Editorial selected by Fr. Stuart Chipolina
Dear Friends, in the face of
With the Church remembering the birth of Mary on the 8th of September, and her sorrows on the 15th of September this year, we meditate on her life even as we are mindful of the tragic loss of life in the News daily.
suffering we ask ‘What can we do?’ But Mary shows us the way.
n Gibraltar we are all very aware of our genealogy, and many families here can trace their roots back to 16th Century Genoa, and so we take this opportunity to pray in solidarity with our Genoese cousins touched by the recent tragedy, as we meditate on the life of Mary. In Matthew’s Gospel the genealogy of Jesus is outlined. It started from Abraham up to Jesus being born of Mary with Joseph standing as the connecting person to the promise that Jesus, the Messiah, will come from the lineage of David. Some missals give an option to skip this seemingly innocent and boring part of the narrative which comprised lots of names, many of which are hard to pronounce. But, specially
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to a Jew, it was very interesting because of their familiarity with the characters. From it, one can conclude that Jesus did not come from a perfect generation. His generation possessed both excellent and dysfunctional members. Sinners and saints were present. There were glorious and not so glorious ones. God chose people who were free and not controlled to be immaculate. This also testified to the fact that God can write straight with crooked lines. The birth of Mary was also part of the plan of God. Her birth cannot be separated from the feast of the Immaculate Conception. We believe that Mary was chosen by God to be the mother of His Son. Thus, since Jesus was God, Mary had to be immaculate. The sinless
Jesus should be born from a sinless or saved mother. Thus, today marks the day when God’s plan is gradually being fulfilled. With the birth of Mary, the birth of the Messiah comes. We can also learn from Mary and the family of Jesus. As we have stated above, it was not a perfect family even if Jesus was perfect. Even Mary, while believed to have been conceived free from original sin, was not seen in that way. She claimed not to have known any man. That was the reason she gave when asking the angel how this could happen. Because of this, Mary did not project a good reputation at the time of her calling. Going through the genealogy of Jesus, one can easily name those who, many of us, would have preferred to be out of the
The collapse of the Morandi bridge in Genoa last month. list. We have David the murderer and adulterer, Rahab the prostitute. Jacob who deceived his father to steal the birthright from his elder brother Esau. Tamar who committed incest with her father-in-law Judah. Yet, nothing can stop God from His plans even with these people. Mary was full of grace from her birth. We laud her obedience to the Father in spite of the danger to her life by deciding to bear Jesus. But it did not end there. She was a perfect disciple to Jesus. Even if she was His mother, She showed to Him and to us that she will not bank on that motherhood alone. While being a good mother, she, too, was being a good disciple. She was worthy of her birth!
God Bless you, Fr. Stuart
Our Lady of Sorrows
We are very familiar with the parish church in Catalan Bay, the first site for the immigration of Genoese to Gibraltar, dedicated to Our Lady of Sorrows. Those first Italian settlers may have also been familiar with Our Lady under the name ‘Queen of Genoa’ they were faithful to tradition, even still speaking the language into the 20th Century, but how did the devotion to our lady of Sorrows begin in Italy? In 1233, seven youths in
Tuscany founded the Servite Order, also known as the “Order of the Servants of Mary” Five years later, they took up the sorrows of Mary standing at the foot of the Cross, as the principal devotion of their order. Over the centuries several devotions arose around meditation on Mary’s Sorrows in particular. Sources: https://tinyurl.com/UTRhomily https://tinyurl.com/UTRwikisorrows Photo: Our Lady of Sorrows Church Jack Dubois / Alamy Stock Photo Genoa Bridge Collapse © Fotoclipge | Dreamstime.com
Upon this Rock magazine is published monthly by EuropeAxess Media, Gibraltar. Editor: Fr. S. Chipolina: firstname.lastname@example.org. Production Editor: A. Sargent: email@example.com. Upon this Rock magazine is entirely supported by advertising and donations. It is run in liaison with the Catholic Diocese of Gibraltar by EuropeAxess Media Ltd. as a not-for-profit project. For Advertisers: This magazine is handdelivered to homes, churches, hospitals and many businesses around Gibraltar every month. To discuss your advertising requirements, or promote your church group or charity, call Tel: +350 200 79335 email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Editorial is selected by EuropeAxess Media in liaison with the Catholic Diocese of Gibraltar. Neither of these parties is responsible for the accuracy of the information contained herein, nor do the views and opinions expressed herein necessarily reflect the views and opinions of either party. Advertisers are not endorsed by virtue of advertising in this magazine. EuropeAxess Media Ltd. reserves the right to refuse space to any submissions or advertisements. Efforts have been made to establish copyright owners of images, but if we have used your material, and have not credited you, please contact us to discuss restoration. The magazine is online at uponthisrock.gi. Cover Photo: The Cursillo Movement
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The Cu rsil l o M ove m e n t
The Cursillo Movementâ€™s goal is to share with the community the essence of Christianity and Christian values and in this way gradually transform the community from within.
