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Methodological guides URB-AL III

Communicating about/for development results in public cooperation initiatives Olga del R铆o

urb-al III Oficina de Coordinaci贸n y Orientaci贸n - OCO

Communicating about/for development results in public cooperation initiatives

Olga del Río Doctor in Communication Sciences (Autonomous University of Barcelona, UAB) with over 20 years’ experience in international cooperation for development. She is a researcher specialising in cooperation for development, democratic governance and human rights, gender in development, communication and ICT for development, as well as methodological tools and social research. She is a lecturer at the Autonomous University of Barcelona and the University of Girona. Academic coordinator of the Barcelona module of the European professional specialisation Master’s Degree in Inter-Mediterranean Mediation and consultant for the European Commission and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), among others.

This document has been produced within the framework of a European Union grant. The content of this document is the exclusive responsibility of the author and should not in any way be considered a reflection of the position held by the European Union. Editor: URB-AL III Programme Travessera de les Corts 139-151 Pavelló Mestral, 4, 08028 Barcelona Tel. +34 934 049 470 Fax +34 934 022 473 E-mail © Publisher: Diputació de Barcelona (URB-AL III Programme Orientation and Coordination Office) Editorial Board: Jordi Castells, Octavi de la Varga, Eduardo Feldman, Sara Sotillos, Carla Cors and Verónica Sanz Editing: Directorate of Communication, Diputació de Barcelona Design: Estudi Josep Bagà LD: B. 33209-2012


Methodological guides URB-AL III

Communicating about/for development results in public cooperation initiatives Olga del RĂ­o





11 Chapter 1: Communication, development and international cooperation 11 1.1. Information and communication on the international cooperation agenda 15 1.2. Communicating about/for development results 19 1.3. Communication, decentralised cooperation and public policies 25 Chapter 2: Communicating for development in cooperation programmes/ policies 25 2.1. Communication for development and social change 30 2.2. Incorporating communication into cooperation programmes/policies 44 2.3. Strategic planning of C4D and incorporation into the LFM 55 2.4. Indicators and sources of verification 61 Chapter 3: Communicating about the results of cooperation programmes/ policies 61 3.1. Communicating about development results 63 3.2. Drawing up a plan for communicating about results 89 Bibliography and other available resources 95 Appendix 101 Glossary

List of tables and charts

13 16 17 19 26 27 32 39 41 43 51 52 54 62 64 73

Principles of managing for development results (MfDR) Conceptual framework for communicating for and about results Principal characteristics of communicating about and for development results Contextualisation of decentralised cooperation Conceptual framework for communicating for and about results Interrelation and interdependence between communication structures and communication processes Communication interventions in different stages of the programme/policy Differences between programme objectives, behavioural objectives and communication objectives/results in a public policy for integrating people with AIDS Types of participants for C4D strategies Matrix for analysing participants/stakeholders/audiences Analysis of the map of participants/stakeholders and initial strategies Communication planning matrix Strategic framework for communication in programme/policy planning Conceptual framework for communicating for and about results Graphical representation of communication planning Examples of the tone of the message


75 Advantages and disadvantages of communication media and channels 81 Example schedule for a communication plan 83 Example budget for a communicating for development strategy



The Orientation and Coordination Office (OCO) of the URB-AL III Programme produces a collection of Methodological Guides which are the result of work and exchanges with various projects and the lessons learned over the course of running the programme. These guides cover a wide range of topics such as: monitoring, evaluating and communicating projects, the construction of local public policies in Latin America, the effect these policies have on social cohesion and the definition of city strategies that incorporate a vision of social cohesion. This guide, Communicating about/for development results in public cooperation initiatives, aims to contribute knowledge and tools to help effectively and efficiently communicate the results and impact of decentralised cooperation programmes and projects with particular focus on local public policies, which are understood as being medium and longterm processes. In the last decade, aspects linked to information and communication have taken on an important role in the international agenda in general and in the cooperation agenda in particular. Nevertheless, in practice we find that communicating cooperation projects and programmes does not usually form a core part of the strategy behind them, and this has a negative impact on both the development and implementation of these projects and on the understanding of their effects among the citizens who benefit from them, the actors

participating in them and the donors themselves. In view of this situation, the OCO identified a need to publish a methodological guide that would help to contextualise the role of communication in the international cooperation system, and to contribute elements and tools to optimise and enhance the value of the impact made by public cooperation initiatives. The arguments in this document are founded on the idea that incorporating communication into all of the stages of the project or programme cycle is fundamental for guaranteeing democratic ownership, accountability and management based on development results. Leading on from this, the guide reflects on the current dichotomy between communicating about results and communicating for results, and suggests that complementarity between both types of communication, in line with the principal international cooperation agencies, may be the best solution. Communicating about results –the most traditional and commonly used type in practice– is comparable to corporate communication, and usually centres on disseminating information about outputs or final results, without touching on the other stages of the programme or project. This strategy squanders the potential that communication has for increasing the likelihood of success in development


processes, which is why we are shifting towards the idea of communication for results, a novel vision that uses communication as a cross-cutting tool for achieving the project or programme’s development goals. Here at the OCO we are confident that the guidelines offered by this document will be a useful aid to designing effective and efficient communication strategies. Jordi Castells, Director of International Relations at Diputació de Barcelona and General Coordinator of the Orientation and Coordination Office of the URB-AL III Programme


1.  Communication, development and international cooperation

1.1. Information and communication on the international cooperation agenda After the WSIS (2003 and 2005), various issues linked to information and communication came up on the international agenda and on the cooperation agenda in particular. Moreover, several agreements guide the international cooperation agenda; among them we would highlight the Paris Declaration and the Accra Agenda for Action on aid efficiency, the approach of human rights-based development (HRBD) and the Millennium Development Goals (MDG).

1.1.1. Communication and development effectiveness Despite the fact that information and communication are not explicitly mentioned in the Paris Declaration (2005) or the Accra Agenda for Action (AAA 2008), both are implicit, as their recommendations cannot be carried out unless communication is a key component. This is particularly true with regard to democratic ownership, accountability and management based on development results. Communication and democratic ownership Ownership is a principle according to which partner countries exercise effective authority and leadership over their

development policies and strategies, and coordinate the development actions that form part of these policies, thereby reducing the role of the donor countries. This is closely linked to governance, which means that this ownership must be taken by citizens, communities, local authorities, civil society, research centres and the private sector. Accra marked an important change: ownership could no longer be defined as the product of bilateral conversations between governments and donors, but must instead include a process of dialogue with beneficiaries and citizens. Communication and accountability Accountability implies a commitment between donors and partners to accept mutual responsibility for development results, based on a process of reviews and assessments whereby both parties are accountable for their performance to each other and to their respective citizens. The Accra Agenda for Action affirms that transparency and accountability are essential elements of development results. They lie at the heart of the Paris Declaration, in which it was agreed that countries and donors would be mutually accountable to each other and to their citizens. Putting into practice this shift towards downward accountability –from governments to citizens– instead of upward accountability –from governments to donors– continues to


be one of the greatest challenges facing international cooperation. It is also the area in which activity is most intense both among donors, such as with the Development Assistance Committee of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and among civil society. In both cases, almost all the strategies designed to ensure that governments are accountable to their citizens involve information and communication processes. Information and communication are playing an increasingly central role in ensuring that citizens understand where funds allocated for their benefit/development are being spent. Without this understanding, and without the capacity to communicate their own perspectives on whether they feel that this spending is correct and efficient, there can be no accountability. Several multilateral organisations are working in this area, such as the OECD, which has set up an observatory on accountability, the Public Governance Committee (PUMA). Currently, UNESCO has its own project on e-Governance which is working to achieve transparency in the management of the world’s governments and democracies. In the United Nations System, the United Nations Online Network in Public Administration and Finance has a division, Public Economics and Public Administration (DESA), which helps public administrations with accountability, “Public Sector Transparency and Accountability: Making it Happen�.


In civil society, some of the most important international organisations which, in turn, set the benchmark for resources and producing material, methodologies and proposals on accountability, are Article 19, Access InfoEurope, and the Centre for Law and Democracy. Another important nongovernmental organisation is the Global Transparency Initiative (GTI), which provides studies and methodological tools for analysing the transparency of global information. International Right to Know Day (September 2011), Access InfoEurope and the Centre for Law and Democracy launched the first detailed analysis of the legal framework of the right to information (RTI) in 89 countries throughout the world. The results are highly heterogeneous, but deficient in general terms. Communication and managing for development results1 (MfRD) Managing for development results (MfDR) is a strategy based on sustainable improvements in development performance. It provides a coherent framework for development effectiveness in which performance information is used to improve decision making and includes practical tools for strategic planning, risk

1 A development result is the product, effect or impact (whether planned or not, positive and/or negative) of a development intervention. OECDWB (n.d.).

Principles of managing for development results (MfDR)

Focus the dialogue on results


Use results information for learning and supporting decision making

Align programming, monitoring, and evaluation of the results



4 Manage for, not by, results Source: OCDE-WB n/d:10.

3 Promote and maintain simple reporting and information processes

management, progress monitoring, and outcome evaluation.

1.1.2. Communication and the Millennium Development Goals (MDG)

As can be seen, MfDR requires the administration and systematic use of information to support management. A study by the OECD (2009) on this matter maintains that donors are responsible for aligning and harmonising their strategies for communicating for and about development results in order to support partner countries. Partner countries, in turn, should increase their capacity to incorporate communication into managing for development results. This could include a common communication platform about and for results in order to guarantee coherence and avoid duplication.

Although there is no specific goal or objective for democratic governance, the Millennium Declaration recognises that good public governance is a fundamental requisite for achieving the MDG. If democratic governance is considered the best interpretation of good governance, this includes establishing, applying and supervising laws, rules and regulations, and ensuring that government policies are put into practice with transparency and honesty, providing public services in a way that meets the needs of the population, creating conditions for investment and trade in order to promote an increase in employment and income, and allocating resources and distributing wealth. The demand for democratic governance calls for “empowered and engaged citizens�, i.e., people who are


able to participate in their government’s political processes and policy debates (PANOS 2007a). In democratic systems of government, the fundamental role of communication is to ensure that “supply” coincides with “demand” in public governance. In terms of demand, communication can help citizens’ voices be heard and allow them to participate in public debates, as well as express their own needs and concerns. The supply, in turn, permits greater informed participation in policies that genuinely respond to these needs and concerns. Improving information on the application and supervision of public policies increases transparency and citizens’ autonomy to contribute to the adoption of responsible policies (UNDP 2007). The UNDP, in its 2007 report, The MDGs as a Communication Tool for Development, considered that, once adapted to the national and local context, the MDG framework has the potential to work as a development communication tool. At the same time, it states that improving public dialogue on the Millennium Development Goals could help them to be achieved. The MDG were designed to be easily communicated to anyone and everyone interested in development. This audience includes the donor community, governments and those in charge of drafting responsible national and local policies, as well as the impoverished populations and those excluded from


society which the goals aim to benefit. And, if the MDG are to be meaningful for excluded and marginalised populations, these people must be able to discuss national and local priorities. According to the previously mentioned report (UNDP 2007), the first step on a global level would be to make the MDG national priorities through participatory processes. The second step would be to build people’s capacities to use the MDG in order to enforce their rights and remind governments of their responsibilities.

1.1.3. Communication and development in the United Nations System Since 1988, the United Nations has had a specific forum for communication for development (C4D) which provides a space for deliberation and recommendations to the Secretary General in this area: the United Nations Round Table on Communication for Development. In 1996, at the initiative of UNESCO, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution on “Communication for Development”, which, among other things, highlighted the need to support reciprocal communication systems that facilitate dialogue and enable communities to express themselves, voice their aspirations and interests, and participate in decisions related to their development. The General Assembly recognised the significance of the fact that policymakers and decisionmakers place greater importance on

Some recommendations in the Rome Consensus (World Congress on Communication for Development Rome, Italy, 27 October 2006) 1.  National development policies should include specific communication for development components. 2. Development organisations should include communication for development as a central element at the inception of programmes. 3. Strengthen the communication for development capacity within countries and organisations at all levels. This includes: people in their communities, development specialists and other staff, and capacity-building and academic programmes. 5. Adopt and implement policies and legislation that provide an enabling environment for communication for development – including free and pluralistic media, the right to information and to communicate.

communication for development and it encouraged them to include this as an integral part of developing projects and programmes.

(UNDP-Oslo Governance Centre 2007).

The Round Tables (from the eighth to the tenth) make up the third phase, based on the UN’s renewed commitment to greater collaboration among organisations and to a more themed approach that aims to demonstrate the importance of C4D in achieving the United Nations’ development priorities, as expressed in the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals (MDG).

1.2. Communicating about/for development results

It should be noted that the ninth and tenth Round Tables (2004 and 2007) concluded that the MDG cannot be achieved without “good communication”, and they highlighted the need for new strategies and tools that will be developed to support the objectives (UNDP-World Bank 2009). Furthermore, the tenth Round Table on Communication for Development recommended the systematic incorporation of C4D into development planning and evaluation processes

Over time, and in the light of the results of evaluations on the success and impact of programmes aimed at development and the fight against poverty in the last 50 years, it can be seen that changes or the perpetuation of “attitudes” are a key factor that is directly linked to the success or failure of these programmes and, in particular, to their sustainability, whether they are projects of a productive, sectorial, organisational or any other type. On the other hand, there are two basic uses of information and communication in the framework of the international development cooperation system. A traditional vision, limited to promoting the corporate visibility of partners and donors, and a second (relatively new) vision that uses communication as a tool for


achieving development goals. The successes achieved, particularly in the area of health, led to organisations such as DAC-OECD to form a group of experts on this issue. This group concluded that communication should be incorporated into the entire project management cycle and not be used exclusively for disseminating the final results of the programme (OECD 2008). The following diagram shows the similarity between the communication cycle and the MfDR cycle, and suggests the basis for greater synergy between them.

that they are both complementary but have different objectives, strategies and requirements.

As a result of the previously mentioned working group, the OECD (2008) distinguished between “communicating about results” and “communicating for results” in development. Although in practice there is a considerable overlap between these two approaches and it is often difficult to identify the boundary between them, the emerging view is

Communicating for results

Allocation of available resources

Communicating for results

Setting goals, agreeing on targets and strategies


Service delivery / Results


Monitoring and evaluation Communicating about results

Reporting to the public


Conceptual framework for communicating for and about results

Source: OECD 2009.

Principal characteristics of communicating about and for development results

Communicating about development results

Communicating for development results

Comparable with “Corporate Communication”

Comparable with “Strategic Communication” or “Communication for Development” (C4D)

Objective: communicate the results/impact achieved by the programme. Debate about whether it is useful for development results or only for the institution

Objective: use of communication to achieve the programme’s development goals

Presence: used to disseminate information at the end of the programme

Presence: communication is incorporated into the entire programme cycle, from the initial analysis to the final evaluation

Visibility tool, corporate image and publicity. In the worst cases, political or electoral communication. In the best cases, communicates accountability

Management tool to increase the probability of success in development processes. Framed within managing for development results (MfDR)

Short-term vision

Medium to long-term vision

Target audience: focused on “public opinion”, donors and other levels of government

Target audience: focused on the beneficiaries of the programme and other interested parties, including political leaders, civil servants, nongovernmental organisations, socioeconomic stakeholders, universities and development cooperation partners/donors

Role of the communicators: packaging and providing information about results (top-down). Incorporating publicity and public relations strategies

Role of the communicators: they play an important role in setting goals and strategies and allocating resources, a part of which are dedicated to communicating for results

Most of the efforts made by international cooperation are concentrated in this area, which is usually a central element of terms laid down by partners and donors

Currently a minority choice due to a lack of awareness among decisionmakers of its potential, the lack of specialist resources and the cost of measuring its impact

Source: created by the author.


Both types of communication can work together, and this complementarity is backed by important actors in international cooperation such as the OECD, the World Bank, and various UN and bilateral cooperation agencies. The exclusive use of communicating about results in development programmes and/ or public policies is wasting the potential of communication for increasing the

chances of success in development processes, as well as their sustainability. The box below presents an example of incorporating communication about and for development into a European Union programme.

EXAMPLE: Communication strategy for the 2nd Peace Laboratory in Colombia Programme of the European Union, the Government of Colombia Social Action and the Supra-Departmental Association of Municipalities in the Alto Patia Region (ASOPATIA) Taken from the GLOBAL OPERATING PLAN OF THE 2nd PEACE LABORATORY Communication strategy A central aim of the Peace Laboratory is to build a community of Colombians who, together with their institutions, generate the political conditions for overcoming armed conflict and building a culture of peace. Formulating a cross-cutting communication and dissemination strategy for the principles, actions and results expected from the Peace Laboratory, framed within the specific dynamics of each region, is considered a main priority for achieving this aim. This strategy should go beyond simple visibility and will instead centre on the criterion of communication for development as an integral part of the programme and its projects, with the aim of generating a sense of identity and belonging among the beneficiaries of these programmes and projects. In this regard, the communication strategy should seek to build a new form of managing information media based on peaceful coexistence, the democratic construction of a culture of peace and the management of regional conflict. Communication should be seen as a means of boosting the social processes supported by the Peace Laboratory and as a generator of identity. Likewise, there should remain a historical record of the project that systematises the conception, implementation experience and evaluation of the entire 2nd Peace Laboratory programme. The Laboratory’s communication strategy includes the definition of a set of principles on the generation, analysis and dissemination of information; the conversion of this into useful knowledge and, finally, the transformation of the knowledge generated into better and more qualified decisions, that facilitate the successful execution of the Laboratory and its projects in each region, as well as increase its national and international impact. This series of actions should contribute significantly towards achieving the goals and ensuring the credibility, effectiveness and sustainability of the Peace Laboratory. The strategy is guided by the Communications Unit, a Training Unit and the Regional Observatories that interact and provide continuous feedback in order to generate actions that lead to achieving the objectives and, therefore, towards building peace. Taken from the website of the Second Peace Laboratory (Colombia).


