Page 1

July 2013

Urban Planning and economic development

Local Economic Impacts Local Economic Impacts of Beijing Olympics Go BIG !! Transportation: A Larger and More Profitable TOD Improving a Dam Emergency Action Plan: A GIS Approach


A Global Publication

A Global Publication Urban Planning and Development Through Partnership

In Association with Urban Planning and Economic Development Associates Our Vision is to share a full range of interdisciplinary professional knowledge with community leaders, professional planners, businesses and interested citizens having a commitment to operational excellence in the public and private sectors. Contributions from our constituency will assist in facilitating sound decisions in community and economic development to promote continued commitments in creating quality places to live, work and play. Our goal is to provide educational information and services in urban planning and environmental conservation to an interconnected global community that will both enable individuals and communities to adapt to new holistic techniques and solutions to resolve existing and future urban and environmental issues and foster economic and sustainable development.

General Manager/Publisher

Graphc Design Consultant

Editor in Chief

Imaging Specialist

Assistant Editor

Advisory Board

Rich Seigel

Pamela Shinn, BS URP David Weinstock, PhD

Humberto Haro

David Loomis, BA

Amy Blatt, PhD

European Consultant Andrey Maltsev

Tracy Mullins, MS, AICP

South American Consultant

Scott Ranville

Tella Guillermo, PhD

Solenne Cucchi

North American Consultant

Andrey Maltsev

Amy Blatt, PhD

Cover Photo by Rich Siegel

Š July 2012 2

“Partnering for a Brighter Tomorrow”

by Jenny and Scott Ranville

Farmers Markets: Fertile Grounds for Economic Gardening by Tracy Mullins, MA, AICP



Photo by Pamela Shinn

Go BIG !! Transportation: A Larger and More Profitable TOD

Improving a Dam Emergency Action Plan A GIS Approach

by Andre Maltsav


Local Economic Impacts of Beijing Olympics


by Yekaterina Dobritskaya, PhD

Achieving Sustanability of New and Exisiting Properties: Healing Our Urban-Inner City Communities


by Madeline Sanders

The Big Box and Local Politics by Pamela Shinn, BS, URP and Rich Siegel


The First Scenario of Urban Zoning

Buenos Aires: The Dawn of the Modern City


by Guillermo Tella, PhD

Photo by Tracy Mullins

Local Economic Impacts


Photo by Pamela Shinn

by David Sekkes, GISP


Go BIG !! Transportation: A Larger and More Profitable TOD by Jenny and Scott Ranville

Transit Oriented Development (TOD) is a nice concept that is starting to take hold in a number of metropolitan areas. TODs can promote renewal typically up to a ½ mile radius around the TOD center. What are the economic, social, and environmental potentials if the traditional TOD radius of ½ mile could be increased to 2 miles, or even more?

Denver. For business meetings in the very center of Denver where parking is more challenging, it is sometimes convenient to take light rail to the meeting. However, if the meeting is ~.5 to 1 mile from the urban center, parking is relatively easy and inexpensive (< $5 per day in some locations). Thus for a suburbanite with only occasional meetings in Denver, the light rail system is minimally attractive. For family outings, the economics are even less attractive for taking the light rail to an event at $32 for a family of 4.

HLP's observations are that TODs are too small to have much of an impact as the light rail extends into the suburbs. The TOD is too small to physically hold the residences, jobs, schools, grocery stores, recreational opportunities, and other necessities needed for daily living. For suburbanites, this means that the family still needs to own a car and using the light rail now becomes an added household expense. This expense may make sense depending on the traffic and parking situation when going to a daily job. However, for occasional use the light rail is not an attractive option.

Case Study: Regional Travel In the fall of 2012, an IKEA store opened in the Denver Metro area, in the town of Centennial. Being a resident in Littleton, I wondered what my options were to visit IKEA, basically as a tourist attraction. Using Google Maps, I found the following 3 options (all maps from Google Maps).

In the case of the Denver Metropolitan area, light rail costs $8 to go from the outer suburbs to downtown

Fig. 1

Fig. 2


Go BIG !! Transportation: A Larger and More Profitable TOD

Photos by Pamela Shinn

by Jenny and Scott Ranville

The first option was to use transit. Google Maps chose the light rail option over the bus system even though the light rail requires going north to Denver and then back south to Centennial. At the closest light rail station to IKEA, Google then indicated a 1.2 mile walk. It is not clear that all of the indicated roads actually have sidewalks as this is in a heavily car dependent section of town. This walking section does bring into question if this option is family-

friendly for a family with young kids and if this is a senior-friendly route. Calling up RTD (the light rail operator), the total cost would be $8 roundtrip. However, when you go to the light rail station to purchase a ticket, the machines do not give you a clear indication that this is the price as the machines do not clearly indicate that this type of route is supported. The total one way travel time was reported by Google Maps as 1 hour 15 min.

Fig. 3

Figure 3 Google Maps option tested was finding a bike route. Google Maps indicated a route of 12.1 miles with a one way travel time of 1 hr 15 min.

The bike safety of some of these roads needs further investigation. For someone riding this route for the first time, route finding is also a significant concern.


Go BIG !! Transportation: A Larger and More Profitable TOD by Jenny and Scott Ranville

The third option tested was the traditional car route. Google Maps indicated 13.6 miles and 21 min. one way. Thus, for roughly one to two gallons of gas depending on the vehicle type, a family could easily visit the IKEA store.

Abby Thorne-Lyman, CTOD Director. â&#x20AC;&#x153;TOD projects often cater to young professionals and emptynesters without young children. But households with children also have an interest in living near transit. However, these families tend to look for a different set of amenities, and access to high-quality education is one of the most important factors they consider.â&#x20AC;? Jeff Vincent, Deputy Director of the Center for Cities & Schools. "Done in tandem with school sites and school districts, TOD planning can support highquality educational opportunities and the other amenities that matter to families, like parks and libraries, safe streets for walking and biking, and access to grocery stores and daycares." In their definition section ( php), the Center for TOD states: Transit-oriented development, or TOD, is a type of community development that includes a mixture of housing, office, retail and/or other commercial development and amenities integrated into a walkable neighborhood and located within a half-mile of quality public transportation. Some of the benefits of TOD include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Center for TOD HLP conducted a very informal and non-scientific poll on LinkedIn asking if anyone was familiar with a TOD that contained a grocery store. Most of the responses were along the lines: "Are you crazy? Grocery stores require large parking lots and TODs do not have enough land mass to support this type of use." Thus, an additional HLP observation is that TODs are not family friendly because of the limited services available within the TOD. The following two quotes are from the Center for TOD ( tod205.php) and reinforce HLPs observations. (Note: Bold added by HLP)


Reduced household driving and thus lowered regional congestion, air pollution and gas emissions Walkable communities that accommodate more healthy and active lifestyles Increased transit ridership and fare revenue Potential for added value created through increased and/or sustained property values where transit investments have occurred Improved access to jobs and economic op portunity for low-income people and work ing families Expanded mobility choices that reduce dependence on the automobile, reduce transportation costs and free up household income for other purposes

Go BIG !! Transportation: A Larger and More Profitable TOD by Jenny and Scott Ranville

Point #5 is a particularly interesting topic to consider. Considering the first two quotes above, it makes one wonder if working families are really benefiting from TODs. The benefit to the low-income people is also a questionable topic. Consider the Denver Post article ( city-plan-looks-revitalize-denvers-poorest-neighborhood) in which gentrification of a neighborhood that light rail is extending to is a real concern.

In this Google Maps illustration with overlay icons, the orange circle is roughly a ½ mile radius, the purple circle is roughly a 1 mile radius, and the green circle is roughly a 2 mile radius from each light rail station. Within a half mile of the light rail stations there are some places to eat, shopping, a movie theatre, a community theater, and a local community college. For the southern light rail station, a number of the residences within the ½ mile circle are more than a ½ mile walk because of the available connections. Notable missing necessities for daily living are grocery stores (milk and apple icon) and K-12 schools. The city library and museum (blue script 'i' icon) are also outside of this walking radius.

HLP’s proposal is that some of these benefits can be achieved by increasing the TOD radius. The proposal is have a greatly enhanced secondary transportation system for use around the TOD stations.

Case Study: Littleton Services To illustrate the availability of services in a ½ mile TOD radius as compared to a 2 mile radius, consider the city of Littleton. For a suburb of Denver, Littleton is in the envious position of having 2 light rail stations. However, within the ½ mile TOD radius, there are minimal services that can be reached.

Area of a circle = pi * radius2 Area 2 mile radius = pi * 22 = 16 Area ½ mile radius pi * (1/2) 2 1

Photos courtesy Scott and Jenny Ranville

If the TOD area is only the ½ radius around the light rail station, there will be a somewhat minimal impact for most of the residents in the city. However, if the area of impact is a 2 mile radius around the light rail station, there can be a significant positive impact for most of the city as there is 16 times as much land area to work with.

Littleton Services (cropping is roughly the city limits)


Go BIG !! Transportation: A Larger and More Profitable TOD by Jenny and Scott Ranville

Denver Metro TOD Impact Area

Thus, if the impact area around the light rail stations can be increased, this will have an exponential impact on the land area impacted. This increase in area can have a substantial environmental, economic, and most importantly positive social impact for the region.

Extending this area of impact graphic to the entire Denver Metro light rail system results in the following illustrations:

If there was an enhanced secondary transportation system in place around each light rail system that was economically priced, could a family live in the suburbs without owning a car, use light rail for regional travel, and get to all their daily living needs?

Extending the TOD Radius A key topic is then how to expand the TOD radius with an enhanced secondary transportation system. HLP would like to propose a three fold approach: walking, biking, and Low Speed Vehicles (LSV). Walking

½ Mile Radius Around Light Rail Stations

First, the area around the light rail stations needs to be walkable for people of all ages and physical ability. Returning to the case study of Littleton, a new large micro brewery is scheduled to be built near the southern light rail station. The brewery is being marketed as a region tourist attraction. However, there is currently not a convenient way to walk from the light rail station to the brewery site. There is a bit of an out of the way path that runs next to the river that is a possible route. However, for a new visitor to the area, the lack of way finding will make it difficult for the visitor to find this path. Thus, the emerging trend for people to live in an urban area such as Denver without owning a car, they will not be able to easily get to this new regional attraction. Biking

Red = ¼ Mile Radius (walking radius for mobility limited) Orange = ½ Mile Radius Purple = 1 Mile Radius

Second, add bike sharing/rental at all light rail stations.


Go BIG !! Transportation: A Larger and More Profitable TOD by Jenny and Scott Ranville

The downtown Denver area has started a somewhat successful bike sharing system. However, in the above picture notice how the bikes are all for healthy, single adults. The HLP proposal is that the bikes should include family-friendly, and senior-friendly options. For example, include bike trailer and bike "extensions" for younger kids and three wheeled bikes that are more senior-friendly. A tandem bike would be a nice option for a couple. RIDEKICK in Fort Collins, Colorado ( even sells a motorized kid bike trailer that pushes the bike thereby making it easier to ride around town.

As with the walking, safe and convenient travel lanes and way finding for visitors would be important. Low Speed Vehicles (LSV) Third, add LSV sharing/rental stations at all light rail stations. LSVs are street legal versions of golf carts. LSVs are a federally designated class of vehicles that is legal, I believe, in all 50 states. There are some variances between states, but in general LSVs have a maximum speed of 25 MPH but can travel on roads with speed limits < 35 MPH. The safest option would be for street modifications for the LSVs, a complete streets type of solution. This could be an expensive solution. However, for light rail stations that are not surrounded by major roads, minor low cost adjustments may allow for robust LSV use. For the Littleton case study, there are 3 significant shopping and restaurant areas around the light rail stations (star icons in the above illustration). The smiley face icon is a large undeveloped parcel. These areas are currently connected by a path along the river for non-motorized transportation, but are too far for most people to walk, especially if they are carrying shopping bags. If an analogous trail could be constructed for the LSVs, it would seem to present some interesting economic opportunities.

Example Bike Options


Go BIG !! Transportation: A Larger and More Profitable TOD by Jenny and Scott Ranville

TOD Radius Definition

still be able to drive LSVs for a while longer. While implementing a nice LSV network will take more effort, it will also have the greatest benefits for the broadest set of demographics.

Photos courtesy Scott and Jenny Ranville

The walking and biking options do not do much to help the mobility limited. However, the LSV option is the great equalizer in that individual physical effort is not needed and the travel distance should be the same for both the health adults and the mobility limited. In addition, because of lower speeds, seniors that have had to give up the keys to their car should

Photos by Pamela Shinn

The TOD radius is typically defined as a distance of Ÿ to ½ mile depending on who is defining the distance. Some define the radius as the distance that can be walked in 5 minutes. However, most of the definitions assume a healthy adult. The distance traveled by a family with young kids or by a senior will typically be less than that traveled by a health adult in the same 5 min. time frame.


Go BIG !! Transportation: A Larger and More Profitable TOD by Jenny and Scott Ranville

Englewood Art Bus System

Photo by Valerie Le Beu

The City of Englewood has implemented an enhanced secondary transportation system that connects to their light rail station. This is a free shuttle that runs every 15 min. from 6:30 am to 6:30 pm Monday through Friday. The shuttle connects residential areas with the light rail (stop #1), a grocery store (stop #17), shopping (stop #18 & 19), a bank (stop #5), senior recreational center (stop #7), and medical facilities (stops #3, 9-13) among a number of other businesses not listed on the below map.

About the Writers

The shuttle loop is missing some services such as schools, but overall is a great example of extending the impact area for a light rail station.

Scott and Jenny Ranville run a consulting/think tank/ architecture/software development company, Human Life Project速. Our mission is to promote sustainable patterns, helping cities design for all ages. Our interpretation of the triple bottom line for urban planning encompasses: environmental sustainability, economic sustainability, and human sustainability. Human sustainability is the most important component for HLP.

Conclusion Transit Oriented Developments are providing "point" benefits, in that the impacted area is rather small. By creating an enhanced secondary transportation system that is convenient and cost effective to use, regional environmental, economic, and social improvement is possible.

HLP - Consulting/Think Tank/Architecture firm specializing in Creating Enlivened, Strong, Sustainable Communities for All Ages. Facebook:


Farmers Markets: Fertile Grounds for Economic Gardening byTracy Mullins, MS, AICP

From the fledgling Downtown Farmers Market of Lakeland, Florida to the Los Angeles Grand Central Market and Detroitâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Eastern Marketplace, growers all over America gather weekly to sell products directly to the public. Shopping the farmers market is a weekly ritual for many Americans. According to the Farmers Market Coalition (FMC), a farmers market operates on a regular basis and is organized for the purpose of facilitating personal connections that create mutual benefits for local farmers, shoppers and communities (Miller, et al 2012).

conditions, and social and cultural values. Farmers markets combine these elements to produce unique assemblies of attractions, services, activities, and infrastructure. Farmers markets provide an important public service because of their ability to provide a medium for civic engagement, a setting to address public health matters and a tool to address food security issues. Through the venue of the farmers market, organizations can educate consumers about nutrition and empower both adults and children to ask questions about how the food they eat is produced. Farmers markets tend to act as a community capacity building medium for civic engagement, volunteerism and the development of social capital.