od desires that we love each other, Jesus said that we should love God and to love others as ourselves, love is at the heart of Christian values. To be a Christian has a lot to do with your association with the community. Jesus asks us to go out and spread the good news and this cannot be achieved by remaining within locked doors.
Spreading the news about the joys of living a life with Christ is not just about words, it is about actions and others seeing how you put into practice the love of God, how you give of your time to help others, how you work towards assisting those in need and generally how you go about making the world a better place to live in. The Cursillo Movement in
Gibraltar is more than just a prayer group. Whilst our principal focus is in organising the Cursillo weekends, the movement is also alive within the community with fund raising activities. Recently a number of activities have taken place in order to raise funds. A car boot sale was organised within the Morrisonâ€™s car park, members of the Movement were asked to search through their wardrobes and cupboards for any clothing or household goods that were now surplus to requirements. The response was overwhelming, the boot of the car was full to capacity, the tables we had set out were covered with items on offer and more items kept on being delivered to be put up for sale. It was a very warm Sunday
morning but the crowd gathered around our area was constant. It was very gratifying to see how the community responded to our call. Recently we also organised a Bingo Night at the Laguna Residents Social Club. We were not sure how many people would turn up since we had not advertised the event, we simply relied on word of mouth, but Gibraltar being as it is and our community being so charitable, the venue was filled to capacity! To make the evening more enjoyable there was food and drinks for sale and everyone that attended had a great time. The result of these events is that we were able to donate funds to both the Gibraltar Autism Support Group and Mission Africa. A cheque presentation
Th e Cursil l o M ove me n t
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Text and photos courtesy of the Cursillo Team
was held at St. Paul’s Parish Church where Kaira Sene of the Gibraltar Autism Support Group was presented with a cheque for £500. We also recently received a letter from Mission Africa thanking us for our donation totalling £555. We often hear the phrase that “it is more blessed to give than to receive” (Acts 20:35) quoted a lot. Scientific research suggests that people’s sense of happiness is greater when they spend relatively more on others than on themselves. In one survey, over 600 people were consulted and results showed that spending money on others predicted greater happiness whereas spending money on themselves did not, and this pattern was found across all income levels. In other words, even those people with little money reported greater happiness when their proportion of spending on others, relative to themselves was greater. There will be more fund raising activities after the summer but first of all we have a Cursillo
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Weekend event for women from the 15th till the 18th November. If you would like to attend please contact us on 58008885 or send us an email on cursillogibraltar@ gmail.com and we shall send you an enrolment form. The next scheduled weekend retreat for men will be held from the 21st March till the 24th March next year. We look forward to hearing from you. God Bless
Above: A cheque presentation was held at St. Paulâ€™s Parish Church where Kaira Sene of the Gibraltar Autism Support Group was presented with a cheque for ÂŁ500.
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El Camino de Santiago My Journey C
ontinuing the story from last month, of three friends walking the Camino de Santiago.
