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Efficient transport for efficient cities Ufa, August 21 2013 -

Is the car a friend or an enemy? If cars are so good , why do they generate congestion? Is building more and better roads the solution? Is public transport only for the poor and disabled? If cars are not the solution, then what is the solution?

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Four inconvenient truths 1) If you paid all the cost of travelling by car, you would not travel by car 2) If you build more roads, you will attract more traffic 3) Roads change the shape of a city, in good and in bad 4) Congestion is the only cost of travelling that varies with demand: you can’t fight it!

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Замкнутый круг «расползания» города: Individual mobility becomes more affordable = more cars

The road and street network is insufficient: congestion takes place

New roads are built, existing roads are enlarged, parking spaces are built

More people use the car to travel, less people use public transport to travel www.mobilitythinklab.com

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Замкнутый круг «расползания» города: Individual mobility becomes more affordable = more cars

The road and street network is insufficient: congestion takes place

New roads are built, existing roads are enlarged, parking spaces are built

public transport loses revenue, quality and connectivity worsen

More people use the car to travel, less people use public transport to travel www.mobilitythinklab.com

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Замкнутый круг «расползания» города: Individual mobility becomes more affordabl e = more cars public transport loses revenue, quality and connectivi ty worsen

The road and street network is insufficient: congestion takes place

New roads make it easier to exploit cheaper territories at the periphery

New roads are built, existing roads are enlarged, parking spaces are built

The city becomes bigger, less dense, housing, work, services are separated

More people use the car to travel, less people use public transport to travel

It is more difficult to walk, use public transport, the car becomes a necessity

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External costs: what you don’t pay (or think you don’t pay) OCCUPATION OF URBAN SPACE REDUCTION OF URBAN SPACE QUALITY SHAPE OF THE CITY EQUITY VARIABLE DEMAND, INTERACTION BETWEEN URBAN SHAPE AND TRANSPORT CARS STEALING CUSTOMERS FROM PUBLIC TRANSPORT

INFLUENCE OF TRANSPORT ON URBAN SPACE QUALITY: -USE OF SPACE -POLLUTION -NOISE -DANGER -SEVERANCE, SEPARATION

INFLUENCE OF TRANSPORT ON URBAN SHAPE: -SHIFT OF POPULATION TO THE PERIPHERY -CONCENTRATION OF SHOPPING AND SERVICES -DEVELOPMENT OF SINGLE-USE AREAS -ENORMOUS USE OF SPACE FOR INTERSECTIONS AND PARKING www.mobilitythinklab.com

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Замкнутый круг расползания города:

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Planning transport PLANNING MUST NOT CONSIDER ONLY TRAFFIC AND CONNECTIVITY: IT MUST DEAL WITH THE CITY IT IS PART OF, WORSENING OF THE QUALITY OF LIFE, UNAVAILABILITY OF SPACE FOR OTHER USES MUST BE ACCOUNTED FOR AMONG THE COSTS

TRANSPORT SOLUTIONS MUST BE PART OF A COMPREHENSIVE PLAN, WITH CLEAR OBJECTIVES, THE POSSIBILITY TO MEASURE THE EFFECTS AND TO MODIFY THE CHOICES IF THE OBJECTIVES ARE NOT REACHED www.mobilitythinklab.com

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How to get things right 20 CENTURY THINKING: PROBLEM: THERE IS CAR TRAFFIC CONGESTION ANALYSIS: INFRASTRUCTURE S ARE NOT SUFFICIENT TO COPE WITH THE NUMBER OF CARS THAT TRAVEL SOLUTION: INCREASE THE NUMBER AND SIZE OF ROADS!

21 CENTURY THINKING: PROBLEM: THERE IS CAR TRAFFIC CONGESTION ANALYSIS: THE NUMBER OF CARS THAT TRAVEL IS EXCESSIVE FOR THE CITY TO COPE WITH IT SOLUTION: REDUCE THE NUMBER OF CARS!

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Car ownership: Russia 1 Italy 2

Ufa, Russia

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Space occupied by transport •Why cannot the car provide transport for everyone? Why is public transport so important?

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Images courtesy of city of Muenster press office

Awareness of the problem

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Space occupied by transport CAR

BUS

BICYCLE

PARKED

11 m2

Zero

1.5m2

25 km/h

50 m2

1.3m2

29 m2

50 km/h

95 m2

2.5 m2

-

75 km/h

160 m2

4 m2

-

75 km/h BRT on exclusive lane

50 m2

1 car = 1.25 passengers; 1 bus = 75 passengers; 1 bicycle = 1 passenger; 1 BRT = 100 passengers

A bus is 40 times more efficient than a car in terms of space (and does not need parking space!). A BRT lane can transport three times more passengers than a car lane www.mobilitythinklab.com

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Approaches to transport regulation •Regulatory approach (prohibit) and market approach (make pay) – the stick and the carrot

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Modern transport solutions PUBLIC TRANSPORT MUST ADDRESS TO EVERYONE: IT MUST BE COMFORTABLE, FAST, RELIABLE, AFFORDABLE GUARANTEE COVERAGE THAT IS COMPETITIVE WITH THE CAR GUARANTEE SOMETHING THAT THE CAR CANNOT PROVIDE (WI FI, WORK ON BOARD, ETC.)

