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Operations and Maintenance Essentials

G|PRO I

Green Professional Building Skills Training Program


COPYRIGHT

DISCLAIMER

Copyright © 2011 by Urban Green Council, U.S. Green Building Council New York All rights reserved.

None of the parties involved in the funding or creation of the Course Manual, including Urban Green Council, its members, or its contractors, assume any liability or responsibility to the user or to any third parties for the accuracy, completeness, or use of or reliance on any information contained in the Course Manual, or for any injuries, losses, or damages (including, without limitation, equitable relief arising from such use or reliance). Although the information contained in the Course Manual is believed to be reliable and accurate, all materials set forth within are provided without warranties of any kind, either express or implied, including but not limited to warranties of the accuracy or completeness of information contained in the training or the suitability of the information for any particular purpose.

Urban Green Council devoted a significant amount of time and resources to create this GPRO® Course Manual for Operations and Maintenance Essentials, V.1.5. Urban Green authorizes individual use of the Course Manual. In exchange for this authorization, the user agrees: đƫ to retain all copyright and other proprietary notices contained in the Course Manual đƫ not to sell or modify the Course Manual đƫ not to reproduce, display, or distribute the Course Manual in any way for any public or commercial purpose, including display on a website or in a networked environment. Unauthorized use of the Course Manual violates copyright, trademark, and other laws and is prohibited. The text of the federal and state codes, regulations, voluntary standards, etc., reproduced in the Course Manual is used under license to Urban Green Council or, in some instances, in the public domain. All other text, graphics, layout, and other elements of content in the Course Manual are owned by Urban Green Council and are protected by copyright under both United States and foreign laws.

As a condition of use, the user covenants not to sue and agrees to waive and release the Urban Green Council, its members, and its contractors from any and all claims, demands, and causes of action for any injuries, losses, or damages (including without limitation, equitable relief) that the user may now or hereafter have a right to assert against such parties as a result of the use of, or reliance on, the Course Manual. Urban Green Council U.S. Green Building Council New York 40 Fulton Street, Suite 802 New York, New York 10038

TRADEMARK GPRO® is a registered trademark of Urban Green Council.


This initiative was made possible by the generous support of the Merck Family Fund and New York Community Trust.

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FOREWORD What is Urban Green Council?

Urban Green Council is the New York Chapter of the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC). Urban Green’s mission is to lead the advancement of sustainability in the urban built environment, and to serve as a model for other cities through education, advocacy, collaboration, and research. Our vision is to see cities that co-exist in harmony with their natural environment and contribute to the health and well-being of all. A nonprofit organization established in 2002, Urban Green Council is supported by contributions from members and sponsors, as well as foundation grants. Our focus is on New York City, Rockland and Westchester counties. Supported by our inhouse experts and a dedicated network of volunteers, our efforts are transforming the metropolitan area and creating models that can be replicated elsewhere.

What is GPRO?

Urban Green Council developed GPRO: Green Professional Building Skills Training, in partnership with the Building Construction Trades Council (BCTC), the Building Trades Employers’ Association (BTEA), and the Consortium for Worker Education (CWE). Produced with more than 100 volunteers from local unions, contractors, and design professionals, along with the City University of New York (CUNY) and USGBC Upstate New York Chapter, this comprehensive training program is designed to respond to the building industry’s unique needs. It consists of a series of courses and certificate exams that teach the people who build, renovate, and maintain buildings the principles of sustainability combined with trade-specific green construction knowledge. Skilled workers will be poised to work in accordance with new regulations and to meet the expectations of owners and tenants who want healthier, environmentally sustainable, and energy-efficient homes and offices.

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GPRO: OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE ESSENTIALS

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FOREWORD

The courses include a prerequisite, Fundamentals of Building Green, and a set of trade-specific courses. Currently, those trade-specific courses consist of Construction Management, Electrical Systems, Mechanical-Dry, Operations & Maintenance Essentials, and Plumbing. Additional courses will be forthcoming. Applicants will receive a GPRO Certificate from Urban Green Council by passing an exam in their area of expertise. This certificate will demonstrate that an individual understands green building as it applies to his or her trade and will enhance that person’s ability to compete for and participate in green jobs.