1.3. Communication, decentralised cooperation and public policies Decentralised cooperation is a relatively new phenomenon in international development cooperation and one which is particularly dynamic in the framework of relations between the European Union and Latin America. The European Union was the first to incorporate decentralised cooperation into its cooperation programmes, and also the first actor to adopt this approach after it was incorporated into the agreements of the 4th Lomé Convention, signed in 1989 with African, Caribbean and Pacific countries (Del Huerto 2004:21-22). The European Commission defines Contextualisation of decentralised cooperation

Decentralised governments in the north

decentralised cooperation as a “new approach to cooperation that seeks to establish direct relations with the bodies of local representation and to stimulate these bodies’ capacity to create and execute development projects with the direct participation of the population groups concerned, taking into consideration their interests and their points of view on development” (EC 1992). The European Consensus on Development, as well as other documents and resolutions adopted by the European Union, highlight the role that local governments can play as important stakeholders in promoting development, fundamentally because

External action area

Top-down participation

Design of development cooperation policies

Top-down participation

Decentralised cooperation

Bottom-up participation

Civil society in the north

Decentralised governments in the south

Design of development policies

Bottom-up participation

Social movements

Civil society in the south

Source: Martínez and Sanahuja 2010:47.


of their accumulated experience and their potential role in driving change, preventing conflicts and supporting decentralisation processes, among other relevant aspects (European Commission 2008).

1.3.1. Challenges and limitations of decentralised cooperation The challenges and limitations of decentralised cooperation stem partly from the challenges and limitations of development cooperation in general, as well as from its specific characteristics. The added value and potential of decentralised cooperation raises multiple challenges of its own and regarding its role in the international development cooperation system. Martínez and Sanahuja (2010) identified some of these challenges and limitations: (i) The proliferation of stakeholders, the fragmentation of aid and spiralling costs are features shared by all types of cooperation, but this is emphasised in decentralised cooperation. To manage these problems, further progress must be made towards acting on the commitments made in Paris and Accra on aid effectiveness at a local level instead of just discussing them, incorporating the criteria of harmonisation, complementarity and division of labour into the task, as well as aligning it with the partners’ agenda and promoting democratic ownership.


Harmonisation requires the shared generation and use of relevant information, in addition to dialogue between partners and donors in order to establish common agreements. Aligning partners and donors is based equally on the exchange of information and on having fluid and efficient communication channels. Democratic ownership requires citizens to take ownership, and for this to happen communication actions to inform and talk with citizens are necessary. However, managing information and communication does not usually form part of the design of decentralised cooperation programmes or policies. (ii) Another important challenge is the fact that the development of an institutional framework and an increase of resources for decentralised cooperation have not been accompanied by a similar development of capacities, procedures and instruments for carrying it out. Thus, further progress is needed in managing for development results and accountability – aspects in which communication plays a central role. (iii) Furthermore, the cooperation plans of decentralised actors have been, on occasions, overambitious in terms of the management capacities of those implementing them, and there is a notable absence of mechanisms that make monitoring and evaluation possible. These

limitations are reflected in the difficulty of measuring the impact of projects/policies. On numerous occasions decentralised cooperation programmes have not created baselines or conducted analyses (participative or not) which include indicators that enable the impact at the end of the programmes to be assessed, which, in turn, hampers the evaluation of the programme’s success or failure, the resulting capacity-building and the dissemination of the successes achieved, among others. The consequences of not including indicators of “communicating for development”, regarding changes in perceptions, knowledge, behaviour, etc., also impedes the measurement of “intangibles” in development processes, which are vital for their sustainability. (iv) Decentralised cooperation helps bring local governments greater internationalisation, which can encourage increased participation in global governance. However, to do this they must resist the temptation to just capitalize on this international projection and instead increase their contribution on the international stage, systematising and disseminating their own experiences, as well as building proposals that enrich the debate and incorporate regional actors into the international scene.

(v) Another challenge facing decentralised cooperation is the emphasis on everything relating to extending, deepening and promoting a medium to long-term strategic vision, going beyond instrumental exchange to build alliances committed to development processes. Likewise, the aim is to encourage citizen participation and build capacities in all the stages of the programmes/policies, strengthening their role as individuals with rights and that of their governments as duty-bearers, and thereby reinforcing the “rights-based approach” in programmes/policies. (vi) Finally, a limitation and a challenge at the same time is the absence of a shared definition that precisely identifies what is and what is not decentralised cooperation. This difference of views affects the consolidation of one of decentralised cooperation’s added values –its contribution to democratic governance– as the participation of local actors from civil society in territorial development processes depends on the vision held by the partners and not on the culture and specific added value, despite the contributions in this area made by different international agreements and declarations.


1.3.2. Communication in the management of local public programmes/policies Communication is, by definition, an interactive process, which is why it is equally important to generate information and implement communication channels from the municipality (local government) towards the population as it is to empower the population so that they can request pertinent information and communicate with the municipality to express their opinions and proposals. The communication model adopted by a municipality is closely linked to the model of local development, which defines the place that citizens and institutions occupy within it. Likewise, in principle, decentralised cooperation programmes are linked to the local government’s development model. However, they should also be consistent with the principles that guide international development cooperation, which involves the effective democratisation of management and the impact of the programmes on citizens, as well as on the model of local development itself. These principles also affect cooperation programmes’ communication models and this may generate tensions or inconsistencies between them and the municipalities’ (local governments’) communication models. The role of communication in local programmes/policies encompasses different areas: /  Inform, the different audiences identified


(internal and external) and public opinion, about any of the stages of a public programme/policy: i) information about the identification of a problem/need/right; ii) information about the process of defining the programme/policy; iii) information about the objectives sought and the strategies planned for achieving them; iv) information about the resources, support and actors involved in carrying out the programme/policy; v) information about the processes and progress in implementing the programme/policy; vi) information about the evaluation and results obtained. /  Raise awareness, with the different audiences identified and public opinion, about aspects considered relevant to the programme/policy, fostering democratic and social values (solidarity, respect, tolerance, equity, shared responsibility). For example, raise awareness in the media about the need to include development issues on the local media agenda, raise awareness in businesses about their environmental responsibility, raise the public’s awareness about saving energy, rejecting violence, etc. This can be done using various strategies, techniques and formats that will be discussed in later chapters. /  Develop skills and capacities in the general population or specific groups: communication is a powerful tool for creating and strengthening skills and capacities for local development. There are many tried and tested strategies used in programmes/policies for fighting poverty,

productive development, promoting health, improving the environment, etc., that are usually grouped together under the umbrella of “communication for development” and which will be detailed in later chapters. /  Generate participation and social mobilisation: communication can contribute to developing people’s (inhabitants, leaders, authorities and civil servants) communication skills and those of organisations in order to become stakeholders in their own development processes and to establish the dialogues between municipalities and citizens that are vital for the success of development programmes/policies. /  Communicate the goals and achievements of the development programme/policy: numerous authors indicate that communicating development results contributes to those development processes, provided that the messages and images transmitted are in harmony with the goals being sought. The following chapters in this guide discuss these aspects in greater depth, developing them further and suggesting techniques and tools for their implementation.



2. Communicating for development in cooperation programmes/policies

2.1. Communication for development and social change The analysis of programmes to fight poverty has demonstrated that the effectiveness of human development processes (and, therefore, of development cooperation) depends to a great extent on the effective flow of information/ communication between citizens and governments (national and local). This two-way flow of communication has been identified repeatedly as a defining characteristic of good communication in development contexts (BBC-WST 2010). For UN advisor Alfonso Gumucio (2007), there are many challenges facing the future of communication for development and social change, among them, the challenge of naming things, the challenge of developing the discipline, and, finally, the difficulty of legitimising communication for social change among the large bodies and governments (national and local) and the D-NGOs that make decisions on development. Regarding this last point, Gumucio indicated that specialists in C4D need to be legitimised and elevated in the hierarchy of development organisations, referring to the need to position communication for development and social change at the top of the agenda in these organisations, which also calls for a new profile of communicators with a strategic vision of communication for social change, placed at the heart of decision-making and not, as is currently

the case, as “spokespersons� for decisions made by others.

2.1.1. What is communication for development and social change? Communication for development responds to various approaches and methodologies with a common vision: using communication to achieve development results. It is an emerging discipline still under construction, but it has demonstrated its effectiveness particularly in public policies and programmes linked to fighting poverty, and in policies in the area of health. Despite there currently being many different positions regarding the definition of communication for development, in this guide we have used the concept as the general framework of reference regarding the potential of communication in human development processes. It could be said that communication for development (C4D) is the use of processes, techniques and communication media to help a population gain full awareness of its situation and of its options for changing, resolving conflicts, achieving consensus, planning actions for sustainable development, acquiring the knowledge and skills necessary to improve their conditions and that of the society in which they live, as well as increasing the effectiveness of institutions (FAO 2010).


Communicating for results

Setting goals, agreeing on targets and strategies


Allocation of available resources

Communicating for results

Service delivery / Results


Monitoring and evaluation Communicating about results

Reporting to the public

Communication for development and social change helps to improve the effectiveness of development processes in the following ways: /  It contributes to open and inclusive public dialogue (national and/or local) on policy options. This leads to greater and more informed participation in policymaking by significant segments of the population. The result is increased support and commitment for the strategy that is agreed.

governance and democratic legitimacy. Citizens can follow the progress of the policies. /  It creates or deepens a public culture of citizen–government dialogue. Such a culture has enormous benefits all round for the development agenda.

/  It manages expectations. It allows people to adjust their expectations to a vision of a process based on the recognition of the economic and political context, which can help local governments.

The following chart illustrates the interrelation and interdependence between communication structures and communication processes. Press freedom, the defence of transparency and accountability are prerequisites. Therefore, press freedom influences the functioning of the different types of communication (public, private and community), which, in turn, have an impact on the real processes of communication for development.

/  It promotes transparency and accountability. Open and inclusive dialogue contributes towards better

A communication process aimed at producing social change through participation, knowledge-sharing and


Conceptual framework for communicating for and about results (the aspects covered in this chapter are circled)

Source: OECD 2009.

Interrelation and interdependence between communication structures and communication processes

Communicating about development results Communication context


Communication context

Press freedom

/ Public

Social change

/ Transparency / Accountability

/ Private – Commercial / Community

/ Participation / Social and political dialogue / Sharing knowledge / Behavioural change

Source: DANIDA 2007:8. Note: Folk media� are communicative activities not mediated by communication forms and channels, such as street performance, songs, theatre, puppet shows and fairs.

/ Print, electronic and audiovisual media (radio-TV-ICT) / Fiction - Theatre / Folk media / Interpersonal / Others

political debate depends on free-flowing communication.

2.1.2. . Principal strategies and tools of communication for development

Communication for development and social change fosters the active participation of the key stakeholders in a development process and proposes the necessary flow of communication at all levels, for example, vertically between the participants in national, regional and community plans, and horizontally among peers, such as members of the community, civil society organisations, non-governmental organisations, authorities and decision-makers.

This section briefly presents the main focuses of communication for development: i) communication for social change; ii) advocacy; iii) behaviour change communication. Communication strategies employ perspectives ranging from the psychosocial viewpoints of learning theories to the communication media, but dialogue and the active participation of the public are essential elements of communication for development. Many programmes have centred on the individual as the focus of change (Singhal 2003), but it has been demonstrated that to change behaviour on large scale it is important to take into account cultural


values, social norms and structural inequalities. Good communication strategies must also be aware of the political and legislative environment. Communication for social change Communication for social change is a process of public and private dialogue aimed at empowerment through which people define who they are, what they want and how they can get it (GrayFelder and Deane 1999). This approach highlights the importance of horizontal communication, the role of people as agents of change and the need for negotiation skills and building alliances (UNDP 2011; CSFC 2003). It is an approach that seeks to improve people’s lives, amplifying the voices of the voiceless and strengthening their presence in the public domain (Gumucio 2004). It is a model that seeks to empower people rather than persuade them, with a group focus that aspires to principles such as tolerance, self-determination, equality, social justice and active participation. It is a strategy that leads to collective action, which can result in individual and/or collective changes (Beltrán 2005). According to Gumucio (n.d.), the five essential conditions present in the process of communication for social change are: /  Community participation and ownership. / Language and cultural pertinence.


/  Generation of local content. /  Use of appropriate technology. /  Networking and convergence. Communication for social change uses participative techniques to generate the process of communication within communities, with the aim of allowing people to create their own agendas for change. This process includes the presence of an expert as a catalyst. Although it is more firmly based on dialogue, this strategy employs different communication media, either traditional or modern, depending on the characteristics and needs of each group (UNDP 2011). But, how is a communication for social change intervention built? UNICEF, for example, in its communication strategy for social change in the case of actions linked to HIV/AIDS, uses a combination of three synergistic strategies: i) public defence and promotion (advocacy) to put the issue on the agenda and influence decision-makers; ii) social mobilisation, to form broad social alliances with organisations of civil society; iii) behaviour change communication, with the aim of increasing shared information, knowledge acquisition, discussion within communities and families, and of facilitating informed behaviour among individuals and groups.

Communication for public promotion and defence (advocacy)

order to carry out more effective advocacy work.

Advocacy for development is a combination of actions designed to put an issue on the agenda, influence public policies, gain social acceptance and the support of the system for a particular goal or programme (Servaes and Malikhao 1993).

/  Strengthening alliances. Lines of action linked to the work of other organisations, networks and people and the elements that are needed to make the alliances that are formed stronger or more solid, including some of the actions related to the secondary audience.

It involves gathering and structuring information persuasively, communicating the case to those in positions of responsibility and other potential supporters, including the public, through interpersonal and media channels, and generating actions that raise support for the goal being pursued from social institutions and decision-makers.

/  Increasing the political will of decisionmakers. Lines of action directly focused on the target audience in the first instance, but also on secondary audiences, and to turning threats into opportunities.

The main actors of advocacy include the state and civil society, the private sector and international cooperation. It focuses, above all, on councillors or policymakers at local, national and international level, with the idea that “winning them over to the cause” helps bring about the social changes being sought. According to the model proposed by UNICEF (2009), social advocacy has three important results on change: on policies, on the system and on democracy. The most commonly related categories are: /  Institutional strengthening. Lines of action focused on areas within the organisation that need reinforcing in

Behaviour Change Communication (BCC) In the last thirty years, Behaviour Change Communication (BCC) has moved from the small-scale IEC model (information, education, and communication) to take its place in national/local strategic communication programmes. The aim of BCC is to empower people and to provide communities with options for their wellbeing and enable them to act on these options. BCC views social change and individual change as two sides of the same coin. From this perspective, behaviour change communication is defined as “... the well planned and organised use of communication techniques and resources (media and non-media) to promote development, through a change of attitude and/or behaviour, disseminating the necessary information and generating the active and conscious participation of all


those involved, including beneficiaries, in the process” (FAO 2002:3). The UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) (2002) presented five stages of the behaviour change process: i) presenting the message; ii) knowledge/understanding of the message; iii) ownership/approval of the message; iv) decision to unite with the message content; v) implementation/ actioning the message content, and vi) promoting the “behaviour” detailed in the message. In the community, BCC is about changing behaviour, but framed within a context and some personal factors (cultural, social and economic) which take on greater importance, including: i) knowledge (so that people do not act through ignorance); ii) attitudes (so that people and communities work to create the right conditions for the behaviour being pursued); iii) behaviour and practices (in order to reduce the known risks to people and the community), and iv) to foster interpersonal and promotional communication (so that people can encourage others to act positively both in private and in public).

2.2. Incorporating communication into cooperation programmes/ policies The presence of communication in development planning can be found in three basic “formats”: a) Projects/programmes that are exclusively about communication, such as a project with the development goal of “increasing the Latin-American population’s level of information about the Millennium Goals”. It is unusual to find projects of this type. b) Projects that incorporate a “communication sub-strategy” in the programme/policy planning. Despite there still being few projects that incorporate communication as a substrategy, this format has experienced the biggest increase over the last decade. c) Projects that incorporate cross-cutting communication. This type is the rarest, owing to the methodological difficulty involved in including crosscutting communication in project cycle management in general. In any case, communication should be a tool for achieving development goals.


2.2.1. Steps for incorporating communication into the programme/ policy cycle Incorporating communication into development programmes is an important resource for managing for development results. To increase the likelihood of success of development processes and/or actions, communication should ideally be present throughout the entire project cycle management process or the policy cycle, and it should integrate and complement the structure of the programme, and be reflected in the projected resources. The support communication provides development is only as effective as the programme/policy itself. Even the most carefully designed communication strategy will fail if the project’s goals are not clearly defined, if there is not broad consensus among the stakeholders involved, or if the activities are not correctly applied. For a development communication strategy to be well defined it must be present in all the stages of the programme or policy cycle. In each of these stages communication plays a role that affects the likelihood of successfully achieving the development goals set by the programme/ policy. Furthermore, the stakeholders and beneficiaries must be involved in designing the communication strategy.

