ISSUE NO. 3
CURIOUS URIOS MAGAZINE
LUSTRUM EDITION – URIOS' 35TH BIRTHDAY!
THE LEGAL BACKDROP IN EUROPE SINCE 1981 The changing focus of law students in Europe since 1981
A TALK WITH URIOS' FOUNDER
THE DIGNIFIED ROAD TO PEACE
Huub Audretsch gives an interview on how he came to found a study association.
The vitality of achieving dignity for human life in post-conflict societies
TABLE OF CONTENTS
How the legal backdrop changed in 1981
Interview Huub Audretsch
5 Urios years
The dignified road to peace
10 things in 1981
Featured in Curious
EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Dear reader, In 1981 Urios was founded, and 35 years later we are celebrating the 7th lustrum of the association! The last three decades students interested in international law have worked to raise Urios to greater heights; the society has become bigger and more diverse over the years. We now have over 250 members and nine committees! The Lustrum week starts today and we are all very excited for this week full of celebration, fun and excitement. We will provide you with an overview of all the activities that are taking place in the lustrum week. From a beer pong evening to a moot court, from the dies celebration to a career event: the lustrum week has it all! In this issue we are looking back on what happened the past five years within Urios; there has been a great variety of activities, trips and of course social events, so we thought it was about time to pick up some memories of the highlights! In 35 years a lot can change; we never got to the shiny science fiction future some people expected, but three decades ago you wouldnâ€™t be able to read this issue of Curious on the Internet and you would have killed your time by reading a book instead of watching Netflix on your laptop. Not only in the field of science and technology there have been tremendous changes, also international law has developed at an immense rate. For example: think of the amplification of human rights, the foundation of various tribunals and the growing emphasis on the collaboration of the international community. If you browse further through this issue you will find an overview of the legal developments of the past 35 years. You will find out that the world was a completely different place in the eighties; we collected ten news headlines from Uriosâ€™ founding year 1981 that you might find interesting! And last but not least; if you have always been curious about who founded the association and what the original intentions were behind the foundation, you now have the chance to read an interview with the man we owe Urios to! Hope you will enjoy our third edition of Curious!
HOW THE LEGAL BACKDROP HAS CHANGED IN EUROPE SINCE 1981 BY NATASHA MCARDLE-ISMAGUILOVA
Politically, the 1980s was a turbulent time. Founded in 1981, Urios was born on the cusp of political change brought in by the Cold War tensions, changing economic times and the emergence of the European Union. What has been evident is how the changing political landscape gave rise to a whole host of legal developments, debate and job opportunities for law students that we still see today.
In terms of economics, one of the biggest changes to affect the financial landscape was the trend of financialization. At the beginning of the 1980s, production and agriculture was in decline in many countries around the world. This marked the beginning of a system of capitalism where money is made not by imports and exports but by fiddling with stock prices, leveraging and playing with numbers. Many countries now rely on finance to contribute to GDP including the UK, the U.S. and many European countries. Understandably, a comprehensive and thorough body of law needed to be developed to keep this in check. In just thirty years, the area of law known as â€˜capital marketsâ€™ has grown immensely, which fuses knowledge of economics with competence in law. It is perhaps for this reason that multidisciplinary
law courses are popping up all over Europe. From Utrecht’s very own Law and Economics programme to undergraduate degrees everywhere that fuse an LLB with modules in politics, business studies and languages, it seems evident that the era of traditional law study is over: students are now expected to be more internationally-focused and multidisciplinary. It is now not enough that you are diligent and prepared to spend hours working away in an office, law is now about taking into account volatile markets and international politics. With regards to international politics, it is also impossible to be a law student and ignore the huge political force that is the European Union. As well as changing the political and economic makeup of Europe, it has also changed the legal landscape completely. 1981 marked a landmark case for human rights in Europe: Dudgeon v. United Kingdom was the first case decided by the European Court of Human Rights in favour of LGBT rights. The ruling that UK law criminalising homosexual acts and indeed any Member State law that went against the European Convention on Human Rights could be set aside, set a precedent for Europe. The European Convention on Human Rights now began to be seen as protection for all European citizens everywhere. We now see that human rights law is one of the most competitive and sought after areas of law for students to enter. As Huub Audretsch said in his interview (turn to page 8 for the interview), Urios was founded