Farmers markets are an integral part of the urban/farm linkage. They contribute to local economic development, support sustainable businesses, offer a tourism attraction, and provide the local population with farm-fresh foods. Farmers markets are also retail anchors that can increase foot traffic to neighboring businesses (Brewer and Sherman 2003). Merchants adjacent to farmers markets - including grocery stores experience increased sales on market days as shoppers look for items not obtainable in the market itself. Farmers markets are business incubators for entrepreneurs who can test market their food-based goods in a small businessfriendly environment with low overhead.

Photo by Tracy Mullins

Numerous non-governmental organization (NGO) initiatives provide clientele for farmers markets. One example is the Real Food Challenge (RFC), whose goal is to develop a healthy, socially, and environmentally just food system ( The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) promotes similar projects like the Know Your Farmer, Know Your Food (KYF2) initiative, which is committed to providing individuals with knowledge of local and regional food systems (USDA). Community health political and social movements have accounted for some of the upward Farmers markets have evolved from roadside stands trend of farmers market popularity across the nation to destination experiences, dynamic places character- within the past three decades. Farmers markets often, ized by complex sets of relations between community in a reciprocal fashion, support charitable soup kitchmembers, business interests and government. In this ens, food banks and other anti-hunger initiatives by context, no two farmers markets are the same; varidonating â&#x20AC;&#x153;end of the market dayâ&#x20AC;? food surpluses. ables can include the variety of produce and products, size/scale/location, climate, local economic In concert with university and county agricultural


Farmers Markets: Fertile Grounds for Economic Gardening byTracy Mullins, MS, AICP

extension offices, economic development agencies, and nonprofit organizations, many local governments have encouraged farmers markets by providing a host of support services such as signage, websites, printed and online directories of farmers markets and farms, as well as rent-free market sites. Local agencies and organizations often look for ways to bolster farmers markets by recruiting stakeholders and vendors, as sisting markets in diversifying their products and increasing the “pull” of attraction through value chain relationships and cooperative marketing programs.

To address food insecurity and lack of access to fresh food, the USDA has implemented grant programs that facilitate and promote the creation and growth of farmers markets. These programs have included the Farmers Market Promotion Program (FMPP). Through this program, the USDA has invested over $9 million to support direct marketing in an effort to increase access to healthy food and decrease food deserts ( Farmers markets tend to act as a community’s common ground, a place where people easily interact. In addition to the impact of food-related sales, the draw of the farmers market as an experience is important to the agro-tourism industry. Tourists wishing to come into contact with the essence of a community can often find it at the local farmers market. Public, private and nonprofit entities involved in the tourism industry have consistently supported farmers markets by supplying market information in tourism collateral publications.

According to the USDA, 23.5 million people live in low income areas more than 1 mile from a supermarket; many do not have access to a vehicle. These individuals are described as being food insecure, given their inability to access fresh healthy foods due to distance and transportation issues. The USDA defines food insecurity as meaning “consistent access to adequate food is limited by a lack of money and other resources at times during the year.” Food insecure families tend to live in areas where access to healthy food is not easily available. These areas are commonly called food deserts (Van Ploeg et al 2009).

Individuals concerned with eating organic foods from non-genetically modified seed crops have also made farmers markets popular. Overall, the number of farmers markets has almost tripled in recent years, from 2,863 in 2000 to 7,864 in 2012 (Farmers Markets 2012).

Photo by Pamela Shinn

Farmers markets are flourishing with social and economic activity and the increase number and popularity of markets makes them worthy of the ongoing support of federal, state and local government. Government agencies with direct involvement in farmers markets include health and human services organizations, parks and recreation, planning and zoning, and public works. In addition, farmers markets often fall within the mission of quasi-government agencies such as economic development agencies and university agricultural extension services.

Many people who live in food deserts experience nutrition-related illnesses such as diabetes, obesity and heart disease. Concern that the geography of food deserts is directly connected to poor health has resulted in concerted efforts to reduce hunger while increasing consumption of healthy foods. Farmers markets are recognized as tools to deal with the geographic distribution of community food insecurity and the resulting food deserts (

The potential economic impacts of farmers markets include direct benefits (i.e. profits to market vendors, job creation, sales tax revenues, etc.) and indirect benefits (i.e. stimulating downtown re-development,


Farmers Markets: Fertile Grounds for Economic Gardening byTracy Mullins, MS, AICP

farmland preservation, etc.). Although a farmers market does not generate as many new jobs as an aircraft manufacturer or a casino, farmers markets are incubators of some of the new small businesses which are pulling the country out of the recession. Farmers markets are fertile ground for economic gardening.

Research Research on farmers markets is not new; an inventory of farmers market research mentions studies as far back as the 1940s (Brown 2002). The number of retail farmers markets in the United States increased dramatically in the twentieth century, with a burst of growth experienced after the passage of the Farmerto-Consumer Direct Marketing Act of 1976. The Act was created to promote and provide funding for farmers who sold their products directly to their customers. The Act provided funding to state governments, to be used in the creation of legislation that would help establish and stabilize farmers markets and encourage nonprofits and local governments to support and promote farmers markets (Markowitz 2010). The USDA created the Federal State Marketing Improvement Program (FSMIP), to provide funding for state agriculture departments to research and improve new marketing strategies for agriculture including farmers markets ( Scholarly journals, government agencies and university extension offices have published hundreds of articles about farmers markets. These publications tend to investigate causal questions, why do some farmers markets grow faster, why do some generate more money, why do some decline, what is the economic impact? This research on economic impacts of farmers markets at the state and local level illustrate the dynamics among farmers markets, local spending and business incubation (Hughs et al 2008). In an attempt to assist in the cataloging of these various studies, the USDA maintains an Internet site with links to scholarly reports (

Written for an academic audience, social science studies tend not to be particularly user friendly for market managers and vendors who seek practical and easy solutions to everyday farmers market issues. Farmers market stakeholders generally don’t have the time, access to resources or skills to put this growing body of information into context so they can extract best practices for tactical application. As a result, many farmers market stakeholders tend to rely on gut feeling, anecdotal evidence and personal experience to guide them in their decision-making. This provides an opportunity for the economic development community to provide some economic gardening efforts, such as data analytics and research analysis to create usable business intelligence, in real time, for farmers market stakeholders.

Starting a Farmers Market Farmers markets are generally started by a consortium of grass roots entrepreneurs pooling their resources to gain a benefit that could be achieved in a roadside produce stand. As do all businesses, farmers markets have local government as a stakeholder and partner in their enterprises through regulations dealing with issues of land use, health, environment, taxation, etc. Good planning for local government and quasi-government agencies begins with an understanding of the big picture for farmers markets, the context of “place” in terms of issues facing the area, opportunities for redevelopment, and a long view of the potential for economic development and quality of life issues. These are issues which may have little interest to startup market stakeholders until they become informed of the big picture in which government must operate and determine “What’s In It For Me” (WIIFM) effects of government involvement. Parties interested in the creation or expansion of a farmers market must create an organizational structure for governance and management as well as navigate a variety of often confusing permitting processes and regulations. Farmers markets must recruit from


Farmers Markets: Fertile Grounds for Economic Gardening

Photo by Pamela Shinn

byTracy Mullins, MS, AICP

a limited pool of local farmers who may need significant advance notice so they may prepare for seasonal crop plantings. Compliance issues can arise when market founders must comply with zoning regulations that may not be specific to farmers markets. If a farmers market is held in underused parking lots or within temporary streets closures, it may have to operate under special events permits that are intended for street fairs and other annual gatherings. Special events permits often are not directly applicable to the specific needs of farmers markets; thus by not specifically addressing farmers markets in their code of ordinances, local governments often find themselves forcing a square peg into a round hole. By applying the same regulatory and tax structures to nonprofit farmers market organizations that are applied to privately owned “brick and mortar” retailers, local governments can create noteworthy barriers to the creation of a local farmers market. Regulatory barriers to market start-ups leave a significant economic opportunity open to more flexible local governments within the immediate region.

building resilient and sustainable community and performing as an important economic development tool. Farmers markets assist in “economic gardening”, an entrepreneurial approach to economic development that seeks to grow the local economy from within by making wise use of local resources. USDAsponsored research has shown that extension services, urban agriculture groups, local government and faith based community groups have played increasingly important roles in facilitating the establishment and operation of farmers markets (Abel, Thomson, and Maretzki, 1999; Gale, 1997). Many organizations interested in the creation of farmers markets have published how-to manuals to help grass root organizations, agro-entrepreneurs and market managers navigate the rules and processes for establishing themselves as a legal entity, developing their corporate governance, improving their operations and successfully working with federal nutrition assistance benefits programs. Additionally, the Internet contains several farmers market resource websites. Notable examples include: • Washington State Farmers Market Manual ( marketing/FMM1.pdf) • Minnesota Farmers Market Manual ( FarmersMarketManual/) • Missouri Extension (http://extension., the Mother Nature Network ( food/healthy-eating/stories/how-to start-a-farmers-market) • Purdue Extension (www.extension.

Economic Gardening For the past 20 years or so, local governments have wondered if farmers markets are a quality investment in community capacity building. USDA-sponsored research shows that farmers markets can be an important component in supporting local food systems,

Three significant funding programs within the USDA support food projects at the local government and state levels, including the Farmers Market Promotion Program, Specialty Crop Block Grant Pro-


Farmers Markets: Fertile Grounds for Economic Gardening byTracy Mullins, MS, AICP

Community Capacity Building gram and Community Food Projects. The Farmers Market Coalition ( and other organizations host resources on their websites about accepting federal benefits at farmers markets, as well as materials on how to gain support for farmers market at the local, state and federal levels.

Farmers markets generate business, which in turn creates jobs. A 2011 Economic Research Service report found that fruit and vegetable farms selling into local and regional markets employ 13 fulltime workers per $1 million in revenue earned. Comparatively, fruit and vegetable farms not selling locally employed only three full-time workers per $1 million in revenue. (Low & Vogel 2011)

Some local governments (city, township or county) directly host and manage farmers markets as a public private partnership, while others simply host farmers markets on publicly owned property, with limited personnel involvement in market operations. Other local governments offer direct assistance with in-kind/in-house services such as signage, parking spaces, research, sponsorship, reduced rent, advertising, or providing the loan of staff (City of Portland 2011). Local governments also act as a farmers market regulator by requiring licenses, permits and collecting permit fees.

Economic data from studies of farmers markets are extremely helpful when applying for grant money, or creating sponsorship proposals, especially if the data is locally generated. Studies found in the USDA website ( support the proposal that farmers markets attract additional business to businesses located in close proximity to the market. USDAgenerated studies support the concept that spending money at farmers markets keeps local money in circulation within the local community, preserving and creating local jobs. This in turn builds community capacity for resilience in the face of national downturns in the economy.

Farmers markets are the most common form of direct marketing used by small and medium farms to increase farm income. Farmers can retain a higher portion of the consumerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s food dollar by eliminating brokers and grocers as middlemen. This allows farmers to more efficiently cover their costs of production, invest in their businesses and provide jobs in their rural communities. Markets as business incubators are filled with examples of small-scale food entrepreneurs who are starting businesses and expanding into other retail channels, growing financially sound businesses that might not otherwise be possible without a very large economy of scale.

To build a solid foundation of customers for a farmers market, management must first identify the typical customer and target the marketâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s message accordingly. With the current state of the economy, having a well-defined target market is more important than ever, and no one can afford to target everyone. In some industries, such as the automotive industry, a vast body of information is available about the specific client for a specific brand. However a review of literature on farmers markets does not reveal a homogenous profile of typical market clients or what products are globally successful. The profile of the farmers market client, how much they spend and what they purchase varies according to factors which can include geographic, demographic, and psychographic or income-related data. Developing locally generated primary data is extremely valuable to farmers market advocates.

The triple bottom line of economic, community and public health benefits inherent in farmers markets validates all community investments in the development of farmer markets. Even smaller farmers markets can be just as effective as a high-profile grocery story in anchoring anchor economic development, community development and food access within the local community. (Miller et al 2012)


Farmers Markets: Fertile Grounds for Economic Gardening byTracy Mullins, MS, AICP farmers markets, local government or local economic development entities.

Photo by Tracy Mullins

A much less expensive economic impact analysis tool has been developed for small farmers markets by the nonprofit organization MarketUmbrella (http://www. This web based tool, Sticky Economics Evaluation Device (SEED), provides a straightforward mechanism for collecting data about farmers markets from customer service and counts, and then using these data to estimate direct and indirect economic impacts using a standard multiplier â&#x20AC;&#x201C; that is, the potential indirect and induced expenditures for the specific farmers market. Target market information, combined with economic impact data, can help develop realistic cash flow projection for a farmers market start up plan, business plan or marketing plan.

The need for farmerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s market stakeholders to conduct primary research is in direct proportion to the need to communicate the needs of a given community. Locally generated statistics are always helpful in answering specific questions for the purposes of raising funds or asking local governments to commit community assets. As previously mentioned, volunteerbased farmers market proponents rarely have the time, the financing, or the ability to perform primary research or write the grants that can help them implement educational programs for other community activities. Most local agencies with local government partnerships are ideally suited to provide in-kind assistance with primary research and grant writing to support a start-up market or improve an existing one. Local governments are perfectly positioned to authorize research on farmers market impacts which can demonstrate the market success as a small business and as a public resource. This information can help future decision-making and increased chances of acquiring grant support or sponsorship.

Farmers Markets and the Experience Economy In contrast to the typical urban supermarkets, farmers markets have positioned themselves as a place where people can gather, build relationships, and earn trust between producers and consumers (Svenfelt and Carlsson-Kanyama 2010). Being able to have a face-to-face relationship with the farmer who is growing their food, learning about new foods, meeting new people, and being a part of a friendly atmosphere all make up this unique community market experience. Building this sense of community appears to be a prime motivating factor for many people today. The experience of the farmers market and the different learning opportunities directed at a range of consumers provides a place of recreation and entertainment (Farmers et at 2011; Svenfelt and Carlsson-Kanyama 2010).

