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connecting with

urbansquares issue #01  february 2017 

explore your space trying to improve a public space may be a worthy cause, but there is always the threat that it can become less public in the process, less open to everyone, whether it’s a protest, a march, or something apolitical, like sleeping on a bench or bathing 1 page in a fountain.

connecting with

urbansquares I was born in a big city as the third generation of “urban people” which

tant function of the public square

makes me a suitable person for this research. during my time at uni-

was that it served as an opportunity

versity I was heavily influenced by two of my professors, ranko radovic,

to exercise the power of rulers with

a long-time chair of the international association of urban planners and

military processions and parades.

bogdan bogdanovic, an architect and leading world expert in urban theory. in the last 45 years, urban life and the city itself were a major source of inspiration for my artistic work.

wars and inventions of dangerous weapons, where the ambition was not only to capture women and

another important influence was leonid šejka, an artist belonging to the

goods, but to destroy enemies, led

group “mediala”. in his work “grad–djubrište–zamak” (city–dump–castle),

to cities surrounded by thick walls

a theoretical essay for his visual art, he described his work with the latin

and elaborate systems of defence.

expression: “transsit clasificando”, meaning classifying in transit. this

these became very densely popu-

was merely the beginning of his work due to his untimely death at 42, at

lated, but even under these condi-

the peak of his career. I am, maybe, continuing along that path.

tions there was always room for an

the primary goal of my “transsit clasificando” is to examine the artistic

open public space.

and visual values and social contribution of city squares to the develop-

its functions were expanding too.

ment of the city. this research initiative is an attempt to rediscover the

major places of worship were

lost or neglected urban symbols. the urban square [public square or city

placed there, squares were used as

square] is a city’s “heart and soul” and that is the focus of this project. our

permanent or temporary markets,

research is done from a vintage point between art and science, which al-

monuments to important prede-

lows us to decipher language of the urban squares and observe universal

cessors were erected and revolu-

urban connections. the main body of the content is a collection of urban

tions or contra-revolutions were

squares. each includes a psychogeographical description of the space

staged. the squares became the

and is ultimately evaluated and classified.

location of royal courts, govern-

history of urban squares the first urban formations started appearing at least 6000 years ago. within urban areas open public space always existed and it served a very important purpose. along with the development of human society and the development of cities, the squares acquired more and more functions. at first, the squares were established at the crossroads of important trade routes where exchange of goods as well as ideas took place. for example, phoenician trades–people invented numerical and linguistic pictographic inscriptions out of the need to record transactions. another very impor-

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ment buildings and city halls as manifestations of wealth and power. they

court yards, squares with parks

were also used for races, like the palio race in siena, bull fights, execu-

and street shopping, that I am us-

tions, or even just to collect rain water in large underground cisterns. in

ing here, manly take into account

recent times theatres, restaurants and museums are also finding their

contemporary functions, physical

place on the squares. cities themselves, are actually becoming muse-

structure and values.

ums, a collection of human experiences that preserve numerous cultural values. particularly since the invention of motorized traffic, the individual vehicle has almost destroyed most of the open public spaces. suddenly human proportions and distances are less important. a car parking at one point had more value than the accumulated historical inheritance – human cooperation, technological processes, architectural and urban planning – that a square embodies. cities, especially metropolis or ecumenopolis of tomorrow, can be compared to living organisms. all the organs are represented in the form of streets, buildings and inhabitants, while the square is definitely a city’s heart and soul. as any other living being it needs attention, protection and nourishment.