at a time of European idealism. The growth from six to twenty-eight Member States has had a huge impact on all areas of life, not least the legal aspect. Now, as tensions bubble over in the wake of the financial crisis and unemployment rises, the European Union faces new challenges from Member States who want to leave. The UK has been one of the most ‘watched’ countries for this- it will hold a referendum on whether to stay in or leave at the end of June. If the UK votes to leave, critics fear the ‘domino effect’ this will have on other Member States who may also decide they have had enough. The change in legislation will have a huge knock-on effect, not just for the exiting countries but the European Union as a whole. And perhaps the doing away of the muchdisliked (at least in the UK) compulsory modules of EU law will be welcomed by law students, but they may not be so thrilled when it gets replaced with a compulsory module on restructuring and insolvency. As we have seen, the focus of law students is changing. There are now more opportunities to travel, work abroad and work with colleagues from many different countries. Law is becoming an exciting and international career, shaped by changing political and economic changes. Urios recognised the necessity of students to organise and socialise with student organisations in other countries all the way back in 1981 and it remains this way today, if not more so. Perhaps the time of idealism is gone, but the changes of the eighties remain and continue to shape our student experience. ∆
A talk with the Urios founder
However, at the end there was a second and third round and at the third round there were five students left. From these Interviewed by Natasha McArdleIsmaguilova and Sofia van Dijk five prof. Kapitein chose me. So, that’s how it started in the late fifties or early sixties. Professor Kapitein then went to the United States and another professor For this Curious lustrum issue we had the chance to together with professor Bos were talk with the founder of Urios, Huub Audretsch. He interested in trips. I had already been to had a lot to say about European idealism, the origins Geneva as a student still, with professor of Urios and study trips to the USA... Bos. I must say that having visited the United States as such and the Haute Institute des études internationals in After a series of emails, Huub Audretsch We could not help but notice the Lausanne I saw that students were more had told us we could come to his house numerous books on US politics and interested in the buildings and the to talk to him a little more in-depth biographies of Henry Kissinger something people there than learning from the about the founding years of Urios and his that would later make clear to us how academic papers. So then I thought I role in starting the study organisation. passionate Mr. Audretsch was about had to combine this job with RIO tours We knew Mr. Audretsch only as one of international politics. So, with much to to see how the institutions work. This the original founding members of Urios discuss, we wasted no time in getting was how the idea for Urios came up. and one who still took an active interest down the interview. Then for fifty years I have been Secretary in the running of Urios today, but we still of the NGIZ. did not know much about his Hi Mr. Audretsch! Can you tell us a little experience and life: who was he? It was bit about yourself, your life and your And what were your ambitions at that not without some excitement, then, that career? time? we found ourselves on the outskirts of Utrecht on a Thursday afternoon, Okay. Well, in my career I started as a Not to be a professor, but to be a worker walking up to a bright and cosy-looking junior academic at an accountancy interested in doing international affairs. I house, eager to learn more about the bureau. Actually, my accountancy was not wanted to work at the university but also origins of the study association we are as they liked it, so I was eager to change wanted the knowledge of being there at part of. After ringing the doorbell, his jobs. Then I saw an advertisement by Mr. the place where it all happens: Geneva, friendly wife greeted us outside and let Kapitein in Utrecht for the Europa Brussels or Strasbourg. us in through the back door (it is more Instituut. Professor Bos was there too, he polite than letting guests in through the worked at the department of Do you think you have fulfilled your front door, Mr. Audretsch joked later). A ‘Volkenrecht’ and Kapitein worked at the ambitions? few minutes later and we were both sat Europa instituut. Around 100 law students down in their comfortable living-room applied for prof. Bos and about 100 for I think so, yes. I should say that when and presented with tea and delicious professor Kapitein. These law students you’re a professor, you should not have biscuits. It was evident that this was an were mostly studying Public International free time for looking at paintings or exciting meeting for both paries. Looking Law, unlike me, so I thought that the gardening. A professor should always be around the room, we took in our chance of me getting picked was quite busy on Saturday and Sunday. He has to surroundings. low give lectures, so he is always busy.
