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Louisiana Speaks: Pattern Book louisiana region In the wake of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, urgent need exists to rebuild vast numbers of houses and buildings and to do so with a speed not possible using only traditional construction techniques. The challenge is to make sure that rebuilding is achieved in the best possible way – Safer, Stronger, and Smarter – in keeping with the motto of the Louisiana Recovery Authority’s Louisiana Speaks program. The Louisiana Speaks Pattern Book has been created to provide both guidance and tools for the builders who will take on that task.

project type

UDA Pattern Books® and Form-Based Codes primary client

Center for Planning Excellence year completed

2006 reference

Elizabeth “Boo” Thomas Plan Baton Rouge 402 North 4th Street Baton Rouge, LA 70802 (225)267-6300 boothomas@c-pex.org

E LE M E NTS OF TH E NEW NEIGHBORHOOD

The new neighborhood is a collection of streets, parks, houses, and mixed-use buildings that fit within these frameworks. STR E ETS

Within the plan area, street types include small-scale neighborhood streets, a collection of alleys and service ways, and a perimeter drive around the park. For each of these street types, there is an appropriate crosssection which describes its width, the design of the sidewalks, and the lighting. L o t R e q u i r e m e n t s : S e t b a ck s a n d f a c a d e z o n e s a t the neighborhood scale

Streets

L A N D S CA P E : S T R E E T S CA P E S A N D P U B L I C O P E N S PAC E

The street rights-of-way are further developed with street trees in the planting verges, the development of a park, and special treatment along the banks of the canals. B LO C K S A N D LOT S

The framework of streets defines the blocks for development. The blocks are subdivided into individual parcels for sale to home owners and developers. Different parcel types accommodate different building types. LOT R E Q U I R E M E N T S

Landscape: Streetscapes and Public Open Space

Buildings placed on lots

In order to organize the urban space of the neighborhood, the plan establishes setback lines and facade zones for each parcel. These set the location of individual buildings within the plan and create the relationship of the house to the street. B U I LD I NG S

Facade Zone Setback Zone

Lot Requirements: Lot scale

A wide variety of houses and buildings can then be placed on the lots. A diverse collection of styles and types of buildings creates a coherent urban environment. The illustration includes: >> Single-family houses on wide lots >> Small cottages on small-scale streets >> Attached houses >> Small apartment houses >> Mixed-use buildings on the main square

B l o ck s w i t h L o t Ty p e s Rowhouses

A Louisiana house on its lot Large Houses

Mixed-Use Buildings

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Ellon aberdeenshire | scotland project type

UDA Pattern Books® and Form-Based Codes primary client

Scotia Homes project size

248 Acres year completed

2009 reference

Dominic Fairlie Scotia Homes 23 Bridge Street Ellon, AB41 9AA UK 1358 726261 dominic.fairlie@bruce-and-partners.co.uk

Urban Design Associates in collaboration with The Prince’s Foundation for the Built Environment conducted an Enquiry by Design process to study the expansion of Ellon. This public participatory process has produced a plan which calls for both restoring the historic core of Ellon and building new neighborhoods as extensions of the town which will support the existing town. The physical form and character of the new areas will draw lessons from the great traditions of Scottish Town Building, especially those of Aberdeenshire. The Master Plan focuses on three areas. First is the Cromleybank Site, which is a new mixed-use development that creates an extension of the town; the second is Castle Meadow, a residential development that links the now isolated Knockothie community to the Historic Core; and the Historic Core will be enhanced through introduction of new infill and restoration of existing historic buildings.


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Denton Pattern Book denton | maryland project type

UDA Pattern Books® and Form-Based Codes primary client

Town of Denton, MD reference

Terry Fearins Town Administrator 13 North Third Street Denton, MD 21629 (410)479-2050 tfearins@dentonmaryland.com

The best qualities of historic towns are those that provide connections between the elements most meaningful to both past and future, whether those are connections between people and a sense of community, between places and buildings, or between heritage and growth. The Denton Pattern Book describes the town’s unique character and the essential characteristics of Denton’s built form that citizens know and cherish. The Pattern Book also presents the public vision for perpetuating those characteristics along with strategies, applicable to both revitalization and new development projects, for achieving that goal. Like many communities along Maryland’s Eastern Shore, Denton is experiencing intense growth pressure, both infill and on many acres of rural land at the town’s edges. The Pattern Book illustrates how to properly plan and design for that growth. The qualitative design measures contained in the Pattern Book augment the requirements defined in zoning and other development-related requirements.

