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Operations and Maintenance Essentials

G|PRO Green Professional Building Skills Training Program


COPYRIGHT

DISCLAIMER

Copyright © 2012 by Urban Green Council, U.S. Green Building Council New York All rights reserved.

None of the parties involved in the funding or creation of the Course Manual, including Urban Green Council, its members, or its contractors, assume any liability or responsibility to the user or to any third parties for the accuracy, completeness, or use of or reliance on any information contained in the Course Manual, or for any injuries, losses, or damages (including, without limitation, equitable relief arising from such use or reliance). Although the information contained in the Course Manual is believed to be reliable and accurate, all materials set forth within are provided without warranties of any kind, either express or implied, including but not limited to warranties of the accuracy or completeness of information contained in the training or the suitability of the information for any particular purpose.

Urban Green Council devoted a significant amount of time and resources to create this GPRO® Course Manual for Operations and Maintenance Essentials, v1.7. Urban Green authorizes individual use of the Course Manual. In exchange for this authorization, the user agrees: đƫ to retain all copyright and other proprietary notices contained in the Course Manual đƫ not to sell or modify the Course Manual đƫ not to reproduce, display, or distribute the Course Manual in any way for any public or commercial purpose, including display on a website or in a networked environment. Unauthorized use of the Course Manual violates copyright, trademark, and other laws and is prohibited. The text of the federal and state codes, regulations, voluntary standards, etc., reproduced in the Course Manual is used under license to Urban Green Council or, in some instances, in the public domain. All other text, graphics, layout, and other elements of content in the Course Manual are owned by Urban Green Council and are protected by copyright under both United States and foreign laws.

As a condition of use, the user covenants not to sue and agrees to waive and release the Urban Green Council, its members, and its contractors from any and all claims, demands, and causes of action for any injuries, losses, or damages (including without limitation, equitable relief) that the user may now or hereafter have a right to assert against such parties as a result of the use of, or reliance on, the Course Manual. Urban Green Council U.S. Green Building Council New York 40 Fulton Street, Suite 802 New York, New York 10038

TRADEMARK GPRO® is a registered trademark of Urban Green Council.


This initiative was made possible by the generous support of the Merck Family Fund and New York Community Trust.

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FOREWORD What is Urban Green Council?

Urban Green Council is the New York Chapter of the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC). Urban Green’s mission is to lead the advancement of sustainability in the urban built environment through education, advocacy, collaboration, and research. Our vision is to see cities that coexist in harmony with their natural environment and contribute to the health and well-being of all. A nonprofit organization established in 2002, Urban Green Council is supported by contributions from members and sponsors, as well as foundation grants. Our focus is on New York City, and Rockland and Westchester counties. Supported by our in-house experts and a dedicated network of volunteers, our efforts are transforming the metropolitan area and creating models that can be replicated elsewhere.

What is GPRO?

Urban Green Council developed GPRO: Green Professional Building Skills Training, in partnership with the Building Construction Trades Council (BCTC), the Building Trades Employers’ Association (BTEA), and the Consortium for Worker Education (CWE). Produced with more than 100 volunteers from local unions, contractors, and design professionals, along with the City University of New York (CUNY) and USGBC Upstate New York Chapter, this comprehensive national training program is designed to respond to the building industry’s unique needs. It consists of a series of courses and certificate exams that teach the people who build, renovate, and maintain buildings the principles of sustainability combined with trade-specific green construction knowledge. Skilled workers will be positioned to work in accordance with new regulations and to meet the expectations of owners and tenants who want healthier, environmentally sustainable, and energy-efficient homes and offices.

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GPRO: OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE ESSENTIALS

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FOREWORD

The courses include a prerequisite, Fundamentals of Building Green, and a set of trade-specific courses. Currently, those tradespecific courses consist of Construction Management, Operations & Maintenance Essentials, Electrical Systems, Plumbing, and Mechanical-HVAC. Additional courses will be forthcoming. Applicants will receive a GPRO Certificate from Urban Green Council by passing an exam in their area of expertise. This certificate demonstrates that an individual understands green building as it applies to his or her trade and enhances that person’s ability to compete for and participate in green jobs.

Who should take this course?