I visited all of the squares presented here and observations were based on my professional experience but there was always something else, some



that was not easy to define. finally, in 2005, I visited the biennale of architecture in rotterdam, nederland and the answer was found! presented in “mare nostrum” exhibit and accompanying papers. the role of tourism indus-

this collection

try in urban life was examined. the influence of tourism on the sustain-

my first virtual reality panorama of a square, campo san martin, venezia, was made in 2001 just half an hour after my visit to the “biennale di venezia”, an artistic festival of the best that the world has to offer during that year, related to the visual arts. to complete the collection I also needed a classification system. an evaluation method was developed with criteria such as sociability, uses, activities, access, comfort and image in mind. developing a classification system of types was much more difficult then I originally anticipated. starting with history was a logical solu-

able environmental, cultural and economic development of the city proved to be extremely important. in order to reflect this the “tourist value” was added as an important item to the evaluation method. continued on page 23

tion, but I noticed that with time, functions constantly changed, sometimes

on the next two pages you can find

very rapidly. the seven types: ceremonial, social, religious, traffic circle,

classification system and evaluation method and afterward seven examples of squares we visited and reviewed over last 16 years.


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page 02 page 04 page 06 page 08 page 14

connecting with urbansquares page 16 classificion & evaluation system page 18 piazza san marco, venezia, italy page 20 plaça de leseps, barcelona, spain page 22 central plaza, curubandé, costa ricapage 23

trg republike, beograd, srbija patricia’s green, san francisco, ca, usa placa cruseiro, ericeira, portugal nathan philips square, toronto, canada conclussion & articles

classification system all the squares in this publication are classified in seven groups according to their main characteristics. as you will see later in the exhamples presented, most of the squares are actually classified in more than one category.

c e r e m o n i a l  central location, specially designed for ceremonial and state performances, monuments, government, courts or other state, district or city importance buildings, sometimes theatres, museums. used occasionally for public demonstrations, celebrations, strikes, revolutions. social

type of urban space is from the physical shape of the area between buildings. we recently sterted exploring a new, thematic way of navigating thrue urban squares in our collection. 01. famous squares 02. people squares

 mostly pedestrian squares or with very limited motorized traffic, sometimes with market place, some retail, cisterna, small church, or in the strictly residental areas with children play area, restaurant or similar content

03. unusual squares


07. renewed squares

 developed around cathedral, church, temple or other religious structure, at the beginning mainly used for religious ceremonies, later quite often other content and usage added. there are also examples where square was founded as a market and later church or other important buildings were added.

04. hidden squares 05. favourite squares 06. cozy squares 08. very old historic squares 09. latin squares 10. worst squares

traffic circle

 intersection of more then 4 streets, traffic circle, sometimes with monument, fountain or little patch of greenery in the middle.

c o u r t y a r d  public spaces within built structures, recently converted to public usage, originally developed as private space. s h o p p i n g /s t r e e t

 developed in mainly pedestrianized shopping ares or expanded streets usually with a lot of tourist amenities.

w i th park  very first square of this kind was developed in paris by henry IV in 1606. it was followed by squares in england, in residential areas with public or private park in the middle. in other cultures parks are very often incorporated in the main city square. origin of the word “square” in english language for this

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the evaluation method this method is adapted from a process developed by the “project for public spaces”. our evaluation is based on the psychogeographical reaction to the space by the person visiting the square. special attention is directed to the hidden or neglected values observed, or just underappreciated, by present state of the urban fabric. purpose is to find what is making that special value of public urban space or just reasoning behind the existence of urban squares.


 welcoming, cooperative, diverse, friendly, neighbourly, interactive. street life, social networks, evening use, center of the community, observing potential, shaping the identity of the city, exchanges of ideas, democratic, involvement of local population...

uses & activities

 useful, special, vital, fun, real, sustainable, celebratory, active. land–use, property values, flexible design, seasonal strategy, not imposing restrictions, humanizing all who participate, attentive maintenance, ceremonial civic stage, playground for children...

access & linkages

 walkable, convenient, accessible, proximity, traffic, pedestrian activities, parking, easy access by foot, transit stops, traffic lights timed for pedestrians, reaching out to the surrounding neighbourhood, elements on the square visible from the distance...


 safe, clean, walkable, green, sittable, crime statistics, sanitation rating, environmental value, building conditions, lighting, public art, social interaction, natural setting for civic engagement...

i m a g e  attractive, charming, historic, preserved, spiritual, impressive, unforgettable, tied to the great buildings nearby, fosters community and civic engagement...

