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Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

CS 21 - Computer Organization and Assembly Language Programming History of Computers

University of the Philippines - Diliman College of Engineering Department of Computer Science


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

Outline 1

Zeroth Generation

2

First Generation

3

Second Generation

4

Third Generation

5

Fourth Generation

6

Generational Trends

7

The Fifth Generation


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

Outline 1

Zeroth Generation

2

First Generation

3

Second Generation

4

Third Generation

5

Fourth Generation

6

Generational Trends

7

The Fifth Generation


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

Zeroth Generation

The Zeroth Generation includes all Mechanical Computing Devices Electromechanical Computers


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

Mechanical Computing Device

Analytical Engine design by Charles Babbage general purpose computer would be programmed via punched cards


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

Outline 1

Zeroth Generation

2

First Generation

3

Second Generation

4

Third Generation

5

Fourth Generation

6

Generational Trends

7

The Fifth Generation


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

First Generation Defining feature: Vacuum Tubes Historical Backdrop: World War 2 and immediate preceding years


ENIAC


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

ENIAC

first general purpose computer primary purpose: war effort a monster: 30 tons, 15,000 square feet of floor space, 18,000 vacuum tubes, 140 KW power 5000 additions per second programming method: set switches, plug and unplug cables


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

IAS Machine more of a �concept� machine implemented the von Neumann architecture almost all computers today share the IAS architecture


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

Von Neumann Architecture What is the Von Neumann Architecture? computer design that advocates storing DATA AND INSTRUCTIONS in the same memory space gave rise to �stored program� concept


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

First Generation Computers with Commercial Applications

UNIVAC 1 and 2 could run scientific and commercial applications used by the Bureau of Census IBM 700 series established IBM as a major player in the computer industry


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

Outline 1

Zeroth Generation

2

First Generation

3

Second Generation

4

Third Generation

5

Fourth Generation

6

Generational Trends

7

The Fifth Generation


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

Second Generation

Defining feature: Transistors


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

Second Generation

Advantages of Transistors over Vacuum tubes: smallers cheaper dissipates less heat smaller components lead to smaller systems!


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

PDP-1

PDP-1 importance stands for Programmable Data Processor operating frequency: 5 MHz ignited the minicomputer phenomenon created the first hacker culture played the first computerized game, Spacewar!


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

Outline 1

Zeroth Generation

2

First Generation

3

Second Generation

4

Third Generation

5

Fourth Generation

6

Generational Trends

7

The Fifth Generation


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

Third Generation

Defining feature: Integrated Circuits


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

Third Generation

Key concept behind integrated circuits: multiple transistors on a single chip - densely packed Advantages of 3rd generation technology over 2nd generation technology shorter distances between elements translate to shorter wires, which translates to greater operating speed as the computer becomes smaller, it becomes more convenient to place in a variety of environments reduction in power and cooling requirements greater reliability


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

IBM System/360

System/360 importance a planned family of computers focus on cross-compatibility and backwards compatibility


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

PDP-8

PDP-8 importance gave rise to OEM business model small enough to place on top of table (relatively) cheap at $16,000


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

Outline 1

Zeroth Generation

2

First Generation

3

Second Generation

4

Third Generation

5

Fourth Generation

6

Generational Trends

7

The Fifth Generation


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

Fourth Generation

Defining feature: Very Large Scale Integration


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

Fourth Generation

Key concept behind VLSI: thousands of transistors on a single chip complete processor on a chip


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

How much smaller?

ENIAC Chip


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

Intel 4004

Intel 4004 importance first complete CPU on a chip first commercially available microprocessor key to domination by Intel in the market


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

Outline 1

Zeroth Generation

2

First Generation

3

Second Generation

4

Third Generation

5

Fourth Generation

6

Generational Trends

7

The Fifth Generation


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

Trends

Each new generation(at least from 1st to 3rd) is characterized by: Greater speed Larger Memory Capacity Smaller phyical size


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

Outline 1

Zeroth Generation

2

First Generation

3

Second Generation

4

Third Generation

5

Fourth Generation

6

Generational Trends

7

The Fifth Generation


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

The Fifth Generation

So what would characterize the Fifth Generation? Is it already here? It depends on who you ask.


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

The Fifth Generation: ULSI/GLSI?


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

The Fifth Generation: Multicore?


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

The Fifth Generation: Cloud Computing?


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

The Fifth Generation: Non-silicon computers?


Zeroth Generation First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Generational Trends The Fifth Gen

The Fifth Generation: Human computers?


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