Given that development programmes/ policies are implemented in specific contexts, it is important that the “problematic situation” and the “desired situation” are identified in a way that allows suitable planning to take place at the start and, later, confirmation of just how successful the project was in terms of achieving its objectives and the effect it had on the target groups. The path (strategy) to achieving the objectives is based on obtaining a series of results (or sub-strategies) by carrying out certain activities that will require resources (human, material, technical and time). In addition to the internal factors mentioned earlier, the success or failure of the project will also depend on external factors that should be equally well identified in order to minimise uncertainty and risks. The analysis required in order to incorporate communication into the programme/policy cycle involves two stages.2 The first consists of reviewing the operational components of the programme. The second stage is to identify the main strategic communication objectives linked to the phase of the programme/policy cycle. This will provide an essential basis for developing a realistic and comprehensive communication strategy, including an action plan. Below, we present five examples of the main communication objectives for different stages.

2 Mozammel and Schechter 2005.


/ Assess the contribution of communication to the development goals / Conduct participatory impact evaluation / Dissemination of new knowledge

/ Stakeholder consultation / Beneficiary analysis / Communication assessment / Manage expectations of the programme /policy



/ Operational-communication analysis vis-a-vis the aims of the programme / Initial draft of communication strategy and action plan vis-a-vis the development goals / Sensitisation workshops and consultation / Identification of communication functions / capacity / Manage expectations

Communication interventions in different stages of the programme/ policy


C4D in the programme/ policy cycle Implementation and supervision / Preparation and implementation of communication campaigns / Material production / Training (facilitators, journalists, etc) / Management Information System and other M&E* tools (at all levels) / Stakeholder networking / Communication for appraisal and learning


Negotiation / Articulate differences / Define conditions / Manage expectations

/ Identify and cost out line items based on action plan / Modify action plan / Assign budget to the communication intervention / Manage expectations

* M&E: monitoring and evaluation. Source: Mozammel and Schechter 2005 [adapted by the author].


Operational characteristics

Strategic communication objectives

1. Participatory planning

Participatory planning is key to building trust, ownership, understanding, and commitment by stakeholders to operational objectives, processes, and other stakeholders. It is also fundamental for ensuring periodic evaluation of the programme and adjustment. The main objectives of communication activities in this process include the following: / Build awareness among and sensitise direct and indirect stakeholders by discussing objectives, scope, processes, roles, responsibilities, benefits, tradeoffs, and other issues. / Build ownership and contribute to operational effectiveness. Ensure that all direct and indirect stakeholders are made aware of the operational context and institutional arrangements and are given the opportunity to provide input. / Build trust by initiating new interaction and communication channels among stakeholders, improving relations among groups with a tradition of mistrust. / Identify the scope and style of project-related messages and possible tools and means of delivery.

2. Community development committees and subcommittees to manage programmes and policies

Communication activities related to the selection and operation of local development committees are designed to ensure a transparent and continuous information flow within the community and between the community and other major stakeholders in implementation processes. This information flow is designed to prevent capture by elites and provide realistic opportunities for all members of the community to contribute to the development process by becoming aware of involvement opportunities and by providing insights, knowledge and constructive criticism. Communication activities will also help to: / Identify existing power dynamics in each community and help determine whether a new development committee should be formed. / Establish criteria for appointment to the new development committee. / Facilitate community-wide awareness of the roles and responsibilities of the development committee with respect to the community, local committees, and other institutions involved in the project, including local government.

3. Participatory appraisal, planning, and monitoring and evaluation

The participation of the beneficiaries in appraisal, planning, and monitoring and evaluation is fundamental in order for citizens to understand and reflect upon the design, management, and implementation activities related to the programme. Communication processes should facilitate the ongoing exchange of information among the stakeholders involved in order to leverage the broad host of local capacities, and ensure that development priorities are based on a collective vision of all members rather than the interests of certain elites. Communication activities must be transparent and participatory. They should also: / Establish community recognition. /  Facilitate participatory community-wide discussions of local development vision and priorities. / Ensure community-wide awareness of the advantages, disadvantages and benefits of each potential subproject. / Facilitate community-wide participation in auditing, accountability, and measuring results in the context of the subproject cycle. / Facilitate community-wide awareness, and critical reflection regarding successes, failure, challenges, and opportunities associated with project management and implementation


➜ 4. Management of programme funds

Communication activities should convey clear messages about budgeting, and report the responsibilities of all those involved with the management of funds. These activities should establish: /  Clear understanding among all community members of the rights and responsibilities associated with obtaining and managing funds. /  Clear understanding among local government authorities and other stakeholders of the community’s rights with respect to fund management. /  Clear understanding among all members of the community of accountability obligations. /  Awareness among all local businesses of opportunities for subcontracting and project involvement. /  Awareness within the community of challenges, opportunities, and successes associated with disbursing and allocating funds.

5. Exchange and capacity-building

It is one of the major areas in which strategic communication is an enabling factor. A regular and systematic communication approach can not only bring communities together socially, it can also foster the development process by sharing knowledge and experiences. The main communication objectives include the following: / Integrate general programme objectives and processes among the beneficiaries. / Facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience of the development process among communities and involved stakeholders by institutionalizing a systematic process of dialogue and building capacities. / Promote participation and involvement in the development process by local media to facilitating exchanges by communities (through use of various media channels).

Source: Mozammel and Schechter 2005 [adapted by the author].

Programme/policy planning is one of the most important stages: the likelihood of attaining development goals largely depends on it but, paradoxically, it is one of the stages that attracts the least attention and resources. Decentralised cooperation and public policies are often applied in haste and do not always follow all the necessary steps, or include all the elements required for good planning. Experience shows that the presence of communication in the design and planning phase of a programme/policy has an important influence on quality.


2.2.2. Identifying and preparing a programme/policy An in-depth understanding of the situation, knowledge, skills, perceptions, attitudes, behaviours and context of the territory is fundamental for identifying/establishing development and communication priorities. This analysis of the situation is sometimes called the “baseline” or “diagnosis”: it is essential for being able to take informed, and not arbitrary, decisions, and for overcoming the usual excuses for not carrying it out, such as that the problem

is already well-known (without having done a systematic analysis and made it available to all the stakeholders involved), or that it is felt that establishing a baseline will cost too much time or money. Against all recommendations, today there are still a great number of cooperation programmes being launched without a situation analysis, ignoring the fact that working without a good baseline: i) prevents the people affected/ beneficiaries from gaining access to systematised knowledge of their own situation that they should have formed part of, thus undermining one of the principles of international cooperation which is participation; ii) it complicates (or prevents) managing for development results (MfDR). Situation analysis The situation analysis includes analysing various aspects linked to the development goals the programme/policy hopes to contribute to. It should include the following aspects: /  Global view of the problem, describing the relevant global instruments for tackling the problem and the context of the central issues guiding the international agenda, such as the MDG, HRBD, development effectiveness, gender equality and governance. /  Analysis of the problem in the country, using the available data. Identify the existing legal framework and public

policies, and the development of their application. Identify previous programmes to address the issue/problem/right in question. /  Analysis of the problem in the local environment: identify the extent to which people feel they are affected by the problem; use the programme documents and local knowledge, as well as existing local statistics, as much as possible. Divide up the affected population according to different aspects, such as geographical area, cultural or religious groups, socioeconomic status, age and gender. /  Analysis of the context: it is also important to bear social/cultural factors and attitudes in mind when analysing the underlying causes of the problem and in order to understand why people behave in a particular way. Look into the sociocultural and economic factors maintaining existing behaviour (positive and negative). This answers the “why” question. If the aim of a programme is to end a harmful practice, for example, child marriages or child labour, it is important to discuss not only the harmful effects of the practice, but also who benefits and how. To be effective, the communication strategy will need to address both the benefits and risks of harmful practices as well as the barriers to adopting positive practices. (UNICEF 2008) Finally, as part of the context analysis, identify which organisations are working on the issue in the region, and take into account what is being done or has been


done by international cooperation agents (multilateral, bilateral, decentralised) and the private sector (communication media, religious groups and other groups and collectives). An in-depth understanding of the situation, knowledge, skills, perceptions, attitudes, behaviours and the context of the participants in the community or the affected groups is essential for establishing communication priorities. Programme analysis A subsequent step in creating the communication project (or sub-matrix) is to analyse the programme/policy designed to address the problem/right in question, in order to insert it into the communication strategy. The aim of the programme analysis is to identify the way in which communication can help to achieve the objectives and/or results pursued, which is the first step towards building and justifying a communication strategy. The situation and the programme analyses should form the basis on which to determine who the participants/ stakeholders will be. The goal of this analysis is to identify groups based on different criteria and the role each of them plays. Stakeholder analysis A stakeholder can be any individual, group of people, institution or company likely to have a connection with a particular project/programme. At this


point it should be checked that the programme includes a stakeholder analysis which: i) identifies any stakeholder(s) likely to be affected (positively or negatively) by the project and the way in which they are affected, at community, local and national level; ii) understands the stakeholders’ roles, interests, relative power and capacity for participation; iii) identifies the stakeholders’ position, i.e., beneficiary/ victim of cooperation/conflict, vis-avis the project and among each other, and then design intervention strategies suited to the different positions held; iv) interprets the results of the analysis and defines how they can be incorporated into the project design. This analysis is important in terms of communication in two ways: i) it enables the social communication media to be incorporated as “actors” in their role as creators of “public opinion” and/ or mediators, in so far as they are likely to become allies, neutral or opponents of the project or programme, and ii) it allows us, in the subsequent steps of the methodology, to identify and plan which recipients (target groups) the project will address and the focus (what we want to “change” in the recipient) in the case of wanting to influence the media. The stakeholders may include: i) interpersonal communication channels/ spaces (a religious organisation in the community/neighbourhood, for example), ii) organisational/institutional communication loops (union or public institution channels of communication

which the beneficiary population has access to), and iii) the mass media (local or national, written or audiovisual, etc). All of these can be incorporated into almost all projects as social mediators. Doing this will provide stakeholders with an opportunity to detail their “potential contribution to the project’s goals”, just like all the other actors. In cases where this analysis has not been done, an initial assessment should be carried out and included in the project document.

Participant behavioural analysis and objectives To identify behavioural objectives it is necessary to start by looking at the aims of the programme and clarifying the key behaviours that are required (and by whom) in order to achieve those aims. If the programme that requires the communication strategy does not have clearly defined behavioural objectives and participants, it would be advisable to carry out actions addressing this need with the partners, communities and stakeholders. Identifying behavioural objectives is important for planning programmes for social and behavioural change, and it is not only a communication problem. Establishing sound behavioural objectives involves them not only being SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, relevant and time-bound), but also clearly indicting “what” behaviour that is being sought and “by whom”. Among the questions that could be included in a behavioural analysis, are: /  Which “behavioural” problem(s) should be addressed? Which people/group(s) exhibit

SMART, but without yet being a behavioural objective

SMART, which identifies who is exhibiting which behaviour

12 months after the start of the project field activities, XX% of the babies in the District “Y” are being exclusively breast-fed during their first six months of life

12 months after the start of the project field activities, XX% of the mothers of the newborns who participated in the “YYY” programme, breast-fed their babies exclusively (without additional liquids or solids) during the first six months of the baby’s life


each of these “behavioural” problems? /  Do men and women exhibit different behaviour patterns related to problem X? /  What are the consequences of the specific behaviour(s)? What form do these consequences take for each of the groups/people identified? /  What are the desirable behaviours for each of the groups/people affected positively or negatively by the behaviours or by the changes in behaviour? /  What are some of the barriers (patriarchal, cultural, religious, social, of uses and customs, financial, political) hampering the potentially “ideal” or acceptable behaviour? /  What existing factors could encourage “ideal behaviour”? /  What behaviours and practices need to be promoted? And in which groups? /  Who are the partners and allies that we need to involve? /  What gender stereotypes are there?

Setting behavioural objectives should be based on a participatory process with the affected population and with the guidance of experts. Given that achieving behavioural change calls for complex processes that go beyond providing information, the list of behaviour change objectives should be kept very short so that it is manageable and attainable in one programme. The changes identified can be short, medium and long term, as they are processes of social change. The process of raising awareness and adopting behavioural changes works better if the social groups affected participate actively and if the process is based on relationships of trust. The behaviours of the primary (PP), secondary (SP) and tertiary (TP) participants should be analysed and selected. The lessons learned from communication for development teach us that training and sensitisation alone are not enough to ask people to change their practices – for example, by recycling household waste or saving water. Changing practices requires (UNICEF 2008): /  As far as possible, that the group selected to change its practices should participate in identifying the problem and in proposing the solution. /  A basic knowledge of information about new practices and how to carry them out. /  Arousing interest in the new practice and linking it to values and lifestyles.


/  Carrying out preliminary trials with the innovative practices and allowing the affected population to evaluate their usefulness and impact.

and national leaders to support registering births, journalists’ responsibility and skills for providing sufficient and balanced coverage of the issue, etc.

/  The acceptance and commitment of the group affected.

Differences between “behaviour change objectives” and “communication objectives”

One procedure suggested for carrying out a participatory evaluation of the problems and needs is through a reference study of the beneficiaries’ knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP). A KAP survey should analyse not only the behaviours of the primary participants –such as taking their children to be vaccinated, washing their hands, childrearing practices, condom use and practicing bio-safety measures in poultry farms– it also includes support behaviours and the practices of the secondary and tertiary participants selected –such as the communication skills of health workers, the conduct of grandmothers with regard to breast-feeding and immunisation, promotion actions by community, local, Differences between programme objectives, behavioural objectives and communication objectives/results in a public policy for integrating people with AIDS

Objectives of the “People living with AIDS (PLWA)” programme 1. Promote the rights of PLWA assuring a supportive legal environment.

Identifying the behaviour change objectives required for the success of the programme is not the same as identifying the communication objectives (as we will see later on). The “behaviour” analysis should be conducted in order to assess at what stage the participating groups are in terms of their level of awareness/ knowledge/practice of the desirable behaviours. This will help to position the communication activities and messages according to the “behaviour change stages”. In addition, communication objectives are not usually the same as those of the project or programme. Achieving the communication objectives/results is a necessary condition, but in itself is not

Behavioural objectives

Communication objectives/results

1. Strengthen the capacity of civil society organizations (CSOs) to take strategic action to bring legal change to assure all rights with equality.

1. Through advocacy, local authorities will assure the rights of PLWA particularly related to health care and education (objective).


➜ 2. Guarantee that PLWA have easy access to quality health and educational services.

2. Service providers in health and education sectors provide PLWA with easy access to quality service with dignity and equality

2.1. Health care providers in maternal health services who participate in programme activities treat and advise HIV positive women and their children with dignity and equality (result). 2.2. School management and local government ensure enrolment of all children irrespective of their or their parents’ HIV status (result).

3. Reduce social and cultural stigmatisation of PLWA.

3. Families and other social actors in their locality accept the participation of PLWA in family, social and cultural events without facing stigma or discrimination.

3.1. Relevant religious, social and community groups discuss HIV/AIDS, compassion, myths and misconceptions at regular meetings, and hold events at least once a year to promote understanding for PLWA and their families (result). 3.2. Journalists deliver accurate, evidence-based and balanced reporting on PLWA (result).

Source: adapted from UNICEF 2008.

enough. Above we provide an illustration of the development of a hypothetical programme of communication objectives, starting with the aims of the corresponding programmes and the behaviour change objectives. Analysis of the participants/stakeholders After carrying out the situation analysis and programme analysis it is necessary to analyse the participants/stakeholders in order to establish the communication objectives and results, which will be the next step.3

3 However, in order to maximise the efforts this analysis should be reviewed and adapted once said objectives and results have been defined, as should the approach and tools that will be used.


The aim of the analysis is to identify the relevant groups of participants, their characteristics and the resources that each group may have access to in order to achieve and maintain the desirable behaviour(s). Addressing the programme objectives for each group requires different communication strategies, messages and channels for dialogue. A first step would be to identify all the participants/stakeholders. There are different options, sometimes linked to different communication for development strategies. UNICEF (2008), for example, suggests placing the participants/ stakeholders in three concentric circles, with the primary participants4 (PP) in the

4 It is important to bear in mind that in programmes that use behaviour change strategy, the primary beneficiary in the programme is not always the

Primary participants (PP)

Types of participants for C4D strategies

(e.g. mothers/fathers and children who need to be vaccinated)

Secondary participants (SP) (e.g. SP1: other women in the family; SP2: health workers; SP3: NGO workers; SPn)

Tertiary participants (TP) (e.g. TP1: policymakers assigning resources; TP2: religious leaders; TP3: professional associations that influence health services; TP4: the media; TPn)

Source: created by the author based on UNICEF 2008.

centre and the secondary and tertiary actors in the outer circles. KAP analysis of the participants/ stakeholders Once the participants and the behavioural objectives have been identified, a more thorough KAP5 analysis should be

primary participant. In the case of child vaccination the main beneficiaries are children; however, as this vaccination depends on the “behaviour� of the parents, these are the primary participants/ stakeholders. 5 For this analysis, it is useful to use recent survey data – especially that which identifies knowledge, attitudes and practices linked to the issue. Useful tools and techniques for identifying the participants and the relationships between them include, among others, direct observation, interviews, group discussions, sociograms, etc.

conducted, studying aspects such as (1) behaviours and attitudes, (2) sociocultural data; (3) interests; (4) uses, consumption and communication networks; (5) power and influence, and (6) position with regard to the programme objectives and strategies. To do this, a double-entry matrix is recommended to provide a broad overview that should be complemented by the research and respective report delving deeper into the most relevant aspects.