tourist value

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 well liked, enjoyed, used, recommended, tourist magnet, unforgettable, historic, preserved, appealing to various people, numerous small attractions, lot of photo opportunities...

piazza san marco, venezia, italy there are 191 squares in venezia [counted by urbansquares]. they are named: corte, campo, campiello or squero but according to the venezians only this one deserved to be called PIAZZA. this, one of the most beautiful squares in the world, is just about right proportions with two connected piazzettas and it accommodates so many magnificent buildings. basilica san marco [1063-94], palazzo ducale [1340-1457], campanile [1173, restored in 16th century, and rebuilt completely again after collapse in 1902], torre dell’orologio [monumental entrance to the piazza, 15th century], libraria sansoviniana [sansovino 1537-1588], procuratie vecchie [12th century, rebuilt in 16th], procuratie nuove [1582]. last building, the ala napoleonica, closing the piazza from the west added by napoleon around 1810 added even more harmony to this magnificent urban PIAZZA. numerous entertainment, cafes with live classical music [cafee florian opened its doors in 1720], shopping and souvenir stands, are making this space always live and full of people, meaning even over capacity in full tourist season, or even during the period when flooded by acqua alta [high tide]. just look at the excited faces of the visitors or locals going after their own business behind all the fuss. last few times we visited venezia, unfortunately during the summer season when art biennale di venezia is held, we tried to stay away from piazza san marco, even this beauty can be darkened by flood of visitors.


type of square ceremonial social religious traffic circle court yard with park shopping/street

x x x

sociability uses & activities access & linkages comfort image tourist value


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plaça de lesseps, barcelona, spain

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on our way back from the fabulous gaudi’s park güell in barcelona we were looking for the metro station. one narrow street to another and we found ourselves in-front of little plaçeta with old fashion water fountain and the dog fulfilling his thirst. nice little sight. next look and we are facing one of the best “modernista” buildings in the city cases ramos”, designed by architect jaume torres i grau in 1906. but what’s that over there? just steps away reall surprise. vast open public space at the first glance all devoted to pedestrians. few minor streets were visible from our standpoint. slowly all the magnitude of the content, attention to details and recognition of social urban needs was revealed. it took me a second walk, few days latter, to completely comprehend the urban value of this renewal project. first initiatives for revitalization of this square dates back to 1995. following similar initiatives for urban renewal in barcelona planning board was formed and design team with architect albert viaplana, as its leader, was selected. in 2002 the city council presented a closed rehabilitation plan to local residents. their opposition to the project was immediate. after several protests, a dialogue was set up with the city council which, with the help of a group of experts, led to the creation of a whole new project. lead architect, albert viaplana had a long previous experience with number of urban projects. he is one of the architects that has left significant traces in contemporary barcelona. his architecture, which some define as a minimalist, is undeniably not indifferent. what he was facing here was a great challenge.


type of square ceremonial social religious traffic circle court yard with park shopping/street

x x x

sociability uses & activities access & linkages comfort image tourist value


10 10 10 10 10 10 60 page 8

9 page two major roads pass true this area. plaça lesseps is also crossed by a ten other streets. beside above mentioned cases ramos, heritage convent of santa maria de gracia from 1626 and catholic church de la verge de gràcia i sant josep are also located here. of course numerous residential buildings, some of them quite recantly built, two schools and newly designed library are also part of the built environment. 10 bus and two metro lines, more that 20.000 pedestrian and 120.000 vehicles are crossing plaça every day. to solve this problems two major “rondas”, with the size and amount of traffic comparable to the highway, are connected and buried underground. terraces are placed above entrances and they are very successfully hiding the “vistas” of the heavy traffic. natural slope of the terrain was emphasized so the visual impact of the square is pedestrian oriented. all the bus stops are moved out of the square along the incoming streets and consequence is minimal traffic congestion. being so close to the very traditional and preserved environment of former independent city of gracia involvement and interest of the neighbourhood is understandable.