A common tool for comprehensive economic impact analysis for large individual farmers markets is the software called IMPLAN ( The analyses provided by IMPLAN provide detailed insights into direct and indirect impacts of the market. The major drawback to using IMPLAN is that analysis is expensive. It is beyond the means of most

In their 1999 book The Experience Economy, authors Pine and Gilmore argue that businesses must orchestrate memorable events for their customers, and that


Farmers Markets: Fertile Grounds for Economic Gardening byTracy Mullins, MS, AICP

memory itself becomes the product - the experience. (Pine and Gilmore 1999). Successful farm market management ensures product development and visitor experiences that reflect the values of the community as a whole. Marketing efforts should attempt to identify appropriate target markets that ‘fit’ with the attractions and experiences available at the farmers market, and market management should develop effective marketing strategies to target these visitor groups. Market management should consider the appeal of the farmers market as a product to the neighborhood residents and work to develop value chain relationships with tourism-related businesses

Photo by Tracy Mullins

Vendors, if paying any sort of fees to the farmers market, are purchasing a service and are in essence customers of the farmers market as an organization. Vendors may be involved in board governance or volunteer committees, but on market days they are paying for professional service marketing from the market staff. Vendors expect the farmers market’s managing organization to provide a buying crowd by advertising, promoting and operating the market on funds derived from vendor fees. This requires comprehensive business/market planning by market staff.

Business planning for a farmers market can be simple or complex depending upon the location, number of vendors, regulatory environment and activities. All of the activities which take place within the realm of the farmers market influence the market’s rules and require ongoing coordination by the local permitting or licensing agencies. The farmers market may require a business network of partners to make the market feasible. A nonprofit partner may donate space while a public sector partner provides restrooms and a private sector partner provides electricity. Organizations like the Chamber of Commerce, Convention and Visitors Bureau or local press may help with the market’s promotion. Farmers market planning must work with local government, within the framework of comprehensive planning, zoning and regulations, as well as access any economic incentives that are available. Urban Planning and Economic Development organizations can provide valuable networking assistance to their local farmers markets as they have valuable contacts within their active community networks. These organizations can ensure open communications among stakeholders which is often the first step to facilitating partnerships with urban agriculture and nutrition promotions programs, such as community gardens, food policy councils, urban agriculture alliances and minority health initiatives. An important goal for local government can be is to help farmers market stakeholders to better leverage community resources and effectively engage citizens in their food system. The greater the critical mass of stakeholders that local government can get to invest time, money or other assets in the farmers market, the more successful that market will be. When stakeholders have a vested interest in the market, they will be more likely to make a financial commitment to make the market work for the vendors who provide the experience of the market. Comprehensive business planning requires both strategic business/marketing plans and tactical marketing/programming campaigns. This involves creating a strategic plan to leverage farmers market assets, to


Farmers Markets: Fertile Grounds for Economic Gardening byTracy Mullins, MS, AICP and marketing efforts aimed at achieving growth in visitation. Destination marketing efforts connected to farmers markets should adopt a sustainable ap proach to ensure the needs of both the local residents and visitors are met. Under such an approach, marketing has a dual responsibility to conserve the resources of the farmers market as a source of com munity and public health benefits, the “pull factors” for local residents as well as to provide a high quality visitor experiences and high quality products, the “pull factor” for the tourist.

create and bring vendors’ brands to life, while executing tactics that increase market penetration and sales through positive face-to-face consumer experiences.

Photo by Tracy Mullins

By the nature of their training and experience, Urban Planners and Economic Development professionals have the ability to help create the experiential economy of the farmers market by facilitating the vision through consensus building. A compelling vision will help in planning and marketing the farmers market. Bringing expert advice and stakeholders to the table creates possibilities that would not otherwise exist to maximize opportunities that improve the triple bottom line of economic, community and public health benefits. Urban Planning and Economic Development organizations can also provide a valuable service as third-party mediators in disputes between stakeholder groups.

Farmers market managers need to start with a clear internal communications plan containing goals, objectives and strategies as well as established marketing standards (i.e. marketing training programs for vendors). A market-wide marketing action plan outlines the responsibilities and activities for stakeholder organizations. Actions include ensuring vendors to ask questions and gain feedback to identify the reasons that visitors are attracted to the farmers market.

Marketing for the Farmers Market Farmers markets serve as integral links between urban, suburban, and rural communities, affording farmers and their consumers the opportunity to interact. Consumers are discovering the joys of shopping for unique ingredients, as well as familiar products, direct from the farm in their freshest possible state. However, consumers must first become aware of a farmers market before they can attend and spend, and this requires “marketing the market”.

Customer awareness for an experiential event such as a farmers market is about opening the right doors to the right audience at the right time. This requires matching consumer profiles (geographic, psychographic or demographic) to the experience desired. Ensuring the degree of “fit” between the experience and the consumers is the key to successful return on investment (ROI) strategies for vendors. The recipe for a successful farmers market lies in making the local population aware of the farmers market and the events which add value to the experience through branding. Brand awareness increases sales, or with education campaigns geared to farmers market clients, can deliver critical messaging to impact desired consumer response.

Farmers markets are destinations and the location of the market can make the difference between a success and a flop (as is true for most businesses). The “pull factor” of a location often depends upon the creation of a brand promoted through advertising


Farmers Markets: Fertile Grounds for Economic Gardening byTracy Mullins, MS, AICP

Farmers markets should develop creative promotional and advertising images, marks or logos that are used consistently across all media and web collateral. Economic development agencies can assist farmers markets by finding means (grants, loans, sponsors) to acquire high quality branding marks for advertising or other collateral materials (aprons, market bags, promotional/educational literature). Local government can leverage their network of public relations and media contacts to provide exposure that is linked to tactical campaigns or events.

market tends to be based on theme presentation. The essential question that vendors and the market management need to answer for potential customers is why should they come? The marketing effort must communicate the benefits of shopping at the farmers market. The market theme gives customers a reason to talk about and visit the farmers market. Themes are frames for evaluating choices and making judgments; framing ensures the farmers market’s messages are delivered successfully. Currently, the primary themes for farmers markets tend to revolve around organically grown foods, local foods, and active communities.

At a strategic level, local government can encourage development of sponsorship opportunities by encouraging commercial tourism and business operators to include farmers market in their marketing literature. Local government can act as advocates, lobbying neighboring communities to develop stronger regional agro-tourism campaigns. Economic development organizations can undertake an ongoing business intelligence analysis (competitor, visitation trends, and consumer preferences) to estimate current and future demand levels as a quality control and quality assurance (QC/QA) initiative to inform marketing decision-making.

Rachel Carson’s 1962 book, Silent Spring, awakened public awareness to the environmental risks of agricultural pesticides. Many reacted by growing their own food and started the movement toward sustainable organically grown foods. Consumer support for the use of organic compost and natural fertilizers to produce foods free of chemicals, pesticides, hormones and antibiotic supplements has risen steadily in recent years. Certification of organic foods by third parties is a means of assuring consumers that legitimate standards for natural food production have been followed. A 1998 survey of the Organic Farming Research Foundation indicated that nearly 90 percent of U.S. organic farms were single family operations or family partnerships (OFRF, 1999). Single family operations tend to be vendors of organic produce at farmers markets.

A review of USDA literature reveals that word of mouth is the most effective form of advertising and that word of mouth advertising should emphasize quality. Social networking campaigns allow the leveraging of word of mouth advertising. Referrals from the customers of farmers markets and ongoing conversations between producers and consumers are efficient and effective forms of advertising.

Vendors who display their organic certification and discuss the value of organic products with customers set the stage for other organizations that wish to present messages about healthy eating and highlight the added nutritional value of shopping organic at the farmers market. Often these messages are delivered in a fashion which makes the market visit an entertaining and educational learning experience. While the demand for organic foods remains high, local foods have replaced organic foods as the most dynamic sector of the retail food market (Packagedfacts, 2007).

Market organizers can seek community sponsors to hire student interns to work for the market and musicians/buskers to perform during market hours. Student interns can maintain a market visitor book, develop a mailing or e-mailing list to promote special deals and online coupons and promote special events through newsletters specifically targeted to customers, vendors and the press. The marketing “hook” or attraction of the farmers


Farmers Markets: Fertile Grounds for Economic Gardening

Photo by Pamela Shinn

byTracy Mullins, MS, AICP

Local foods, as a brand, has received attention as being important to community sustainability due to the production process that separates small, local food growers/vendors from the industrial scale production farms. Local foods are those that are consumed within a 100-mile vicinity of where they were grown and are associated with the “Locavore 100 Mile Diet” (UOP 2007). Locavores prefer to know how their food is produced and often personally know the person that produced it. This positions the farmers market as a vital component to local food systems and an important aspect of a community’s long-term sustainable development. Locavores search for locally produced goods on websites such as eatwellguide. org, and market managers should make sure their market is listed on such websites. Building local relationships between producers and consumers also provides support for those who add value to local crops, such as baked goods using local fruit and grains, honey from local beekeepers, and cottage industry producers of arts & crafts. Farmers markets can add value to locally produced goods by providing demonstrations of how to use the products that vendors are selling. Classes on selecting produce or meat, as well as lessons from master gardeners, cooks and crafters will often increase the value that customers place on farmers markets and the effort required to produce quality food products.

Active community is an important theme for the farmers market experience and the leisure activities occurring at the market strengthens community bonds. Recreation and leisure play a significant role in both attracting consumers to markets, and in being an important outcome of the farmers market experience. Leisure activities for adults at a farmers market can include live music, cooking demonstrations/classes, and health and fitness classes. Local government can assist farmers markets, by scheduling events within or proximal to the market, thus making the market a community center and actively showing support. Additionally, local government can encourage local organizations to invite their members to the market by creating their own ancillary events. This can be as simple as a Halloween “Spooktacular” event which facilitates nursing home and apartment dwellers to distribute candy to trickor-treating children in the safe and controlled environment of the farmers market. Active community events can include activities such as smoke alarm and fire safety instruction, blood drives, or health education programs.

Programming a Farmers Market Delivering a theme requires event programming, which often requires market managers to seek outside assistance and strategic alliances with organizations who wish to achieve common goals. Through the development of event guidelines, market managers can maintain a good and consistent standard of programming that meets or exceeds the expectation of guests and integrates special events, performers and exhibits that match the character and community values expressed by the farmers market. Partnered programs that complement market themes include high quality food and beverage experiences, festivals and special events, nature-based experiences, and recreational and leisure activities. Farmers markets with the “big picture” as a point of reference can support and encourage entrepreneurs to establish innovative visitor experiences that complement com-


Farmers Markets: Fertile Grounds for Economic Gardening byTracy Mullins, MS, AICP

munity and environmental values, like rickshaw rides or bicycle tours from the market. Market support of day tour packages to encourage market visitors to experience the broader destination region with local tourism operators becomes a value chain opportunity.

from the inception of the farmers market can head off or resolve developing issues early on. Transportation planning for a market should recognize that the distance between targeted consumers and the market can be a decisive barrier to accessing healthy food. The feasibility of making a trip for food can depends on the availability of a car or bus, the travel time it takes to get there, and the possibility of traffic (Banks 2011). It addition, consumers with low income must consider the cost of travel, the cost of food, time/distance as well as bulk/weight of purchases and whether the market is located along a daily commute or near other sites they frequent (Colasanti 2010). Local government can influence the placement of farmers markets within local food deserts by incentivizing a site where supermarket chains have not made a capital investment.

Nonprofit organizations such as arts councils, historic preservation groups or conservation groups can also partner with market management. This partnership can encourage the visitor to think outside the market to embrace local culture, nature walks and other educational activities that build on the experiences found in the market. Areas adjacent to farmers markets are often the stage for â&#x20AC;&#x153;shine and showâ&#x20AC;? events for antique cars, trucks and tractors and staging areas for athletic competitions like fun walks and triathlons. Programming can be major influences upon the success or failure of farmers markets.

By identifying and inventorying underutilized space, performing multimodal transportation modeling or other analysis with geographic information systems (GIS), local government can identify sites which are suitable for farmers markets. These sites can then be incentivized so that the location of the farmer market can serve the widest interests of the community, potentially co-locating for complementary purposes like urban farms and community gardens. Local government and market managers can also cooperate to create positive pedestrian experiences, encouraging people to ride a bicycle or use transit and including the farmers market in the multimodal transportation planning process.

The Regulatory Environment Some of the challenges of farmers markets include location, transportation, and safety. Location and transportation issues are unavoidably linked and are often the first place where local government and farmers market organizers can either clash or coordinate. It has been shown that farmers markets provide multiple public services and should be understood and cultivated as such. This may require reevaluating pertinent local policies so that they are consistent and appropriate for farmers markets, helping them to deliver a benefit to farmers, consumers, and communities.

In the past, farmers market managers have had to deal with inconsistent and often confusing zoning, permitting and licensing procedures (Stephan 2008). Comprehensive plans and zoning ordinances are an obvious starting point to recognize and legitimize farmers markets as a cross between retail business and public service. Local government can support local agriculture and bring healthy food to residents by defining farmers markets in the comprehensive plans and zoning ordinances and encourage markets

While the immediate concerns of the farmers market manager are focused on a site that is easily accessible to potential customers, has adequate parking and utilities, and is easy for vendors to set up and tear down, local government focuses on site issues, such as whether the site is zoned for a farmers market, is well drained, and is served by public transportation or designed according to CPTED, Crime Prevention through Environmental Design. Working together


Farmers Markets: Fertile Grounds for Economic Gardening byTracy Mullins, MS, AICP

to accept the electronic benefit transfer (EBT) card and WIC coupons (Healthy Eating, Healthy Living Cities). By defining and recognizing the utility of farmers markets within the economic development segment of the comprehensive plan, local government presents a sustainable vision for the future with goals, objectives and targeted benchmarks to meet specific food access targets. This permits local government to distinguish farmers markets from street fairs, flea markets, parades or other special events that may need permit renewal within the zoning ordinance.

the city, leading to confusion among vendors and in some cases among the regulators themselves. When licensing requirements different from county to county are duplicative or contradictory with other state licenses, or are altogether inappropriate for sale of nonhazardous uncut produce and baked goods, both market managers and farmers have a hard time understanding whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s allowed (May 2011). The existing regulatory landscape in many jurisdictions creates an overly burdensome environment that can stifle farmers market development. In some cases, this is compounded by a lack of proper training or awareness on the part of local regulators as how policies relate to farmers markets. One helpful resource to address these issues is From the Field to the Table: Suggested Food Handling for Farmers Markets and Festivals ( Field_to_the_Table_Food_Handling_Guidelines. pdf). It is clear that cooperation between county and city governments coupled with good communications with farmerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s market stakeholders is a key to ending unclear regulations.

Defining a farmers market as an allowable use within the zoning ordinance and allowing them to be established on city-owned land if they accept federal benefits is a best practice for local government. Other best practices include the creation of annual permits that are applicable to the market rather than requiring permits for each individual vendor stall. Temporary permits are not relevant for regularly occurring markets and have the effect of hindering season extension and developing year-round operation. Local government can include farmers markets in public works planning to ensure maintenance of the market site, ensuring a welcoming atmosphere for visitors and recognizing the contribution of farmers markets to the local economy.