As already mentioned, the first step is to identify the primary (PP), secondary (SP) and tertiary (TP) participants needed in order to maximise the impact of the programme. Once this analysis has been completed the relevant information should be used for defining the behaviour change objectives of the programme in question and, as far as possible, this should be gathered in a participatory way thereby initiating, at this point, the use of communication to achieve the objective. (1) Behaviours and attitudes: this involves including the behaviours to be changed that were selected in the previous phase. They should be included in the matrix in order to provide an overview that allows these behaviours to be related to the specific participants, as well as to the rest of the information required to define the communication strategies.

and age, socioeconomic status, level of studies, language, etc. (3) Interests: this refers to analysing to what extent the interests of the primary, secondary and tertiary actors may be affected, either favourably or unfavourably, in objective terms, as this could (potentially) influence how willing the actors in question are to commit themselves to helping or hindering efforts to achieve the goals being sought. The recommendation in this case is to use a scale between (+2), where there is a high level of interest in obtaining results, and (-2), where the level of interest in hampering the goals of the project is equally high.

Attitudes to different aspects of people’s lives are directly linked to the perceptions they have of themselves and of any of the elements that make up the reality of their lives. These perceptions are determined by objective aspects, such as the “situation” (material conditions of their lives) and the “position” (power relationships with other people and groups).

(4) Communication uses, consumptions and networks:6 an important step in the BCC planning process is carrying out a communication analysis. This includes identifying the communication networks within the community. The service providers will need to work with these communication networks to bring about the change in behaviour or maintain correct conducts. Communication channels may include community media and popular media. It is crucial at this stage to find out how the different channels are used, by whom, when and for what purpose.

(2) Socio-cultural aspects: sociodemographic information relevant to the issue/problem/right in question should be collected, such as gender

6 See UNDP 2006 for further development.


Matrix for analysing participants/stakeholders/ audiences


Some of the questions that could be asked in the communication analysis include the following:

/  What existing opportunities or new associations are there for working with?

/  Who are the primary and secondary audiences being addressed? Which communication channels are the most exposed to the target audiences and can help us reach them?

/  What types of media will be most cost-effective for reaching the planned audience?

/  Who are the partners and allies that must commit to carrying out the communication intervention?

(1) Behaviours and attitudes

(2) Socio-cultural aspects

(3) Interests2 (-2 to +2)

(5) Power and influence: means the authority a specific actor has in the decision making required to achieve the goals and results of the development programme, i.e., how

(4) Communication uses and networks

(5) Power3 (1 to 3)

(6) Programme objectives position4 (-3 to +3)

Primary Participant 1 Primary Participant 2 Primary Participant «n» Secondary Participant 1 Secondary Participant 2 Secondary Participant «n» Tertiary Participant 1 Tertiary Participant «n» Source: created by the author. 1.  If necessary, the actors can be identified by name, institution and position. This table should gather the information in the way that is most useful for the people carrying out the analysis. 2. With -2 being a high level of interest in hindering the goals of the programme / -1, an interest in hampering the goals/ 0, neutral / +1, an interest in achieving the goals of the programme / +2, a high level of interest in achieving the goals of the programme. 3. With 1 being a strong influence / 2, an average influence / 3, a weak influence. 4. With -3 being totally against / -2, fairly against / -1, relatively against / 0, neutral / +1, slightly in favour/ +2, quite in favour/ +3, totally in favour.


much influence the person has over achieving the goals. This may refer to public or private, formal or informal power, governments or even other members of the family or community. A scale of 1 to 3 can be used.7 (6) Position on the programme objectives and strategies: meaning the attitude of the actor in question regarding attaining the development goals and results. This attitude could range from totally against (-3) to totally in favour (+3), with average rankings (and with 0 being a neutral attitude), therefore, one scale can be used to indicate the direct position of the target audiences with regard to the strategies the development programme aims to use and not with regard to the issue in general.8

2.3. Strategic planning of C4D and incorporation into the LFM In this stage, the results of the previous analyses should be used, firstly, to clarify whether a communication strategy is needed and, secondly, if it is needed, to design an “environmental” communication strategy that contributes to the development process sought. To do this, the communication strategy should be incorporated into the project cycle design and management planning phase, which will in turn allow it to be incorporated into the entire structure of the programme, and into the monitoring and evaluation of the actions. The process of planning, implementation and monitoring communication should be carried out in conjunction with the communities affected by the development programme. This already forms part of the communication for development (C4D) strategy, since it involves analysis, reflection, dialogue and participation in taking decisions that concern them. The planning matrix is the backbone of the project design (document) which incorporates the basic information about a development action.

7 With 1 being a strong influence / 2, an average influence / 3, a weak influence. 8 For example, there may be people who agree with the need to strengthen HIV prevention projects, but not that this should be done by integrating HIV and reproductive health programmes.


Including communication as an “expected outcome” in a logical framework matrix (LFM) involves describing the situation expected as the final result of a communication intervention in terms of a verifiable change or result in one or several selected target groups and it

Intervention logic

Objectively verifiable indicators (OVI)

Sources of verification (SOV)

Increased by a % the level of awareness and rejection of domestic violence among the general population and among women in particular in Panama by the end of the project.

Comparative analysis (sample population survey before and after project actions).

General objective: Improve women’s situation and conditions.

Specific objective: Reduce levels of gender violence in Panama.

Result 1: Established universal public policies that encourage prevention, attention and protection of women against gender violence throughout Panama. Result 2: Improved police and judicial coverage of prevention, attention and protection of victims of gender violence.

Result 3: Panamanian women made aware of their human rights and the existing resources against gender violence.

1. 50% of women exposed to the message. 2. 10% increase in the number of women who know their rights. 3. 10% increase in the number of women associated with organisations working in areas linked to women’s rights. 4. X% increase in the number of women who know about the public and private resources available against gender violence. 5. X% increase in the number of women using the resources available against gender violence.

1-4. Survey of a sample of the Panamanian population. 5. Statistics/records of the bodies that offer prevention, attention and protection services.

Result 4: Panamanian population (men and women) is informed and rejects gender violence. Result 1 activities Result 2 activities Result 3 activities A.3.1. Participatory research to learn about the views on gender violence and human rights, on the context and on the communication ecosystems, that allows primary and secondary target groups (recipients), as well as the aim (what needs to be “changed”), to be selected/segmented. A.3.2. Determined the type of approach for each target group (interpersonal communication, training on rights, social marketing, social mobilisation, etc.). A.3.3. Created the key messages for each of the (primary and secondary) target groups. A.3.4. Selected communication channel(s) (institutional; information and communication media; socio-traditional or socio-cultural channels; commercial channel). A.3.5. Designed and implemented strategy operation.

Source: Del Río 2006.


should meet the following requisites: it must be specific, measurable, appropriate, realistic and time-based. In this case it will be implemented through activities and could be expanded in the relevant sub-matrix, if necessary. As can be seen, results three and four (shaded in the table) are specifically communication for development results. The activities necessary for achieving them follow the usual methodological procedure, but should in turn be pertinent and suitable for a communication for development strategy. In this case we have highlighted some of the activities required in order to guarantee that together they enable us to achieve the desired results.

conflicts themselves or not), for example between men and women. Experience shows that programmes in which women are highly involved in decision making9 occasionally cause resistance and rejection by men and, all too often, the solution is to avoid this situation, leaving women’s participation for “later” and thus wasting an opportunity to increase effectiveness. However, this is not the only case of a conflict of interests that may arise. The solution is not to avoid these issues, but instead to include strategies for mediation, negotiation and conflict resolution (IFAD 2010).

Start at the beginning: participation Stakeholders’ participation in decision making during the entire project cycle (planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation) most likely leads to (Blackman 2003): i) greater effectiveness; ii) increased responsibility; iii) improved efficiency; iv) better sustainability; v) greater empowerment and selfsufficiency; vi) increased transparency and accountability, and vii) greater equality. It is essential to include the gender perspective throughout the programme, and doing this requires incorporating it into the participation strategy. Participation can bring existing conflicts to light (in objective terms, regardless of whether there is awareness of the


9 Using varied mechanisms and existing tools to do so.

Experiences /  In the field of development planning The district of Comas, in the north of Lima, was founded in 1961. It has a population of approximately half a million inhabitants, most of them living in poverty. Prior to the design of the Integrated Development Plan, the municipal authorities of Comas (elected for three consecutive periods) had been making progress towards deconcentrating and decentralising the district: it was divided into 14 zones, Zone Offices were created, Zone Government Councils were elected, creation and coordination was promoted through Working Groups. In this context, in September 1999 the municipal authorities launched an initiative to create the Comas Integrated District Development Plan to the year 2010. The drafting of the Integrated Development Plan was promoted by the District Municipality of Comas, with the initial support of the NGOs Alternativa and Calandria and the Metropolitan Planning Institute of the Municipality of Lima. Building on this baseline, all the organisations and institutions and the general population were invited to participate in the process. Roughly four thousand representatives and 400 organisations and institutions from all over the district were involved in formulating the plan. The process of organisation and planning took various moments into account: i) Campaign “Let’s build the future of Comas together”, as part of which a wide range of informative and motivational material (calendars, videos, modules for journalists, banners, panels, murals) was produced. ii) Competitions and creativity workshops to promote the best district development initiatives and proposals. iii) Planning workshops, dealing with the following issues: formulating a Development Vision, drawing up the Strategic Lines and Objectives, defining the Programmes and Projects, and institutionalising the plan. The planning process included the Working Groups that had been created previously (the Childhood Management Committee, the Youth Panel, the Gender Consultation Panel, the Health and Environment Panel). The management model that was approved was led by the District Development Assembly, the District Development Council, the Thematic Consultation Panels (9 groups) and the Government and Local Development Councils (14 zones).

/  In the field of participation in the proposal An interesting experience of citizen participation through communication media took place in Lima during mayor Ricardo Belmont’s second term (1995). Owing to cuts in revenue and a shortage of resources, the Municipality of Lima was forced to prioritise certain civil works in the city that had already been planned. To do this, the mayor, Ricardo Belmont, could think of no better solution than to call a “local television consultation” so that Lima’s inhabitants could decide for themselves which civil works should be carried out. The consultation began in May 1995, broadcast by a commercial television channel (RBC Televisión, owned by the mayor, Belmont). A continuous publicity campaign was run on this channel (in programmes and adverts) featuring the three civil works projects that were being proposed: The Dos de Mayo highway interchange (cost: 14,419,000 New Soles), the Higuereta highway interchange (cost: 11,520,000 New Soles), and the El Agustino highway interchange (cost: 5,907,000 New Soles). There was massive participation by Lima’s residents who sent their votes (by letter to the television channel and the municipality) and as a result it was decided to build the highway interchange at Plaza Dos de Mayo. This was inaugurated on 29 August 1995 and is known today as the “The Dos de Mayo Cloverleaf”.

Source: Castañeda 2005.

Define the aim and objectives of the communication for development The objectives, results, activities and indicators derive from the strategies or

the combination of strategies selected for each of the development or behavioural goals that were defined. The design and planning of a development programme begins by formulating the objectives to


be achieved and the results expected from the programme’s actions. The communication objectives or results should basically indicate the social change and expected behaviour in the knowledge, attitudes and practices (behaviours) of the primary, secondary and tertiary participants, relative to the development problem in the participating groups as the final outcome of the communication programme. While developing the communication strategy, the programme’s behavioural objectives should be reviewed, with the aim of identifying the role that communication can play in achieving these objectives. Sometimes the behavioural objectives and the communication objectives are the same, but not necessarily. For example, a communication objective could range from “being informed” all the way to “social change”. If the programme does not have clearly defined behavioural or social change objectives, it is not possible to design its communication strategy. Just as with any type of objective or results, communication goals should be SMART. The objectives will be easier to monitor and evaluate if they are structured using clear words and actions that lend themselves to being measured. The objectives to be achieved are defined in terms of each group of primary, secondary and tertiary participants,


regarding attitudes and behaviour. (For example, this could be in terms of greater understanding of the role and increased use of recycling waste by people in charge of managing household waste, the positive involvement of teachers in talking about caring for the environment and encouraging students to separate waste in their homes, the active participation of local authorities –providing containers for separating waste–, some journalists that keep track of the progress being made towards sustainable waste management in the area, etc.). Communication for development goals is usually linked to: / Promoting awareness. / Informing and sensitising. / Recommending solutions. /  Identifying barriers to and the benefits of social changes and of a behaviour. / Strengthening capacities for conducting situation analyses, understanding the underlying causes, identifying cultural and religious aspects. / Building capacities for the correct use of tools, processes, etc. / Accessing and using relevant information. / Improving communicative capacities, giving people a voice, expressing opinions, etc.

/ Promoting social norms and ethical behaviour, tolerance, etc. / Promoting actions aimed at legislative, political, social and cultural changes (advocacy). /  Promoting social mobilisation. / Promoting new behaviours by any type of participant (political leaders, journalists, teachers, public workers in different sectors, members of civil society, religious figures, academics, etc.). / Identifying and disseminating the benefits of practices or social changes. / Encouraging dialogue, negotiation and conflict resolution.

/ Persuading. /  Promoting uses and practices. / Monitoring, involving, convincing, or neutralising participants depending on their interest and position regarding the programme. / Strengthening alliances with organisations, networks and people to drive forward the advocacy process. /  Strengthening institutions. / Increasing the political will of the target audience. / Establishing alliances. / Promoting legislative and political changes.

For example, in the case of an irrigation programme, the communication objectives* would be those that support achieving the goals, such as: / Build capacities among smallholders for exercising their rights to water. / Empower local administrations so they can meet their obligations to respect, promote and protect smallholders’ water rights. / During the first year, inform at least 65% of the smallholders in X, Y and Z districts about the procedures and benefits of an irrigation system using tube wells. / During the first year, reduce the proportion (from the current 54% to 20%) of smallholders in districts X, Y and Z who misunderstand and/or have mistaken ideas about the cost and technical requirements of digging wells. / At the end of the second year, increase the proportion (from the current 32% to 50%) of smallholders who have positive attitudes towards the practical and simple use of the irrigation system to water their crops, in districts X, Y and Z. / Persuade the smallholders in districts X, Y and Z to use the water in the wells to water their crops, and to increase this practice from the current 20% to 35% in two years. / Raise awareness and promote social responsibility in the companies that manage and market irrigation water. / Build capacities among journalists to encourage and facilitate public debate. / Inform donors and the general public about the progress made towards the responsible management of irrigation water and the benefits this has for the whole area. / Empower teachers and encourage them to incorporate into the pertinent subjects an explanation and analysis of new irrigation uses and technologies, the joint responsibility for managing water resources, as well as rights and duties in this regard.

* It should be noted that the different types of objectives may occupy positions of objectives, results, activities or indicators when incorporated into the Logical Framework Matrix, as will be seen later.


Selecting communication approaches and strategies As we saw in the previous chapter, there are different strategies, approaches and tools for communicating for development. The decision about how many and which of them to use, combined in which way and for which primary, secondary and tertiary participants, depends on the results of the research and analysis phase conducted by the programme team, the relevant specialists and the participants and beneficiaries themselves. There is no magic formula and each combination will be unique given that it responds to specific views, baselines, attitudes, expectations and contexts. As previously mentioned, to define the most appropriate strategies or the combination of strategies, it is necessary to review the results of the analysis phase in order to: i) decide which communication components are suitable, and ii) shape the components to meet the communication objectives. Thus, there are different ways to approach and define communication for development strategies. Three of them are presented below: a) an approach based on the stakeholders’ interests and position; b) an approach based on the communication dimensions, and c) an approach based on the strategic vision. a) Approach based on the stakeholders’ interests and position The data obtained from the KAP analysis


(see previous chapters) will provide information (and ratings) about the participants’/stakeholders’ “interests” and “position” thus enabling a graph to be created which identifies the first approaches based on both aspects, such as for example (FIPF 2009): /  Convince: for participants/stakeholders who are highly interested in the results of the programme but hold an intermediate position, it is necessary to increase their knowledge of the issue or problem and demonstrate that the programme is the right solution. For these types of strategies it is very important to build trust and credibility among the audience towards the organisation or network implementing the programme. This strategy could include actions such as seminars of experts, forums, sensitisation workshops, specialised material, private meetings, etc. /  Persuade: for participants/stakeholders with a position in favour of the objectives and results of the programme, but with only average interest, it is necessary to demonstrate that the cause has the support of the sectors of the population that they are interested in. This strategy may include actions such as public events, mass mailings, forums of experts, newspaper articles, signing releases, communication campaigns, etc. /  Neutralise: for participants/stakeholders who are not in favour or are totally against the programme and who have a strong interest in hampering it, it is necessary to counteract their efforts. This task is highly sensitive and the use of

Analysis of the map of participants/stakeholders and initial strategies

Strong interest



Convince Totally against

Totally in favour


Source: FIPF 2009:117.