PAGE 9 Why did you want to start a study association like Urios? I wanted to start a study association that focused on European law because it was a time of idealism. In those years people were still thinking of Europe and the EU as a unity. Of course it started as six Member States and it ended with over twenty. (Twenty-eight!) In that time we thought it was easy to create a European union, but of course it wasn’t. I found out that in the United States and the UK students were often part of study associations. So I thought about the fact that we didn’t have this kind of thing here. We did have student organisations, but not really study associations. There was the Utrecht Student Corps for example, which were social associations;study associations did not exist. So I wanted to create one myself. The name was inspired by a Greek twist on Europe. It also meant ‘Utrechtse RIO studenten’, the Utrecht RIO Students.
smokers and the other one for non-smokers. during the week, but at the weekends the There were only ten to twelve of us, because city was mostly deserted… Times were it was a long and expensive trip. I also different. Indeed, I started with 100 remember almost every student on the trip students and ended with only five to ten getting ill at some point –- the only person students graduating in Law. Many girls who didn’t get ill was me. It was a big culturehad to stop their studies, as they got shock for the Dutch students;- the Americansmarried. These days there are many more worked from 8am to 8pm and we were not students in the university. In those days used to that. going to university meant that you had a lot of money or capability. It is not like that So this was your first activity as Urios? anymore. Yes. It was the first study trip with Urios.
And where did you go in the USA? New York and Harvard and then to Washington, to visit the government institutions.
That sounds like it was fun! And how did things grow and develop after that?
And was there already such a thing as a beer culture? Actually, the first year was completely thrown away by drinking beer.
What were the overall highlights of your Urios years? Well, I think that the trip to the USA was a highlight, because we had a long time to prepare it.
Well –- I don’t know if it is still a “study association”, but it did continue to make and have activities! As for me, I studied Dutch LawFinally, what advice do you have for but did not do any study after as it was not socurrent Urios members? What were the RIO students? common at the time. I tried working as a lawyer, but that was not for me. It means ‘Recht van Internationale Try to go on a trip to organisations in the Organisaties’, Law of International world (hint: check the Urios calendar on How was student life in Utrecht 35 years Organisations. I thought by creating a our website to see when our next trip is!), study organisation, it would be a better ago? as it is useful to be in these places just to platform for students to collaborate with see the surroundings. I think that if Utrecht was then a provincial town then and possible you should start at Brussels. If others. So when the USA for example needed students of International Law, it really old fashioned. In the weekends there you’re studying international law, you would be easier to find them. It would be was nothing to do, because all the students should definitely see one of these left in the weekends for home –- taking their countries and places. more effective. laundry with them! And did it work out the way you wanted We still do that today! If every student left it to? for home in the weekends, was there Yes, well, we did it for about a year after something to do during the week? being accepted. Then we went on a tour through the USA, this was our starting I’m not so sure, as I wasn’t a member of a point. I remember we had a brown bus social association. There were lectures and a blue bus, one for
5 URIOS YEARS
Highlights of the past five Urios years By Roos Bos
It is about time that we look back on the past five successful years of the association, full of activities, trips and social events! There are so many warm memories, and luckily we have the chance to relive some of those beautiful moments in this Lustrum issue of Curious! In 2012, Urios organised a lecture on the London riots. In August 2011 thousands of people gathered in the streets of London and started rioting; the riots soon got very violent, which resulted in total chaos. The cause of the initial peaceful protest and the later violent conflict between police and civilians was the shooting of Mark Duggan. The local youth was mainly unemployed and the gap between rich and poor quickly became bigger. It is interesting to see that similar issues are still very relevant a few years later, for example think of the Ferguson unrest in Missouri.