Monday 28th May
The next morning we left Portomarin at 8.15am to start the next leg of our epic journey. This would take us to the next destination â€“ Palas de Rei. We were again surprised by the many pilgrims wending their way up the hilly corredoiras (narrow paths bounded by stone walls), so early in the morning, all intent in making as much headway as possible, with never a complaint or sigh of tiredness expressed at any time. Getting lost or
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choosing the wrong fork in the road was never a possibility, the Camino de Santiago was marked at regular intervals by yellow arrows and by countless milestones pointing the way and showing the distance still to be travelled. These milestones, which had the Saintâ€™s yellow scallop shell emblem engraved on them, usually had small stones piled on them together with memorial cards, prayers and family photos; often, they even had discarded trekking boots and tee shirts. Over the next 8 hours, with stops on the way for refreshments, we ambled along enjoying the beautiful Galician
Text: Manolo Galliano
scenery and communing with nature. The recent rains had created a veritable palette of all shades of green, sprinkled with the great profusion of ferns and wild flowers and even the odd mushroom; all this punctuated by chirping birds high above us. Despite the weather forecast, which had announced rain for most of the region, it continued to be mild with the sun shining briefly in between the grey clouds. After passing through the villages of Eirexe and Ligonde and walking a distance of 27 kilometres, we eventually arrived at Palas de Rei at 4.30pm, ready for whatever the next day would throw at us.
Tuesday 29th May
We set off again early in the morning, quite refreshed after our stop in Palas de Rei and beginning to feel like seasoned trekkers, already having done 52 kilometres, almost half the required total distance prescribed. This leg of the journey and that of the following day, would be much shorter and would give us a welcome respite. Nevertheless, it was still a hard slog as we tackled stony ground and the many hills, although the camaraderie among all the passing pilgrims motivated us no end. We stopped at various
hamlets, taking time to visit and photograph the local ancient chapels, purchase traditional painted scallop shells and badges and watch an artisan carve the typical handcrafted walking staffs. By 1.30pm, we had crossed the old stone bridge over the River Furelos just outside Melide and were soon sitting down for a quick lunch prior to being transported by taxi to our accommodation, situated 18 kilometres away in the Pazo de Eidan. This turned out to be a rambling 16th century rustic style country house, set in extensive gardens and having impressive courtyards and salons which could well have served as an appropriate setting for a period film.
Wednesday 30th May
At 8.30pm, after breakfast, a taxi arrived to take us down to the starting point for the next stage of the journey, whilst arrangements were again made, as usual, to send our luggage to the next hotel in our itinerary. Many of the fellow pilgrims we met were familiar faces and again the battle cry of ‘Buen Camino’ was
repeated by the many groups and individuals passing by. During the short conversations that took place among these virtual strangers, many of them confessed that they had decided to do the Camino for a number of varied reasons. One Argentinian stated that he had wanted to get away from the humdrum routine of daily life, whilst an American said that she was doing it, just because she could. There were those who, when questioned, replied that it was because they had time on their hands or that they had always had the penchant to experience it, whilst a lady from Madrid responded that she was retired and had sold her business and was trying to ‘encontrar un nuevo camino en su vida’ (find a new path or meaning in her life). Obviously, there were as many reasons for doing this journey as
Photos: Victor M. Hermida
there were people actually doing it. In my case, I had found in the process of walking endlessly on, day after day, a new sense of peace and tranquillity, having time to meditate on the more important personal matters of my life and my relationship with God and with others. The weather continued to hold with the temperature being quite mild; this was fortunate as any high temperatures would probably have sapped our strength, especially after the accumulation of four consecutive days of walking. We entered dense forests and walked past lush meadows and pastures, fording small streams and going past large farms with instances of cows being herded just next to us on the same road. After clocking a total of 16 kilometres and walking for about 4 hours, we made it to Arzúa and joined a crowd of hungry fellow travellers at a local restaurant for a welldeserved meal. To be continued.
The Christian Mission Trust provides local Christians with donations for evangelistic initiatives and outreaches. The Trust is ecumenical and has provided money to many groups, individuals and churches during the last 12 years. It is run by a Board of Trustees.
We invite applications for funding from anyone who wishes to launch an evangelistic initiative or who needs support for an existing Christian missionary activity. Please write to: The Chairman, Christian Mission Trust, 4 South Pavilion Road, Gibraltar.
SAMUEL - God’s Special Gift A Story by Manolo Galliano to be serialised over the coming months.
This is the story of Samuel, a child with a mental disability and his encounter with Jesus, who became his very special friend.