Who should take this course?

The materials presented in this course are intended for a wide variety of professionals who work on-site in building operations and maintenance. The types of buildings addressed range from multi-family residential to high-rise commercial to industrial. The job titles included range from building superintendent or manager to stationary or operating engineer. Throughout the manual, these titles are sometimes used specifically when they are appropriate to a particular issue being discussed, while at other times the term building “operator” is used to collectively identify all job titles instead of listing each one separately.

Urban Green Council Contact Information: Urban Green Council U.S. Green Building Council New York

www.gpro.org gpro@urbangreencouncil.org

40 Fulton Street, Suite 802 New York, New York 10038 (212) 514-9385 www.urbangreencouncil.org

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GPRO: OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE ESSENTIALS

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CONTENTS 1:

Introduction

1

Operations and Maintenance in Green Building

2

Why Sustainability in Building Operations Matters The Role of Building Superintendents, Managers, and Engineers 2:

Building Performance Metrics

6

How Water and Energy Usage Is Measured Water and Energy Bill Analysis Benchmarking: Determining Water and Energy-Use Efficiency What About the Weather? Standards for Energy and Water-Use Efficiency 3:

The Building Envelope

16

The Function of the Building Envelope Heat Transfer Air Barrier Integrity Condensation Control Addressing Envelope Problems: Options for Building Managers 4:

Water Use

24

Tracking Water Use Water Use Reduction Practices Detecting Hidden Leaks in Mechanical Systems Fixtures and Appliances Water Consumption Norms 5:

Heating and Cooling

30

Sustainability in Heating and Cooling Efficiency in the Central Plant: Heating and Cooling Efficiency in Distribution The Operating Engineer’s Key Roles in Improving Performance

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CONTENTS

6:

Lighting

39

Lighting Level and Quality Bulb Types Lighting Controls 7:

Indoor Air Quality

46

What Causes IAQ Problems and Why It Matters What the Building Manager Can Do to Ensure Good IAQ Interior Retrofitting and Renovation IAQ Assessment and Resolution Procedures 8:

Dealing with Waste

55

Why Waste Matters Reduce Reuse Recycle 9:

Commissioning and Energy Audits

60

The Commissioning Process for New Buildings Continuous and Retro-Commissioning for Existing Buildings The Operator’s Involvement in Commissioning Energy Audits Additional Education and Resources

68

Photo and Figure Source Credits

70

Glossary

72

Thank You

78

Classroom Exercises

80

1: Building Performance Metrics - Heating Energy Intensity (HEI) 2: Lighting

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CHAPTER TITLE

I.1: Riverhouse (New York City): LEED Gold Residential Building uses triple-glazed windows for lower heating loads and ground source heat pumps to meet them efficiently.

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INTRODUCTION In this course you will learn about the core practices of sustainable building operations and maintenance. The materials cover a broad spectrum of building systems and sustainability issues along with the basic professional knowledge required to improve your building's performance. This course is an overview that will show you how to incorporate sustainable practices in your work, while encouraging you to pursue more in-depth training in those areas most valuable for your facility and for your career. As you know from having taken the Fundamentals of Building Green course, the basic goal of sustainability has been stated as “a pattern of resource use that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Taking action to move toward this goal is what this course is all about. The presentation of materials here builds upon, but does not substantially repeat, information from Fundamentals. We also assume you are already knowledgeable about many standard procedures in buildings operations and maintenance – our emphasis is on the “green margin,” the new skills and techniques that make sustainable practices possible.

After you have completed this course you will have an opportunity to take the certificate exam. Although there will be strong emphasis on operations and maintenance, the exam will include questions from both courses. The short quizzes and “Test Yourself” questions delivered throughout this course will provide you with a sampling of the type of questions you will be expected to answer on the certificate exam. Upon successfully passing the test, you will receive a GPRO Certificate for the Fundamentals of Building Green and the Operations and Maintenance Essentials Courses. Urban Green would like to thank you for making this commitment to advancing the building management industry’s capacity to operate and maintain green buildings. Your participation increases the membership of the growing community of green building professionals. Together, we will have a significant impact on protecting the environment and creating a healthier, more sustainable world for all.