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plaça de lesseps, barcelona, spain [continued]

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all along the planning process, during the construction and especially

shade beneath the stands, there

after opening of the square in april 2009 criticism, suggestions and

are a well executed courts for the

occasionally even frustration was expressed. most of the “calling for

traditional game of “bocce”. most

action” and proposals are taken in consideration and implemented. I

pleasant part of the day for this

would really like to show you amount of observation and scrutiny and,

game is, of course evening and

of course, effort from the designers and city officials to meet needs of

night, so playgrounds are equipped

the concerned citizens.

with very efficient lighting system.

the other aspect of the successful urban renewal project is every day utilization. one of the strongest impressions was that there were so many seats. most of them were occupied with people just enjoying the sights, talking to each other or as in the case of the girl practising her guitar in front of the church. seats are positioned very smartly in groups, slightly turned to each other, or in some cases away from each other. need for privacy is taken in consideration. some are saying that plaça is suppose to resemble a ship deck. whatever it is inspired by it is really skillfully disguising the heavy traffic flow beneath the square and also very successfully blocking the noise.

it is mainly popular with older population but while courts are without players it is ideal space to meet your companions from other generation. just recording all the details took my breath away [literally and metaphorically]. nice, colorful and functional design for bus stands protecting passengers from wind, rain or sun, tradi-

especially during the bright, and always pleasant, evenings it is admired spot for young couples or just people who are looking for the lonely spot. my personal affection for urban art–shapes was actually main reason for my second visit to this plaça few days later. they were attractive and quite unusual enhancing visual impact of the space. I’ve heard that in the initial plans, requested by the locals, all of these shapes were much more modest and wood was intended material. of course this way [using steel] planners were in a position to make much more compelling forms, mixed with water, greenery and very impresive lighting. content on this plaça is so rich. it is obviously requested by locals and influenced by local traditions and needs. just four months after partial completion it is already intensively used by local community. I’ve made a full circle around and being so excited with space I am quite sure that I missed lot of the good sides [and probably some bad ones]. let’s see what I observed. auditorium, small stage with the stands for couple of hundred of neighbours, was created on the west side of the plaça. It is used for local celebrations, performances, fiestas. it is separated from the main pedestrian passageways. on the other side of the auditorium in the nice

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tional fountains with drinking water. very attractive lighting system etc. even the regular light pools are specially designed for this space. notice that they are not vertical, this slight angle is adding additional points of interest everywhere. most complains in the process of revitalization after it was finished was insufficiency of greenery.


is very understandable that this is main concern, during the day in summer months when temperature is reaching 35ËšC! of course this will come with time. one of the problems that planting large trees over the tunnel with limited op-

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plaça de lesseps, barcelona, spain [continued]

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tions is impossible. some of the hanging gardens, are cleverly planted

subduing them at the very limit of

in those areas. some park like areas with water features, one even

the destructive. the audacity of

crossing the street and bringing the pleasant sound of running water,

barcelona’s urban spaces attests

are everywhere. I hope that over time trees will grow bigger and even

to profound spiritual security and

more of them are going to be planted.

rationality, to a mentality that is not

why I am so impressed by this square? plaça lesseps is not the most at-

afraid to be challenged.”

tractive or most “anything” square. I was impressed, probably because

that’s why plaça de lesseps de-

I am looking from the north american perspective and nostalgic remi-

serves perfect score in my evalu-

niscence to my previous life in europe. the other aspect, extremely

ation system. plaça is more than

important to me was my interest in psychogeography, participatory

simple urban square equal to oth-

urbanism and influence of citizens on urban democracy. results are

ers. it is combining values and func-

orchestrated in this case by initial conflict. conflict evolved to the

tions of the higher level. urban life

strong engagement of the local community in search for the heritage

is reaching level of ultimate inte-

experiences [heritage is not only built environment!] that will be re-

gration of needs and achievements,

membered, incorporated and passed to the future generations; experi-

environmental health and well-be-

ences rediscovered, renewed and redeveloped.

ing of both local citizens and their

even thou new plaça lesseps, with all the excitement and obvious love

government representatives.

