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Caring for the Incarcerated Lessons from the past, policy for the future


Caring for the Incarcerated Lessons from the past, policy for the future


17th July to 10th September 2017 Panizzi Gallery University of Wollongong

Foreword The history of health care in NSW prisons can be traced back to the arrival of the First Fleet, and thereafter one can chart an uninterrupted course of health service provision culminating in the formation of the Justice Health and Forensic Mental Health Network, which provides care to this population today. Over this time there have been major restructures of health services in prisons, including changes implemented in response to outcomes of the many inquiries into prisons, and some political imperatives. There is precious little written about the men and women who have cared for those incarcerated in NSW and the systems under which they operated. The Caring for the Incarcerated project was developed to research and document the work of these health professionals and policy makers in a systematic way. Those imprisoned are drawn from the most vulnerable groups in society and they bear a large burden of disease. When people talk about health in prisons some will express negative views of prisoners and their right to health care. They also might express pejorative views of those who work in the system. While the ethical need to care for vulnerable populations is obvious and the simple economics of good care for the underprivileged is undoubtedly true, a historical perspective helps to de-stigmatise and contextualize the work. A solid understanding of how models of health service in prison have evolved is necessary, as systems are designed and refined to improve their care. The University of Wollongong’s Global Challenges Program has sponsored the project and the exhibition displayed in Panizzi Gallery of the university’s library. The exhibition provided an opportunity for students, academics and leaders from the community, government and political arena to experience some understanding of the history of caring for the incarcerated in NSW. This exhibition guide portrays images from the exhibition and will enable readers to share in that experience.

Dr Stephen Hampton Executive Medical Director Justice Health and Forensic Mental Health Network Matraville NSW Australia

Contents Page Title 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42-44 45 46-49

Caring for the Incarcerated project Introduction: A history of the NSW prison medical service A Prison Within a Prison Song of the Prison – Henry Lawson Cold neglect – deep disease Medicine in Prisons Legislating Prisoner Health Long Bay Penitentiary – Hospital plan Doctors and Visiting Surgeons Visiting Surgeons at Parramatta Cockatoo Island Gendering Prisons “A Disgrace to their Sex?” Women in Prison The Female Factory – vaccine volunteers? Smallpox Vaccine State Reformatory for Women, Long Bay Prisoner Tram Nursing Care Mental Health & History Straightjacket Execution Milestones in Understanding Disease Gaol Fever Treating Typhoid? Rare Voices from the Prison Prisons and ‘Deviance’ The McNaughtan Rules Sex, Drugs and Tattoos AIDS Awareness Protection, predation and self-harm Illegal drug and tattoo equipment Who are the patients? Art in Prison Inside Story David Nolan by Shari Lett Bird on a Wing - David Nolan The Cell - David Nolan Shelf Detail - David Nolan Training Ground - David Nolan The Tick of the Clock – Wayne Douglas Prison Medicine: a new age Early gaols 1788 to 1859 Gaols built 1860 to 2013 Acknowledgements References and sources

Caring for the Incarcerated A history of 200 years of the New South Wales prison medical service Curators Louella McCarthy & Kathryn Weston Research Team Louella McCarthy, Kathryn Weston, Jane Carey, Stephen Hampton, Tobias Mackinnon & Andrew Weglarz Research Assistants Isobelle Barrett-Meyering, Louise Prouse & Katelyn Mikilewicz Exhibition Design Hannah Morris Content Advice Hamish Graham Imaging & Technical Greg Farmer

A collaboration between the University of Wollongong and NSW Justice Health & Forensic Mental Health Network Funded by the University of Wollongong Global Challenges Program & Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health LR McCarthy and KM Weston Caring for the Incarcerated, Lessons from the past, policy for the future University of Wollongong Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health 2018 ISBN: 978-1-74128-275-7 for hardcopy book ISBN: 978-1-74128-276-4 for ebook

Image: Wollongong Gaol From the collections of the Wollongong City Libraries and the Illawarra Historical Society

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Caring for the Incarcerated A history of the NSW prison medical service This exhibition charts the route taken by the New South Wales (NSW) prison medical service from its 18th century convict origins through to its more recent past. “Annexed” as a penal colony by the British, NSW quickly developed a system of state-provided health care in the form of convict hospitals. Out of this early medical service emerged the colony’s prison and civilian health systems. This legacy remains with us today. Not least it gives NSW one of the oldest continuallyoperating state-supported medical systems in the world. Yet, despite this long tradition of healthcare provision, the state of prisoner health today continues to be a challenge. Statistics charting prisoners’ morbidity rates indicate seemingly intractable levels of physical and mental illness. It is therefore important to understand this legacy, not only because it is a fascinating history but also for the insights it can provide into the vision behind past efforts to safeguard the health of prisoners.

Join us for a journey into this often hidden if ubiquitous history...