In May 2012 Urios made a study trip to ‘’the big apple’’. Besides all the touristic sightings of the city, it has so much more to offer – especially for the students interested in International Law. The headquarters of the United Nations is situated in New York. A fun fact: all though the office is located in the U.S, the land occupied by the headquarters is under the sole administration of The United Nations! In 2013 Urios visited another continent, namely Asia! The lucky members who joined the trip flew all the way to Bangkok. One of the many activities the committee organised was a visit to the United Nations Economic and social commission for Asia and the Pacific. The ESCAP’s main regional focus is managing globalization through programs that have focal points like sustainability, human rights and trade. This year, Urios also made a trip a bit closer to home; a two-day visit to Luxembourg was scheduled. Luxembourg is the place to be when you want to pursue a career in European law. The court of justice of the European Union is situated in Luxembourg, just as the European Ombudsman, and there are offices of the European Commission and the European Parliament.
PAGE 11 In 2014 Urios organised a symposium on NSA-Spying. In 2013 Edward Snowden blew the whistle on the NSAâ€™s massive data collection program PRISM. The U.S. government, the NSA and other intelligence agencies claimed that their intentions were protecting citizens from terrorist attacks, while the American public felt that their privacy was seriously impaired.
On the 14th of February the association paid a visit to the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Many Dutch students who complete a master in the field of International law end up working for the Dutch Ministry of foreign affairs. So what is more alluring than an interactive visit to a ministry that might be your future employer?
STUDY TRIP BANGKOK
In 2015 a symposium on MH17 was held. On the 17th of July 2014 the Boeing 777-200ER of Malaysia Airlines crashed in the Ukraine, after being shot down. All the 283 passengers on board died. Soon allegations came from the American and German intelligence services that the plane was shot down by Russian insurgents. Russia replied by saying that the Ukraine government was responsible for the incident, because the plane crashed while being in the Ukrainian airspace. In 2016 the investigation is still ongoing and highly criticised. On the 16th of November a lecture was held by the Red Cross. The Red Cross helps in emergency situations in the Netherlands and in disasters and conflicts worldwide. In an emergency situation the Red Cross immediately grants assistance on the ground. In a conflict they never choose sides, which enables them to give the needed help to the most vulnerable people in the situation.
2016 has just started, but we already made some good memories; in the last issue we reported on the short exchange to Lisbon and last week we had a very successful symposium on the Dutch referendum about the EU/ Ukraine association agreement. GeenPeil (a coalition of a few smaller organisations) decided to organise a referendum about the treaty between the EU and the Ukraine that focuses on economic cooperation and free trade. After looking back on these amazing past few years, I think we all got a little more excited about the coming five Urios years!!
STUDY TRIP LUXEMBOURG
THE DIGNIFIED ROAD TO PEACE BY ANDREA MARILYN UTRECHT JOURNAL BOARD The foremost reason for the creation of the United Nations Organization is for the promotion of peace as is stated in the Preamble of the U.N. Charter, i.e., “to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind.” Despite this, after 1945, conflicts have mushroomed throughout the world, ranging from civil wars to inter-state armed conflicts. Although these conflicts may not be on a large scale as the two world wars, the devastation and ruin caused by these conflicts have brought untold suffering to millions and peace has remained a far cry. Such conflicts hamper peace and destroy societies, affect the vulnerable and, most of the time, push the society into economic and social problems.
Human dignity encompasses the spectrum of human rights such as civil and political rights and economic, social and cultural rights. It is the underlying notion on which international human rights law is built. Promotion and restoration of human dignity, therefore, would mean the promotion and observance of human rights. Human dignity and human rights are the prime elements that get attacked when a society is plagued with conflicts. Some conflicts involve hate crimes against a group of people while others involve forced displacement of people in general. Certain conflicts results in persecution and eventually refugee outflows into other states. The common thread connecting all these atrocities is the fact that human dignity is violated. In fact, conflicts are caused in the first place due to violation of human rights and human dignity such as discrimination, suppression of a particular group, need for survival and the want for identity. In order to achieve lasting peace, human dignity in its widest terms must inform all peace building processes. In order to promote human dignity and human rights, rule of law must inform state activities in post-conflict societies. Rule of law could manifest in the form of reparations and compensation for victims, restitution or even the exposure of the truth so victims can find healing and reconciliation. This is why truth reconciliation commissions, criminal courts and reparations programme are propagated in such societies. Although this seems to be victim-oriented, it would do well to remember that even the perpetrators of violence and inhuman acts have to be accorded basic human rights and human dignity since reconciliation would be redundant without such human rights being accorded to the accused and treating the perpetrator as human. Furthermore, if the supporters of the perpetrators during the conflict have to be integrated with the rest of the population in a post-conflict society, fair trial rights have to be accorded to the perpetrators.