Upon completion of this course you will understand: đƫ How to measure the performance of your building đƫ The role of the building envelope and how to

improve its impact on the interior environment

đƫ Ways to improve and minimize water use đƫ How heating and cooling systems work and how

they can be improved

đƫ The ways lighting promotes comfort and safety

and how to minimize energy use while ensuring occupant satisfaction

đƫ How to maintain adequate indoor air quality and

avoid sick building syndrome

đƫ The best ways to deal with waste, both from

building operations and the occupant's perspective

đƫ Processes managed by outside sustainability

experts, such as commissioning and energy auditing

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OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE IN GREEN BUILDING

WHY SUSTAINABILITY IN BUILDING OPERATIONS MATTERS In the Fundamentals course, we explored sustainability as it relates to building operations, construction, your job and health, the construction market, the environment, and future generations. We now look at sustainability as it relates specifically to energy efficiency, water and energy usage, and environmental health in the buildings you manage. In doing so, we will look closely at the direct relationship between the building operator's primary roles of ensuring efficient operations and safeguarding the health and safety of occupants and workers. You can enhance sustainability in these areas whether you manage and operate office buildings, apartment complexes, schools, or commercial spaces. Buildings in the United States consume more than 40 percent of all energy and 12 percent of all potable water. However, different buildings use these resources differently. Because of this, it is essential to understand the conditions that create these differences so the building operator can achieve greater sustainability and money savings through the application of conservation and energy-efficiency measures. In addition to energy savings, indoor air quality (IAQ) is a primary sustainability concern for building occupants, operators, and engineers — given the profound impact it can have on human health.

2

DID YOU KNOW? đƫ Tightening up the building’s envelope (sealing air leaks,

etc.) can increase energy efficiency, but may also lead to poorer indoor air quality and health issues if ventilation is not adequate.

đƫ When properly operated for efficiency, well-maintained

buildings can have 20 to 50 percent lower operating costs while drastically reducing their environmental impact.

đƫ In the U.S., the majority of the water used by buildings is

used for landscape watering. Therefore, when looking for savings in water use, outdoor conservation practices are a good place to start.

đƫ Compact fluorescent bulbs use about a third of the energy

of incandescent bulbs and typically last 10 times longer.

WANT TO LEARN MORE? đƫ For information on indoor air quality, check out the

EPA’s website: www.epa.gov/iaq/, and see Chapter 7 of this manual.

đƫ The Sustainable Building Technical Manual is available

thanks to the USGBC — in cooperation with the DOE and the EPA. It is available as a free download at: www. smartcommunities.ncat.org/pdf/sbt.pdf.

đƫ The Building Owners and Managers Association

(BOMA) offers a Sustainable Operations Series (SOS) that includes practical solutions for greening building operations: www.boma.org.

đƫ Many unions offer courses and other resources that

GPRO: OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE ESSENTIALS

will help you increase your skills and knowledge contact them!

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OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE IN GREEN BUILDING

A Photovoltaic Panels (Renewable Solar Electricity) B Rain Water Harvest (Uses Water for Toilets + Garden) C White Roof or Green Roof (Reduces Urban Heat Island Effect)

1.1: The “whole-building” approach takes into account all the complex interactions between various building systems.

D Exterior Shading Devices (Reduce Solar Heat Gain in Summer) E Condensing Boiler (For Heat + Hot Water Supply) F Heat Recovery Ventilation or Controlled Exhaust Ventilation G Cogeneration (Uses both Heat + Electric Power from Local Generator)

A C B

D

H High-Performance Windows (Increase Comfort + Save Energy) I FSC Wood Flooring (Sustainable Forestry Practices) J Occupancy + Daylighting Controlled Lighting K Low Water/Dual-Flush Toilet

F

E G

L Continuous High R-value Insulation (Increases Comfort + Saves Energy) M Recycled Ceiling Tiles (Conserve Resources) N Energy Star Appliances (Reduce Water + Electrical Use) O Low VOC Green Cleaning Products P Meters + Submeters (Increase Awareness of Energy and Water Use) Q Recycling