The Bottom Line

Because farmers markets strive to keep fees to farmers low, most markets need to identify other revenue sources. Farmers markets often establish sponsorship programs which offer local government and other stakeholders with opportunities to be publicly Local government can lobby at the state level to address barriers and duplications found in state regula- recognized without having to undertake management responsibilities. If farmers markets are contions. Government can support the growth of state sidered nonprofit service programs, funding can be farmerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s market associations, which helps build the established into which local government can donate capacity of farmers market networks to identify and share best practices. Farmers markets tend to be most matching resources. Although cash donations are generally sought first, stakeholders in the private successful when they cultivate partnerships to meet community planning goals and partnering with local and nonprofit sectors can provide in-kind support governments paves the way for a healthy community such as staff time, storage space, office space, signage, parking, electricity, portable bathrooms, etc. and a healthy regional farm economy. In addition to cash sponsorship, local businesses can support farmers markets through store window displays and products that compliment the farmers market, such as publishing local cook books or pro-

Government is concerned with sanitation and health. In many communities, permits related to food service safety are tied to county agencies. In others, health permits are required for both the county and


Farmers Markets: Fertile Grounds for Economic Gardening byTracy Mullins, MS, AICP

ducing fee-based nutritional education workshops.

Photo by Pamela Shinn

To improve healthy food access to low income families, local government can partner with markets and/ or other community nongovernment organizations to offer incentives for federal food assistance benefit participants to use their benefits at farmers markets. These programs often provide assistance by matching dollar for dollar the federal food benefit dollars customers spend. When farmers markets accept federal food assistance benefits like Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Women Infants and Children (WIC) and Senior Farmers Market Nutrition Program, (FMNP) they become more accessible to all members of a community. In addition to added health benefits, participation in SNAP stimulates the growth of economy as well. (Hanson K, 2010). When food assistance benefits are spent at farmers markets instead of retail chains, this money can be re-circulated within the local economy rather than leaking out of the community to a distant corporate headquarters. In addition, acceptance and redemption of federal nutrition benefits is a proxy for fresh food accessibility (Love 2010).

Conclusion Farmers markets are an integral part of the urban/ farm linkage and a common ground for capacity building efforts that develop a more resilient community. Markets are retail anchors which contribute to entrepreneurial economic gardening efforts and offer a programming-based experiential tourism attraction. Farmers markets provide the local popu lation with farm fresh foods which are pivotal in combating nutrition-related disease such as diabetes, obesity and heart disease. In addition, farmers markets are an important tool in addressing the geographic inequities of food deserts.

For these two reasons, capturing federal funds in the local economy and fresh food accessibility, local government can assist farmers markets in acquiring wireless point-of-sale (POS) technology or EBT machines. EBT machines accept Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) cards and are the most common method for distributing the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), formerly known as food stamps. Under a centralized system shoppers come to the market, swipe their cards at the main booth for certain amount of money, and a given $1 and $5 tokens to spend any booth in the market. Shoppers spend the tokens at different stalls, and vendors ultimately surrender the tokens to market management and receive a check within the next week for the amount they sold to EBT users. This system of using POS technology helps markets overcome the logistical, financial and staffing challenges associated with implementing SNAP for individual vendors. (Owens & Verel 2010).

The recognition of farmers markets within the economy has been well documented in research that has been sponsored by numerous organizations, most notably the USDA. Support for farmers markets is widespread within the public, private and nonprofit sectors because of their social role and as business incubators to test market food-based goods in a business-friendly environment with low overhead. Farmers markets are an integral part of the urban/ farm linkage and a common ground for capacity building efforts that develop a more resilient community. Markets are retail anchors which contribute to entrepreneurial economic gardening efforts and offer a programming-based experiential tourism attraction. Farmers markets provide the local popu-lation with farm fresh foods which are pivotal in


Farmers Markets: Fertile Grounds for Economic Gardening byTracy Mullins, MS, AICP

combating nutrition-related disease such as diabetes, obesity and heart disease. In addition, farmers markets are an important tool in addressing the geographic inequities of food deserts.

Gale, Fred. 1997. “Direct Farm Marketing as a Rural Development Tool.” Rural Development Perspectives 12 (2, February): 19-25. Farmers Market Coalition. n.d. Resource Library. Food Access and Its Relationship to Diet and Health Outcomes for 2009. Washington, DC: USDA Agricultural Marketing Service. Healthy Eating Healthy Living Cities., n.d.

The recognition of farmers markets within the economy has been well documented in research that has been sponsored by numerous organizations, most notably the USDA. Support for farmers markets is widespread within the public, private and nonprofit sectors because of their social role and as business incubators to test market food-based goods in a business-friendly environment with low overhead.

Hughes, D., Brown, C., Miller, S., McConnell, T. (2008) Evaluating the Economic Impacts of Farmers Markets using an Opportunity Cost Framework, in Journal of Agriculture and Applied Economics 40 (april) 253-265 Low, S. A., Vogel S, “Direct and Intermediated Marketing of Local Food in the United States,” ERR-128, USDA, Economic Research Service, November 2011. Miller, S., Thompson, J., Kalb M, (2012) Building Healthy Foundations for Farmers Markets, The farmers Coalition. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, (2011) Physical Activity and Nutrition: Working with Farmers markets. Organic Farming Research Foundation. (1999) Third Biennial National Organic Farmer’s Survey, Santa Cruz, CA USA.

Farmers markets promote business opportunities through partnerships such as consortiums, joint ventures, strategic alliances, cooperative marketing, value chain relationships, business networks and public private partnerships.

Owens, N. and K. Verel. (2010), SNAP/EBT at your Farmers Market: Seven Steps to Success Project for Public Spaces. Packaged facts, (2007) Local and fresh foods in the U.S. Ragland, E., and D. Tropp. (2009) USDA National Farmers Market Manager Survey 2006. Sauter, S. (2005) Roadblocks to Rural Economic Development: Restrictions on West Virginia’s Farmers Markets. Food Safety Task Force, West Virginia University Extension Service. Stephenson, G. (2008) Farmers Markets: Success, Failure, and Management Ecology. Cambria Press: Amherst, NY.

A plethora of resources are available on line for the start up, operation and marketing of farmers markets. And issues dealing with the regulatory environment in which farmers markets reside can easily be resolved joint planning efforts with regulating bodies. Government can use best practices to support farmers markets and economic development organizations can monitor the markets and supply business intelligence to identify opportunities for new product development and investment opportunities that match needs and expectations of the local community as well as those of visitors.

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Calculates Overweight and Obesity Trends from 1985-2009. Tropp, D., Barham, D. (2008) National Farmers Market Summit Proceedings Report. USDA Agricultural Marketing Service; Washington, DC. UOP Blog, Oxford University Press, USA, ”Oxford of the year: Locavore” locavore USDA Agricultural Marketing Service. 2011. Specialty Crop Block Grants. SCBGP USDA Agricultural Marketing Service. 2011. Farmers Market Promotion Program. http://www.ams.usda. gov/fmpp USDA, National Institute of Food and Agriculture. 2011. Community Food Projects. http://www.csrees. USDA, National Institute of Food and Agriculture. 2011. Community Food Projects. http://www.ams.usda. gov/farmersmarkets Ver Ploeg, M., V. Breneman, T. Farrigan, K. Hamrick, D. Hopkins, P. Kaufman, B.L. Lin, M. Nord, T. Smith, R. Williams, K. Kinnison, C. Olander, A. Singh, and E. Tuckermanty. 2009. Access to Affordable and Nutritious Food: Measuring and Understanding Food Deserts and Their Consequences: Report to Congress.

Abel, J., Thomson, J., & Maretzki, A. (1999). Extension's role with farmers' markets: Working with farmers, consumers, and communities. Journal of Extension [On-line], 37(5) Article 5FEA4. joe/1999october/a4.php Broad, E., Benton, L., Blake, M., Emery, A., Fitts, J., Greenfield, M., Powell, C., Kubota, E., Lopez, S., Policicchio, J., Preysman, D., Zhang, J. (2009) Mississippi Farmers Markets: Legislative Recommendations and Innovations to Promote and Sustain Farmers Market Development. Delta Directions Consortium: Cleveland, MS.

About the Writer

Briggs, S., Fisher, A., Lott, M., Miller, S., Tessman, N., (2010) Real food, real choice: Connecting SNAP recipients with farmers markets. Community Food Security Coalition and Farmers Market Coalition

Tracy Mullins AICP is an internationally experienced urban planner,and urban designer who consults in community redevelopment, tribal planning, tourism development, marketing and geographic business intelligence.

Brown, A. (2002) Farmers' Market Research 1940-2000: An inventory and review. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, Vol 17 number 4 Bentman, H. (2011). Farmers market regulations draw ire. http://www.phillyburbs. com/my_town/quakertown/farmersmarket-regulations-draw-ire/article_b582396c-511b-5852-a82ef26c9121cae4.html Drake, C. Swango, B. (2006). From the Field to the Table: Suggested Food Handling Guidelines for Farmers Markets, Fairs, and Festivals. New Orleans, LA


Improving a Dam Emergency Action Plan: A GIS Approach by David Sekkes, GISP Chester County Department of Emergency Services

Origin of Dam Safety Law in Pennsylvania On May 30, 1889, unusually severe thunderstorms blew in over western Pennsylvania dropping six to ten inches of rain over a 24 hour period. The downpour swelled the Little Conemaugh River and rapidly filled Lake Conemaugh to capacity. By morning, the waters of Lake Conemaugh began spilling over the South Fork Dam, quickly eroding the base and compromising its integrity (Figure 1). Emergency efforts Fig. 1 to save the dam failed, and at 3:00 pm the unthinkable happened: the South Fork Dam gave way. A 40 foot wall of water and debris rushed downstream at tremendous speeds devastating Johnstown and killing 2,209 people (Figure 2). (Facts About the Johnstown Flood, n.d.; History of the Johnstown Flood, n.d)

Dakota killing 230 people and causing $100 million in damages. (Actions Needed to Increase The Safety of Dams, 1977) As a result of these and other related catastrophes, Congress held hearings and passed the National Dam Inspection Act of 1972. The bill had three major provisions: to create an inventory of all dams in the United States, to require the inspection of the high hazard dams, and to provide a report to Congress about the status of the nation’s dams with recommendations to improve safety no later than July 1974. The responsibility of implementing this national dam safety plan was given to the Chief of Engineers, acting on the behalf of the Secretary of the Army.

Despite the widespread media coverage of the destruction at Johnstown, it wasn’t until after Fig. 2 a series of dam related disasters throughout the United States in the 1970’s that interest at the federal level to address dam safety took hold. In February of 1971, an earthquake shook the San Fernando, California area nearly causing the failure of Lower Van Norman Dam, threatening 80,000 people downstream. In February of 1972, a coal waste dam failed along Buffalo Creek in West Virginia killing 125 people and causing over $50 million in damage. In June of the same year, heavy rains led to the failure of the Canyon Lake Dam near Rapid City, South

In 1977, five years after the recommendations were due, the Teton Dam, located in eastern Idaho, failed and once again dam safety was brought to the forefront of the nation’s attention. As a result, Henry Eschwege, an official at the General Accounting Office, was brought before Congress to report on the status of the nation’s dam safety efforts outlined in the 1972 bill. His report stated that the national inventory of dams was completed but was riddled with inaccuracies,


Improving a Dam Emergency Action Plan: A GIS Approach by David Sekkes, GISP Chester County Department of Emergency Services

duplications and omissions. In the Government Accountability Office’s transcription, Actions Needed to Increase the Safety of Dams (1977), Eschwege stated that the inventory was “based on data collected using inadequate definitions and procedures and most of the data was not verified.” (p. 10) While the national dam inventory had its problems, the inspection of the dams faced more serious challenges. Eschwege testified that the Army Corps of Engineers had failed to inspect a single dam. He went on to say that it would cost $73.5 million a year to inspect all the dams and the Office of Management and Budget refused to ask Congress for the funds under the assertion that it was the state’s responsibility. The GOA transcription of Eschege’s testimony states: Corps Officials advised us that they had originally intended to undertake a dam inspection program. In December 1972 a budget proposal was submitted to OMB for the necessary funds. Their intention was to begin inspection activities with a sampling of dams. The funding proposal was rejected by OMB and no appropriation request was thereafter made to the congress under PL 92-367 except for collecting inventory data on dams. In January 1973, OMB issued a policy statement directing the corps to fulfill all conditions required by the law, except that inspections, to the extent there were any, were to be accomplished by the concerned states. (p. 5-6) In the wake of these hearings, flooding again devastated Johnstown, Pennsylvania. A series of intense thunderstorms stalled over the area flooding streams and causing multiple regional dam failures, resulting in 85 deaths and $300 million dollars in damage

(1936 & 1977 Floods, n.d.). With fresh wounds from the recent flood and old scars from the 1889 disaster, lawmakers in Pennsylvania took action and enacted the Pennsylvania Dam Safety and Encroachments Act (Act 325 of 1978). This Act was one of the nation’s first laws put in place at the state level that addressed dam safety. It detailed the inspection and emergency planning requirements for dams and empowered the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) with the authority to regulate all non-federal dams in the Commonwealth.

Current Planning Efforts in Pennsylvania America’s infrastructure is aging and its dams are no exception. In 2010, the American Society of Civil Engineers (2010) released a report card of each state’s infrastructure. Pennsylvania’s dams were given a C(mediocre: requires attention), while the nation as a whole received a D (poor: at risk). The study found that 39% of Pennsylvania’s “high hazard” dams are deficient, thereby underscoring the need for continued inspection and effective emergency planning. There are approximately 3,254 dams in Pennsylvania of which 775 are designated as “high hazard” (Report Card for Pennsylvania’s Infrastructure, 2010). The Pennsylvania Dam Safety and Encroachments Act gives each dam an alphanumerical classification based on the population at risk and the volume of water the dam holds back. If the dam has any at risk population downstream, no matter how small, it is designated as either a class 1 or 2, and is considered to be “high hazard”. High hazard dams are given special emergency planning consideration. Owners of high hazard dams must develop and maintain an Emergency Action Plan (EAP) in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) and local emergency management agencies. An EAP


Improving a Dam Emergency Action Plan: A GIS Approach by David Sekkes, GISP Chester County Department of Emergency Services

defines the responsibilities of the dam owner/operator, local emergency management agencies, and first responders. It provides specific, situational actions that need to be taken. For example, if heavy rains cause the water being held back to reach a certain height, the dam owner/operator must begin 24 hour surveillance and inspection.

gency Action Plan (2009), it is a 90’ high and 990’ long earthen dam with a maximum pool storage capacity of 24,000 acre-feet (Figure 3). The Commonwealth’s dam classification system designates Marsh Creek Dam as a class B-1, high hazard dam.