[expressed by how neighbourhood is using it], started with intensive conflict, required mediator to proceed, imposed significant changes to the initial plans and serious rethinking by the professional part of the planning team, it is leaving strong mental impact to the urban enthusiasts [like myself]. community is still alert, organized, very protective of their success and very vocal about what was expected but not there jet. association of residents and commercial space users is very active in shaping the final stage of the area. as a conclusion I would like to quote o. solovieva’s article “barcelona dream: plaça ferdinand de lesseps” published in daily blogzine on culture, politics and academic life: “while stepping firmly and safely over the plaza’s dancing double-deck in happy fulfillment of my long-cherished desire for the urban sublime, I was contemplating the audaciousness of spanish architects which can be observed everywhere in barcelona. from gaudí’s cave-like, organic buildings to viaplana’s stormy plaza, urban planning here is not calculated to insulate culture from nature, as is the case in most european cities, but rather the other way around: it is meant to challenge the safe notion of culture, with its geometrical and symmetrical forms, by imitation of the unwieldy elements. barcelona’s urban landscape is sublime by definition. in awe of the dark play of the elements, this culture does not shy away from facing and

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plaza central, curubandé, costa rica

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definition of the town doesn’t say anywhere that streets needs to be paved. so this little town [no more than 1000 inhabitants] with unpaved streets on the slopes of the santa maria and recon de la viejo volcano in costa rica is showing the passing world his very charming plaza. in the middle of the very hot day [37˚C] it looks deserted but it is not so. in the shade of the greenest tree there is a dog resting. than there is a women waiting for the bus under the tallest tree [just behind the phone booth]. couple of tourists are sharing the space with couple of locals in a little soda and having a drink and a bite. sodas – costa rican restaurants are usually having very good selection of local food and drinks. we are also there, me taking the photos and my wife waiting inside of the one of the shops, observing the life around us. all the main social buildings, church, school [green building on a small photo], community centre and before mentioned “soda” are all taking the spots around modest but typical latin world plaza. photos from around the square are showing us that simple and jet rich life is present. one with very unusual shrine, obviously with traces of local indigenous culture, and children in the household nearby are most exciting ones.


type of square ceremonial social religious traffic circle court yard with park shopping/street

x x

sociability uses & activities access & linkages comfort image tourist value


7 8 9 7 7 8 46 page 14

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trg republike, beograd, srbija

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an old square in the downtown beograd, built on a previously empty lot in front of the main gate of the beograd fortress. in 1807, during the austrian occupation, aleksander platz was the name for this section of the modern day republic square. the earliest recorded mention of the area is quite dreary, as an execution spot for local rebels. national theater, national museum and some other important buildings are on this square. main venue for public gatherings, protests, celebrations even concerts. trg republike, is still today the main dating space, in a same way as when we were young many years ago. image taken around midnight shows how well used and loved this space is today. well lit, with sound of water and a lot of available enjoyment. the large letters on the building in the background spell out “cultural center of beograd”, which this square truly is. this is since 1980’s part of the pedestrianized area of central beograd whole area is very cleverly planned and some of the oldest surviving structures in belgrade are blended perfectly with contemporary architecture. it has sentimental to me personally, I grew up just 100m away in the knez mihailova street, main true fare in the city and today main pedestrian axis of the city. but look at the people on this urban square, beautiful, aren’t they?

type of square


ceremonial x social x religious traffic court yard with park shopping/street

sociability 10 uses & activities 10 access & linkages 10 comfort 9 image 9 tourist value 10 score 58 page 16

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patricia’s green, san francisco, ca, usa