H I

K

J

R Access to Mass Transit

L M N

S Greywater Reuse with Backflow Prevention (Recycles Water to Toilets + Garden)

O P Q R

S POTABLE WATER

BLACK WATER

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OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE IN GREEN BUILDING

Considering that 90 percent of our time is spent indoors, occupant, worker, and building health are directly connected. As we work toward greater sustainability in our facility operations, it is important that we think about buildings as integrated systems, referred to as the “wholebuilding" approach. Rather than addressing each system individually, such as just tightening the envelope or increasing the efficiency of the heating system alone, we study buildings as interdependent systems. This approach fits both as an underlying sustainability concept and as a basic principle of building operations science. Figure 1.1 shows some of the primary systems and elements that contribute to the integrated nature of a sustainably designed and operated building. We will use this “integrated systems” approach to explore energy and water usage in buildings and to determine how to make our buildings operate more efficiently. As an example of interdependence, consider the fact that if you change out all your lighting from incandescent bulbs to fluorescents you will save money on your electric bill, but you will also see the heating bill go up slightly, and the airconditioning bill go down. Why does this happen? Because the power going to the lights, which is released as heat to the space the lights are in, will have been reduced dramatically. This increases the heating load and decreases the cooling load.

4

DID YOU KNOW? đƫ The commercial and residential building sector accounts

for 38 percent of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (pollution that causes climate change) in the United States per year, more than any other sector.

đƫ A property’s value increases by $12.50 per square foot

for every $1.00 per square foot saved in operating expenses as a result of green building design.

đƫ Many states and electric utilities offer a variety of

incentives for energy projects at existing facilities. One example for New York State is at: www.nyserda.org/ programs/Existing_Facilities/default.html.

WANT TO LEARN MORE? đƫ Book: Energy-Efficient Building Systems: Green Strategies

for Operation and Maintenance, by Lal Jayamaha — Guide to operating and maintaining commercial building systems at peak efficiency.

đƫ For more on energy efficiency in commercial buildings,

visit the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Program at: www1.eere.energy.gov/ buildings/commercial/.

đƫ Facilities Net is a network for professionals who design,

GPRO: OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE ESSENTIALS

construct, manage, and maintain buildings. Visit www.facilitiesnet.com for a wide range of tools and resources geared specifically toward facility managers and energy efficiency.

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OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE IN GREEN BUILDING

THE ROLE OF BUILDING SUPERINTENDENTS, MANAGERS, AND ENGINEERS When it comes to your building, you are the eyes and ears of the tenants and the owner. Because you are “on the ground,” you have the know-how and the ability to spot problems, find opportunities for improvement, and implement solutions. We will explore tools that allow you to maximize energy and water-use efficiency. Monitoring and operating systems properly, and recognizing problems, are the first steps toward sustainability in facility operations and management. Similarly, one of your key roles is ensuring indoor air quality by monitoring ventilation system performance and by using products and materials that are healthy and safe for building occupants.

We will examine green retrofit improvements, some of which you will be responsible for carrying out (such as tune-ups to the heating system, installation of high-efficiency lighting, or switching to green cleaning supplies), and others that might require professional installation (such as solar panels, boiler controls, or insulation).

More likely, as an operator of an existing building you would be involved in re-commissioning or retro-commissioning. This ongoing process for ensuring that building systems continue to operate as designed is vital to long-term sustainability in building operations and management.

Finally, as a building operator, manager, or stationary engineer, you will most likely be involved in the commissioning process if your building is new. Commissioning is defined as the process of ensuring that at the completion of construction, all subsystems for HVAC, plumbing, electrical, fire/ life safety, and building security are operating as intended by the building owner, and as designed by the building engineers. It can also be thought of as part of a quality assurance procedure for the construction and equipment installation process.

1 TEST YOURSELF: 1. Why does sustainability in building operations and

management matter?

2. Why use a “whole-building" approach when

thinking about operation of a building's facilities?

3. Give an example of how the operation of one

facility system in a building affects another of the building's systems.

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GPRO: Operations Maintenance Essentials  

GPRO Operations & Maintenance Essentials is intended for a wide variety of professionals who work on-site in building operations and mainte...

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