One important piece of the EAP is a map of the dam’s inundation zone. The inundation zone is the area that would experience flooding should the dam fail, and is delineated by hydrological engineers using sophisticated models. Traditionally, the inundation zone would be included in the EAP as a paper map and defines the extent to which planning must occur. Population estimates and a list of affected facilities required by the EAP based on paper inundation zone maps were often inaccurate and incomplete.

Fig. 3

Half a mile downstream, Marsh Creek merges with the East Branch of the Brandywine Creek. Four miles downstream from the dam is the Borough of Downingtown, a low-lying community of 8,000 people, many of whom reside inside the inundation zone (Figure 4). Beyond Downingtown, along the East Branch of the Brandywine Creek, are nine additional townships that have residents and properties at-risk.

In an effort to improve accuracy of the plan, many dam owners are now providing the inundation zone to emergency management agencies as a digital Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data layer. With GIS, planners are able to perform spatial analysis on the planning area and accurately estimate population, determine which responding agencies need to be notified, and detail what facilities may be at risk of flooding. In 2012, emergency planners at Chester County, Pennsylvania’s Department of Emergency Services (CCDES) reviewed the Marsh Creek Dam EAP as part of the 5 year review cycle, and for the first time CCDES was able to use a GIS based inundation zone. During the planning process, the use of GIS was instrumental in providing emergency planners with accurate information to update the plan.

Marsh Creek Dam EAP Review Using GIS Marsh Creek Dam is the largest dam in Chester County. According to the Marsh Creek Dam Emer

Fig. 4


Improving a Dam Emergency Action Plan: A GIS Approach by David Sekkes, GISP Chester County Department of Emergency Services

The first step of the EAP review was to determine exactly who is at-risk should the dam fail. The Marsh Creek EAP at the time listed the estimated at-risk population as 1,500 people â&#x20AC;&#x201C; far below what was expected inside Downingtown Borough alone. This prompted CCDES to review the population estimates by running a high-level analysis of the at-risk-population using the GIS-based inundation zone. The analysis of the at-risk-population began by overlaying the Countyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s GIS tax parcel boundary layer, maintained by the Chester County GIS, with the inundation zone found in the EAP (Figure 5). Parcels that had a residential land-use code were selected, and then emergency planners made estimates based on the land-use type (Table 1) and Census data as to the population on each parcel. The results of the analysis showed that there are about 8,500 people living inside the inundation zone. The population estimate used in the Marsh Creek EAP prior to the review was off by over 7,000 people. Three months after the new population estimates for the Marsh Creek EAP were completed, Chester County acquired a new GIS building footprint layer that gave the analysis even greater accuracy. The building footprint layer details with high precision the outline of buildings as small as 100 square feet. With this new data, emergency planners were able to know exactly where on a parcel structures were located. They could, with a high degree of confidence, determine an exact count of the structures and a more refined population estimate inside the inundation zone (Figure 6).

Fig. 5

Fig. 6


Improving a Dam Emergency Action Plan: A GIS Approach by David Sekkes, GISP Chester County Department of Emergency Services

The initial study found that 3,214 parcels would be affected by a failure of Marsh Creek Dam. Using the building footprints layer, it was determined that many of the structures on these parcels were not at risk of flooding or that the parcels were vacant. The number of parcels affected by a dam failure was lowered to 2,138 and the at-risk population estimate was lowered to 6,900 people.

Johnstown Area Heritage Association (1889). Main Street destruction. Retrieved from Johnstown Area Heritage Association Johnstown Flood Museum (n.d.). 1936 & 1977 floods. Retrieved from Johnstown Flood Museum (n.d.). History of the Johnstown flood. Retrieved from http://www. Johnstown Flood Museum (n.d.). Facts about the Johnstown flood. Retrieved from html

This is one example of how GIS has given emergency planners the ability to quickly and accurately update the data required for emergency action plans. The technology and datasets available today makes it easier to keep all emergency action plans up to date, and live up to the spirit of the National Dam Inspection Act of 1972. A well constructed plan provides first responders meaningful intelligence on which to base decisions, and gives emergency planners a realistic sense of the scope of potential danger to ensure proper resources are available.

Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (2009). Guidelines for developing an emergency action plan for hazard potential category 1,2 & 3 dams (3140-BK-DEP1956). Retrieved from Document-85725/3140-BK-DEP1956.pdf Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (2009). Marsh creek dam emergency action plan. Harrisburg, PA. Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (2011). Pennsylvania's dam safety program (3140-FS-DEP4174). Retrieved from Document-86279/3140-FS-DEP4174.pdf

As the use of GIS becomes more widespread, the poor data that Henry Eschwege chided in 1977 will become a thing of the past. Accurate data will lead to better emergency action plans and safer, more prepared communities downstream from the nationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s high-hazard dams.

U.S. Census Bureau (2013). Chester County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau. Retrieved from http://quickfacts.census. gov/qfd/states/42/42029.html US Government Printing Office (1972). National dam inspection act of 1972 (H. R. 15951). Retrieved from http://www.gpo. gov/fdsys/pkg/STATUTE-86/pdf/STATUTE-86-Pg506-2.pdf

American Society of Civil Engineers (n.d.). 2010 report card on Pennsylvaniaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s infrastructure - Dams and levees. Retrieved from FINAL%20w%20NAT.pdf Government Accountability Office (1977). Actions needed to increase the safety of dams(102515). Retrieved from

Photo by Pamela Shinn

Government Accountability Office (1977). The implementation of the National Dam Inspection Act of 1972 (100522). Retrieved from Johnstown Area Heritage Association (1889). Empty South Fork Dam with elevation line. Retrieved from Johnstown Area Heritage Association


Local Economic Impacts by Andre Maltsev

Netherlands is a small country. Since 1940s, the tourist industry has been one from the main sectors of the economy. The influence of the current economic crisis on its tourism industry has become apparent, though it was somewhat delayed. Photo by Andrey Maltsev

Over the last 15 years, the tourism industry has, from time to time, suffered from economic downturns that resulted in reduced tourist flows. Due to global nature of the current crisis and the fact that it has a direct effect on people’s financial ability to travel, the current situation could become the most serious crisis the industry has ever seen. The World Tourism Organization predicts a decrease of 2 % in international tourist arrivals worldwide for 2013.

Fig. 1. Old Amsterdam.

The tourism sector and tourism research community focus mainly on international commerce. But international tourism is only one part and certainly in number of arrivals. Domestic tourism is several times larger than international. The next step will be the recognition of the economic importance of domestic compared to international tourism.

International and local tourism is particularly attractive because of the raft of benefits it can deliver to local communities. According to the National Trust for Historic Preservation in the United States, these benefits include: • Creating jobs and businesses

International tourism movements are hard to measure. Domestic tourist movements are even harder to track. Globally, it is a dominant but invisible portion of total tourism activity. Available domestic tourism data are mostly in the form of the number of trips to destinations on minimum distance from the normal place of residence. Normal day trip on the bicycle is about 20-40 km. from home, usually to nearest town or big park. Also, a lot of people, especially on the weekend, take their bicycle on the train and traveling to the famous places from two to three hours – a big park zone, sea, some lakes or small beautiful towns. Sometimes, they stay in hotel and come back on the next day.

• Increasing tax revenues • Diversifying the local economy • Creating opportunities for partnerships • Attracting visitors interested in history • Generating local investment in economies. • Building community pride • Increasing awareness of the site or area

In the past, local tourism has clearly turned into a creative economic sector. It may adopt different forms, e.g. cultural tourism, sports tourism, beach tourism, nature tourism and so forth. The relation of increasing leisure time, low-cost transport (train, plane or car) and increasing mobility has prompted a move towards creative tourism industries.

The tourism sector and tourism research community focus mainly on international commerce. But international tourism is only one part and certainly in number of arrivals. Domestic tourism is several times larger than international. The next step will be the recognition of the economic importance of domestic compared to international tourism.

Many Netherlands cities have designed local tourism.


Local Economic Impacts by Andre Maltsev

As a result of the above factors, tourism has developed into an important driving force for Dutch citiesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; economic growth. Tourism accounts for 5 percent of all jobs, is one of largest economic sectors and features key industries of the 21st century.

Each year, thousands of visitors pass through the gates of Keukenhof. It has become a key driver of the regional economy. Tourists spend 100 million Euros in this season for bulbs and flowers bulb-growing region. Other international tourists, who stay in other regions of bulb-country, combine to spend more than 25 million Euros on bulbs.

Flower platform as economic driver

The scarcity of other tourist attractions at that time of the year also plays a role. One could say that the bulb

in South Holland

Photo by Andrey Maltsev

Keukenhof is a famous place in Holland. Many people know this place as the international and independent showcase for the flower sector in the Netherlands, particularly tulips and bulbs. It aims to welcome more than 700,000 visitors a year, compared to 10 million total visitors to Netherlands. This incredible collection of the Netherlandsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; most beautiful flowers wonderfully showcases the legendary Dutch expertise and attracts not only tourists from abroad, but thousands of local visitors!

In the middle of 15th century, the 30 hectares of the beautiful and famous Keukenhof Park were part of the estate Fig 2. Tulips. Keukenhof. belonging to the castle of Slot Teylingen. They were ruled by the Countess of Holland, Jacoba sector more or less determines the tourist image of van Beieren. Using part of her estate as a flower and the Netherlands. vegetable garden, the countess personally gathered the fresh ingredients for her kitchen. In 1949, thenThe park acts as a magnet for international tourmayor of Lisse, W.J.H. Lambooy, together with some ists, who increasingly come from the USA and Asia flower and bulb growers, created the idea of an anrather than neighboring countries in Europe. The nual open-air flower exhibition. It is to this that the tourists from these countries tend to spend more present Keukenhof, which literally means Kitchen money during holidays. More than 1.8 million interGarden, owes its name. national visitors come to South Holland, making it the province most important in the country in terms Due to the short life of spring flowers, the Keukeof international tourism. nhof only operates for about eight weeks. With its high number of visits within a period of only several The bulb sector earns money and creates employweeks, Keukenhof can be viewed as a true showcase ment not only for its own sector and the tourist of The Netherlands. But the visitors from Holland industry, but also for hospitality, retail and transport and international tourists are also giving a muchbusinesses, not to mention marinas, museums and needed a source of income, as Keukenhof receives no other attractions and events. All in all, the bulb growsubsidies from state. ing region accounts for around 25% of the revenue


Local Economic Impacts by Andre Maltsev culture and communications are playing an important role in economic life. Many cities regard the creative industry as a corner stone for innovative development. Creativity is a source of work and income for a large group of people. More and more businesses in Netherlands are interested by putting creativity to good use. Also cities, regions are benefiting from the effect of culture and creativity. In 2010 a total of 150,000 people were employed in these sectors; two percent of the total number of jobs in the Netherlands. While the total number of jobs in the Netherlands increased by seventeen percent between 2000 and 2010, employment in the creative sectors grew by 34%. Photo by Andrey Maltsev

and employment in South Holland and for the same share of the total revenue from tourism in the Netherlands.

Fig 3. Field of Flower. Keukenhof.

International tourists come to the Netherlands for four main reasons: Amsterdam, mills/traditional crafts/cheese, Van Gogh and bulbs and flowers. Keukenhof is the image-defining attraction in the fourth of these categories: for the growers, the region and the Netherlands as a whole. As such, it makes a key contribution to the national image.

In general, the creative business sector relates to three sectors: • the arts: Visual arts and photography. Performing arts: music, dance, theater. Leisure centers, organization of cul tural events

Modern tourism Tourism has over the last several years grown into an economic sector of great importance. Just now, when economic in many countries is going down, at an average level, tourism is – directly and indirectly – responsible for some 15 percent of GNP over all countries. Also, the tourism industry provide, directly and indirectly, as well as for about 200 million jobs. Tourism is also responsible for a large part of modern international passenger transport. During development of the tourism, we can see that the development of the leisure society has created the conditions for the creative industry in the different cities around world, where arts, media, entertainment,

media and entertainment: Film distribution, cinemas, film theatres, video shops. Broadcasting organizations. Public libraries, booksellers

creative business services: Industrial design, fashion design, graphic design, Creative ICT: games, new media. Architecture, urban development design, landscape architecture.

The economic value of creativity goes further than the number of people earning a living in the creative sector. For example, creative business has links with other, difference sectors of the economy. About 45% of the gross production from creative business sectors is delivered to other businesses in the Netherlands. Each Euro of extra production in creative


Local Economic Impacts by Andre Maltsev

businesses leads to a 55 to 90 cents higher production elsewhere in the economy.

As a result of all factors, tourism is going to be an important driving force for cities’ economic growth. Tourism accounts for more than 7 percent of all jobs and 6 percent of all consumers expenses within the European Union. At present, tourism is one of Europe’s largest economic sectors. The World Tourism Organization (WTO) estimates that the number of tourists in Europe will double to 700 million per year by the year 2020.

In past decades, tourism has turned into a specific economic sector driven by consumer motivations to get something new or original during leisure. It may take different forms - cultural tourism, performing arts tourism, sports tourism, beach tourism, nature tourism and so forth. The combination of increasing leisure time, low cost transport and increasing mobility has prompted a global development towards creative tourism industries. Many cities, also inside of The Netherlands, have designed policies to attract a large part of global tourist flows for their own benefit. Amsterdam’s liberal policies to cannabis and prostitution have earned it an international reputation as a city of tolerance as well as a nightlife capital. Gouda is a historical city located in the middle of Groene Hart. Gouda is trying to strengthen its position as a water city and thereby uses opportunities to attract water tourists. In 2006, Hollandse Waterstad took over the citizen initiative that started in the early nineties. Hollandse Waterstad is the name for some ambitious plans to give Gouda its strategic location by the water. This plan involves collaboration between many parties to restore the water in the historical inner city by making the historical watercourses visible and usable again.

Ecological, cultural tourism is an important part of tourism that is expected to growth in the future. The scheme of tourism, compared to the last 10 to 20 years, is changing—more vacations, shorter stays, the availability of low-cost airfares, and the popularity of and access to IT-based tourist services. Modern tourism has led to increased competition between tourist destinations, as each tourist region looking for the issue to attract a maximum of tourists. Consequently, tourism has become a key factor in regional development policy. A main challenge of modern regional policy is the using of information and communication technologies (ICT) – to generate growth in tourist visits. The internet plays an indispensable role in international and national tourism, and will most likely become the critical tool for tourism in the future. An important variable for the tourists visiting Amsterdam is the use of e-services for planning leisure activities for example; tourists have possibility to plan all their activity, visit to interesting places, and leisure on the boats, museums, parks and so on using only Internet. In Amsterdam, Den Haag, Rotterdam and some other towns you can plan these entries over Internet. Not very surprising, those tourists who are using IT service often have a higher appreciation for the different Internet based e-services. Especially, the appreciation of a booking service not only air-plain but also train, boats, bicycles - especially in Amsterdam. Nowadays, e-services such as an online booking system, journey planners or interactive maps are used by all people who have Internet connection. Since the early 1990s, Netherlands towns and cities, like other around Europe, have shown an increased interest in developing cultural

Fig. 5 IT-based tourist services.