Human rights should also inform the rebuilding of state institutions and structures. States have to ensure that social and economic problems such as poverty and lack of resources do not hinder reconciliation and also do not trigger again such conflicts. Peace building in post-conflict societies require the observance and respect of human rights. Peace sought without such respect may not be lasting. In fact, the U.N., recognizing the importance of promoting human dignity for achieving peace proposed the theme of the International Peace Day of 2015 as â€œPartnerships for Peace â€“ Dignity for allâ€?. The U.N. could not have highlighted the link between human dignity and peace at a better time owing to the number of conflicts presently continuing in the world. If states can build structures to ensure this connection between human dignity and peace, the road to peace would not be a distant dream.
THE ANTWERP MUN SHORT STUDY TRIP REPORT Very early on 25th of February we set off to our second Model United Nations adventure of this year, AntwerpMUN. We went by car and left Utrecht at 7 in the morning. Despite our early departure time we hit traffic around Rotterdam and at the outskirts of Antwerp, which unfortunately made us miss the Opening Ceremony. We did make it in time for lunch, so we were able to enjoy some tasty sandwiches while meeting the other delegates. After taking committee pictures it was time for the first committee sessions. For all our participating delegates it was the first time, but they were off to a great start. The second day, our diplomatic first- timers were speaking and negotiating as if they had been doing MUNÂ´s for years. They were working overtime, making resolutions and convincing other delegates over a cold beer at the socials. For one of our delegates, Vidette Adjorlolo, this payed off in particular. She won the award for Most Distinguished Delegate, a great achievement which is even more admirable since it was her first MUN.
One of the highlights of the trip was the delegateÂ´s ball saturday night; after all the hard work of the past few days it was great to do some dancing with all the delegates. After the previous late night, getting up the next morning was rough but with the resolutions passed and a lot of new friends made it was all worth it. It was a great Model United Nations experience! Kind regards, Maxime Voorbraak h.t. MUN Commissioner
ON THE 17TH OF MARCH, THE CAREER EVENT COMMITTEE WILL ORGANIZE THE ANNUAL CAREER EVENT AND THIS YEAR IT WILL BE BIGGER THAN EVER BECAUSE OF URIOS' 35TH ANNIVERSARY AND THE COLLABORATION WITH ASSISTANT PROFESSOR PUBLIC 1 INTERNATIONAL LAW, MACHIKO KANETAKE. FIRSTLY AN INTRODUCTION OF THE COMMITTEE MEMBERS, WHO ARE ORGANIZING THIS ALL FOR YOU! Starting with our President Elisabeth Beijnen, second year Bachelor student, Vice President Juliette Damen, also in her second year, Treasurer Anke Meijerink, Master student Public International Law and Secretary Else Meinders, Master 2 student European Law. However, the real boss is Wouter Stroeve, Board Member of URIOS and Commissioner of External Affairs. As we started in November with our first meetings, we quickly decided to start approaching law firms, NGOâ€™s and other international institutions as soon as possible, and that paid off. Week after week we received several e-mails and phone calls of highly prominent lawyers, partners, entrepreneurs who all were very interested in attending the 17th. In the beginning, we expected around 10 speakers for the Career Event, but we soon have had to 3 add more rooms, since we are now welcoming 16 speakers, including the opening speech of the former chair of Amnesty International Bart Stapert. It all sounds quite interesting of course, but why should you attend our Career Event? Well in the first place, it is the best way to get orientated and prepare yourself for your future career. Besides, a Career Event offers you the possibility to boost your own application skills and to refine your resume. And perhaps you would like to arrange an internship and the best way to do that is to learn more about the law firms in person, than just from their websites. Therefore, law firm Brisdet offers an exclusive recruitment lunch since it is looking for motivated law students, adequate in the English and French language. However, there are several other law firms attending the 17th! Students interested in working at a law firm can eat their heart out, since we offer 7 workshops from law firms. If you are interested in European law, Sarah Beeston (Partner at van Doorne) is specialized in Competition law and she has worked at the European Commission. Her colleague Arnout Stroeve (Partner at van Doorne) will give a workshop about European legal entities, cross-border mergers and seat transfers. .