Little interest

unethical practices or victimisation of the programme’s opponents must be avoided at all costs. Although neutralisation strategies are important, it is not recommended that these form the backbone of the communication strategy or advocacy, as this would promote reactive and not proactive actions. This strategy could include generating banks of arguments and counterarguments, monitoring proposals, support groups, etc.

/  Monitor: for participants/stakeholders who are against the programme, but have little or average interest in it, it is important to systematically monitor their actions to recognise movements towards other sectors of the audience map, especially an increase in their interest against the programme’s achievements. This strategy may include analysing legislative journals, monitoring the media, etc. /  Involve: participants/stakeholders who are quite or totally in favour of the programme and who have a strong


interest in its achievements should be included in the project to promote the initiative. This inclusion may take many forms and does not necessarily have to be public or formal; the most important thing is that this audience takes ownership of the programme’s goals. This strategy could include personal meetings, generating specialised spaces (such as parliamentary groups), capacitybuilding workshops, specific material, consultancy, etc.

b) Approach based on the communication dimensions In this approach, the first decision to be made when designing the strategies for each specific audience relates to the communication dimension that will be addressed by each strategy. The most common communication dimensions are (UNICEF 2006): /  Inform, sensitise and motivate action. /  Develop skills/capacities. /  Generate participation and social mobilisation. /  Communicate the aims and accomplishments of the development

Specific development goal or expected outcome: Public/ stakeholders

Primary participants 2 Secondary participants 1 Secondary participants 2 Etc. Source: UNICEF 2006.


Objectively verifiable indicators: Communication objectives/results

Information and sensitisation Objectives/ results

Primary participants 1

Communication planning matrix

Outputs and activities

Capacity building Objectives/ results

Outputs and activities

Participation and social mobilisation Objectives/ results

Outputs and activities

Dissemination of the project Objectives/ results

Outputs and activities

project. A matrix linking the participants/ stakeholders and the communication dimensions is provided to facilitate using

this approach to planning. As can be seen, the matrix includes the dissemination of the project, which incorporates both publicising the activities the programme/policy carries out as well as disseminating the

EXPERIENCE: Information and active citizen programme: a strategy for including disadvantaged young people This project is led by the Youth and Employment Department of Murcia City Council and receives funding from the European Commission, in the framework of its Youth in Action Programme. This project aims to create a meeting point for young representatives of organisations of young people with sensory disability (mainly blind and deaf people), local authority youth services, youth information centres, youth information networks and organisations of people with sensory disability in Europe and Latin America, in which they can discuss, analyse and propose the measures, experiences, benefits and phenomena which boost the involvement of all young people without exclusion, especially those affected by a sensory disability. The initiative seeks to prevent any kind of discrimination in the drafting and application of strategies relating to youth information and in the creation and dissemination of this information. Among the results the project hopes to achieve are the adaptation of youth information services to young people with sensory disabilities, the involvement of these young people in youth information centres and services and the strengthening of their associations. There are 56 young representatives from eight organisations of young people with sensory disability from nine countries in Europe and Latin America involved in the project, as well as two Youth Information Networks: CIDJ, in France, and Red Camaleón, in Colombia Communication strategies: The activities in this project aim to promote permanent communication and exchange between local bodies and organisations specialising in youth information and associations of young disabled people, all of which are well established and have years of experience in this matter. Through these activities it is hoped to produce the effective multiplication of the objectives and results of the project. These activities include: / A seminar on Exchanging Best Practices in Youth Information as a strategy for including disadvantaged young people in Murcia. / An exchange between young people on the issue of youth information as a strategy to include young people and on the media’s impact on the transmission of intercultural values and the inclusion of young people in Cuenca (Ecuador). / A seminar on the evaluation of the project: “Working together: Information, young people and citizens”, carried out in Cartagena de Indias (Colombia). / Drafting a methodological manual on structured dialogue between young people and public bodies for launching Youth Information Services as a strategy to include young people with sensory disability. The Youth in Action Programme, within the framework of which this initiative was implemented, is a call for countries not belonging to the European Union. Its fundamental objective is to propose the measures, experiences, benefits and phenomena that boost the involvement of all young people without exclusion, but especially those affected by a sensory disability, in Youth Information Centres, establish actions addressed to young people and for young people with sensory disability to improve access to information and raise awareness among these young people about using information and communication technologies

Source: Website of Murcia City Council’s Youth Service.


development results obtained. This aspect is explored in greater detail in chapter three, which is dedicated to “communicating about development results”. Strategic framework for communication in programme/policy planning

Specific objective:

Specific objective indicators:

Expected outcome:

Expected outcome indicators:

Area for intervention: (e.g., sustainable management of domestic waste) Communication strategy

Target audience (who it is aimed at)

Primary audience

List the MAIN audience to address in order to get results.

Secondary audience

List other people of importance to the primary audience.

Behaviour Change Communication

Social mobilisation/ change

List all those actors who can support and influence BOTH the primary and secondary audiences.


List all those actors/people who are in a position to make decisions that affect the implementation of the programme and that impact on the outcome.

Source: UNFPA 2006:37.


Key existing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours

List, in order of priority, EXISTING knowledge, attitudes and behaviours that affect the expected outcome.

List, in order of priority, EXISTING knowledge, attitudes and behaviours that affect the expected outcome.

List, in order of priority, EXISTING knowledge, attitudes and behaviours that affect the expected outcome.

Key communication messages / Keep in mind the format of the message and the tone used to deliver messages. / Message design will depend on the type of media to be used.

/ Keep in mind the format of the message and the tone used to deliver messages. / Message design will depend on the type of media to be used. / Keep in mind the format of the message and the tone used to deliver messages. /  Message design will depend on the type of media to be used.

Communication channels

Do NOT list all and every type of channel. ONLY list those that will be the most appropriate and effective for the intended audience.

Keep in mind the goal of the communication, whether it is for the BCC, social mobilisation or advocacy. Select the channel only after doing a communication channel analysis.

c) Approach based on the strategic vision By way of a reminder, the main strategies for communication for development that were presented in part one of this chapter are: communication for social change, behaviour change communication and advocacy.

of indicators that are required. Thus, indicators are linked to the development goals, the communication objectives and the strategies employed.

2.4.1. Objectively verifiable indicators of communication

The UNFPA proposes a (sub)matrix for systematising communication for development strategies.

Objectively verifiable indicators (OVI), which are the instrument that allows us to visualise the extent to which a specific objective and the expected outcome have been achieved, should be linked to the baseline created in the analysis phase.

2.4. Indicators and sources of verification

It is important that the indicators chosen are:

In order to measure the results of a communication intervention it is necessary to gather reference data so that the changes can be monitored.

/  Objective: they must not depend on the point of view of the person measuring them.

It is sometimes considered too expensive and complicated to control the result of communication interventions, as this often involves carrying out broad research and studies that require external technical consultation. To adapt the monitoring system to the available human and financial resources, it is better to identify a smaller number of significant and useful indicators, even if they cannot provide exact measurements, rather than create a long list that is impossible to manage. On the other hand, it should be mentioned that the communication approach or strategy chosen often influences the type

/  Relevant/pertinent: they measure what the programme is trying to achieve.10 /  Specific: expressed in quantity, quality, and time. /  Measurable and with available information. /  Reasonable: in terms of resources (money, staff experience and time).

10 For example, if an objective is to “increase the use of health services”, the indicator should be the number of consultations that people made and not the number of services created.


Indicators of impact (linked to the objectives)

Indicators of process (linked to the results)

Indicators of output (linked to the activities)

/  Percentage of members of the target group who express the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs that form part of the messages.

/ Spaces for dialogue generated.

/  Number of communication messages and materials produced, by type, during a specific period.

/  Percentage of members of the target group who have acquired the skills included in the messages.

/ Number of legislators sensitised to the importance of legislative change (displayed by age and political party).

/  Percentage of members of the target group who will discuss these messages. /  Percentage of members of the target group who have adopted the behaviour presented in the messages. /  Changes in the scale of the development problem (incident rates, for example). /  Social, legislative, political, cultural changes generated.

/ Capacities built/strengthened among the owners of the rights and duty-bearers.

/ Number of organisations that support the documents with language proposals created for decision-makers. / Number of legislative committees that attended strategic discussion meetings that were held. /  Number of workers correctly trained.

/  Number of legislators who maintained or changed their position in favour of the legislative proposal.

/  Number of communication messages and materials distributed, by type, during a specific period. /  Percentage of members of the target group reached by the messages. /  Number of analyses/discussions carried out. /  The material created in line with the required quality standards. /  Number of mailings. /  Real distribution of the messages in the planned periods. /  Percentage of the target group exposed to the messages.

Source: created by the author.

/  Interesting: for the donors, citizens and other public.

2.4.2. Sources of verification for the indicators

/  Non-sexist: they incorporate the gender perspective.

With regard to sources of verification, many cases call for a “baseline” to be established during the analysis phase to serve as a starting point and which can be compared in the monitoring and evaluation stages in order to gauge the relevance, effectiveness, efficiency and impact of the communication for development that was applied.

The table above shows some common categories of indicators related to communication for development.

Example sources of verification /  Internal reports, institutions’ annual reports, the research study or reports,


epidemiological reports... /  Statistics provided by public services, population censuses, etc. /  The media (using a content analysis). /  Texts: laws, decrees, orders, directives, programmes, protocols, etc. /  Delivery receipts and road maps, etc. Example methods and techniques for monitoring and evaluation /  Collecting statistical data; reviewing the documentation. /  A content analysis and monitoring the media (press review). /  Field visits, meetings, encounters, occasional seminars.

/  Focus groups; surveying a sample using a questionnaire, panel, individual or group interviews, observation. In all cases, the most reliable results are provided by using a combination of means of verification within the research context.

2.4.3. Example of incorporating communication into an environmental management programme/policy As an example, below we present a matrix showing the objectives of a communication strategy, a selection of the expected outcomes and the activities, some of the associated indicators and means of verification.

Communication strategy for an environmental management programme Examples of specific objectives

Sample indicators

Example means of verification

Create links between project and participating communities.

Percentage of community members aware of the project purposes.

Quantitative and qualitative analyses (survey, focus group discussions, semi-structured interviews).

Create awareness of the risks associated with environmental mismanagement.

Percentage of community members able to identify three cases of environmental mismanagement.

Quantitative and qualitative analyses (survey, focus group discussions, semi-structured interviews).


➜ Create awareness of the impact on tourism and the benefits of environmental management in terms of quality of life in participating communities.

Percentage of community members able to identify three ways in which tourism is affected by environmental mismanagement. Percentage of community members able to indicate measures to improve life through effective management of the environment.

Quantitative and qualitative analyses (survey, focus group discussions, semi-structured interviews).


Sample indicators

Example means of verification

Project communities.

List of local expectations and demands.

Progress reports.

X community members informed of the various risks of environmental mismanagement.

Number of home visits undertaken by extension workers. Number of audiences.

Progress reports.

X community members informed of the benefits of environmental management and how to improve quality of life.

Percentage of the community members aware of the effect of environmental management.

Qualitative and quantitative surveys.


Sample indicators

Example means of verification

Implementation of x number of community meetings.

Number of participants (men/ women) attending community meetings.

Progress reports. List of participants...

Training of teachers to provide capacity building for community members.

Number of teachers attending workshops and providing environmental capacity building for the community.

Capacity building reports.

Implementation of popular theatre performances.

Number of community members exposed to popular theatre performances on relevant environmental issues.

Listed number of audiences.

Production of five-minute video on water, waste, and risks.

Number of mass media channels having shown the video and number of times shown. Exposure to the video: number of participants, of workshops and of schools.

Agreements with media institutions. Progress reports. Workshop reports.

Source: DANIDA 2007


The aims of the programme are: to establish and strengthen the management of protected areas, water and sewerage, property registration, local government structures and capacities, and promote incentives for private sector participation in the sustainable management of tourism in Isla de la BahĂ­a. The development of the communication plan, which continues on from this matrix, is detailed in the next chapter “Communicating about resultsâ€?.



3. Communicating about the results of cooperation programmes/policies

3.1. Communicating about development results

3.1.1. What is communication about development results?

There has been a change in the basic or traditional model of transmitter/receiver communication, based on its linear or sequential mode, in which the transmitter sends a message and the receiver receives it. The new scenario leads us to a model of transmitter/ receiver-transmitter/ receiver. We all become both transmitters and receivers, or “transceivers”.

As discussed in the previous chapter, there are two large areas in communicating development processes that are linked to project cycle management. This chapter focuses on communicating about development results.

The key lies in creating communication that is relevant (strategic), easy, exciting, closer and participatory, interpersonal, global (without borders), operational (aimed at action), in real time and for everybody. We must be strategic in our way of acting and interacting, refraining from interrupting people with things they are not interested in to become part of what they are interested in. As agreed in the Joint Action Plan on Visibility,11 the primary objective of visibility activities is to communicate the “positive results of the partnership”. In addition to mentioning the contributions made, visibility activities should concentrate on the conclusions and effects of the results of the action.

Communicating about results is what the programme/policy says about itself, using all the communication resources it has available. This approach requires real substance to ground itself on. This real substance consists of providing evidence of the programme/policy’s performance by presenting its output, services and day-to-day activities. This evidence emerges from the programme/policy’s monitoring and evaluation system. The definition of the strategy for communicating results is the last step in designing the evaluation plan. Defining a communication strategy should be a group task shared by the evaluation team and the local stakeholders participating in the process, and within this framework decisions should be made regarding three basic points: the audience, the content to be communicated and the media for communicating (Rodríguez Sosa and Zeballos 2007).

11 Agreed by the main international donors and multilateral agencies.


Communicating for results

Setting goals, agreeing on targets and strategies


Allocation of available resources

Communicating for results

Service delivery / Results


Monitoring and evaluation Communicating about results Source: OECD 2009.

Reporting to the public

Communicating about development results can involve two strategies: (i) Public relations and marketing: inform citizens about the results of a local government action, in a framework of collaboration with decentralised cooperation, responding to a strategy more geared towards public relations or marketing than development. In this strategy, the local government and decentralised cooperation “take over” the process, the results and/or impact, offering a passive image of the benefitting population and downplaying the contributions of all the participants. (ii) Transparency and accountability: inform citizens about the development results obtained by the programme/policy, a product of decentralised cooperation, in an exercise in transparency,


Conceptual framework for communicating for and about results*

accountability and visibility of the achievements of development. In this strategy, communicating the development results contributes/may contribute towards the development goals, making the messages and images transmitted flow in the same direction as the development goals being sought, and the different stakeholders and beneficiaries are accorded the appropriate merit. In general, communicating the results of programmes/policies follows the first option, it does not involve all of the stakeholders, and it is not in harmony with policies on participation, it does not constitute a “management style” as, although it is recognised as a citizen’s right, it has not yet been incorporated as an obligation (organised and conducted) of the programme/policy. The second option does incorporate

* This conceptual framework is discussed in detail in chapter one.

this rights-based approach, and transparency and accountability are the programme/policy’s duty, as mentioned in various international agreements. This approach, which goes beyond viewing communication as simply institutional public relations, forces the need for quantitative and qualitative data to be made available and accessible in order for this communication to be founded on it.

3.1.2. Challenges and limitations of communicating results in decentralised cooperation programmes/local public policies The image and position of municipal management in the decentralised cooperation programme is one of the aspects that most concerns the authorities. The experience gathered so far has revealed some limitations in municipalities’ communication culture: /  There is a partial view of communication and its potential, which leads to a narrowing of its scope in public relations, issuing press releases and in marketing. /  There is an absence of quality evaluations12 which provide evidence

12 The local political culture in some countries –both European and Latin American–, gives rise to public programmes/ policies formulated without baselines, without indicators and without evaluations that allow the development results they achieve to be identified and quantified.

of the impact, output and results of the programme/policy. /  There is no connection between the impact/output/results of the programme and the larger national and international development goals which the programme supposedly contributes towards. /  There is a tendency to personalise the image of the municipal programme/policy. The challenges facing a plan for communicating results are: i) to be systematic, i.e., be the result of a deliberate decision-making process regarding the objectives, strategies and procedures and, ii) to be holistic/ comprehensive, i.e., that it affects the entire programme/policy involving all its members and audiences (internal and external), fostering synergy so that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

3.2. Drawing up a plan for communicating about results Adopting and designing a strategic communication plan is an important step in any programme/policy. Communication planning brings advantages such as helping to achieve the goals that have been set, focusing the day-to-day work and prioritising activities. Before starting work on the plan it is important to secure the involvement


3.2.1. What are the stages of drawing up a communication plan?

and support of the programme/policy’s management team, clearly defining the responsibilities within it, and explaining to them the reasons for carrying out the plan.

A communication plan is divided into four large sections: analysis, strategy, actions and audit. Given that in each of these areas it is necessary to take different aspects into account, the ten stages for designing a communication plan are defined in the following sections:

Graphical representation of communication planning

1 Environmental analysis Research


2 Objectives

3 Audiences


4 Messages

5 Strategies How? Language? Tone? Channels?







Physical performance


Financial performance

6 Actions 1. Strategic management 2. Institutional communication - Corporate communication - External communication 3. Media relations 4. Citizen services 5. Internal communication

7 Schedule 8 Budget Impact




Question and answer

9 Audit and monitoring 10 Evaluation 64

Source: INAP 2011.