Local Economic Impacts by Andre Maltsev at least. Occasionally, the focus shifts elsewhere and over in Amsterdam it just keeps going about creative business as usual. It could be down to Amsterdam size – as it really is a village, also it could be down to the fact that English is not the first language here. But the fact is, Amsterdam’s small size makes the creative community here more connected and, ultimately, stronger. A dynamic cultural and creative climate of a high standard makes the Amsterdam more appealing as a town in which to stay, to work and to establish a business. From ages has the Netherlands been famed for its culture, as the great possibility for creative talent: from Rembrandt to Tiesto, from Gerrit van Arkel to René van Zuuk. And yet this reputation was achieved with hard work of each person who worked in Amsterdam.

Fig. 5. Tourism industry related to business and people.

tourism strategies as an additional engine for urban economic growth. These policies have often helped bringing life to declining local communities and economies.

Tourism has never been as high as it was last year. Tourists from United State and Great Britain spend the most during their stay: an average of 181 euros and 155 per person per day. While Dutch visitors contribute the most to income by theatres and concert locations, American and British visitors spend the most on nightlife.

Amsterdam is one from the popular global tourist destinations with more than 7 million visitors annually. The small and old cross-streets lined with shops, café’s, creative businesses and cultural venues exhibit a lively picture of the city. Old beautiful houses are located within reach of varied examples of cultural heritage, such as historical architecture, museum and arts exhibitions. Various cultural facilities--for instance, the Van Gogh Museum—the Rijksmuseum or the Rembrandt House are attracting so many visitors that waiting times cannot be avoided.

Amsterdam’s visitor economy generates an estimated 3.0 billion euros annually and in excess of 50,400 full-time jobs. In 2011 year just over a quarter (27 per cent) of all visitors included a trip outside the capital on their itinerary, up from 18 per cent in 2012.

The same situation is true for the hospitality sector in the summer time. The concept of Amsterdam as ‘the creative city’ was chosen recently and now the mayor and city council support it. Amsterdam is a creative city. It has been for decades – centuries, in fact. Amsterdam has always attracted talent of all shapes and sizes from outside of its borders. With so many cultures mixing it up over such a long period of time, it’s no wonder that open-minded creativity is entrenched in the city. Amsterdam’s status as a creative hub is still debated, for instance in London,

The increase of tourist numbers was attributed, in part, to the ‘Visit Amsterdam, see Holland’. It is new campaign launched by the tourism industry to promote tourists to visit attractions in the ‘metropolitan region’ of North Holland and Flevoland. New points on the tourist trail include the historic centre of Haarlem - small and beautiful town, the industrial heritage of Zaanstad, the ‘big lake’ of the IJsselmeer and the North Sea beaches.


Local Economic Impacts by Andre Maltsev

Fig. 6. Visitors in Amsterdam.

Photo by Andrey Maltsev

More visitors have led to a commensurate rise in tourist income for the wider area. In common, income of these regions from tourists has risen from €822 million to €1.2 billion in the last four years. An extra 1,300 jobs have been created. The success of the campaign, which is funded by the Economic Affairs ministry, has prompted tourism organisations to extend it to 2017. In 2012, nearly 12 million foreign tourists visited the Netherlands and spent nearly €5 billion. With many small businesses, more than 400,000 jobs were created creating annual incomes of €37 billion.

References: 1. 2. Theobald, W.F., Global Tourism, Mass, 2005 3. Statistics Netherlands - CBS 4. Poel, P., E. Masurel and P. Nijkamp, Tourism and Regional Development

Fig. 4. Amsterdam, bank of river Amstel.

About the Writer Andre Maltse is a staff writer for Urban Planning and Economic Development News Magazine. Andre also works in IT Technology and is a freelance photographer/journalist from Almere, Netherlands. Born in Russia, Andrea’s career has taken him from Russia, to working in Her Majesty’s service for the British Embassy, to Italy to where he is located today in the Netherlands. You can view many of Andre Maltsev’s works at 35

Local Economic Impacts of Beijing Olympics by Yekaterina Dobritskaya, PhD

Photo by Yekaterina Dobritskaya

The Olympic Games are the most prestigious and showy world sport event. Thus hosting of the Games is an honorary duty followed by great economic benefits such as state and foreign investments, constructing infrastructure, the GDP -grown, along with boost of employment rates and perspectives of future tourism. Following Japan (Tokyo, 1964; Nagano, 1998) and South Korea (Seoul, 1988), the Chinese government set a course for the high-levelevent staging. 37 venues (31of them are Beijingbased) were constructed and renovated by official opening of the Games at August, 8 of 2008. According to eleventh Five-Year Plan (2006-10), USD 200 million was spent for provision of Beijing urban amenities work, including buildings demolishing and historic places refurbishing.

Regards to the economy The period before the Olympiad was one of the greatest for Beijing urban life. According to official Chinese statistics, Beijing’s economy grew at an annual rate of 12.1% between 2001 and 2006, 1.3 percentage points higher than in previous five years [1; p. 4]. From January to September of 2007, the growth rate in Beijing reached 12.6%.The per capita GDP (based on the city’s permanent resident population) reached 6,331 US dollars in 2006 (3,000 USD in 2001) [7].

Meanwhile Beijing is a metropolitan city suffered like many other Chinese cities from overpopulation (18 million inhabitants with an estimated 7 million unregistered migrants), air pollution, traffic congestion, highway expansion and locals to peripheral suburbs displacement.

Before the Games

The huge inflows of state and foreign investment played a key role in Beijing rapid development since 2002, when Olympics spending added 2.5 percent annually to overall economic growth of China capital [7].

Next efforts might be mentioned as symbols of a great job of Beijing government during the OG delivery : 22 new stadiums, 15 renovated facilities, 252 new star-rated hotels, 40km of cleaned rivers, one million new trees and 83km of planted greenbelt, as far as constructed Olympic Park in rural northern Beijing, that’s square is 3 times the size of the New York’s Central Park and other venues giving Chinese the face on the world stage.

Budget of the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad (BOCOG) amounted to USD 1625 millions with the focuses on revenues from TV rights (43.6 %), sponsors and licenses (20.3%), lotteries (11.1%) and ticket sale (8.6 %) [1; p. 6].


Local Economic Impacts of Beijing Olympics

Photo by Yekaterina Dobritskaya

by Yekaterina Dobritskaya, PhD

Great Construction of China

Budget of the Beijing Organizing Committee for the 2008 Olympics

Fig. 1 USD/RMB exchange rate used in preparing the budget is 1:8.27 Date of finalization of the budget is 2000.12.14 Source: Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games (2007) [1; p.6]

Other Olympic related and non-Olympic expenditures were focused on environmental protection (60.5%), transport (25.8%) and sport facilities (10.0%) [1; p.7].


Local Economic Impacts of Beijing Olympics by Yekaterina Dobritskaya, PhD

Non-Olympic investments of Beijing-2008

Fig. 2 Source: Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games (2007) [1; p.7

Employment creation A share of public investment in the budget was about 85% against 15% of flow from private sector.

According to Xinhua agency, “the employed population increased to 9.427 million as of 2007 from the 6.289 million in 2001… with an average annual growth of 448,000 new job positions… Beijing registered… 1.89 percent of the urban and township people remained unemployed…” (in 2007) [4]. According to official data, “in 2006 the average annual wage for Beijing city workers was 40,117 Yuan, which was 20,962 Yuan more than in 2001, increasing by 109.4%. If inflation factor is allowed for, annual wage increase was 15.7% in real terms… Beijing residents annual disposable income per capita reached 19,978 Yuan, increasing by 72.6% from 2001. Allowing for inflation factor, the actual growth of people's annual disposable income reached 11.1%” [7].

A group of Olympic Sponsors, suppliers and partners had a unique chance to widely promote their activity. 10 Chinese leading companies (Bank of China, China Mobile, China Air, PICC, CNPC, SINOPEC and CNC) as far as SOHU and Yanjing Beer entered into partner- and sponsorship agreement with Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games (BOCOG). Legend Group became only Chinese company in the international TOP VI- program [1;p.24–25]. China advertising spending with a focus on TV sports (42.5 %) amounted to roughly USD 18.4 billion in 2007 [6].

Photo by Yekaterina Dobritskaya

Generally, China sport industry had grown rapidly since 2001. “The Hong Kong Trade Development Council estimates that China's sports industry, though tiny now, has a market potential of $250 billion. Driven by major international sporting events held in China, such as the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, FIFA’s Women's World Cup 2007, and the Guangzhou Asian Games in 2010, China's sports industry will soon grow by 20 percent a year, particularly in Beijing, Guangdong, Liaoning, and Zhejiang,” were published by “Business Today «in 2008[6].

The Birds Nest National Stadium


Employment creation Local Economic Impacts of Beijing Olympics Before the Games

by Yekaterina Dobritskaya, PhD

Such great figures directly came from the preparation for holding the Games. As offiBeijing Employment Dynamics cial data reported, from 2001 to 2006 “…the city’s annual amount of new employees are about 0.62 million, mainly in the fields of construction, high-tech, modern manufacturing, modern circulation and social service, which played an important role in promotFig. 3 ing the transfer of rural labor 2008’s to 2010’s data is a forecast force, re-employment of the Source: China National Statistical Administration (2007) [1; p.25] layoffs and absorbing new workers” [1; p.25]. The government created 1.8 million jobs for venues construction as far as cleaning and renovating the city brought roughly 13.4 billion USD to the city budget. The OG delivery also created employment in tertiary industry and afforded opportunities for selfemployment as of in the sphere of street retail and home industry, that always played important roles in the Beijing economics.

metro lines amounted to 8 in length of 200 km after the opening ceremony [5]. The construction 5th Ring Road (about 10 km. away from the city center) nicknamed as “Olympic Avenue” had been completed by November, 1 of 2003. The 6th Ring Road encircling the capital beyond Beijing Capital International Airport was opened on 20th of December, 2004.

Road and railway construction

The structure of road network was optimized. As Jeffrey Owen wrote, by the end of 2006, “…the mileage of urban public transport in operation was 19 thousand km, an increase of 5,399 km than at the end of 2001” [1; p.22]. According to Laurence Liauw Wiewu (an associate professor at the School of Architecture of Chinese University of Hong Kong), there were next efforts in road construction in Beijing before the OG: 2 new Ring Roads, infrastructure 142 miles and 8 new subway lines [3].

Transportation is a major problem of modern China. The city government strain after solving the problem hardly. 25.8% from the total budget were appropriated for road and railway construction before the OG. Investments in transportation and communication sphere amounted to more than RMB 110 billion from 2001 to 2006, 4 times higher than in previous 5 years. According to Jeffrey Owen, in 2007 four Beijing subway lines 114 km of the length were officially operated (including Line 13 operated in 2002 and Batong Line operated in 2003), and four more lines in length of 115 km were under construction [1; p.22]. Line 5 of Beijing Subway entered into operation in October of 2007. Line 10, Olympic Branch Line and Airport Line were opened on July, 17 of 2008. The number of

After the Games Efforts in preparation for holding the OG was accompany by “great destruction for wide construction”. It is really typical for Chinese to create something mega- and useless like the Great Wall.


Local Economic Impacts of Beijing Olympics by Yekaterina Dobritskaya, PhD

Destruction as a base for construction

New useless objects Construction cost of the Birds Nest National Stadium, where Olympics opening Ceremony situated, was more than USD 400 million. However, the venue was near idle at once after the Closing Ceremony of the OG like other constructed venue, e. g. the Water Cube of USD 140 million costs.

As Laurence Liauw considered, next data confirm again China ability to create and destroy really great thing: demolished and forcibly relocated housing fabric, erased old Hutong streets and some districts. As he wrote next: “An estimated 1.5 million Beijing residents have been relocated to suburban satellite new towns as part of a Modernization Policy, and entire migrant workers districts have been literally erased as officials felt they presented an unsightly image to tourists and Olympic Committee members alike. It is ironic that the hundreds of thousands of migrant workers that literally built the Olympic developments were sent home unable to witness their own creations” [3]. After demolishing old venues and relocating socialist-era factories for city renovation, housing prices in Beijing was up by between 400% and 600% from 2001 and 2008 [3].

As Mark Byrnes, an associate editor of The Atlantic Cities wrote: “It could take 30 years to pay off the $471 million bill for the Bird's Nest, while the Water Cube lost about $1 million last year even after public financial assistance and the addition of a water park. And those are the facilities still in use. Venues for kayaking, beach volleyball, BMX, and baseball sit untouched since 2008. Signage and landscaping appear to have gone without maintenance since the closing ceremonies” [2] (see photos of the current state of Beijing's Olympic facilities by Reuters photographer David Gray at http://www.theatlanticcities. com/jobs-and-economy/2012/07/beijings-olympicruins/2499/).

China unemployment rate

Fig. 4 Source: International Monetary Fund – 2011 Word Economic Outlook [8]


Local Economic Impacts of Beijing Olympics by Yekaterina Dobritskaya, PhD

Mounting unemployment

and began to connect with hamlets. In 2006, blacktops connecting small hamlets were 471 km long. Natural gas pipelines have been paved to Shunyi, Tongzhou, Daxing, Changping and Fangshan. Garbage removal has embarked on the normal track in which the villages are in charge of collecting, towns of transporting and districts of processing. Up to the end of 2006, the harmless treatment ratio of domestic garbage in suburban areas had made up 57.5%. With the development and utilization of solar energy, gasification of straws, firedamp, and biomass energy, the countryside has become bright, warm and accessible to recycling energy” [1; p.21].

Created over 2 million new employment (compared to 150 000 for Sidney and 135 000 for London) were temporary, that involved boost of unemployment after the Games was over. Moreover, as Laurence Liauw wrote, created extra jobs “…related to new hardware of the city, while the software of the city needs to continue growing to sustain new job creation after the Olympics” [3].

Disbalance between urban and rural development Before the Games

Apparently with the large investments into the OG, the difference between urban and rural, capital and provincial areas had been further escalated.

The PRC belongs to the group of developing countries familiarized with a problem of disbalance between urban and rural development. Rapid development of the capital city before the Olympics with large public investments into venues and future events involved boost of that disbalance.