Allard Knook (Attorney at Pels Rijcken & Droogleever Fortuijn) gives a workshop about the daily practice at his firm. Mrs Laura Parret (Partner at Houthoff Buruma) shares her experience about working in a large law firm and EU & competition practice. Hans van Meerten (associate at Clifford Chance) will give a workshop about EU regulations. And last, but not least, Fanny-Marie Brisdet (Partner at Brisdet) is very experienced in competition and financial law, but also French law. Students who are interested in International law and politics have also various workshops to choose about. Greenpeace campaigner Faiza Oulahsen will share her experience of her impressive political career. Noortje van Rijssen (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) will discuss human rights cases. Katherine Versteegen (REBO Career Officer) will give a workshop about a career in international humanitarian law and the Red Cross. Wilco de Jonge is the Director of Human Rights Policy at Amnesty and he will share his experiences within various NGOâ€™s. And last, but not least, Alexia Solomou works at the International Court of Justice as an associate legal officer and she will give a workshop about working at the ICJ and present a case study. Fortunately you do not have to choose between European and International law, since the Career Event also offers workshops to improve your own skills. Martijn Schreuder Goedheijt (Entrepreneur for CrossOver) will give a workshop about personal leadership and recruiters Elisabeth Matthes and Tessa van de Loo (Pels Rijcken) will give you some practical tips for drafting your resume and how to prepare your job interview. Paul Hendrix is a training and research fellow at the Clingendael Institute and he will discuss the projects carried out by the Clingendael Institute. We kick-off with coffee and tea before the openings speech of Bart Stapert, but you can also join the lunch between the rounds and the drinks afterwards, all for free! So sign up for the Career Event at www.careerevent.urios.org, where more information about the workshops can be found. You can sign up per workshop, so you can choose your favourites. We hope to see you at the Career Event on Thursday the 17th of March!
10 THINGS IN 1981
10 THINGS THAT HAPPENED IN
1981 By Judith Bel
GREECE BECOMES EU MEMBER First of all: on January 1st, Greece becomes the 10th member of the European Community. The European Community would later evolve to be the European Union as we know it now. The Schengen Agreement came in 1985 and in 1995 the EU was formally established with the Maastricht Treaty.
YORKSHIRE RIPPER ARRESTED Something different: Januari 4th, the infamous Yorkshire Ripper was arrested. He is a serial killer that brutally killed at least 13 women, mostly prostitutes. He was sentenced to twenty concurrent sentences of life imprisonment, and the High Court decided in 2010 that he would indeed never leave prison. If you are like me, a sucker for murder cases, it might be nice to look up his story online.
FIRST FLIGHT COLUMBIA SPACE SHUTTLE On April 12th, the NASA space shuttle Columbia had its first flight, orbiting the earth. Columbia was the first space-rated orbiter in NASA's Space Shuttle fleet. It is also the shuttle that made the longest journey on a mission, being 17 days and almost 16 hours. Unfortunately, the shuttle crashed while returning from a mission in 2003.
LAST GAME FC UTRECHT IN OLD STADIUM A Utrecht related happening: on May 22nd, FC Utrecht played their last game in the old stadium Galgenwaard. It was a very special day then, and many of the FC Utrecht supporters broke down the stadium to take home some â€˜souvernirsâ€™. The new stadium opened in 1982 and has been in use ever since.
MAN CLIMBS SEARS TOWER On May 25th, a 25-year-old stunt man dressed in a bright blue-and-orange Spiderman outfit climbed the west face of the Sears Tower, the world's tallest building back then. It took him more than seven hours and when he finally reached the top he was immediately arrested, but it nevertheless was an impressive thing to do. He became a trendsetter for climbing buildings.