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in 1989 earthquake shook san francisco. bay bridge collapsed and stretch of the raised highway. central freeway ending up here and cutting this neighbourhood in half was declared unstable and it was removed. 23 years later “scar” is still clearly visible. we stayed in this neighbourhood and this was our starting point for city explorations. I was really impressed, especially after experiences with public urban squares in other US cities. while searching for information I stumbled upon this article perfectly describing the space from the local perspective: ”after reading jane jacobs’s life and death I’ve come to realize that hayes green is perfect urban design. it has a multitude of uses (coffee break while shopping, neighborhood gathering point, sunbathers, dogs, homeless), and you would never ever feel unsafe in here. I moved into the neighborhood a month before it opened, so I feel like it’s taken a little-getting-used-to, but has shared a growth with me and with the neighborhood.” it’s a highly utilized urban green space for all citizens in the shadow of a former freeway. after removal of freeway traffic was directed to octavia boulevard, but best urban planning achievement is creation of the boulevard end, square/park space creating focusing point for the whole neighbourhood. patricia’s green has everything expected from really successful urban space, and more – it created community atmosphere rarely seen anywhere in north america and very obviously loved by the local users of all generations. one more element, art peace, almost like temple, called future’s past, by k. raudenbush created for the famous “burning man community” is transferred here completing the picture.

type of square


ceremonial social x religious traffic court yard with park x shopping/street

sociability 10 uses & activities 10 access & linkages 10 comfort 10 image 9 tourist value 10 score 59 page 18

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plaça cruzeiro, ericeira, portugal

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first house in ericeira was built around this largo [square] around 1229 for the village of this size [estimated 10000] it is quite remarkable to be traced back that far in the history. inscriptions on the little cross in the middle of the square are marking three years: 1140 – foundation of portugal, 1640 – national restoration, and 1940 800 years since the national foundation. village is still mostly intact, preserving historic appearance with white washed houses and predominantly blue details. in the whole village within historic boundaries there is a restriction in place preventing any new structures to look different than the ones they are replacing. siting on this square visitors and locals are enjoying authentic atmosphere, smartly used mostly by tourist industry. it is not converted to dead “museum” place, fishing port is under mayor reconstruction with investment from european union, and it is keeping village alive and prosperous all year round. this is very secluded little square in the residential area of the village. only careful visitors, and of course locals, are passing this way and observing rich details hidden all around .

type of square


ceremonial social x religious traffic court yard with park shopping/street

sociability 9 uses & activities 8 access & linkages 10 comfort 9 image 9 tourist value 8 score 53 page 20

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nathan philips square, toronto, canada

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large photo bottom right was taken on september 17, 2005 on the occasion of the 40 year celebration of the opening of the square. in 1958 finish architect viljo ravell won an international competition for the now iconic city hall and the square itself. over time, this complex became one of the most prominent architectural achievement in the world. it is in the same rank with the sidney opera, twa terminal in new york [part of the jfk international airport], or maybe gugenhaim museum in bilbao. 52 years later the square is still a major ceremonial square in the city, and one of a very few places where toronto is most democratic, most urban and most itself. small photos are made between 2012 and 2017. in my opinion specially interesting is a photo with yellow grass made on the upper level of the square. green space [green roof] was part of the original plan, but for years it was neglected and closed for public [for security reasons?]. now it is revitalized and open for our enjoyment. very, interesting space and very interesting usage of public space. more changes are planned [as you can see on the top far right photo] and some of them are incorporated already to the new look of the main square in the city ready to host pan–am games in 2015. as always nathan philips square is hosting major city protests and demonstrations as this last one women’s march in january 2017.

type of square


ceremonial x social x religious traffic court yard with park shopping/street

sociability 8 uses & activities 10 access & linkages 10 comfort 9 image 10 tourist value 10 score 57 page 22

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square square = an open area at the meeting of two or more streets

synonyms: public square, urban square, town square,

hypernym: tract piece of land piece of ground parcel of

land parcel

hyponym: trafalgar square, plaza, place ,piazza

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with the arcades, which were called the “piazzas.” in britain a piazza now generally refers to a paved open pedestrian space, without grass or planting,

town square

often in front of a significant build-

in the united states and elsewhere, a town square is an area in the middle

ing or shops. in the united states, in

of a traditional town consisting of a park or plaza and surrounded by small

the early 19th century, a “piazza” by

shops. shops often include bakeries, meat markets, cheese stores, cloth-

further extension became a fanciful

ing stores and many others. the town square often also has or had the

name for a colonnaded porch.

historic original county or city courthouse.

french place.

compare the european market square.