Efforts of the OG As for the rest, the “Green and Technical Olympics” contributed a lot into Beijing urban life:

According to Chinese official data, there were large state investment into rural infrastructure and public living condition improvement, but in effect all the changes were referred to improvement of infrastructure and living condition in Beijing rural districts. As was mentioned, “Cumulative expenditure to rural areas by local budgetary finance from 2002 to 2006 has reached 18.12 billion Yuan, an annual increase of 25.5%. As for the governmental investment in fixed assets, the investment ratio of suburban areas to urban areas has changed from 20:80 in 2003 to 52:48 in 2006… At present, there are 9 suburban counties that linked with expressways to the central districts. And the Beijing-Pinggu Express Highway is to be put into use before OG. The highway completed during the Tenth Five-Year Plan in suburban areas extends 1,100 km, so that a highway frame network is formed to incorporate the municipal road network and those of suburban counties. Countryside roads have been improved by great margin. By the end of 2005, blacktops had extended to each of administrative villages,



Nearly USD 17 billion was invested into cleaning up the city to and after the OG. The government also paid attention to recycling technologies, solar heating, and geothermal heat pump systems. As Laurence Liauw noted, “venues such as the Water cube Aquatics Stadium deployed energy-efficient designs and recyclable materials. However what remains to be seen is whether the Clean Air Days (an enforced halving of cars on streets during the Games and rain-inducing chemical rockets from the army) and green building technologies, can themselves be sustained in Beijing’s post-Olympic development” [3]


Some venues constructed for the OG were converted to use after the OG. As was mentioned some stadiums were integrated into university campuses; the Olympic Media Centre was designed to be converted

Local Economic Impacts of Beijing Olympics

into a convention center with hotel [3]


Olympics delivery created boost of city economics, lots of opportunities for employment and self-employment, and what though temporary income grow. It also should be mentioned, that boosting of unemployment after the Games was not rapid (see Figure 3)


Improvement of transport infrastructure as far as living and social conditions, and boosing of people’s cultural level were also efforts of the Beijing 2008’ Olympics.

Photos by Yekaterina Dobritskaya

by Yekaterina Dobritskaya, PhD

References: 1. Brunet, Ferran; Zuo Xinwen (2008): The economy of the Beijing Olympic Games: an analysis of first impacts and prospects [online article]. Barcelona: Centre d’Estudis Olímpics UAB. [Consulted: dd/mm/yy], 2009. <http://olympicstudies.>; handle/2072/13789/WP116_eng.pdf?sequence=1 2. Byrnes M. Beijing's Olympic Ruins, 2012. – http:// 3. Laurence Liauw. Urbanization of Post-Olympic China. –

About the Writer

4. Beijing official: Olympics Promotes Employment // XinHuaNet, 2008. –

Dr. Yekaterina Dobritskaya (Moscow, Russia) is a Doctor (PhD) of Chinese Philosophy and interpreter from Chinese of the Tomsk Polytechnic University in 2005-2009. During 2003-2005 lived and studied in China (study at Jilin University, Changchun). Dr Dobritskaya is author of a number of articles in Chinese philosophy and culture.

5. Beijing opens 3 new subway lines ahead of Olympics. Huang Xin, Li Wen and others // XinHuaNet, 2008. – http:// 6. Post-Olympics Beijing // Business Today Magazine. – 7. Beijing city, China //ChinaFish. – 8. China Unemployment Rate // International Monetary Fund – 2011 World Economic Outlook. -


Achieving Sustanability of New and Exisiting Properties: Healing Our Urban-Inner City Communities by Madeline Sanders

Inversus Out Migration the challenge of achieving comprehensive sustainability

Cities, as they reflect ongoing urbanization of the United States, are continuing to expand at a rapid pace, more so than the effort being undertaken to address the entire landscape of communities that comprise them. Concomitant with the urbanization factor and thus the broad landscape of communities referenced herein, is the matter of sustainability in our urban-inner cities wherein, because of undesirable conditions, many residents are fleeing to the suburbs to what they believe are more safe havens. Interestingly, as many residents of the urban-inner cities are exiting their communities, a significant number of suburbanites who have for years resided away from the urban cities are returning! We must ask the question about why such a two-way flow is occurring; why are many urban-inner residents fleeing the city, while former suburbanites are returning to urban areas after living in suburbia for years? The revolving door cycle, we believe in part has resulted from the restricted distribution of resources that officials of some cities have determined should be targeted towards certain socioeconomic groups to the exclusion of others, and thus the creation of urban versus urban-inner cities. (Note: To avoid offending those who live in perceived healthy communities of cities, we are making a distinction between urban cities (i.e. comprising healthy communities) versus urbaninner cities (i.e. comprising unhealthy communities). Fortunately, the out migration/in-migration is not symptomatic of every city in America because the good news is that a few have decided to inject a moral authority into the equation premised on the notion that every property, new and existing, of every community should reflect healthy and thus sustainable living. So why is a moral authority necessary; what is so difficult about achieving healthy and sustainable properties and thus communities within every square

foot inch of a city? Is it about economics (i.e. the cost of sustainable properties), or about capitalism that survives and thrives on haves versus have nots (i.e. in this instance, sustainable properties versus unsustainable properties). To begin, what does the literature say about the definition of a sustainable property? When we answer the question, we also begin to appreciate why officials of some cities are deploying resources to achieve sustainable properties in all of their communities, and not simply in urban communities to the exclusion of urban-inner city communities, with the non-exclusive policy opening the door to holistic-healthy cities.

12345 Anywhere Avenue, Urban/ Urban-Inner City, SA (What urban-inner city community is the home in the photo located in?)

Although there is no definitive description of what constitutes a sustainable property, it should in any event utilize a minimal amount of environmental impact with less water pollution, waste, air pollution or other activities that would compromise the needs of the present generation at the expense of ensuring sustainability for future generations. Those properties, new and existing, are replete with demonstrable evidence of renewable energy (i.e. a term utilized interchangeably with sustainability) such as heat conservation (i.e. for example, high grade insulation, low-e windows and radiant floors 1). The features


Achieving Sustanability of New and Exisiting Properties: Healing Our Urban-Inner City Communities by Madeline Sanders

Overall benefits of contributing to

constitute, in part, high performance buildings, and we would argue that every community, inclusive of new and existing properties should include the expanse of such properties across an entire landscape. Significantly, such properties, new and existing, positioned in every inch of a community, and thus a city, reflects a community proceeding towards a healing, and we argue proceeding towards rather than arriving at healing because there exists two (2) additional components of a healed community, which are a robust economic base and great schools. Prior to considering the two remaining elements of a healed (i.e. urban-inner city) community, we should provide our readers with a deeper description of a sustainable property, new and existing.

the creation of sustainable communities A desire to level the working and playing field for all residents to provide entrance for sustainable properties should be motivated by the knowledge that an improved quality of life (i.e. healthier citizenry, low crime, less mental stress, and a larger constituency contributing to the tax base) are all great byproducts of a community of sustainable properties. The great outcomes that could derive from ushering in sustainable properties and applying the model to heal urban-inner city communities, and thus reduce or cause a cessation of out-migration of the citizens introduces another heretofore unacknowledged challenge which is urbanization can accommodate only so many people because space is at a premium, with space utilization being driven by the quality of the land utilized for improved property, be the property new or existing.

Further description of sustainable properties Along with heat conservation, the sustainable property (1) preserves water usage with restraints on the pressure, uses rain water barrels, and a tankless water heater2 , (2) utilizes biodegradable and recycled materials, (3) uses volatile organic compound (VOC) paint, (4) utilizes LED lights, (5) requires evaluation of the quality of the land being used for new construction and gives extended consideration to how the land is managed or compromised in the case of major rehabilitation and (6) requires special care given during pre-construction and construction in progress to minimize, for example, air pollution. Clearly, the information provided here leads one to infer that the cost of achieving sustainable properties and thus sustainable communities and sustainable cities is more expensive in the short-term. The short-term cost should not, however, be a deterrent. In other words, city officials should want to level the working and playing field for all residents to eliminate disparities in the quality of life, and thus achieve sustainable properties, new and existing.

Space limitations in urban areas dictating the parameters for who stays or moves in and who moves to outlying areas Spaces within and between communities populated by sustainable properties can accommodate just so many people. (Note: Considerations must be given to walkways, park areas, bike paths, street width to accommodate vehicular traffic, yards, some of which accommodate trees, the load on sewers, and whether living quarters for humans will be expansive edifices or straight up structures reaching so many stories.) If city officials desire to reduce the out-migration of residents living in non-sustainable properties, while simultaneously accommodating the in-migration of new urbanites, a combination of expansive plus


Achieving Sustanability of New and Exisiting Properties: Healing Our Urban-Inner City Communities by Madeline Sanders

straight up properties must be the model, with straight up properties dominating the landscape. All such properties are capable of achieving sustainability, and here is a pictorial representation of one such community that could be either an urban or urbaninner healed community.

cities, and he argues it from a moral authority perspective, a position that we believe city officials must exercise with respect to healing our urban-inner city communities. Moreover, we have taken his argument a step further by maintaining that a sustainable economic base could feasibly be the outgrowth of the sustainable urban-inner city communities, and, in fact, for the number of years Dr. Porter has promoted the ICIC Program, the ability to cause it to have


A healed urban-inner city community creates the environment for an economic sustainable The sustainable properties and thus communities represented above reflect Pride In Living/Work/Play spaces, and while we have acknowledged that there is a substantial upfront investment, such an investment cannot overshadow the reduced cost of law enforcement services, security and social and health services necessary when properties and thus communities lack sustainability. Additionally, great living/work/ play sustainable spaces collapsed inside of urbaninner cities further connotes that such environments are ideal for the evolution of a myriad of businesses; citizens residing in urban-inner city healed communities would be motivated to spend in the same area. Accordingly, such locales are prime for a variety of businesses, a concept promoted by Dr. Michael Porter, creator of the Initiative for Competitive Inner Cities (ICIC), a program begun by Dr. Porter at Harvard University during 19943.

real traction will occur when proactive steps are taken to integrate it with the healed urban-inner city communities we believe are possible. For the traction to gain and foothold and survive and thrive, sustainable schools in a healing and healed urban-inner city sustainable community must provide the education and training to the citizens, and thus equip them with the academic tools to assume employment in a variety of industries or become entrepreneurs.

Education closes the loop on the path to healed urban-inner city sustainable communities As it goes, everyone in a healing or healed urban-inner city sustainable community will not desire to be an employee no more than everyone will desire to be an entrepreneur. Therefore, such communities that achieve property and economic sustainability are prime candidates for ensuring the third tentacle of

Dr. Porter is a strong proponent of the belief that a sustainable economic base can launch from inner


Achieving Sustanability of New and Exisiting Properties: Healing Our Urban-Inner City Communities by Madeline Sanders

sustainability, and, in fact, sustainable schools (i.e. pre-kindergarten through high school, at the very least) complete what we will call: The Triangle of Sustainable Healed Urban-Inner City Communities. Now that we have disclosed what the triangle represents relative to achieving the communities we desire, we return to an earlier question posed: Why the difficulty in creating healed urban-inner cities as the outgrowth of creating sustainable properties, a sustainable economic base, and sustainable preAbout the Writer kindergarten through high schools? Is it the cost of obtaining such sustainability as described herein, or is it because of the socioeconomic struggle that deMadeline Sanders is a native Chicagoan and a vetrives from capitalism premised upon the haves versus eran of the United States Navy. the have nots? She is a graduate of Northwestern University, and an awardee of a Woodrow Wilson fellowship. Madeline Premised upon the data presented here, we believe is the founder and CEO of ES21, Inc., which does that the redirection of monetary resources will set product sales, distribution and installation, a myriad the stage for the inception of healing and thus healed of studies and grant writing. She has an extensive urban-inner city sustainable communities which can background in public policy work, legislative advobe collapsed inside of urban sustainable communities cacy, as a compliance officer and education consulwith the resultant end of urban-inner city sustaintancy. Her current work involves an extensive feasiable communities. The image and reality that evolves bility study on strategies for integrating sustainable is one urban sustainable city. Is this an unrealistic urban inner-city communities into the urban city dream? We think not, not if the moral authority on landscape. Madeline is also studying building enthe part of city officials exist. ergy technology leading to certification and further expertise in how to intersect renewable energy with 1 Magilavy, Beryl. Sustainability Plan. Sustainable City. urban inner-city community development. She is Retrieved December 6, 2011: Extracted from: http:// also a trainer, a business developer, and a blogger on sustainability and energy, public policy, and veteran 2 affairs. Follow her on and leave your comments on 3 The Competitive Advantage of the Inner City. Michael E. Porter. Harvard Business Review,

May-June 1995



The Big Box and Local Politics by Pamela Shinn, BS, URP and Rich Siegel

Big Box: coming or going

Photo by Pamela Shinn

As the debates over the short and long economic effects of the big box retail saga continues, some of the debate is being answered by local lawmakers. On July 10th, Washington DC lawmakers gave approval to a bill that would mandate big box retailers to pay their employees 50% over the cities minimum wage. Currently the City of Washington DC’s minimum wage nonexempt employees are $8.25/hr and the lawmakers have approved a rate of $12.12/hr which will be in play for retailers with corporate sales of $1 billion or higher, or with a zoning approval space of 75,000 square feet or larger. The city already has a higher minimum wage rate over the current federal minimum wage of $7.25/hr .

to work, thus impacting the weekly hours worked as well as the cost of benefits. Since the new federal laws will allow even part-time employees to obtain benefits, at what cost will this prompt big box retailers to make all employees essentially part-time with more expensive benefit packages.

According to the Employment Policies Institute, “federal mandates in the increase of the minimum wage has proven that the wage floor is no longer able to support working families with children, It is believed that it should be returned to the 1968 value, where the minimum wage was at its peak in real value. Proponents of wage floor increases claim that the real value of the minimum wage has steadily fallen over the past few decades due to inflation, and has thus hurt families with children.”

According to a report in the Washington Post, it was stated by council member Vince Orange (D-At Large); “The question here is a living wage; it’s not whether Wal-Mart comes or stays. We’re at a point where we don’t need retailers. Retailers need us.”

Based on the data, the question remains, do big box retailers or any other large company, have the right to pay, or not to provide workers the right to make a living wage? Further more, what is a living wage?

The social and economic debate over big box’s effect on employment vs unemployment has mounted over the past decades. The fact that some large retailers have abused a lesser fortunate portion of our social fabric has been clear an evident. Although the cause and effects have been in debate, if big box helps unemployment or in essence cancels it out. It has been documented that within two to three years after their opening, many small retailers, from grocery to hardware, have been put out of business. It is apparent that at the onset, it would appear that the openings have made a mark on unemployment via the new job creations. However, the reality in time is that jobs later down the road have been lost.

Characteristics of a Minimum Wage Worker Accordiing to the Bureau of Labor and Statistics (BLS), the characteristics of a minimum wage worker in 2011; approximately 73.9 million American workers age 16 and over were paid at hourly rates, representing 59.1% of all wage and workers. Among those paid hourly workers, 1.7 million earned exactly the prevailing federal minimum wage of $7.25/hr. It is also stated that 2.2 million had wages below the federal mandated minimum wage, identifying that 3.8 million workers are earning wages at or below the Federal minimum wage.