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Urban Patterns for Infill

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Introduction Neighborhoods and towns are complex systems consisting of many different elements. The most appealing and remarkable spaces in towns are those in which harmony exists among all of the elements which create these spaces, including: the scale of the street, the widths of sidewalks, the placement and height of buildings, the architectural character, and the landscape details that add layers of richness and color. However, creating this harmony is a challenge because the responsibility for the design and development of these diverse elements often lies in the hands of different people with different scales of focus. The existing fabric of Denton – especially that which is near the urban core – serves as a wonderful example of a complex place that is beloved by residents and visitors alike because of the way it makes them feel. This response to place is a result of the many systems of the town coming together to create an even better whole. The drawing at left of the downtown core and its closest in-town neighborhoods illustrates the important relationship among the town’s varying systems. The Urban Infill Kit of Parts which appears on the next page examines each of the elements identified above to illustrate how they are all necessary and must also work together to form a strong, positive sense of place.

t

Gay

Existing Site and Town

ee Str t

eet t Str

Firs

Choptank River

The aerial view you see here looks southeast across the banks of the Choptank River. Downtown Denton and the Caroline County Courthouse are in the foreground. It’s easy to recognize the densest blocks of the town between Gay and Franklin Streets, from the river to Fourth Street. In all directions, the in-town neighborhoods feather outward to the less dense neighborhoods beyond. This view makes it easy to see the neighborhoods, or areas, of Denton which are alike in character and scale. Through this ability to break down the scale of the town into discrete parts, we can better understand the way in which they are put together.

Note: This drawing illustrates the Pattern Book design principles applied to the existing fabric of Denton. Areas of the town are depicted in a somewhat idealized state to illustrate possible infill scenarios consistent with the ideas presented in the Pattern Book. The possibilities shown in the drawing do not necessarily correlate with specific development initiatives proposed or underway.

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the denton pat ter n bo ok

the denton pat ter n bo ok

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Alexander Street Corridor yonkers | new york project type

UDA Pattern Books® and Form-Based Codes primary client

City of Yonkers year completed

2009 reference

Sharon L. Ebert Deputy Commissioner Planning and Development City of Yonkers 87 Nepperhan Avenue Suite 311 Yonkers, NY 10701 (914)377-6651

The redevelopment plan provides new waterfront access, expanded park space, and venues for public events. UDA was selected to refine the plan and prepare sustainable design guidelines for the redevelopment area. The process began with a place making exercise to define the concentrations of uses, character of public spaces and the range of architecture. The streets and parks were designed to accommodate a range of uses and activities for residents and visitors. Guidelines for the design of public space provide standards for each development team to follow as they implement projects. The highly illustrated document prepared by UDA provides a clear vision and promotional tool for the city as they work with developers, designers, and officials to build the district.


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A Pattern Book for Neighborly Houses habitat for humanity international | u.s. area office The Institute of Classical Architecture & Classical America (ICA&CA) and the U.S. Area Office of Habitat for Humanity International embarked upon a national collaboration with UDA to provide a Pattern Book that would assist affiliates in transforming their existing house designs to fulfill this social mission to their communities.

project type

UDA Pattern Books® and Form-Based Codes primary client

Institute of Classical Architecture & Classical America year completed

2007 reference

“A Pattern Book for Neighborly Houses” provides both an operating manual and prototype house designs that will enable Habitat for Humanity affiliates to design houses that build strong neighborhoods as well as accommodations for the future homeowner. The document includes design guidance for setting combinations of single family cottages, attached housing and mixed-use residential types into existing neighborhoods. In the design of the individual units, the document includes Architectural Patterns for four primary styles that are found in neighborhoods across the United States, provisions for accessibility, guidelines for green building, landscape patterns and step-by-step instructions for transformations of existing architectural designs.

Paul Gunther, President Institute of Classical Architecture & Classical America 20 West 44th Street New York, NY 10036 (212) 730-9646 pwg@classicist.org www.classicist.org

A PAT T E R N B O O K F O R N E I G H B O R LY H O U S E S

A PAT T E R N B O O K F O R N E I G H B O R LY H O U S E S

OVERVIEW

H O U S I N G PAT T E R N S

C

A A Neighborly House National surveys indicate that the vast majority of Americans are comfortable with affordable housing if it “fits in” the neighborhood. If efficient floor plans and basic massing are utilized (in keeping with Habitat’s guidelines for cost-effective housing), it is possible within a very limited budget to create the detail and character needed for a house to be viewed as a “neighborly house” rather than just an “affordable house.” The house illustrated below accomplishes this, utilizing the recommendations detailed in this Pattern Book.

