Law student at Utrecht University. After doing my bachelor from 2010 to 2013, I started my master Private Law and finished my thesis that same academic year. From September 2014 to August 2015, I did a legal internship at CMS Derks Star Busmann, after which I travelled to Colombia. In September 2015 I started the master Public International Law, which I am due to finish at the end of this August. Afterwards, I will attempt to get a job at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs or some other interesting internationally oriented organization. I joined Urios exactly because of the previous: I would really love to work in the international field and joining Urios is an excellent way of exploring the opportunities. Previously I served as Committee Member of the Career Event Committee, but currently I am member of the Symposium Committee. I would like to encourage other Urios members to join committees and to attend events, as they are often very interesting and let you explore possible internship/career opportunities. My best experience at Urios yet, was organizing a lecture on the peace negotiations between the Colombian government and FARC, at which the Colombian Ambassador attended as keynote speaker. Many people attended and I felt really proud of the event, partly because of my high level of involvement in the organization of it.


Curious - Urios Magazine Vol. 1 Issue 5 May 2016 Editors Roos Bos, Judith Bel, Natasha McArdle-Ismaguilova, Alina Chakh, Sofia van Dijk Address Janskerkhof 3 3512BK Utrecht The Netherlands Copyright The copyrights of the articles, photographs and pictures are reserved to the authors and artists. Nothing in this issue may in any way be duplicated or made public without permission from the authors.

Curious #5  

Urios Magazine Volume 1 Issue 5 May/June 2016

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