The GPRO training program is designed for experienced building professionals who seek to integrate green practices into the core knowledge of their trade. As such, the program materials and exam cover the "green gap" between conventional trade skills and the new knowledge, awareness, and skills required to successfully implement green building. The materials presented in this course are intended for a wide variety of professionals who work on-site in building operations and maintenance. The types of buildings addressed range from multi-family residential to high-rise commercial to industrial. The job titles included range from building superintendent or manager to stationary or operating engineer. Throughout the manual, these titles are sometimes used specifically when they are appropriate to a particular issue being discussed, while at other times the term building "operator" is used to collectively identify all job titles instead of listing each one separately.

Urban Green Council Contact Information: Urban Green Council U.S. Green Building Council New York

www.gpro.org gpro@urbangreencouncil.org

40 Fulton Street, Suite 802 New York, New York 10038 (212) 514-9385 www.urbangreencouncil.org

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CONTENTS 1:

Introduction

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Operations and Maintenance in Green Building

2

Why Sustainability in Building Operations Matters The Role of Building Superintendents, Managers, and Engineers 2:

Building Performance Metrics

6

How Water and Energy Usage are Measured Water and Energy Bill Analysis Benchmarking: Determining Water and Energy-Use Efficiency What About the Weather? Heating Energy Intensity 3:

The Building Envelope

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The Function of the Building Envelope Heat Transfer Air Barrier Integrity Condensation Control Addressing Envelope Problems: Options for Building Managers 4:

Water Use

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Tracking Water Use Water Use Reduction Practices Detecting Hidden Leaks in Mechanical Systems Fixtures and Appliances Water Consumption Norms Reducing Water Use for Irrigation 5:

Heating and Cooling

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Sustainability in Heating and Cooling Efficiency in the Central Plant: Heating and Cooling Efficiency in Distribution The Operating Engineer’s Key Roles in Improving Performance

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CONTENTS

6:

Lighting

39

Lighting: Basic Background Types of Lamps Safe Mercury Disposal for Discharge Lamps Lighting Controls 7:

Indoor Air Quality

52

What Causes IAQ Problems and Why it Matters What the Building Manager Can Do to Ensure Good IAQ Interior Retrofitting and Renovation IAQ Assessment and Resolution Procedures 8:

Dealing with Waste

61

Why Waste Matters Reduce Reuse Recycle 9:

Commissioning and Energy Audits

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The Commissioning Process for New Buildings Retro-Commissioning and Recommissioning for Existing Buildings The Operator’s Involvement in Commissioning Energy Audits Conclusion

75

Additional Education and Resources

76

Photo and Figure Source Credits

78

Glossary

80

Thank You

86

Classroom Exercises

88

1: Building Performance Metrics - Heating Energy Intensity (HEI) 2: Lighting

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CHAPTER TITLE

i.1: Riverhouse (New York City): LEED Gold residential building uses triple-glazed windows for lower heating loads and ground-source heat pumps to meet them efficiently.

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INTRODUCTION Welcome to Urban Green Council's GPRO Operations and Maintenance Essentials course. In this course, you will learn about the core practices of sustainable building operations and maintenance. The materials cover a broad spectrum of building systems and sustainability issues along with the basic professional knowledge required to improve your building's performance. This course is an overview that will show you how to incorporate sustainable practices in your work, while encouraging you to pursue more indepth training in those areas most valuable for your facility and for your career. As you know from having taken the Fundamentals of Building Green, the basic goal of sustainability has been stated as a way of living that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Taking action to move toward this goal is what this course is all about. The materials presented here build upon, but do not substantially repeat, information from Fundamentals. We assume you are already knowledgeable about standard procedures in buildings operations and maintenance – our emphasis is on the "green margin," the new skills and techniques that make sustainable practices possible.

đƫ Processes managed by outside sustainability

experts, such as retro-commissioning and energy auditing

At the end of this manual is a glossary to help you understand important definitions and abbreviations. Words listed in bold italics can be found in the glossary. The multiple-choice certificate exam will ensure your grasp of the objectives listed above, while drawing on content from both this course and the Fundamentals course. To prepare, we recommend studying both manuals and reviewing all of the "Test Yourself" questions at the end of each chapter. Urban Green would like to thank you for making this commitment to advancing the building industry’s capacity to operate and maintain green buildings. Your participation increases the membership of the growing community of green building professionals. Together, we will have a significant impact on protecting the environment and creating a healthier, more sustainable world for all.