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ОТ в городах традиционный

автобус

гибридный

троллейбус

традиционный

бимодальный

Метро-трамвай

традиционный

Translohr

Трамвай-поезд

Saarbrucken

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Городская ситуация Непрерывность

Пригород

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СТОИМОСТЬ ИНФРАСТРУКТУРЫ

КОММЕРЧЕСКАЯ СКОРОСТЬ

ПРОПУСКНАЯ СПОСОБНОСТЬ’ ПУНКТУАЛЬНОСТЬ

МЕТРО

МОНОРЕЛЬС

ЛЕГКОЕ МЕТРО ТРАМВАЙ

ТРОЛЛЕЙБУС

АВТОБУС НА ВЫДЕЛЕННОЙ ПОЛОСЕ

АВТОБУС В ОБЩЕМ ПОТОКЕ

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НЕОБХОДИМЫЕ ПЛОЩАДИ

ГИБКОСТЬ ПОКРЫТИЕ ГОРОДА

СВОБОДА ДВИЖЕНИЯ

Характеристики


СТОИМОСТЬ ИНФРАСТРУКТУРЫ Метро: 50-100 M € / km 60.000 pax/h

Монорельс: 40-75 M € / km 20.000 pax/h

Автоматизированные системы: 15-30 M€/km 5.000 pax/h www.mobilitythinklab.com


Modern transport solutions TWO MODERN SOLUTIONS: -THE TRAM-TRAIN -THE BUS RAPID TRANSIT (BRT)

TRAM TRAIN: - A “MIX” BETWEEN TRAM (GOOD CONNECTIVITY) AND TRAIN (FAST, RELIABLE, COMFORTABLE) - EXPENSIVE INFRASTRUCTURE: BEST IMPLEMENTED WHERE AN UNDER-EXPLOITED INFRASTRUCTURE ALREADY EXISTS -CAN CONNECT FAR AWAY SETTLEMENTS -. REQUIRES GOOD INTERMODALITY WITH WALKING, OTHER PUBLIC TRANSPORT, THE CAR

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Стоимость инфраструктуры Легкий поезд: 10-15 M € / km 20.000 pax/h

Трамвай: 6-12 M € / km 12.000 pax/h

Автобус: 20.000 € / km 7.500 pax/h

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Modern transport solutions -THE BUS RAPID TRANSIT (BRT) -OR METRO-BUS BUS RAPID TRANSIT: -A BUS LINE THAT WANTS TO BE A METRO LINE -REQUIRES DEDICATED LANES THROUGHOUT -GUARANTEES THE PERFORMANCE OF A LIGHT METRO AT 2-5% OF THE COST (500’000 TO 2M EUROS/KM) -REQUIRES FAST TICKETING, GOOD ACCESS, INTERMODALITY -CAN MULTIPLY THE CAPACITY OF A ROAD LANE BY 4,5 TIMES: 9000 PPHPD www.mobilitythinklab.com

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Автобусное метро

Curitiba BR

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Автобусное метро

Nantes FR

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Автобусное метро

Teheran IR

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Автобусное метро

Bogotà COL

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Life and death of urban highways

Freeways reduce traffic? No, they do not. But this is still used as a justification to spend large sums of money in building them. Freeways rely on limited access but cities need a connected street grid to move people and goods: freeways erode the vitality of a city by prioritizing vehicles moving through the city and away from it Adding roads increases traffic. Removing roads reduce traffic


1974


today


1989

today


Seul Korea

2003


today

Seul Korea


Seul Korea


children “One of the most common ways to assess how clean a mountain stream is, is to look for a trout. If you find the trout, it means that the habitat is healthy. The same happens with children in a city. Children are a sort of indicator species. If we can build a city that works for children, then we will have a city that works for everyone. All these pedestrian infrastructures show respect for the dignity of man. We are telling the people: “you are important, not because you are rich or you have a Ph.D, but because you are a human being”. If people are treated as if they were special, and even sacred, they will behave by consequence. This gives way to a different type of society.” From “the politics of happiness” by Enrique Peñalosa, mayor of Bogotà www.mobilitythinklab.com

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Luca Guala to UrbanBairam