Housing Patterns

Architectural Character The front facade, including the porch, is the most ornamented and finished part of a Neighborly Habitat House. The facade contributes most significantly to the public space: the sidewalk and street. The house has a recognizable architectural style that is found elsewhere in the community and is recognized as an expression of local tradition. The most basic house can be modified with minimum effort. Using correct proportions and standard elements, such as columns, that are correctly sized can make the difference between a house that fits and one that does not.

The Neighborly Habitat House The result is a Neighborly Habitat House that is in harmony with its neighborhood and an asset for the community.

Parking Placement The placement of parking is well behind the front facade of the house, preferably served by an alley and providing an accessible route to the house.

The six building typologies presented in this section are found throughout American neighborhoods. In many older neighborhoods, styles were adapted over time as certain patterns became popular. The following inventory of building types reflects various architectural styles and vocabularies. While there are many variations on house types, those illustrated here appear to dominate the most lasting and successful neighborhoods.

H o u s i n g Ty p e s Single-Family Detached Houses

This section of the Pattern Book provides an outline of typical Neighborly Habitat House types, allowing for appropriate selection according to neighborhood location. Six housing types are illustrated: single-family detached houses, single-family attached houses, mansion apartments, townhouses, apartment buildings, and mixed-use buildings. The basic elements of each type are reviewed here. The Architectural Patterns section should be consulted when designing a new house or transforming an existing plan. Strategies for green building, visitability and accessibility, and ancillary structures and parking are also addressed in this section. These recommendations apply to all housing types.

Single-Family Attached Houses

Mansion Apartments

Accessibility

Placement on Site

A house’s accessibility should be considered at the beginning of the design process. Ramps and accessible walks are an integral part of the design of the house, as opposed to add ons. Due to careful design, the siting of the house illustrated provides a zero-step entry approach from its parking area.

The front facade is set back from the street the same distance as the majority of houses in the neighborhood. It joins the facades of adjacent houses in defining the public space of the street. The front door of the house is on the facade facing the street.

Townhouses and Stacked Flats

Front Door and Porch In those communities with porches, the house includes a front porch with the same depth and dimensions of existing houses. If there is no porch, the front door is embellished.

Apartment Buildings

Green Design Green design techniques help to achieve an affordable house. In taking advantage of a house’s site and green building techniques, Neighborly Habitat Houses promote energy efficiency and conservation in a way that helps to assure long-term affordability.

The front yard is the most public part of the property and the majority of landscaping and embellishment is provided there as a contribution to the street.

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3

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A PAT T E R N B O O K F O R N E I G H B O R LY H O U S E S

A R C H I T E C T U R A L PAT T E R N S

Step 2:

Massing, Composition, and Materials

Roof pitch is typically 8:10 �

ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS

Vertically proportioned windows and doors

“L” Shape

12 8–12

Verge Board Decorative Trim Transition

5" Ogee Gutter

Gutter Crown Moulding

� Frieze

Crown Moulding

B.

Typical Eave Section 1/5

1/5

1/5

1/5

1/5

1/3

1/3

1/3

2/5

1/5

1/5

Gable End Section

Select Porch Location

Often, the first-floor windows are larger than the second floor.

Align door head with window heads.

Symmetrical and balanced placement of doors and windows Entrance doors are located in the corner of narrow houses and the center of wide houses.

and Design �

Same window design throughout, with the exception of special windows

B.

Characterized by a symmetrical and balanced placement of doors and windows 28'—36'

18'—24'

26'—34'

� 1/3

1/3

1/3

1/3

1/3

1/3

1/3

2/3

Minimum recommended porch depth is 8 feet.

18'—32'

Victorian porches have either ‘turned’ columns or square, chamfered columns. Porches generally have hip or shed roofs.

Front Gable

Corner boards: 3-7"

2"x 2" Cap 8"– 10"

2" Quarter Round

6"– 14"

Crown Moulding

8'-0" to 9'-0"

Exposure: 5-8"

Accent windows should have panes of similar proportion to the standard windows selected. Accent windows are typically used only when space is limited (i.e., over counters, bathroom fixtures, etc.) or as a compositional accent.

6"

Four-panel doors are common; partially glazed and fully glazed doors are also used. Door trim should match window trim. Partially Glazed Door

C.

2"x 2" Pickets

Colors:

34

Windows and doors have simple 4 to 6 inch trim.

Caps, backband mouldings, and aprons under the sill are common.