(1) Study of the environment: analysis and research (2) Objectives (3) Target audience (4) Message (of results) (5) Strategy (formalise the messages, channels, media) (6) Communication actions (strategic, institutional, media, citizen services, etc.) (7) Schedule (8) Budget (9) Indicators for monitoring and evaluation As previously mentioned, the plan for communicating development impact/results/outputs is based on the information obtained from monitoring and intermediate evaluations (process) or from the final evaluation (outcomes and potential impact)13 of the results of the programme/policy to be communicated.

13 Strictly speaking, the impact can be identified prospectively, but given that this involves the medium to long-term imprint left by the programme/policy, this can only be confirmed by ex post evaluations, and, therefore, it is difficult to communicate while the programme is being run or immediately after it has ended.

3.2.2. Analysis/research To create a communication plan it is essential to conduct a communication analysis. This analysis is linked to the scope of the plan to be implemented. It is recommended that the communication plan be comprehensive and therefore include: /  The internal level: communication with internal audiences such as partners, workers, experts, suppliers, facilitators, service providers, other areas of the municipality, etc., and /  The external level, i.e., communication with the population, interinstitutional communication and mass communication. Despite its importance, this analysis is not always done. This mistake is the first communication error, as only the person responsible for communication will have full knowledge of the situation. Everybody else, including those in charge of the programme, the partners and the staff, will be left in the dark. The most frequent arguments for not carrying out the analysis are a lack of time or resources, without taking into account the fact that not conducting an analysis is very likely to affect the effectiveness and efficiency of the programme. Furthermore, this analysis provides the “baseline” from which the plan can be monitored and evaluated. This information is vital in institutional terms, both for the international cooperation


system, and for accountability. The difference between actions to communicate the results of a programme/ policy being considered as simply a promotional expense or instead as a programme investment stems from the availability of key information provided by the evaluation of the plan, which must invariably be built on the baseline. To achieve this, the analysis must include:

in turn enables greater coherence and a strong synergy between all the communicational aspects.

3.2.3. Defining the objectives The objectives of the communication plan are divided into strategic (long-term) and tactical (short-term) aims. All of them vary depending on the objectives and priorities set by the programme/policy,


Content (checklist)

Analysis of the general context of the programme/policy

What opportunities and/or threats with regard to communication should be taken into account within the institution? And, outside the institution?

Communication analysis of the programme/policy itself

Which communication channels are being used? What media/tools have been used? What is the content of the information being transmitted? To which internal and external audiences? With what aim? Who creates/administrates it? What communication skills do the staff have? Do they know what expectations the recipients have?

Communication analysis of the programme/policy audiences

Who are the programme/policy’s audience? How have they been affected by the programme/policy? What knowledge do they have? What are their communication uses and consumptions?

Communication analysis of the interlocutors and stakeholders

What communicative relations does the programme/policy have with regional and central governments? And with the other programme partners? And with the donors and international cooperation? And with other decentralised stakeholders such as civil society, churches, universities, businesses, etc.?

Analysis of the relations and presence with/in the media and public opinion

What relations does the programme/policy have with the media? What presence does the programme/policy have in the media? What is public opinion on the issue? And about the programme/policy?

Source: created by the author based on CastaĂąeda 2005.

In this way it is possible to achieve better and more efficient strategic management of the communication resources available to the programme/policy for informing and influencing its audiences, which


and they are defined by the problems and opportunities identified in the situation prior to analysis. Likewise, they may vary according to the audiences, and they respond to the needs and expectations

identified and systematised in the analysis. The objectives are the goals we aim to achieve with the communication plan. An objective should express what we want to achieve, why and for whom. A common general objective14 of a plan for

it is necessary to segment audiences and content in order to emphasise those results considered important for each one.

Examples of the specific objectives of a communication plan / Ensure a steady flow of information and raise awareness of the objectives and processes of the programme/policy (while it is being carried out) / Disseminate information among the international cooperation actors about the effectiveness of the programme/policy and the quantity and quality of the results obtained / Increase the visibility among citizens of the new services offered by the local health system /  Publicise among the population the advances provided by the programme/policy in terms of the Millennium Goals and equality between men and women / Promote the use of a waste management system among residents in district X / Be accountable for the investments made by the programme/policy / Inform the stakeholders about the outputs and outcomes generated by the programme / Disseminate information about the local development processes generated by the programme/policy Source: created by the author.

communicating results would be precisely this: “Communicate/inform/disseminate/ raise the visibility of the impact, results and outputs generated by programme/ policy X to [the relevant audiences]”. Using these general objectives as a starting point, some specific objectives can then be set, for which in many cases

14 When designing objectives it is very helpful to use verbs such as increase, achieve, change, maintain, establish, etc. that indicate the desired outcome. On the other hand, promote, coordinate, contribute are terms that express ways and means of achieving that result.

3.2.4. Identifying the target audiences Segmenting the internal and external audiences is essential for drawing up a communication plan. The prior analysis carried out will have provided information about the information needs and expectations, as well as the communication use and consumption habits of the different audiences and stakeholders. In most programmes/policies the audiences and stakeholders include the following groups:


/  The programme/policy management team. /  The mayor’s office and other related local government areas, including the municipal communication office. /  Regional and central governments, as well as local delegations of the different ministries affected/interested. /  The population directly or indirectly benefitting or affected. /  Social and opinion leaders. /  Civil society: non-governmental organisations, universities and academics, unions, the private sector, professional organisations, etc. /  Local and national media: press, radio, TV, social networks of a general nature or specific to the programme/policy issue. /  International cooperation actors: decentralised, bilateral and multilateral cooperation.

3.2.5. The messages: which results should be communicated and how to specify them? The results, the perceptions and the needs of the audiences and the communication contexts can be extraordinarily diverse, which makes creating the messages one of the most important yet complicated parts of designing the communication plan.


In addition, the concept of the “message” has a broad meaning that ranges from the “core idea” to be transmitted, to the motto or slogan of a publicity campaign. The communication specialist who designs the plan should work with multiple “messages” that range from the content of the results/impact/output to be communicated to adapting this content to the different audiences, tools, channels and formats. A well-developed message should focus on the audiences, the objectives and the results that need to be communicated. Ideally, the different messages for each group of audiences or stakeholders should be developed through exercises such as brainstorming sessions or small consultation groups with the programme personnel. In most cases, however, the programme/policy’s expert in communication develops the messages with the help of journalists, publicists or public relations experts. Sometimes, the programmes/policy’s senior officials or some of the stakeholders propose the messages. What development results should be communicated? First of all, when creating the messages for communicating development results it is important to bear in mind that the list may be endless if one attends to them literally without placing them

within the “development goals”15 they contribute to and that should be detailed in the programme/policy design. Linking the programmes/policies to the bigger development goals is a mandate that comes from international agreements and the development cooperation policies of the partner countries in the north and south.

programmes/policies need to be communicated, they should be linked to one/several of the abovementioned development strategies.

These development goals are:

The first question is to identify which development goal(s) do the results, outputs and/or impact of the programme/ policy implemented contribute to? This will be the backbone of the plan for communicating results.17

/  The Millennium Development Goals (MDG).

How to specify the results in order to communicate them?

/  The effectiveness and quality of Official Development Assistance (ODA) linked to the Paris Declaration and the Accra Agenda for Action.

The second step to communicating the results, outputs and impact of development is to actually identify these elements. To do this, it is necessary to analyse the changes that have been made vis-a-vis the problem or need that the programme/policy was designed to address.

/  The cross-cutting theme16 of democratic governance and human rights. /  The cross-cutting theme of gender equality. /  The cross-cutting theme of environmental sustainability. This assumes that any decentralised cooperation programmes/policies responds to at least one of the aspects indicated. Thus, whatever results, outputs and/or impact of the decentralised cooperation

15 These development goals are usually found in the planning matrix for the programme/policy. 16 Of cooperation in general, and the European Union’s cooperation policy in particular.

As indicated in the previous chapter,18 it is important to differentiate between the development goals, behavioural objectives and the communication objectives. The behavioural results and the communication results (linked to their relevant objectives) are means/

17 In the case of contributing to more than one development goal, it is possible to prioritise one of them as the central theme or use several of them; the decision should be taken when the communication plan is being designed, as seen later in this document. 18 See chapter 2, section 2.2.2. Differences between “behaviour change objectives” and “communication objectives”.


processes for achieving the development goals and results, which are what govern the programme/policy in question and give it meaning. A plan for communicating about development results should focus its principal message on the development goals/results that were achieved and not on the behavioural or communication objectives or outcomes. This does not mean, however, that behavioural or communication results cannot be used as part of the discourse in secondary messages, or for specific audiences or in specific communication media. Where can the information about the development results achieved be found in order to communicate it?: the evaluation process will identify the development results that have been obtained and provide evidence (impact, processes, outputs) of these results,19 and it should link the results to the larger internationally agreed development goals which all the programmes within the international cooperation system (which decentralised cooperation belongs to) should contribute to.

19 It should be noted that both the design of a programme/policy –in the framework of international development cooperation–, and its evaluation, invariably include its contribution to the larger development goals defined in international agreements and development cooperation policies.


As we know, evaluation is one of the most important stages20 in the public policy cycle and in project cycle management. The unit of public action under evaluation is usually the programme. Evaluating programmes as “bundles” of defined resources aimed at mitigating the state of a greater problem is more practical than evaluating general policies (Delgado Godoy 2009). So, for example, it is not usually the public policy on education that is evaluated but the different programmes that make up this policy instead. Monitoring and evaluating programmes/ policies is based on indicators which are present in several stages of the public policy cycle. Indicators have two functions: one is descriptive (providing information about a specific situation and its evolution over time) and the other is evaluative (estimating the effects of an intervention). In both cases they are likely to be communicated, whether as an impact, outcome or output.

20 The main stages of the public policy cycle are: i) identifying and defining problems (analysis and drawing up a baseline in PCM); ii) formulating policies (the design in PCM); iii) adopting the decision (the cooperation agreement and ODA); iv) implementation (execution in PCM); v) evaluation (monitoring and evaluation in PCM).

Type of result to be communicated

Types of indicators* and information offered



The sources of information are the indicators of impact (i.e., those linked to the general objective of the programme/policy): they provide information about the consequences for local development in the medium to long term.

(1) Generation of sources of income and productive fabric (MDG, fight against poverty, economic development, economic rights, etc.) (2) Access to education/reduction of inequality between girls and boys in access to education (MDG, universal education and gender equality, right to education, human rights) (3) Reduction of environmental pollution (MDG, improve environmental sustainability, right to a healthy environment...)

Outcomes (Processes)

The sources of information are the indicators linked to the specific objectives (outcomes): they provide information about the benefits generated for the target groups, which in addition to results are also about processes in terms of the development goals and, therefore, about impact.

(1) Number of cooperatives that have the capacity and competitive systems of management, production and marketing in the territory, jobs created by the cooperatives that were set up, etc. (2) Ratio of girls to boys that finish primary education in rural zones in the municipality, rates of schooling and/or literacy (3) Increase in recycling household waste in the municipality


The sources of information are the indicators linked to the expected results (outputs): they provide information about the immediate and specific consequences of the activities and the resources used, necessary in the process of achieving the results.

(1) Cooperatives created/formed, number of cooperative members trained in management, marketing, etc., number of new agreements signed with businesses, entrepreneurs trained (2) Schools built, teachers trained, girls and boys schooled, coverage of school vaccinations (3) Awareness campaigns carried out, type and number of recycling bins

Source: created by the author. * EC - EuropeAid 2004.

3.2.6. Defining the strategy The messages cannot be the same for all audiences and contexts. It is advisable to ask yourself questions about the message that you want to transmit: How is the programme/policy perceived? What does the audience already know about it? What do they need to know? What do you want to say to the audience? Who is the best person (source) to take this message to the audience? Basic characteristics of effective messages When talking about messages we are not referring exclusively to the written text of the message but to the sum of the audio,

graphic, visual, etc. elements that it is formed of. However, the main weight of the message usually rests on the text. In general, effective messages are considered to meet several prerequisites: /  They are simple and concise. /  They use appropriate language. /  The content is in accordance with the format. /  They come from a credible messenger (spokesperson)/source. /  The tone and language are coherent


with the message. /  They tell stories about real people or cases. /  They are new, fresh and surprising. /  They offer the audience a clear benefit. The language consists of the words chosen to communicate the message. Is it the most appropriate language for your target audience? The message should be assigned to a source. It is best to choose sources that add credibility to the message in the eyes of the target audience: an expert, a political authority figure, a moral or religious leader, a colleague, a development agent, etc. Obviously, this calls for an understanding of the criteria for credibility in the area the message will be transmitted. The tone of the message requires a choice being made about the orientation, or the nature of the “call”, of each message so that it will have maximum influence on the target group. Generally speaking, this choice is based upon the known characteristics of the target group and lessons learned elsewhere. Depending on these factors, a choice can be made from the following tones (or a combination of them) (FAO, 2002): /  An emotional message (a call to such emotions as love, fear, anxiety, security) as opposed to a rational message (a call to logical arguments, or proof););


/  A positive message (which shows that there is a favourable solution to the known risk) as opposed to a negative message (which presents the dark and threatening situation which would arise if the target group does not follow the desired course of action); /  A call to the group (group pressure) as opposed to a customised call (personalised arguments); /  A humorous message (humour makes a message pleasant) as opposed to a serious message (rigorous, too formal) /  A single-minded message as opposed to a message with several points of view (in the form of a debate, or clashing ideas); /  A message with a definitive conclusion (i.e. the desired conclusion) as opposed to a message with an open-ended conclusion (allowing the target group to reach its own conclusion and make its own opinion); /  A repetitive message (which repeats the message several times) as opposed to a unique message (sent only once). The code of conduct on images and messages relating to the Third World21 provides a series of practical guidelines

21 Drawn up by D-NGOs, with the collaboration of their counterparts and other cooperation actors and approved by the General Assembly of the Liaison Committee of Development NGOs to the European Union in 1989.

Examples of the tone of the message

Source: created by the author based on FAO 2002.



/ Solidarity will lead us forward! (love) / AIDS kills! (fear)

/ Inequality between men and women affects our development and violates human rights / Production cooperatives generate employment and improve people’s living conditions



/ The sustainable management of forests prevents forest fires and generates wealth / The construction of 10 schools will guarantee access to education to all children

/ The lack of sewerage systems is contaminating our rivers and damaging the health of the population / Carrying on with bushfires will make the soil unproductive in the end



All couples use contraception, why don’t you?

For those who want to wait a while before having another child, there is a method for each person

Definitive conclusion:

Open conclusion:

Report gender violence!

There are several solutions to the risks of AIDS

for creating messages, including among them: /  Avoid catastrophic or idyllic images. /  All people must be presented as human beings and their cultural identity and their dignity must be preserved. /  Accounts given by the people concerned should be presented rather than the interpretations of a third party. /  People’s ability to take responsibility for themselves must be highlighted. /  The internal and external obstacles to development should be clearly shown.

development should be emphasised. /  The causes of poverty (political, economic or structural) should be apparent in the message in order to enable the public to understand the mechanisms and to encourage them to get involved in actions aimed at change and social transformation. /  Messages should avoid all forms of discrimination. Finally, it should be mentioned that the messages should be tested before being used and, when there is more than one, the relevant order and timing should be decided.

/  The degree of interdependence and the notion of joint responsibility in underdevelopment and in good


Which channels and media should be used? The communication channel and media should be determined for each target group or audience. The selection criteria for communication channels and media are: /  The data obtained from the analysis of uses and communication networks in each participating group. /  The objectives and results being sought. /  Accessibility and affordability for the target audience. /  The popularity of the channel and/or source among the target audience. /  Credibility: the channel should be seen as credible and trustworthy by the target audience. /  The size of the audience. /  The complexity of the message. /  Geographical coverage. /  The cost-effectiveness analysis (strengths and weaknesses of different types of media). /  The impact. /  Participation: some channels and media encourage more participation by the target audience than others.


It is important to stress that communication channels should not be confused with communication media. In communication for development we find the following channels: /  Institutional channels: the recognised public and private bodies such as the political and administrative apparatus, education systems, networks of development workers, NGOs, etc. /  The media: old and new information and communication technologies such as television, radio, printed press, posters and Internet. /  Socio-traditional and socio-cultural channels: opinion leaders and other informal networks, the various forms and opportunities of traditional popular and inter-personal communication. /  Commercial channels: the marketing circuits for common products such as supermarkets, shops, bookshops, kiosks, pharmacies, etc. With the elements detailed above it is possible to create a communication plan (and subsequently, a media plan). Each of the media and channels has its own strengths and weaknesses; the table below attempts to characterise them, starting with the most important aspects.

Source: based on UNICEF 2006, expanded by the author.

Can reach very large audiences at the same time, if electricity and equipment are available and there is adequate reception.

Can reach very large audiences at the same time if the receivers and batteries are available. It also depends on electricity. Radio is cheaper than television. Radio via Internet.