Samuel knew that something was very wrong or at least completely different from any other day. He had lain awake now for a very long time, he was certain it must be hours and hours! Nevertheless, he felt very comfortable and safe in his bed with the colourful woollen blanket tucked up to his nose. He nestled ever deeper in his warm cocoon and tried to make out familiar shapes in the room, which was quite dark as the shutters were firmly closed. Only pinpricks of light gleamed through them and as he tossed and turned, tiny specks of dust danced in the thin rays of light. Samuel watched them, mesmerised, but he soon tired of this and he shut his eyes tightly, wishing with all his might to
see Hannah, his old but beloved servant, open the door as she usually did every morning at around this time. How very strange, he thought, that she hadn’t yet appeared with his breakfast. He missed her jovial face, the huge kisses she planted constantly on his fat cheeks, and especially, her never-ending stream of funny stories. In his mind’s eye there appeared visions of raisins, figs, dates and honey and he began to feel hungrier and hungrier. His stomach began to rumble and no amount of rubbing it could stop the strange noises it was making. Where was Hannah, he wondered, starting to lose his patience, and when was he going to have something to eat? Suddenly he heard a strange wailing noises coming from
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somewhere in the courtyard below. Maybe, he thought, it was some wild animal which had strayed inside, or maybe it was an owl which had hurt its wing and was crying out in pain. His curiosity finally got the better of him and he leapt out of bed as fast as his short little body could manage. He ran to the window and flung open the wooden shutters, in the process flooding the room with the late morning sunshine. Samuel stood on tiptoe and managed to lean out of the window sufficiently to see what the commotion was all about. Down below, he saw small groups of people, mostly women, some of them wearing black cloaks, hurrying into the courtyard through the main gate. He could hear crying and moaning and this made him very sad and it soon had him bursting into tears. His sobbing soon grew into loud wailing and some people started to look up at the upstairs window and point up at him. Samuel stumbled back, frightened by the sight of so many blank, staring faces. He was not accustomed to having contact with strangers, and apart from his widowed father and elder sister and a handful of house servants, he was unfamiliar with almost everybody else in the small town of Nazareth, where
he lived. Samuel, who was just eight years old, was not like other children, either in looks or in aptitude. Although he had been born a healthy baby, it became obvious very early on that his general development was slow. He took a long time before he could walk and had certain limitations in speaking. The grief this had caused his father, Jacob, was further accentuated by the sudden death of his mother, Miriam, shortly after his birth. Since that terrible day Jacob had had very little time for his son, whom he blamed for the loss of his wife and whose birth he considered a punishment from God. He could not bear to look at his flat, round face with the button nose and slightly slanted eyes. Jacob lived constantly in anguish, angry with himself and others and always asking himself, “Why has this happened? Why my son? Why me?” He was so ashamed of what people would think or say that he had decided from the very beginning that it would be better for his son never to venture outside the house or its grounds. Although they sometimes caught quick glimpses of him in the garden, as he played among the trees and flowerbeds, the people of Nazareth did not know very much about Samuel. There were rumours and gossip about him, some even saying that he had an evil spirit. They also felt sorry for his father, Jacob Ben Tobias, who they respected and admired
Illustration by a Religious Sister who wished to remain anonymous
as one of the town’s leading citizens. But, coming back to Samuel, he had by now stopped crying and had retreated to a corner of the room where he sat crosslegged on the floor, feeling very confused. Suddenly he heard a creaking sound, the door opened and his sister Rachel rushed into the room. She looked very agitated, her long auburn tresses escaping from under an unfamiliar long black veil covering her head. For a moment, she could not find her brother, then she spotted him sitting on the floor, in the corner, between the heavy wooden cedar chest and the doorway. Although she normally tended to be rather stern with him, she nevertheless loved him very much and her heart went out to him. How could she explain to him that old Hannah would never again wake him up in the mornings or
prepare his meals? How could she make him understand that she would no longer be there to play with him, scold him or even tuck him up in bed at nightfall? Rachel knew that Hannah had been the mother that her brother had never had, the only person who had really had time for him and given him all the love and understanding he so rightly deserved, but now she was dead. Her thoughts were interrupted by Samuel’s plaintive little voice repeating over and again, “Hannah, Hannah, where is Hannah?” Rachel knelt down beside his trembling little body and hugged him tightly, staring long and hard into his sad brown eyes. Then she whispered softly, “Samuel, Hannah is gone. An angel came and took her away to join Mama in heaven. Do you understand, Samuel? Don’t cry, little brother, everything will be alright”. To be continued.
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Bishop Carmel Zammit’s Appeal
An Olive Tree - symbol Step up security
to protect us from Islamist extremistssays Iraq bishop
s Daesh (ISIS) launches a new spate of attacks in Iraq, a senior Church figure is calling on the West to protect displaced Christian families returning home.