Brick Facing

Body: Pastels and a range of yellows, beiges, grays, blues, and greens

8"– 12"

6"-8" Turned Post

Trim: Deeper shade of the body color or a slightly different deep shade; white trim may be used

Section of Typical Porch

35

36

Box Bay Window – Front and Side Elevations (reduced scale)

Wood, fiberglass, or steel with traditional stile and rail proportions, panel profiles, and glazing patterns

10"– 12"

Turned Post

Doric Column

Square Column

Shutters are typically paneled or louvered and should be half the width of the window.

Fully Glazed Door

Panel Door

Decorative Cap Backband Moulding

Select Trim and Shutters

4"– 6"

Select Doors

Equal

Siding:

The window may have a decorative cap.

B.

“L” Shape

12 3-4

5" Ogee Gutter

18'—26'

Choose Materials

Wood or fiber cement board

Standard 4-over-4 Double-Hung Window and 2-over-2 Double-hung Window

Paired Double-Hung Window

Side Gable

C.

Accent Window

When windows are paired, use with a 6 inch mullion (trim) division.

Windows and doors from active rooms should open onto the porch.

6"– 10"

18'—34'

Standard window dimensions: Width: 2'-4" to 3'-4" Height: 5'-0" to 6'-8"

Gable End Eave Detail

1/5

Choose Window and Door Composition �

Use double-hung windows with window patterns of 1 over 1, 2 over 2, 4 over 4, and wide trim.

Corner Board

8"– 16"

8'-0" to 9'-0"

Cut wood ornament influenced by natural forms or turned decorative millwork

Front Gable

Raking eaves may have an oversized, decorative board at the gable end.

8'-0" to 9'-0"

An orderly, symmetrical relationship between windows, doors, and building mass

Side Gable

Boxed eaves often have profiled brackets at 8 to 24 inches on center and grouped at corners.

8"

Prominent porch elements added to simply massed houses to create more complex forms

8"–14"

One-story shed or hip front porches from one-fifth to the full length of the main body

Select Windows

2"x 4" Lookout

Overhang between 8 inches and 16 inches; deeper overhangs are typically used on larger houses

6"–10" 8"

Hipped or side-gabled rectangular volume, often with a dormer flush to the front facade

Windows and Doors

A.

Select Eave Detail

Choose Massing Type

Victorian

Step 3:

A.

A.

A R C H I T E C T U R A L PAT T E R N S

Eaves and Porches

6"–12"

Step 1:

8"

D

The Victorian era refers to the years during which Queen Victoria ruled England, but in reference to American architecture it defines the national style that achieved widespread popularity toward the end of her reign, specifically in the years between 1860-1900. These years saw the rise of the railroad and growth of industrialization, which led to big changes in the construction of American homes. Traditional heavy timber framing methods were being replaced, and consequently architectural styles began to evolve. The emergence of factories accelerated the production of doors, windows, and detailing. Ornate details had once only been available for landmark houses, but with the combination of mass production and lowcost transportation along railways, complex shapes and elaborate details became affordable options for all homes. The style was also readily accessible to many home builders as a result of pattern books that provided drawings of these early house designs. Traditional houses in the Victorian style were often complex in form, creating picturesque compositions. Heavily detailed porches, elaborate woodwork, and textures created by scalloped, diamond, and fish-scale shingles were all common features. While exotic Victorian houses incorporating Eastlake, Queen Anne, and Italianate details grew in popularity throughout the country, a more restrained style known as folk-based Victorian also emerged, which adapted the elegant styles of Victorian architecture to smaller, simple houses.

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6"–12"

A PAT T E R N B O O K F O R N E I G H B O R LY H O U S E S

Mixed-Use Buildings

6"–8"

Front yard

5/4"x 6"

2"x 3" Sill Apron

Simple 6-inch Trim

Backband Trim

Paneled and Louvered Shutters

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Virginia Beach Form-Based Code virginia beach | virginia project type

UDA Pattern Books® and Form-Based Codes primary client

City of Virginia Beach year completed

2010 reference

Stephen Herbert Chief Development Office City of Virginia Beach Office of the City Manager Municipal Center - Building 1 2401 Courthouse Drive Virginia Beach, VA 23456-9001 (757)385-4242 sherbert@vbgov.com

The City of Virginia Beach has long struggled with a dysfunctional zoning code for their historic beachfront. UDA (with the assistance of Code Studio and Landmark Design) was commissioned to prepare a new form-based code to encourage mixed-use, transit oriented development and the creation of more beautiful public spaces. Currently in progress, this code will replace the current zoning district regulations with new illustrated standards that will liberate development potential and encourage redevelopment of this unique coastal community.


Pattern Books and Form-Based Codes