Can be used for “home” transmission or visualisation. Suitable for small and large audiences. Can be distributed by Internet and offered in electronic newspapers and magazines.

Can quickly reach large literate audiences. If they are electronic publications, they can be accessed from anywhere in the world at the same time.



Newspapers and magazines



Type of channel

Specific technical information/ news/information.

Can be used/made by the general public or specialists; general or very specific subjects. Complex messages and scenarios can be represented.

Above all for general information/ news/entertainment as above. The information can be more specific.

Because of its broad scope it is mainly used to provide general information/news/entertainment for large audiences/ simple messages/ public service announcements.

Type of message (simple/complex)

Once printed on paper, not adaptable. Electronic versions can be continuously updated and are read by a large number of people. They can incorporate other audiovisual media (video, radio).

Once produced, they are not adaptable. But with technological advances, changing, editing, adaptation is easier.

The same as television except regional radio broadcasts; it can address the locals’ issues in their own language. Comments from the audience only available by telephone in the programmes, letters, etc.

Easy for the general public. Difficult to adapt for smaller and more specific cultures, languages, etc.


High publication cost. Expensive adverts. The programme/ policy can become a source of information.

The initial expense is variable depending on the production quality required. Copies of videos cheap to reproduce.

The price of radio equipment is low, but it is still seen as an investment above and beyond the daily needs of the poor rural population. Buying batteries is a problem. Listening to it collectively reduces costs.

The production facilities are expensive to install and run. Production costs can be high, although this is reduced by new technologies and broadcasting via Internet. Purchasing airtime for content can be prohibitively expensive. For the user, the cost of the receiver is high but consumption is free.


Average in the paper version and higher in the electronic version. Discussion about important news; naturally, carried out in readers’ market squares, etc.

High. Generates discussion after viewing. Organise an informal viewing in the community with the dialogue.

Very high. By telephone in the programmes, based on a participatory community, discussion programmes, reading and responding to listeners’ letters, etc.

Average, although immediate feedback from the audience is not available, except phone calls and messages to shows, competitions, documentaries, programmes based on the community, and with their participation.

Possibility of interactive use

Advantages and disadvantages of communication media and channels




Very high. Discussion with the audience during or at the end of the results. Generates dialogue with the community.

If accompanied by leaflets, more information, and can answer questions.

Very high horizontally, and relative in vertical communication.

Cheap. Cost factors include scripting, rehearsal, support and performance, etc.


Computer prices are high. Can generate information inexpensively.

Adaptable to interactive. The format may be too flexible and the main risk is of shifting.

Easily adaptable.

Very adaptable among users. Could be too flexible. Risk of information overload.

Simple, easy to understand the messages with a local flavour and with entertainment.

Simple, easy to understand messages.

Simple messages, not effective with complex messages. Information in real time.

Small, with the potential to reach medium scale. With mobile units, the reach could be greater. Good for areas with difficult access to general communication media.

Depends on mobility and regularity. Can reach people in difficult to access areas.

Depends on written and digital literacy. Without physical boundaries. Can reach people all over the world. Electricity is vital.

Popular communication, including popular theatre (IPT)

Miking (sound equipment) and other mobile communication media

Social networks (Facebook, Twitter, etc.)


Highly interactive, if not done top-down.

Cost factors include capacity building, the team, transport, etc.

Generally interactive with immediate response.

Good for specific, complex exchange of intimate information.


Can be used to generate discussion about a subject.

Groups or other people.

Cheap. Could be expensive if a hoarding has to be installed.

Similar to posters.

Interpersonal communication (IPC)

Once printed, not adaptable.

Once printed, not adaptable.

Cannot transmit complex messages effectively.

Can explain more complex health problems, behaviours.

Depends on the location.

Can be used to generate discussion about a subject.


Good design and graphics can be costly. Generally reasonable printing prices. The distribution could be costly.

Depends on the number and distribution.

Once printed, not adaptable.

Brochure, leaflet, catalogue

Suitable for short, precise messages. They do not transmit complex messages effectively.

Can have a good reach depending on the numbers disseminated and their placement.



➜ High.

Computers and Internet access can be expensive for poor groups of people and those in rural areas. Internet cafes could alleviate part of the problem. Computers and Internet access can be expensive for poor groups of people and those in rural areas. Internet cafes could alleviate part of the problem.

Once sent cannot be changed, but different messages can be sent.

Very adaptable, can be continuously updated.

Once sent, cannot be changed but different messages can be sent.

Very simple messages.

Mixed. Can be simple and complex messages.

Simple and complex messages, depending on the format used in this medium.

Depends on written and digital literacy. Small and large audiences depending on technological level.

Institutional websites are one of the main sources of information. Requires written and digital literacy.

Requires written and digital literacy. Can reach very broad audiences in any place.

Mobile telephones (SMS, and other messenger programmes)

Websites and blogs

e-mail, newsletter

High, both distribution lists and their newsletters usually offer the possibility of participation.

In blogs very high. In websites medium, depending on the characteristics.

Very high.

3.2.7. Communication actions After identifying which channels are going to be used, it is necessary to specify the actions that need to be carried out

for each media chosen. The table below provides a list of some of the most common communication tools and actions used to communicate:



Strategic management tools

Communication plan Budget

Tools for managing institutional communication (corporate) and external communication (publicity, marketing, Internet and public relations)


Identity guide // Presentations // Reports


Mailshots // Publicity in other programmes // Administrations // Guerrilla or street marketing // Telemarketing // Catalogues


Publicity on mobile phones // Publicity in search engines // TV, press and radio advertising // Adverts on street furniture and billboards // Viral

Public Relations

Events // Participation in fairs // Cultural, sports, social events‌ // Sports sponsorship or other kind


Microsites // E-mail marketing // Social networks // Games // Blogs and videoblogs

Tools for managing media relations

Press releases // Press conferences // Interviews in the media // Working lunches with the media // Breakfasts with journalists // Virtual press room // Online press dossier // Online photographs // Online reports and statistics // Online TV and radio adverts // Video news

Tools for managing citizen services

Publicity // Political marketing // Social marketing // Public relations // Massmailing // Website, blogs // Social networks // Books, research and reports // Catalogues and leaflets // Automatic help points // Surveys // Citizen’s Advice Centres // Debates

Tools for managing internal communication

Email messages // Segmented publications // Corporate magazines // Electronic newsletters // Corporate communication channel or intranet // Letters, circulars, memos, minutes and other documents // SMS // Mobile applications // Telephone // Forums, chats // Notice boards, leaflets, posters, signs, merchandising‌ // Meetings with managers // Attitude assessments, surveys // Internal events: anniversaries and inaugurations, conventions // Videoconferences Source: created by the author based on INAP 2011.


However, the specific nature of communicating development results can also call for other types of more creative actions. Moreover, organisations are increasingly favouring a return to using neighbourhood squares and streets as communication spaces, and are organising activities in which people can learn about and ask questions about the programme/policy. Designing the content and image In addition to selecting a series of tools and actions, launching the plan normally requires designing the content and image. It helps, when doing this, to distinguish between the production, creativity and media plan (INAP, 2011). /  The production embodies the messages. Creating the content should focus on how best to explain the idea or message, whether in the form of a video script, the text of a leaflet or the structure of a presentation. The content must be believable, original and suited to the agreed communication strategy. /  Creativity is the face of the campaign or action. The image and design (visual communication, logos, conceptual diagrams, layout…) should concentrate on the way of representing or encoding the message using images so that the public pay more attention to it and can distinguish it from other information they usually receive. /  The media plan is the proposal for selecting the media for disseminating the

message (planning the actions specified in the previous point). The media strategy and the creative strategy have to work together. Media relations The idea is to promote the credibility of the programme/policy to talk about development issues in the community. To cultivate good relations with the media, the organisation should make an effort to visit media personnel in their area regularly and provide them with basic information about the organisation and the work it is currently involved in. In all media relations, factual information should be provided in a clear, concise and timely manner. Relations with the media require continuous work to build relationships, for which we recommend: (i) Creating a “map” of the communication media in the area. (ii) Defining what the programme/ policy wants or needs from the media (strategy). (iii) Learning about issues of interest to the media. (iv) Identifying journalists and communicators who due to the section they work in, their awareness of the issue, etc., could be more accessible for the programme/policy and finding out what information they could provide.


EXAMPLE: PRESENTATION OF RESULTS EVENT of the Fronteras Turísticas (Tourism Borders) Project finalised within the framework of URB-AL III with important achievements and a clear strategy for sustainability: the Aymara-Quechua Camino Andino tourist route The official closing ceremony for the project was held on 19 and 20 April in Frosinone (Italy), the coordinating province of Fronteras Turísticas. This was the first project of the European Commission’s URB-AL III Programme (2009-2012) to be completed. Fronteras Turísticas was created to respond to the need to improve the territorial competitiveness of tourism in two border areas and to create new mechanisms for managing the development of this tourist corridor of cross-border integration based on Aymara and Quechua cultural identity. The project’s partners include the Government of the Province of Jujuy (Argentina), the Prefecture of the Department of Oruro (Bolivia), the local governments of Calacoto, San Pedro de Quemes (Bolivia), Purmamarca (Argentina) and Tarata (Peru), the autonomous province of Bolzano (Italy), the Association for Social Development (ADESO) and the Interregional Observatory for Development Cooperation (OICS). During the event, Italian tourist operators were presented with the product Camino Andino, a crossborder tourist route with a cultural identity that has been consolidated as a brand and has already been presented at the main international trade fairs in the tourism sector (Madrid, London and Buenos Aires). Camino Andino guarantees the sustainability of the project beyond URB-AL III. Furthermore, the most outstanding results obtained from more than three years’ work were presented: more than 2,565 direct beneficiaries, over 760 people trained, 12 local specialists completed their professional training in Italy, 7 tourist routes developed, 142 tourist sites showcased, 8 centres providing access to new technologies created, more than 30 public and private stakeholders mobilised and the formation of an alliance of local authorities and civil society organisations to implement development policies in border areas.

(v) Having information and news suited to the media’s interests readily available (or the ability to access it).


(vi) Meeting with the media and establishing common interests and the mechanisms or types of relationships that will be maintained.

3.2.8. Schedule

a reasonable period of time in order for it to be effective, as it is no use carrying out actions two months late or not distributing information leaflets on the day that an event has been organised and having them ready the day after.

The schedule establishes a timeline, a calendar indicating which actions will be carried out and when. It is important to stick to the action schedule at least for

Example schedule for a communication plan



Day X

Day X

Day X


Week X


Month X

1. Strategic management Management of the communication plan


Audit and monitoring Evaluation ... 2. Institutional communication 2.1. Corporate communication Corporate documentation Identity audit ... 2.2. External communication Marketing X

Mailings ... Publicity Press announcements



... Internet Creation of profiles in social networks and management ... Public relations and protocol



➜ 3. Media relations Gather information Invite media to press conference


Send press releases



Press conference Contact media: radio, TV... Monitor media - press clippings 4. Citizen services 4.1. Website


Publish content


Mass-mailing ... 5. Internal communication 5.1. Monitoring meetings Source: INAP 2011.

3.2.9. Creating the budget In order to evaluate the cost of the strategy it is necessary to review and make a list of the activities and resources required to implement it and evaluate all the expense categories, among which we find: /  Research, monitoring and evaluation activities (salaries and fees, travel expenses, supplies, data processing and analysis, publishing reports, workshops to report results, etc.); /  Training (fees, teaching material,


organisation costs, participants’ expenses, transport, etc.); /  Production and dissemination of materials (design, fees and salaries of technical staff, copyright, travel, consumables, reproduction costs, distribution and dissemination through any communication channel and media, etc.); /  Activities for communication in the field (equipment, travel, salaries, cost of special events such as press conferences, open days, etc.)

Example budget for a communicating for development strategy

Appendix III. Action budget1


Every year

Unit cost (€)3

Year 12

Cost (€)


# units

Head of communication area

per month



Social communicator in the field

per month




# units

Unit cost (€)3

Cost (€)

1. Human resources

Human resources subtotal



2. Travel6 2.1 International travel

per flight

Travel to three international meetings to present the programme/policy experience

per flight

0 3

per flight


per month


0 0

2.2 Local transport

per month

Travel to communication actions in rural communities

per month

0 1

Travel subtotal

0 0


3. Equipment and material7 per vehicle



Purchase an iMac computer + printer




Mobile set of projectors, sound equipment, player




Hire “citizen trailer”

Equipment and material subtotal



4. Local office/action costs Local office/action costs subtotal



➜ 5. Other costs, services8 5.1. Publications9


Publishing programme/policy annual report (2 languages)




Publishing life stories (programme/policy impacts) (2 languages)




Producing videos to communicate results




Reproduction and distribution of the video to communicate results + life stories




Producing “Life Stories” communication videos




5.2. Studies, research9


Communication audit in rural areas




KAP analysis of population affected by problem X




5.3. Evaluation costs Evaluation of results and impact of communication plan

0 units


5.4. Translation, interpreting Translating annual report on results and systematisation of best practices into English (or Aymara)


5.5. Cost of conferences/seminars9



0 0

Seminars to discuss local development progress




Events to present results/projects in neighbourhoods being addressed




5.6. Visibility activities


0 0





Merchandising material (hats, T-shirts, bags, etc.)




Basic programme information kit (brochure, leaflets, presentation dossier, signs, etc).





➜ Hiring socio-cultural entertainment groups for activities accompanying the “citizen trailer”




Press conference




Slots on radio programmes


Press advertising


Organising “citizen fairs” to disseminate the results of the programme



Other costs/services subtotal

0 0


Source: created by the author. 1. The budget may cover all the eligible costs of the action and not only the contribution of the contracting Administration. The items must be described in detail and the components itemised. The number of units per component should be specified. 2. This section should be completed if the implementation period exceeds 12 months. 3. When the contracting Administration is not the European Commission, the budget can be expressed in Euros or the currency of said Administration’s country. The costs are rounded up to the nearest Euro cent. 4. If the staff are not working full-time on the project, the percentage should be indicated together with a description of the position and reflecting the number of units (and not in the unit cost). 5. Indicate the countries where subsistence allowances are spent and the rates applicable (they must not exceed the scales approved by the Commission). If the information is not available, specify a total amount. Subsistence allowances cover accommodation, meals and local travel and minor expenses. 6. The costs of offsetting CO2 for air travel can be included. CO2 offsetting will be obtained by supporting projects with clean development/Gold Standard mechanisms (evidence must be included along with the supporting documents) or through airline programmes, where they exist. 7. Costs of purchase and hire. 8. Detail. Flat rates/lump sums are not accepted. 9. Indicate only in the event that they are fully sub-contracted. Note: The accuracy of the financial information contained in this document is the exclusive responsibility of the beneficiary.

As far as possible, a communication budget should be included in the general programme/policy budget and, if necessary, accompanied by a specific budget for the more detailed communication plan.

3.2.10. Indicators for monitoring and evaluating the communication plan Analysing the results is one of the most overlooked tasks in communication. This is due to the difficulty in finding an

effective method of measuring results, the short space of time between one activity and another and a lack of technology for measuring success in new spaces and media such as the Internet and, in particular, social networks. Nevertheless, it is necessary to measure the outputs/outcomes and impact of the communication activities by means of continuous monitoring during the execution and by conducting an evaluation, at the very least, on completing the communication plan. As far as


possible, it is also advisable to conduct an ex post evaluation to better gauge the impact (footprint) of the plan. For this, a series of indicators need to be defined to provide the basis for taking regular measurements (weekly, monthly, etc., as required) in order to carry out corrective actions where necessary. Generally speaking, plans for communicating about development results only include so-called “output indicators” (linked to the activities) in the planning of communication for development.22 Below we present a list of common indicators in a communication plan: /  Number of press conferences held. / Number of information workshops run. / Number of advertisements placed. /  Number of blogs and social profiles created. /  Number of newsletters produced.

/ Number of electronic newsletters or email marketing sent out. / Number of appearances in the media, digital or print (press, web pages, electronic newsletters, specialist magazines…). /  Number of people informed about a specific campaign. / Amount of material sent out. / Number of hits on the website and social profiles. / Number of participants at events. / Number of users attracted by the services. / Number of information requests responded to by citizens’ advice offices and telephone helplines. To obtain the necessary information to verify the indicators, it is common to use multiple media and techniques.

/ Number of web pages created. / Number of publicity materials created. / Number of press releases distributed and number of photographs, short voice and video adverts given to the media.

22 See chapter 2, section 2.4.1 Objectively verifiable indicators of communication.


3.2.11. Visibility in European Commission programmes In its communication and visibility manual for external actions, the European Commission indicates that communication activities must be produced during the entire lifecycle of the action. In order to adapt the visibility activities to the specific stages of the action (or project

cycle) and to the target population, it proposes the possible use of the matrix presented below, which provides an overview of the most suitable types of visibility activities for the different stages of the project cycle.

The matrix has been designed as a flexible tool, which means it can be updated and adapted in any phase of the action as and when necessary.

It must be stressed that the stages of the project cycle that appear in the matrix are provided only for the purposes of planning and are not intended to be the focus of the communication activities.