In urban planning, a place is a ge-

in urban planning, a city square is a planned open area in a city, usually or

neric used to designate a public

originally square in shape. some are permanently or on certain days of the

square or small park; see also the

week used for an open market.

cognate terms plaza and piazza.

spanish plaza plaza is a spanish word related to “field” which describes an open urban public space, such as a urban square. all through spanish america, the

in english-speaking countries, the name may also be used as the generic for a street.

plaza mayor of each center of administration held three closely related institutions: the cathedral, the cabildo or administrative center, which might be incorporated in a wing of a governor’s palace, and the audiencia or law court. the plaza might be large enough to serve as a military parade ground. at times of crisis or fiesta, it was the space where a large crowd might gather. like the italian piazza, the plaza remains a center of community life that is only equalled by the market-place. most colonial cities in spanish america were planned around a square plaza de armas, where troops could be mustered, as the name implies, surrounded by the governor’s palace and the main church. iItalian piazza a piazza is an open square in a city, often used as a marketplace, found in italy. it is roughly equivalent to the spanish plaza. piazza has taken some slightly different meanings in britain and the us. in ethiopia, it is used to refer to a part of a city. when the earl of bedford developed the first privately-ventured public square built in london, covent garden, his architect inigo jones surrounded it with arcades, in the italian fashion. aristocratic talk about the piazza was connected in londoners’ minds, not with the square as a whole but

urban squares on 128 languages continued from page 3 a comment I recently read by a londoner best illustrates this tourist value degree: “tourist-magnets like covent garden also provide an unintended urban function; by drawing in large numbers of tourists, they keep other areas of the city (even those streets relatively agora, aukio, adgbum, apajs laukums, apskrita aikšte, bebia yeshia, court, campo, campidoglio, campiello, chiazza, ciassa, chjazza, carseh, caernog, cudrado, carro, dataran, djemaa, drhal, el cuadro, forum, glorieta, gradina, jagadas, kikar, kancha, karratu, krizisce, kothak kutha, körtér,

close by) undisturbed. londoners can detour around the covent garden area and get on with their regular business.”

il-kwadru, isikwele, largo, lan, market, markt, misrah, mesto, moedani, mey-

finally, if these work moves any-

dan, meydani, maidan, mraba mijini, namasty, namestie, nytorv, okarusu,

body in any way, artistic, obser-

oshkuzha, ploshcad, ploshcha, platz, place, plasenn, plats, placo, placa,

vational or motivational, I will con-

plac, pijaca, prato, plliaca, praca, plaza, plazza, piazza, plazuella, plein,

sider my work not in vain. as nigel

piata, piasa, pliacetta, piasa, pieza, piaza, plass, plac, prazza, piata, plateia,

coates says in the “guide to ec-

pjazza, parque, park, quadrat, rundel, runddel, rynek, rond-point, square,

stacity” – “the city is nothing if you

sillju, sgwar, souk, squero, shesh, simpangan, tapawha, trg, torg, torget,

do not interpret it with passion!”

targ, ter, tere, toerana, tori, valjak, vliet, viereckig, winkel, ympyräaukio, zocalo, quąng trùòng, площад, трг, площадь, площа, αστικη πλατεα, ,

都市広場, 城市廣場, 도시, 광장,

‫ةيرضحلا ةحاس‬,

‫رهش یاه نادیم‬, ‫کوچ ی‬, ‫ט ַארד ַאווק‬, ‫רכיכ‬,


all 317 urban squares in our collection are available on our website in the future issues of this magazine we will present more urban

squares and more articles related to urban squares. a. j. -- february 2017, toronto

residenz platz, salzburg, austria

connecting with

urbansquares issue #01 ď ś february 2017 ď ś