With an upsurge of kidnappings and killings by militants claiming to be affiliated with Daesh in the east of the country, Syriac-Orthodox Archbishop Timotheus Mousa Al-Shamani told Catholic charity Aid to the Church in Need about his fears for Christian families returning home to northern Iraq’s Nineveh Plains. Archbishop Al-Shamani said: “An international peace-keeping
force should be stationed on the Nineveh Plains. We want a guarantee that our freedom and our security will be upheld.” Despite Daesh’s hold on the Nineveh Plains ending in November 2017, after nearly three years occupation, there are reports of extremist violence elsewhere in the country. Since Iraq’s elections in May, there has been an upsurge in attacks linked to Daesh, especially in the provinces of Kirkuk, Diyala, and Salahuddin. During June there were at least 83 incidents. Most of these occurred on the motorway between Baghdad and Kirkuk. On 17th June, three Shi‘a men were abducted by militants disguised as police officers at a checkpoint on the road. The men’s corpses were found ten days later, their bodies rigged with explosives.
These attacks have led to fears of a new Islamist extremist group emerging in Iraq. Archbishop Al-Shamani said: “We suspect that a group similar to Daesh will evolve in the future, whatever it may call itself.” More than 40 percent of the Christians driven out of the Nineveh Plains by Daesh have now returned to their homes, as 35 percent of the houses in Christian towns and villages have been rebuilt. Stressing the need for international help, Archbishop Al Shamani said: “This summer is very critical for us. We must make every effort to rebuild these villages. “The Iraqi government has already told us that it has no money and will not be helping us.” Noting that they were still
waiting for the US government to deliver on promises to provide relief directly to the Christians in need, Archbishop Al-Shamani said: “We hear a lot of speeches from President Trump. But we want to see action.” He added that US aid could spur Iraqi political leaders in to action: “All our politicians follow America.” Archbishop Bashar Warda of Erbil, who oversaw the care of Christian IDP families who fled to the Kurdish region, told ACN that he was optimistic about the financial assurances from the US government. While admitting that no money had been forthcoming to date, he said: “I’m firmly convinced that the United States intend to help us.” Underlining the lack of help from the international community, Archbishop Al-Shamani stressed that, “Without the help of church organisations such as ACN, we Christians would not have survived here.” Source: ACN News: Monday, 6th August 2018 – IRAQ With pictures: Syriac-Orthodox
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By John Newton and Murcadha O Flaherty
of peace and friendship
Hundreds of olive tree saplings have been presented to returnee Christian families newly arrived back in their villages and towns in the Nineveh Plains. The trees were a symbol of the ‘Return to the Roots’ scheme backed by Aid to the Church in Need, which is funding the repair of homes and other vital structures in the villages and towns. ACN saw the presentation of olive tree saplings as a tangible way to encourage the faithful to re-start their old lives after the expulsion of Daesh (ISIS). Above Archbishop Timotheus Mousa Al Shamani presents an olive tree to a Christian woman with ACN’s Middle East projects’ coordinator Fr. Andrzej Halemba (© ACN) www.acnuk.org
Aid to the Church in Need is a Pontifical Foundation directly under the Holy See. As a Catholic charity, ACN supports the faithful wherever they are persecuted, oppressed or in need through information, prayer, and action.
The world is largely silent in the face of Christian persecution. The scale of the problem is so great, silence is no longer acceptable. Persecuted Christians need YOU - and all of us! Together our prayers and actions can make a difference. You can PLEDGE YOUR SOLIDARITY by: • Praying ACN’s Prayer found in leaflets in your local Church, or your own prayers for Persecuted Christians in danger. • Sharing this article and Christian Persecution facts with others so that all understand the need.
Bishop Carmel Zammit Lenten Appeal for‘Aid to the Church in Need’, Gibraltar International Bank, Account Name: ‘Trustees RCC/CAN’ Account Number: 00812022, Sort Code: 60-83-14.