Project cycle stage/ communication activity and target groups






Evaluation and audit

Communication objective

Announce EU support

Information on action status

Information on action status

Highlight amount of EC support and context

Awareness raising

Demonstration of impact





Commission/ Partner


Commission/ Partner

Type of key message

“The world’s biggest donor at the service of the Millennium Goals”

“More, better, faster help – Europe cares and acts”

“The EU and ‘partner’ delivering more and better aid together”

“The world’s biggest donor at the service of the Millennium Goals”

“Cooperation that counts”

“The EU delivers”

Most appropriate tools

Press conferences, events, interviews

Information campaign

Information campaign

Press conferences

Events, site visits, TV and radio spots, high level visits

Videos, reports


➜ Beneficiary population

Press conference following pledge

Information campaign to accompany visit of identification mission

Inform via the media on selection of partner

Inform via the media when financing is confirmed Public signing ceremony

Information campaign Photo opportunities, (joint) high level visits to mark milestones

Make key results publicly available Work with the media to show the impact on the ground

Formation of multi-donor action steering committees

EU institutions and international donor community

Press conference following pledge

Information campaign Photo opportunities, (joint) high level visits to mark milestones

Make key results publicly available & broaden to include key strategic messages

Joint presentations to Parliament Thematic events

European citizens

Press conference following pledge

Inform via the media, if appropriate Work with specialist press Thematic events

Photo opportunities, (joint) high level visits to mark milestones Broad awareness raising campaigns, using a specific programme as an anchor Thematic events

Source: EC 2010.


Inform via the media, if appropriate Make key results publicly available and broaden to include key strategic messages

Bibliography and other available resources

BBC World Service Trust (2010): How to use communication to make aid effective: Strategies and principles for programmebased approaches, BBC World Service Trust, London. BLACKMAN, R. (2003): Project cycle management, p. 27, adapted from CIDT (2002), Introduction to the Programme and Project Cycle: training handbook, University of Wolverhampton. CABAÑERO-VERZOSA, C. (2003): Strategic Communication for Development Projects – A tool kit for task team leaders, World Bank. Available at: <http://siteresources. worldbank. org/EXTDEVCOMMENG/Resources/ toolkitwebjan2004.pdf>. CASTAÑEDA, M. (2005): Comunicación y desarrollo local, Calandria, Lima. DANIDA (2007): Monitoring and Indicators of Communication for Development, Danish Ministry of External Affairs, Copenhagen. DEL HUERTO, M. (2004): Una aproximación contextual y conceptual a la cooperación descentralizada. Municipality of Valparaíso and Diputació de Barcelona. DEL HUERTO, M. (2005): “Local decentralised cooperation. Contribution for the construction of a conceptual frame of reference within the area of relations between the European Union and Latin America”, in Yearbook for Decentralised Cooperation 2005, European UnionLatin America Decentralised Cooperation

Observatory, Barcelona, pp. 44-63. DEL RÍO, O. (2006): “La comunicación estratégica en la planificación del desarrollo. Una propuesta de incorporación a la matriz del marco lógico”, Journal of the Ibero-American Forum about Communication Strategies, FISEC. DELGADO GODOY, L (2009): Las políticas públicas. El ciclo de las políticas públicas. Clases de políticas públicas. Eficacia, legalidad y control. Indicadores de gestión. School of Public Administration. DFID (2005): Monitoring and Evaluating Information and Communication for Development. Washington, DC. Available at: < organisation/icd.asp>. EUROPEAN COMMISSION (1992): Decentralized Cooperation. Objectives and Methods, Brussels, 26-11-1992. EUROPEAN COMMISSION (2008): Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament and the European Economic and Social Committee and Committee of the Regions, COM626 final, 8-10-2008. EUROPEAN COMMISSION - Europe Aid (2004): Lignes directrices Gestion du Cycle de Projet, Brussels. FAO (2002): Guide méthodologique d’élaboration d’une stratégie de communication multimédia, FAO, Rome.


FAO (2004): Communication for Development Roundtable Report Focus on Sustainable Development, 9th United Nations Communication for Development Roundtable, 6-9 September 2004, Rome, Italy, organised by the FAO with the Government of Italy, UNESCO, World Bank, IDRC, CTA. FAO (2010): Advancing adaptation through communication for development. Proceedings of the technical session on communication third international workshop on community-based adaptation to climate change. February 2009, Dhaka, Bangladesh. FEMP - Campanya del Milenio (2007): Los gobiernos locales en el SUR y los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio, Barcelona. GUMUCIO DAGRON, A. (2007): Three Challenges of Communication for Social Change, MAZI Articles, Communication for Social Change Consortium. Available at: <http://www. maziarticles.php?id=337>. IFAD (2010): Participatory mapping and communication. A guide to developing a participatory communication strategy to support participatory mapping, IFAD, Rome. INAP (2011): ¿Cómo planificar la comunicación desde una Institución pública? Metodología para el diseño de planes de comunicación, Navarra Institute of Public Administration, Pamplona.


INTER-AMERICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK (2004): Managing Development Communication in Bank Projects – A Handbook for Project Officers. Design and case stories developed, by Dr. Silvio Waisbord and Dr. William Smith. Available at: < idbdocswebservices/idbdocsInternet/ IADBPublicDoc.aspx?docnum=491159>. MARTÍNEZ, I., SANAHUJA J.A. (2009): La agenda internacional de eficacia de la ayuda y la cooperación descentralizada en España, Carolina Foundation - CEALCI, Madrid. MEFALOPULOS, P. (2008): Development Communication Sourcebook Broadening the Boundaries of Communication, World Bank, Washington. MEFALOPULOS, MOETSABI (2004): Participatory Rural Communication Appraisal – A Handbook, FAO. Available at: < y5793e/y5793e00.htm>. MOZAMMEL, M., ZATIOKAL B. (2002): Strategic Communication in PRSP, World Bank. Available at: <http://siteresources. Resources/prspstrategiccommchapter.pdf>. MOZAMMEL, SCHECHTER (2005): Strategic Communication for Community– Driven Development. A practical guide for project managers and communication practitioners, World Bank.

OECD-WB (n.d.): Emerging Good Practice in Managing for development results, s/l, OECD. Available at: < Sourcebook.html>. PANOS LONDON (2007a): At the Heart of Change: The Role of Communication in Sustainable Development, London. PANOS LONDON (2007b): The Case for Communication in Sustainable Development, Illuminating Voices, London. RODRÍGUEZ SOSA, J., ZEBALLOS, M. (2007): Evaluación de proyectos de desarrollo local. Enfoques, métodos y procedimientos, Centre for Development Studies and Promotion-DESCO, Lima. SERVAES, MALIKHAO (1994): Concepts: The Theoretical Underpinnings of the Approaches to Development Communication. In UNESCO/UNFPA (kit), Approaches to Development Communication. SIDA (2006): Dialogue and Strategic Communication in Development Cooperation, Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. SINGHAL, A. (2003): Focus on the forest, not just the tree: Cultural Strategies for Combating AIDS. In: MICA Communications Review, 1 (1):21-28. UNDP (2006): Communication for empowerment, practical note, UNDP, Oslo.

UNDP (2011): Communication for development. Strengthening the effectiveness of the United Nations. Available at: files/Inter-agency_C4D_Book_2011.pdf UNDP – Bureau for Development Policy, Democratic Governance Group (2006): Communication for Empowerment: developing media strategies in support of vulnerable groups. Practical Guidance Note. Oslo Governance Center. (topic 2.1). Available at: < documentos/mitjans_dem_gov/0021.pdf>. UNDP - Bureau for Development Policy, Democratic Governance Group (2007): The MDGs as a Communication Tool for Development, Oslo Governance Center, The Democratic Governance Fellowship Programme. UNDP (2004): Practical Guidance Note on the Right to Information (2004). Available at: < docs04/Right%20to%20 Information.pdf>. UNDP - Oslo Governance Center (2007): The MDGs as a Communication Tool for Development, Oslo Governance Centre. The Democratic Governance Fellowship Programme. UNDP (2009): Communication for Development: A glimpse at UNDP’s practice, Oslo. UNFPA (2002): Communication for Development Roundtable Report. Focus on HIV/AIDS communication and evaluation, UNFPA, New York.


UNFPA (2006): Planning Behaviour Change Communication (BCC) Interventions: A Practical Handbook, by Peter F. Chen, UNFPA Country Technical Services Team for East and South-East Asia, Bangkok, Thailand. UNICEF (2006): Elaborando proyectos de comunicación para el desarrollo, UNICEF, Argentina Office, Buenos Aires. UNICEF (2006): Behaviour Change Communication in Emergencies: A toolkit. UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia (ROSA), Kathmandu, Nepal. UNICEF (2008): Writing a Communication Strategy for Development Programmes: A Guideline for Programme Managers and Communication Officers, Bangladesh. Available at: <http://www.>. UNICEF (2009): Advocacy: People’s Power and Participation Guide. Washington, DC. Available at: <>. UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND – UNFPA (2002): Communication for Development Roundtable Report. Focus on HIV/AIDS communication and evaluation, UNFPA, New York. WHITE, R. (2005): Evaluaciones y perspectivas de la comunicación para el desarrollo: conceptos y experiencias de África y Latinoamérica. Interviewers: Manuela Callou and Juciano Lacerda. Conexao-Comunicaçao e Cultura, Caxias


do Sul, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, p. 133-143. WORLD BANK (2006): Information and Communication for Development: Global trends and policies, World Bank, Washington D.C.

Some links to websites with information about communication and development resources23 CFSC – COMMUNICATION FOR SOCIAL CHANGE CONSORTIUM COMMGAP – COMMUNICATION FOR GOVERNANCE AND ACCOUNTABILITY PROGRAM

UNESCO – COMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION ID=1657&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_ SECTION=201.html WORLD BANK - Dev com publications TOPICS/EXTDEVCOMMENG/0,,contentM DK:21433084~menuPK:34000171~pag ePK:34000187~piPK:34000160~theSite PK:423815,00.html


23 Coopération Technique Belge.



APPENDIX. Practical example of a communication plan

Communication plan for a local waste management project (Taken from INAP 2011)

The Association of Municipalities in the Pamplona Metropolitan Area and Pamplona City Council designed a project to launch a pneumatic waste collection service. This new system replaced the need for rubbish bins and instead new waste collection hatches were installed. This project has many advantages in both aesthetic and environmental terms; it frees up space and reduces the transit of refuse collection lorries thereby minimising noise and CO2 emissions. The pneumatic waste collection system was launched in Pamplona’s historic quarter as part of a project that was developed over a period of three years, between 2008 and 2011. The first years involved hiring the contractors who would build the facilities. The new system is made up of three fundamental parts: the collection hatches (located at different points in the city), the collection network (underground pipes that transport the rubbish bags using air pressure) and the Trinitarios waste management plant. In February 2011, the pneumatic waste collection service came into operation in Pamplona’s historic quarter.

The project launch required continuous communication work throughout this period, with the intensity being stepped up towards the end of the installation works as it was important to inform the public about this new system and how it worked, as well as promote its use. The initial data used to create the communication plan for this project was: / Body responsible for the communication: Association of Municipalities in the Pamplona Metropolitan Area. / Responsible for communication: Department of Communication and External Relations of the Association of Municipalities in the Pamplona Metropolitan Area. / Goal of the communication plan: communicate the implementation campaign for the pneumatic waste collection system. / Budget: the budget reference is not detailed as it is contextual and subject to price changes over time. / Internal resources: Department of Communication and External Relations of the Association of Municipalities in the Pamplona Metropolitan Area. / Timescale: 2008 (awarded the project) – February 2011 (launch). / Geographical area of action: Pamplona’s historic quarter.


Below we describe each of the steps defined for planning the communication for this project. The first step taken was to conduct an analysis of the city’s social environment and that of the organisation, which would lay the foundations for the later design of the plan. 1. Environmental analysis Weaknesses and threats

2. Objectives Primary Publicise the new pneumatic waste collection service among the public in the county and especially those living in the historic quarter Issue basic recommendations for correct use of the hatches and collection system Secondary Highlight the change in habits required from the system’s users Inform about the basic aspects of this technology being introduced for the first time in Navarra

Need to change habits Long period of works High number of people to inform, with different ages and profiles Strengths and opportunities Aesthetic and environmental improvement Reduced noise

Once the environment and the context in which the project would be carried out had been defined, the campaign’s communication objectives were set, distinguishing between the primary and secondary goals, as shown in the following table.

Once the objectives had been defined, attention was turned to the action’s target audience(s). It was fundamental, once identified, to carefully analyse the characteristics of the audience and all the information that would be of interest to steer the message, the strategy and the subsequent communication actions. 3. Target audiences Primary Residents of the historic quarter of Pamplona (external) Media (external) Secondary Population of the county of Pamplona (external) Administration (external)

The message of the campaign centred on one main idea and other secondary ones. Once the messages were clearly defined, work began on creating a slogan that would summarise the content in a way


that would connect with the audience.

5. Strategy

4. Message

The campaign communication strategy was based on the launch of an active relationship with the media and direct contact with the public


Tone and language

With the new pneumatic waste collection service, the historic quarter will be more attractive and environmentally friendly, it will free up space in the street and eliminate the noise of refuse collection lorries

The tone and language were adapted to each audience and channel


The channels selected were direct and of a local nature


Change of habits Operation of the new system

The next step consisted of defining the strategy that would be implemented when the campaign was launched.

The communication strategy was focused on the following communication actions addressed to each of the audiences identified.

6. Communication actions Residents of Pamplonaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Historic Quarter

General population of Pamplona



1. Communication Definition of the plan


Monitoring and control


Later evaluation


2. Institutional communication 2.1. Corporate communication Design of material and content/Letters, signs, leaflets...



Creative design



2.2. External communication



â&#x17E;&#x153; a) Marketing/Mailing information


b) Publicity/Advertisements in local newspapers





c) Internet d) Public relations and protocol/ Guided visits/ Animation activities


3. Media relations Regular press releases


Press conferences


Visits to the facilities


4. Citizen services 4.1. Institutional website/Waste blog



4.2. Telephone helpline



Presented below is a calendar of actions which shows that during the first three years the communication work was focused on managing media relations and visiting the facility construction sites. In this way, information was passed on to the public regarding the project launch. Coinciding with the culmination of the works, in February 2011, an intensive campaign aimed at the public was launched and this was combined with other activities.


7. Schedule Year














07-10/10/ 11/12/16/26




Actions Press releases





Notifications and public presentations

X (11/02)

Visits to the facilities

X (16 and 26/02)











X (07-10/02)

Mailing Advertisements in the press / Diario de Navarra / Diario de Noticias

X (10/02) X (11-12/02)

Animation Corporate website



Blog Telephone Information point

Among the final steps in creating the communication plan were identifying the indicators of control and monitoring and the later evaluation of the results that were obtained. This task of identifying indicators is simpler if it is associated with the established objectives and is based on the proposed activities, marking an expected outcome.

X (Sept.) X (Sept.)


X X X (11-12/02)

The responsibility for the campaign and the control lay entirely with the project managing and organising body: the Association of Municipalities in the Pamplona Metropolitan Area. In this way, all the communication was centralised which guaranteed easier coordination, control and monitoring of the plan. However, the details of the inauguration and the protocol were agreed in


2. Objectives

9. Audit and monitoring (indicators)


Indicators of physical performance

Indicators of impact

Publicise the new pneumatic waste collection service among the public in the county and especially those living in the historic quarter

Regular information for the media (one release per month)

10,000 mailings to the public

Issue basic recommendations for correct use of the hatches and collection system Secondary Highlight the change in habits required from the systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s users Inform about the basic aspects of this technology being introduced for the first time in Navarra

Place two advertisements Send three direct communications to the public

Indicators of financial performance

Launch a telephone helpline and information point for the public Organise three guided visits Organise animation activities over two days Information in a specialised waste management blog

coordination with Pamplona City Council (which co-financed the project) The final action to complete the design of the plan, and which took place after its development, was the evaluation of the results achieved. Analysing this data provided genuine knowledge about the results and also yielded baseline information for launching other actions, as it revealed what had worked and what had not worked in the communication, and why. The communication campaign included a series of questions addressed to people depositing their waste in the pneumatic waste collection hatches in the historic quarter and to those who used the normal rubbish containers. This was part of a survey into user satisfaction with the services provided (water, waste,


urban transport and management of the countyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Riverside Park). This information allowed the user satisfaction results to be compared between both groups. 10. Evaluation Analysis of the indicator results Carry out a user satisfaction survey


BCC: Behaviour Change Communication. C4D: Communication for Development. DAC: Development Co-operation Directorate of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). HRBD: Human Rights-Based Development. IEC: Communication for development strategy known as “Information, education, communication”. KAP: Participatory analysis and technique used known as “Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice”. LFM: Logical Framework Matrix. MDG: Millennium Development Goals. MfDR: Managing for Development Results is a management strategy focused on sustainable improvements in performance to obtain development results. WSIS: World Summit on the Information Society (Geneva 2003 and Tunis 2005.



Methodological guides URB-AL III

URB-AL III is a regional decentralised cooperation programme run by the European Commission, the aim of which is to contribute towards increasing the level of social cohesion in sub-national and regional groups in Latin America. Led by Diputació de Barcelona, the URB-AL III Programme Orientation and Coordination Office’s mission is to facilitate the implementation of the programme by providing technical assistance and support in the different projects in order to help achieve the programme’s objectives.

Communication about/for development results in public cooperation iniciatives  

Communication about/for development results in public cooperation iniciatives

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