Another issue is if the increase of the wages will then impact the hours employees will be employed


The Big Box and Local Politics by Pamela Shinn, BS, URP and Rich Siegel

Photo by Pamela Shinn

The state minimum wage rate requirements, or lack thereof, are controlled by legislative activities within the individual states. Federal minimum wage law supersedes state minimum wage laws where the federal minimum wage is greater than the state minimum wage. In those states where the state minimum wage is greater than the federal minimum wage, the state minimum wage prevails. Some states already implement a higher minimum wage, such as Minnesota, where a company with an annual gross greater than $625,00.00 has to pay a minimum wage .90/hr greater than a company grossing an annual income less than $625,00.00. It should also be noted that the greatest minimum wage for Minnesota is $6.16/hr, which is $1.10/hr less than the Federal Minimum wage.

According to the US Department of Health and Human Services, there are two slightly different versions of the federal poverty measure:

In addition, the State of Washington has the highest minimum wage at $9.19/hr. The states of Georgia and Wyoming have an excessively low minimum wage of $5.15/hr of the 45 states that have a minimum wage requirement. It needs to be noted that several states have no minimum wage, such as Tennessee, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama, Georgia and South Carolina and no minimum wage data is available to quote.

• •

The poverty thresholds The poverty guidelines

The poverty thresholds are the original version of the federal poverty measure. They are updated each year by the Census Bureau. The thresholds are used mainly for statistical purposes — for instance, preparing estimates of the number of Americans in poverty each year. (In other words, all official poverty population figures are calculated using the poverty thresholds, not the guidelines.)

The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) has also reported in their June 2013 report on unemployment, that the regional and state unemployment rates were little changed. In twenty-eight stated, the unemployment rate did increase, 11 stated had decreased and the remaining 11 states as well as the District of Columbia has absolutely no changes. The bureau also reported that most states in regard to seasonal adjustment had little to no change with the exception of fifteen states which had statistically significant unemployment rate changes from June 2012, all of which were Photo by Pamela Shinn

The poverty guidelines are the other version of the federal poverty measure. They are issued each year in the Federal Register by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The guidelines are a simplification of the poverty thresholds for use for administrative purposes — for instance, determining financial eligibility for certain federal programs.


The poverty guidelines are sometimes loosely referred to as the “federal poverty level” (FPL), but that phrase is ambiguous and should be avoided, especially in situations (e.g., legislative or administrative) where precision is important.

The Big Box and Local Politics by Pamela Shinn, BS, URP and Rich Siegel

The following figures are the 2013 HHS poverty guidelines which were published in the Federal Register on January 24, 2013. These guidelines have been set on three scales dependent upon geographic location:

Through reviewing the stats on the BLS site for minimum wage earners and below, the percent of workers with professional degrees earning below minimum wage is 2%, where those high school and no college is 2.5%. Going over the data again, it is clear that the number of people with professional degree, and higher education including bachelors and masters degrees was not much different in % than those with a high school education. I did find that the percent of people making less than minimum wage shot up higher for those who did not complete a high school education, between 5.0-6.1%, dependent on how many years of high you attended, but did not graduate, making it clear that these segment of the population clearly is being taken advantage of in terms of “cheap” laborers.

A Living Wage

Fig. 1

As defined by the Office of Management and Budget and updated for inflation using the Consumer Price Index, the weighted average poverty threshold for a family of four in 2013 is $23,550.00/yr and for a single person in 2013 it is $11,490. The question still remains; how does the poverty level threshold compare to actual monies required to sustain a minimal life style? Let’s take a look at both a single family and a family of four and basic living costs for 2013. Although the numbers appear too good, people need to look at the actual take-home pay and what has to come out of that. If you look at the family of four (as well as the family of one), these incomes fall far short of the amount required to meet a decent standard of basic needs.

Fig. 3

Photo by Pamela Shinn

Fig. 2


The Big Box and Local Politics by Pamela Shinn, BS, URP and Rich Siegel

Basic Estimated Monthly Living Costs - 2013

Fig. 4


The Big Box and Local Politics by Pamela Shinn, BS, URP and Rich Siegel

Fig. 5

Photo by Pamela Shinn

Note that figure 4 does not account for luxury items such as holiday or special occasions, vacations, cable TV, internet, school costs for children such as sports, books, school supplies, seasonal clothing supplies for those in colder climates, state driver license or ID fees, local, state and federal taxes which may be due at the end of each year. The chart also does not account for laundry and supplies, additional medical co-pays for visits, medication co-pays, co-pays for dental work and eye glasses, 401K program, car maintenace, or daycare.


Although the the weighted average poverty threshold for a family of four in 2013 is $23,550.00/yr and for a single person in 2013 it is $11,490, the figures we comprised to maintain a minimalist standard of living differs greatly from the set standards. It becomes apparent that if you at or below the threshold set, you will not have access to many of the basic standards of living that many of us accustomed to.

Bureau of Labor Statistics, US Department of Labor, america.htm US Census Bureau, US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, http://aspe.

As the politics of the big box saga will continue, it will remain tp be seen if big box retailers or larger corporations will step up to the plate as have the public officials in D.C. The ability of lawmakers to take the initiative to adjust minimum wages in accordance to their local economy, along with a corporate ability to pay those wages only makes good sense and there is hope that others will follow in their footsteps.

The Washington Post, Center for Poverty Research, what-are-annual-earnings-full-time-minimum-wage-worker Denver: RTD, Apartment Ratings,


The First Scenario of Urban Zoning Buenos Aires: The Dawn of the Modern City by Guillermo Tella, PhD

Through the years, zoning has established itself as one of the most powerful urban planning instruments which, from the point of view of building regulation, has been able to operate over a precisely delimited territory –stemming from the concept of division into zones–, so as to strengthen the intrinsic characteristics of the different resulting fragments.

spreading of contagious diseases and plot subdivision with neither infrastructure nor good conditions of sunny areas. The awful conditions which industrialized Europe reached in less than fifty years gave birth to strong social conflicts. The proletariat rose as an organized force which the capital itself –which had created it– came to fear. That same fear triggered the reform of the old cities and the improvement the ‘infected’ suburbs. Photo courtesy Guillermo Tella

Nineteenth century city is the outcome of the Industrial Revolution. The effects of the abandonment of rural areas and the extreme overcrowding conditions were the key issues demanding an By the mid nineteenth answer to be sought. century, the signs of The problem with this deterioration procity was its concenduced by the second tration of population phase of the Industrial and its growth rate. Revolution began to Poverty has been an [Image 1: Buenos Aires: The downtown of the city of Buenos Aires in 1937] be evident: social opendemic problem pression and inequalhistorically, but it was re-dimensioned when thouity as much as urban overcrowding and unhealthisands of the rich came into contact with millions of ness had become unforeseen situations already the poor. settled within the city itself. By way of a change in the systems and ways of productions, a socio-philosophical movement emerged in England around Adam Smith, father of the laissefaire and of liberal capitalist economics, in which industry was consecrated as the self-regulatory system of social and individual balance, based upon the division of labor and mass production. It was not long after praising its virtues that the negative effects of the model began to be noticeable, having already established in all over Central Europe.

In Buenos Aires, the ceaseless migrations from the countryside to the city looking for sources of work brought about a severe increase of densities in central areas, with the subsequent collapse of the sanitary systems. Likewise, the sale of plots in installments along with the expansion of the mass transport system (which had a lowered tariff) allowed the enclosure of increasingly broader strips of land to the traditional urban area, and led to the generation of the first metropolitan conurbation ring.

Cities grew with such intensity as factories conducted their mass production. Looking for sources of work, rural population migrated massively to urban areas in a short period of time. Consequently, this brought about unplanned growth with high levels of urban overcrowding and unhealthiness, along with the

At the height of the industrial, unhealthy, and overcrowded city, utopian proposals emerged, articulating the relation between the country and the city in a self-sufficient way. In such framework, hygienists warned about the detriments arisen in the city and promoted the first sanitarian statutes upon which


The First Scenario of Urban Zoning Buenos Aires: The Dawn of the Modern City by Guillermo Tella, PhD

elements: squares, plots and streets; so that public and private spaces were rapidly identified, within an orthogonal layout responding to the universal tradition of the urban grid. From that theoretical scheme a city was configured with a rigidly structured, monotonous and unsurprising pattern, but with a capacity of expanding the urban fabric without any greater conflicts.

Photo courtesy Guillermo Tella

contemporary urban planning legislation would be built.

The urban center and its rural surroundings constituted a juridical and essentially functional unity, since its population’s subsistence economy was sustained by it. Beside the city there was the ejido (common land) pieces of land meant for absorbing future demographical growths and, beyond these, there were lands with different areas and intensities of land use: dehesas (pastures) for public recreation, chacras (farms) plantations for growing cereal crops and estancias (cattle ranches) fields for breeding livestock.

[Image 2: A clearly defined zoning over a regulatory plan protects and enhances the socio-environmental quality of each one of its parts]

From village to metropolis

Finally, the urban grid was employed by the conquistadores as the principal instrument of domination and of ‘domestication of the wild lands’, within a scheme articulated by a triggering element of strong centrality acting as nucleus of the layout: the plaza mayor (main square), which gave the city its form and character, while becoming the symbol of political and religious, civil and commercial powers at the same time.

Both hygienic preaching as well as the concepts of ‘order’, ‘accessibility’, and ‘sanitation’ turned out to be the constants in urban planning actions. The city before them was an act and a plan. In 1580, Juan de Garay, founder of Buenos Aires, traced a grid of 144 blocks by ruler and rope, and then proceeded to distribute lands and plots, so applying the Indian legislation. The mode of conquest and colonization of the American territory acquired legal form in 1573, when king Phillip II enacted the Ordenanzas de Descubrimiento, Nueva Población y Pacificación (Ordinances of Discovery, New Settlement, and Pacification), which stood for an authentic legislation on urban and regional land ordinance. They were developed by the Council of the Indies –an organ meant for managing the issues related to America in Spain– and they contained the structural guidelines on how to carry on the ‘populating’ action.

Buenos Aires grew around this central core by expanding in successive rings. Later on, the linear trace of railways re-orientated its growth with axis linking to farming and livestock-breeding areas. The successive railway stations became centers of small urbanizations and then tramways were the ones in charge of connecting dispersed areas. Between 1880 and 1930, foundational centers of towns were born and consolidated around those stations within the framework of an agro-export economic policy thanks to which an important European immigration entered the country. This population settled in extreme overcrowding conditions mainly

Within a great rectangular enclosure, so as to facilitate the distribution of lands and plots to each settler, the city had to organize in relation to three essential


The First Scenario of Urban Zoning Buenos Aires: The Dawn of the Modern City by Guillermo Tella, PhD

The passage from village to metropolis has meant the permanent replacement of rural land with urban one. This process was materialized by means of precise tendencies of expansion and consolidation. The city we travel today is, in fact, a conjunction of juxtaposed cities, reaching their height and development over time, which exacerbate the components of a mature, elegant and refined society.

Photo courtesy Guillermo Tella

around the center of the city and, in a fewer amount, around the incipient sub-central areas.

[Image 3: The urban grid was employed by the conquistadores as the principal instrument of domination]

It was then that the Building General Regulations initiated the body of modern urban planning laws as from 1897. It was then that the first zoning provisions appeared and introduced the concepts of control of construction safety, of building hygiene and of urban aesthetics with a restrictive and protective character.

Urban Zoning As it has been highlighted, along with the division of labor the division of society began, arising from a grouping by common features of their components. Within this logic, zoning emerged from the first restriction on private land ownership for reasons of public good, through the determination of possible functions for the various parts of the city.

The Building Aesthetics Commission was a municipal organ which formulated the Regulatory Plan of 1925. The results of its work also delved into the inclusion of zoning criteria, differential land occupation and building height, taking into account urban and demographic evolution, and tried to integrate the suburban neighborhoods to the metropolitan structure.

As one of the most powerful and effective urban planning instruments, zoning has a solid discipline structure giving it the necessary validity and hierarchy for the mediation of urban conflicts related to the nature of the destinations and practices in the city, subordinating to such ordinance the modalities of land transformation and use. So, for instance, when at the end of the nineteenth century a central area was delimited in Buenos Aires so to prevent the construction of clay or wooden buildings, even though it contributed to certain general aesthetics, it really attacked the unhygienic conditions of daily life. In this way, before the growing epidemic eruptions, zoning appears to intercede in the urban health of the population.

Parallel, a direct relation between zoning and traffic was begun to being established, in which volume and density of buildings held a correspondence with the capacity of streets. There was a tendency to coordinate the various functions of the city and to study the distribution of the different gradations of densities, of congestion and overcrowding of the zones.


The First Scenario of Urban Zoning Buenos Aires: The Dawn of the Modern City by Guillermo Tella, PhD

variables. But its conception should arise from the protection of the intrinsic characteristics of each zone, from available services and infrastructures, from daily habits and customsâ&#x20AC;Ś and not from land market logics, which is so much installed in decision-making processes in the city.

Photos courtesy Guillermo

From criticism of the legal framework enshrining private ownership as the main obstacle of an integral urban progress, the municipal government was authorized to establish restrictions to the private domain in 1944. It was the key to the enactment of the first code of the city.

[Image 5: The zoning criteria in the urban planning legislation of Buenos Aires open up many questions on the construction of the city]

[Image 4: The municipal government was authorized to establish restrictions to the private domain]

About the Writer

From this perspective, the study of the zoning criteria in the urban planning legislation of Buenos Aires opens up many questions. Some of them spin around the city-production processes and the attempts to control and lead their social and physical occupation, and how to show the conflicts and contradictions conceived in the city itself in a more evident fashion.

Guillermo Te is an Architect and Philosophy Doctor (PhD) in Urban Planning. In addition, he has developed the Postdoctoral Program in Social Sciences and Humanities. He has been Professor and Researcher in Urban Planning since 1989. Moreover, since 2005 he carries out academic activities in the Institute of the Conurbation in the University of General Sarmiento (Argentina). In his professional experience, he takes part and coordinates the development of strategic plans and of urban ordinance and local development for public as well as for socio-urban and environmental consulting firms. As a result of this theoretical production and professional practice, he has published numerous sciences and outreach works on the processes and effects of the metropolitan trans-formation.

A clearly defined zoning over a regulatory plan protects and enhances the socio-environmental quality of each one of its parts. And, in this sense, it could be translated into a device to retrieve the value of built-up area, minimizing the ownerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s interests while favoring the destination of the zone. Then, it is necessary to think openly about what the legislation allowing the realization of an integral project of the city should be. So far, zoning has been one of the most efficient tools to control such urban


Urban Planning and Economic Development July 2013  

Urban Planning and Economic Development News Magazine provides educational information and services in urban planning and environmental cons...

Urban Planning and Economic Development July 2013  

Urban Planning and Economic Development News Magazine provides educational information and services in urban planning and environmental cons...