Legality is not Morality
by Anne Mesilio
To Tell You The
eptember. The turning of the year when summer vacations end, schools reopen and life returns to a semblance of what we know as normality. Yet change happens, as young children go to school for the first time and older children leave for University. These seats of learning have become synonymous with truth for we trust this is taught credibly and factually. Young minds are being formed, taught to be clear thinking and discerning, their armour as they don the mantle which will fit them for life. Our whole moral system rests on telling the truth, and
this involves trust. If I buy a packet of biscuits I need to be sure there are biscuits in it, not something else, but I trust that all is as it should be. Morality is generally defined as behaviour according to customs and traditions and ‘moral’ has come to be associated with one’s personal behaviour. Ethics refers to relationships between human beings. So, what is truth? When you reflect on this question it becomes difficult to define. I learned a new word here, ontological, a fancy way of saying truth is seeing the way things really are. The very opposite to truth is lying and it began in the Garden of Eden. Satan spoke the first lie when he deceived Adam and Eve
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with false alluring arguments and as a result, the world’s troubles began. According to Saint Augustine; “God gave human beings speech so they could make their thoughts known to each other, therefore, using speech to
deceive people is a sin”. Lying diminishes trust between human beings. I got seriously perturbed recently when watching some TV news. An interviewee was answering a question in defence of President Trump’s legacy of lies since being inaugurated as President of the USA in January of 2017. She stated, rather pompously I thought “Lying is not illegal”. Ok, maybe not a legal problem but certainly a personal one and one that leads to all sorts of complications both personal and in the case of a world leader, the crossing of a moral line. The fact checkers have certainly been kept busy and it seems his misleading or simply false claims run at the rate of 5/6 per day. The late Senator Patrick Moyniham said “Everyone is entitled to his own opinion, but not to his own facts” It saddens me and indeed it should be of concern to all right minded individuals when a leader in a position of trust, be it president, church leader or locally elected parliamentary representative, assert a self serving version of reality. The credibility gap widens, one lie leads to another and “Oh what a tangled web we weave...” as we spiral out of control.
as express our i n d i v i d u a l i t y, freedom and equality no matter what. Who or what is it that we measure our actions against? In order to live in a harmonious world, for some this is God, for others a Supreme Law, whatever your yardstick, it is always bigger than ourselves. Illustrations C l o c k w i s e -New York Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan listens to a speech at New York’s Fordham University, Tuesday Dec 14, 1999. AP Photo | Richard Drew
It is said if a lie is repeated often enough it assumes a veneer of truth. Pope Francis has spoken out against “fake news” which we hear vociferated loudly every day as being “non existent or distorted data”, usually to advance political interests. It exploits emotions such as anxiety, contempt, anger and frustration and leads people to make decisions based on false information. This makes life difficult if nothing can be trusted. Philosophers have also pointed out the violation of human integrity involved in a lie, and Abraham Lincoln in the 1800’s “no man has a good enough memory to be a successful liar”. We are all morally equal but the ubiquity
of lying is clearly a problem. On the other hand, our social lives would collapse under the weight of relentless honesty, so we resort to ‘white lies’, a lie that is told in order to be polite and stop someone from being upset. But, before you call a spade a spade, dig a big hole for yourself! You may mean well when assuring your overweight friend that he or she looks well but this is false assurance for one who may need to diet and need support to do so. We should be held accountable for what we say. Bishop Caruana R.I.P. charged the editors of Upon This Rock, on the inauguration of the publication to “cover contentious issues”, and
we would not be asking the question ‘what is truth’ if there were an easy answer. Of course many of us look to mother Church for guidance. According to Paragraph 1741 of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, By his glorious Cross, Christ has won salvation for all men. He redeemed them from the sin that held them in bondage. “For freedom Christ has set us free.” In him we have communion with the “truth that makes us free.” We need to work within a framework of goodness, justice and honesty, as well
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- D o m e n i c h i n o ’s The Rebuke of Adam and Eve painted in 1626. This well travelled artwork was first purchased 1670 by Lorenzio Onofrio Colonna, Rome, subsequently it moved to Rio de Janeiro where it changed hands once before being sold at Sotheby’s, New York 4 June 1987, to Richard L. Feigen & Co., New York, then Feb 2000 purchased by the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. -Pope Francis reverts to Paul VI’s Pastoral Staff ... Pope Staff Cross ... www.lastampa.it - Pope Francis’ message Communications Day 2018
-Abraham Lincoln, the sixteenth President of the United States by Alexander Gardner (1821–1882)