Upon completion of this course you will understand: đƫ How to measure the performance of your building đƫ The role of the building envelope and how to

improve its impact on the interior environment

đƫ Ways to improve and minimize water use đƫ How heating and cooling systems work and how

they can be improved

đƫ The ways lighting promotes comfort and safety

and how to minimize energy use while ensuring occupant satisfaction

đƫ How to maintain adequate indoor air quality and

avoid "sick building syndrome"

đƫ The best ways to deal with waste, from the

perspective of both the building operator and the occupant

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OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE IN GREEN BUILDING

WHY SUSTAINABILITY IN BUILDING OPERATIONS MATTERS In the Fundamentals of Building Green course we explored the ways in which sustainability in building operations and construction can be beneficial to the environment, the economy, your job, and your health. We will now look at sustainability as it relates specifically to water usage, energy usage, and environmental health in the buildings you operate. In doing so, we will look closely at the responsibilities of the building operator as he or she oversees increased building operations efficiency and ensures the health and safety of occupants and workers. Since most buildings in the U.S. that will still be standing in 30 years have already been constructed, building operators have a critical role to play in ensuring a more sustainable future. Unfortunately, most existing buildings are not operating as efficiently as possible, which leads to unnecessary water and energy waste. With the right skills and information, however, you have the opportunity to identify these inefficiencies and suggest improvements that will ultimately decrease the environmental footprint of the buildings you manage. Whether you operate and maintain office buildings, apartment complexes, schools, or commercial spaces, your work will make our nation’s buildings more sustainable. Buildings in the U.S. consume more than 40% of all energy and more than 12% of all potable water. Different buildings, however, use these resources in various ways. For

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example, one building may contain inefficient appliances that lead to energy waste, while another may experience inefficiencies because of problems with HVAC systems. Understanding the conditions that result in these differences is essential for a building operator who is looking for the most appropriate conservation and energy-efficiency measures to apply in the building he or she manages. In addition to energy savings, indoor air quality (IAQ) is a primary sustainability concern for building operators and engineers, given the profound impact that it can have on human health. Considering that Americans spend 90% of their time indoors, it is no wonder that occupant, worker, and building health are all directly connected. As we work toward greater sustainability in our facility operations, it is important that we think about buildings as integrated systems. This is known as the "wholebuilding" approach. Rather than addressing each system individually, such as just tightening the envelope or increasing the efficiency of the heating system alone, we study buildings as interdependent systems. This approach serves as both an underlying sustainability concept and as a basic principle of building operations science. Figure 1.1 shows some of the primary ways that the different systems and elements are integrated and interconnected in a sustainably designed and operated building. We will use this whole-building approach to explore energy and water usage in buildings and to

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OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE IN GREEN BUILDING

A

1.1: The “whole-building” approach takes into account all the complex interactions between various building systems.

B C D

A E

C B

F

D

G

F

E

H

G

I

J

Low Water/Dual-Flush Toilet Reduces water use Continuous High R-value Insulation Increases comfort + saves energy Recycled Ceiling Tiles Reduce resource use

N O

M

O

N

P Q

R

ENERGY STAR Appliances Reduce electrical + water use Low VOC Green Cleaning Products Improve indoor air quality

P

Meters + Submeters Increase awareness of energy + water use

Q

Recycling Reduces resource use Alternative Transportation Reduces energy use Greywater System Recycles water to toilets + garden

R S

P

High Performance Windows Increase comfort + save energy FSC Wood Flooring Supports sustainable forestry

K

M

L

Heat Recovery Ventilation or Controlled Exhaust Ventilation Reduces energy use Cogeneration Uses both heat + electric power from local generator

High Efficiency Lighting and Occupancy + Daylighting Controls Reduces energy use, improves indoor environment

H K

Sun Control Devices Reduce solar heat gain in summer, direct daylight into room to lower lighting loads Condensing Boiler Reduces energy use for heat + hot water supply

J

L

I

Photovoltaic Panels Provide renewable solar electricity Rain Water Harvest Uses water for toilets + garden White Roof or Green Roof Reduces urban heat island effect

POTABLE WATER

S

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OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE IN GREEN BUILDING

determine how to make our buildings operate more efficiently. Consider what happens if you change all your lighting from incandescent bulbs to fluorescent ones. You will save money on your electric bill, but you will also see the heating bill increase slightly while the air conditioning bill decreases slightly. Why does this happen? Much of the power going to the incandescent lights was released as heat into the surrounding space. The new fluorescent bulbs, on the other hand, provide much less heat, and this means that the heating system must work harder in order to compensate for this change. At the same time, less heat being emitted from the fluorescent bulbs means that the air conditioning has to do less work to cool the same space. As the above example demonstrates, a change in one system can seriously affect another system, so it is essential to keep the entire facility in mind to ensure that the building operates as the owner and designers intended. Since green buildings operate at higher levels of efficiency compared to conventional buildings, the operator must carefully track and monitor building performance. This requires that he or she understands how different systems affect one another and the overall operation of the building.