10 UPCOMING CITIES
WHAT HAPPENED IN 1981... ... CAN BE FOUND HERE ON THIS PAGE. THIS YEAR IS THE WONDERFUL BIRTH YEAR OF URIOS, AND IT IS ALSO QUITE AN INTERESTING YEAR IN HISTORY. THROUGH THIS LIST WE’RE TRYING TO LOOK BACK INTO OUR YOUTH AND SEE WHAT HAPPENED IN OUR BIRTHYEAR. SO HERE YOU GO: SOME FUN FACTS ABOUT THINGS THAT HAPPENED 35 YEARS AGO, WHEN YOU AND I WERE (PROBABLY) NOT EVEN BORN YET. 6
AIDS DISCOVERED On the 5th of June, Michael Gottlieb described a new, mysterious disease: Aids. This was the first time that Aids was discussed in that sense. On the 5th of June they actually described some strange cases of lung disease in previously healthy men, that indicated immunodefiency. Luckily, a lot of research has been done since then and HIV is now a lifelong disease rather than a death sentence.
FIRST LONG-DISTANCE SOLAR POWERED PLANE The Challenger was the first solar powered plane of his kind that was able to fly long distances. On the 7th of July, it was able to fly 262 km, from France to England. There were 16,128 solar cells on the airplane’s wings, yielding a maximum solar power of 3,800 watts. Technology has impoved even more since then: in 2015, a solar powered airplance flew 5,663 km in 80 hours! Let’s hope that in the future even passenger airplanes will be that environmentally friendly.
The last British Colony on the American Continent, Belize, was granted full independence on September 21st. Their neighboring country Guatemala, however, claimed much of the territory. The official language in Belize is still English; they’re actually the only country in Central America to have English as their official language.
MARTIAL LAW POLAND On the 13th of december martial law was introduced in Poland. The communist government did this, as is said, to crush the opposition. They jailed many opposition activists without charge. Martial law is usually applied in emergency situations, when it is needed to put more power in the hands of the military. In Today's age, martial law is used in France since November 2015. This is due to the Paris attacks; the government wanted to have access to more substantial ways to fight terrorism.
DISCOVERY OF THE GREAT VOID
Last but not least: on an unknown date in 1981, the astronomer Robert Krishner discovered The Boötes void or the Great Void. (Sorry, another space-related one, can you tell I’m a science nerd?). This is a region of space where there are almost no galaxies; is is incredibly empty. For example: in the milky way there are 4 million stars per cubic light year, in the Great Void there are 240. That’s quite different, isn’t it?
SYMPOSIUM DUTCH EU REFERENDUM
FEATURED IN CURIOUS
FEATURED IN CURIOUS: VIDETTE ADJORLOLO Meet Vidette Adjorlolo, member of the MUN Committee who is currently studying law in Utrecht as part of her Erasmus exchange program. She heard about Urios during the orientation day for the newly arrived international students. Apparently the board did a good job introducing the association, as Vidette immediately decided to join due to the range of services Urios provided. She had always been interested in Model United Nations, but back at home it was hard to find any time to gain some experience. Once in Utrecht she decided to take the chance to join the MUN Committee with both hands. Finally in February Vidette experienced her very first MUN, which was in Antwerp (see the report in p. 13). Surrounded by many more experienced delegates with excellent skills, she nevertheless showed us how hard work can pay off by winning the award for most distinguished delegate. This award has meant much more to her than people would think, she says. “It marked an epiphany in my life and it made me realize how passionate I am about diplomacy and human rights.” This being said, her ambition in life is working with human rights; possibly one day in the diplomacy field? As for her personal life, Vidette spends a lot of time singing and she enjoys writing poems and blogging. “I love words and expressions.”
Colophon Curious - Urios magazine Vol. 1 Issue 3 march 2016 Editors Sofia van Dijk, Natasha Mcardie-ismaguilova, Judith Bel, Roos Bos Address Janskerkhof 3 (Room M1.07) 3512BK Utrecht The Netherlands email@example.com Copyright The copyright of the articles, photographs and pictures are reserved to the authors and artists. nothing in this issue may in any way be duplicated or made public without permission from the authors.
Published every six weeks ÂŠ All rights reserved, Curious â€“ Urios magazine