DID YOU KNOW? đƫ The commercial and residential building sector accounts

for 38% of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (pollution that causes climate change) in the U.S. per year, more than any other sector.

đƫ A property’s value increases by $12.50 per square foot

for every $1.00 per square foot saved in operating expenses as a result of green building design.

đƫ Many states and electric utilities offer a variety of

incentives for energy projects at existing facilities. An example for New York State can be found on the Operations & Maintenance Essentials page at: gpro.org

đƫ Tightening up the building’s envelope (sealing air

leaks, etc.) can increase energy efficiency, but may also lead to poorer indoor air quality and health issues if ventilation is not adequate.

đƫ When properly operated for efficiency, well-maintained

buildings can have 20 - 50% lower operating costs while drastically reducing their environmental impact.

đƫ In the U.S., the majority of the water used by buildings

is for landscape watering. Therefore, when looking for savings in water use, outdoor conservation practices are a good place to start.

đƫ Compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs) use about a

quarter of the energy that incandescent bulbs use and typically last 10 times longer.

THE ROLE OF BUILDING SUPERINTENDENTS, MANAGERS, AND ENGINEERS When it comes to your building, you are the eyes and ears of the occupants and the owner. Because you are "on the ground," you have the know-how and the ability to spot problems, find opportunities for improvement, and implement solutions. You also have an important role to play in making your building green, so we will explore tools that allow you to maximize energy and water-use efficiency.

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OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE IN GREEN BUILDING

Some of the first steps toward greater sustainability in facilities operations and management include proper monitoring and operating of systems, as well as recognizing problems when they start. Similarly, it is important to ensure good IAQ by monitoring ventilation system performance and choosing products and materials that are healthy and safe for building occupants. We will examine green retrofit improvements, some of which you will be responsible for carrying out (such as tuning up the heating system, installing high-efficiency lighting, or switching to green cleaning supplies), and others that might require professional installation (such as installing solar panels, new boiler controls, or insulation). If a building is new, part of your responsibility as the building operator, manager, or stationary engineer will most likely be involvement in the commissioning (Cx) process. Cx is the process of ensuring that at the completion of construction, all subsystems for HVAC, plumbing, electrical, fire and life safety, and building security are operating as intended by the building owner, and as designed by the building engineers. Electrical systems typically included in Cx are lighting and lighting control systems, HVAC equipment, emergency generator and emergency power systems, and uninterruptible power supply and alarm systems. Cx can also be thought of as part of the quality assurance procedure for the construction and equipment installation process. As an operator of an existing building, you would more likely be involved in recommissioning or retro-commissioning (retro-Cx). This ongoing "tune-up" process for ensuring that building systems continue to operate as designed is vital to long-term sustainability in building operations and management.

WANT TO LEARN MORE? đƫ For information on indoor air quality, see Chapter 7 of

this manual, and check out the EPA’s website: www.epa. gov/iaq.

đƫ The Sustainable Building Technical Manual is available

thanks to the USGBC, in cooperation with the U.S. DOE and U.S. EPA, as a free download on the Operations & Maintenance Essentials page at: gpro.org.

đƫ The Building Owners and Managers Association

(BOMA) offers a Sustainable Operations Series (SOS) that includes practical solutions for making building operations greener: www.boma.org.

đƫ Many unions offer courses and other resources that

will help you increase your skills and knowledge — contact them!

đƫ Energy-Efficient Building Systems: Green Strategies

for Operation and Maintenance, by Lal Jayamaha, is a helpful guide to operating and maintaining commercial building systems at peak efficiency.

đƫ For more on energy efficiency in commercial buildings,

visit the U.S. DOE’s Building Technologies Program on the student resources page at: gpro.org.

đƫ Facilities Net is a network for professionals who design,

construct, manage, and maintain buildings. Visit www.facilitiesnet.com for a wide range of tools and resources geared specifically toward facility managers for energy efficiency practices.

1 TEST YOURSELF: 1. Why does sustainability in building operations and

maintenance matter?

2. Why use a "whole-building" approach when

thinking about operation of a building's facilities?

3. Give an example of how the operation of one

facility system in a building affects another of the building's systems.

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Sample Chapter: GPRO Operations & Maintenance