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A Prison Within a Prison A dilemma faced by the authorities of the early NSW penal colony was how to punish crimes perpetrated in the colony. As a penal colony, the whole British settlement was considered a prison of sorts. Nevertheless it was believed that both convicts and free-settlers who committed a crime in the Colony needed to face a separate retributive process. For recalcitrant or recidivist convicts, transportation remained a favoured punishment: convicts from Botany Bay were shipped to Fort Denison (Pinchgut), Norfolk Island, Port Philip or Moreton Bay or (most fearsome) to Van Diemen’s Land, as a means to intensify their punishment. For free settlers, a dedicated local prison was felt to be more appropriate. NSW’s first purpose-built prison emerged in 1798 in George Street Sydney with a matching prison in Parramatta. Made of wood (provided by the free settlers) both prisons were soon burnt to the ground. Replacement prisons made of more durable (and secure) stone soon replaced them. Setting a pattern that would last well into modern times, these prisons were crowded, insanitary and a threat to the health of inmates. As Thomas Macquoid, High Sherriff of Sydney in the 1830s noted of the George Street gaol, “At one stage, one hundred and ten male prisoners shared a dormitory 32 feet [9.7m] by 22 [6.7m], and 40 women with ten children shared the other dormitory of 27 feet [8.2m] by 22 feet!” Both prisons were replaced in the 1840s with the large imposing structures in Parramatta and Darlinghurst that remain standing today. Right: close detail of George Street gaol from below depiction of Sydney

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Song of the Prison by Henry Lawson (1867-1922) OW THIS is the song of a prison - a song of a gaol or jug A ballad of quod or of chokey, the ultimate home of the mug. The yard where the Foolish are drafted; Hell's school where the harmless are taught; For the big beast never is captured and the great thief never is caught. A song of the trollop's victim, and the dealer in doubtful eggs, And a song of the man who was ruined by the lie with a thousand legs. A song of suspected persons and rouge-and-vagabond pals, And of persons beyond suspicion - the habitual criminals. 'Tis a song of the weary warders, whom prisoners call "the screws" A class of men who I fancy would cleave to the "Evening News." They look after their treasures sadly. By the screw of their keys they are known, wn, And they screw them many times daily before they draw their own .‌ Staircase and doors of iron, no sign of a plank or brick, Ceilings and floors of sandstone, and the cell walls two feet thick; Cell like a large-sized coffin, or a small-sized tomb, and white, And it strikes a chill to the backbone on the warmest summer night. What avail is the prayer of the abbess? Or the raving of Cock-eyed Liz? The holy hermit in his cell, or the Holy Terror in his? Brothers and sisters of Heaven, seen through the bars in a wall, As we see the uncaught sinners - and God have mercy on all. Henry Lawson was imprisoned in Darlinghurst Gaol on many occasions for drunkenness and non-payment of alimony. Lawson referred to Darlinghurst as 'Starvinghurst Gaol' because of the miserly rations provided to the prisoners. His famous poem, One Hundred and Three, details his experience of incarceration in 1908. Lithograph, Wellcome Iconographic Collections.

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Cold neglect ... deep disease If cold neglect, injustice, and intrigue, And poverty with deep disease should league; If the high spirit must forget to soar, And stoop, to strive with misery at the door; To soothe indignity, and face to face, Meet sordid rage, and wrestle with disgrace, To find in hope but the renewed caress, The serpent-fold of wily faithlessness; If such the ills, which mortal strength assail, What wonder if, at last, the firmest fail. By Vindex, 1830 The above verse was written about Alexander Still, a previously successful merchant of Sydney, who fell on hard times, could not repay his debts, was imprisoned, and died in March 1830. The Coroner’s report of the prison conditions described over-crowding, stench and foul air. Still’s supporters were angered that an insolvent should be placed in such a place “among felons, lodged in a crowded room, and literally under the gallows”. They described the prison as a “nuisance to the town, and a disgrace to the Colony”, and called for a debtor’s prison to be created, to prevent such unfortunates from being incarcerated amongst “murderous highwaymen, and burglars … in constant peril of meeting by lingering disease, the fate of Alexander Still”. Obituaries Australia, Australian Dictionary of Biography

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Medicine in Prisons Surgeon, coroner, health officer, vaccinator The role of medical practitioners in NSW prisons has a long and complex history, but the nature of that relationship has changed dramatically over time. The earliest available evidence shows that hospitals or infirmaries were included in prison planning and construction in NSW. On Goulburn Gaol’s completion in June 1847, for example, the building was considered “unsophisticated” and “badly built” leading to decades of reparations. One of the first changes made was to add hospital wards. As historian James Semple Kerr points out, ‘James Sinclair was the first to work on the completed gaol. In 1848 he created male and female hospital wards in the cell range by removing cell walls and enlarging windows…’ James Semple Kerr, 1994

Prevailing ideas about hospital architecture were very influential in the design of prisons from the 1800s. Yet the role of medical people within prisons went through several major changes. Under the transportation system, ships’ surgeons played a key role in overseeing the health of convicts during the voyage from England. Those appointed as surgeons in the service of the colonial government were influential in the penal colony’s bureaucracy and shaped the experience of convictism in NSW. After the legislative changes introduced in the 1840s, coinciding with the end of transportation to NSW, responsibility for prisons was ostensibly transferred to prison governors. However, while the relevant gaol and the local professional community played some role in the appointment of prison doctors, the final decision remained firmly in the hands of the Department of Prisons, the Comptroller General of Prisons and ultimately the Minister for Justice.

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Legislating Prisoner Health

Following the granting of limited autonomy to the colony of NSW in 1823, one of the first pieces of legislation passed concerned the location for housing prisoners. In 1840, NSW legislated its own Act for Regulating Gaols, Prisons, and Houses of Corrections (4 Vic Act). This legislation laid out clear directions for the health and safety of inmates, and provision of a prison infirmary or hospital was included in the rules. Thus, it was required that there be ‘… a convenient and suitable apartment, within the gaol, … set apart and appropriated as an Infirmary for the reception of sick and diseased prisoners, and a separate one for females.’

The duties of the prison surgeons were now spelled out. The hitherto relatively autonomous surgeons needed to keep a journal, to enter ... ‘day-by-day, and in the English language an account of the state of each sick prisoner, the name of his or her disease, a description of the medicine and diet, and any other treatment he may order for each prisoner.’

The 1867 Regulations to this Act clarified even further the roles and requirements of the medical personnel associated with prisons, and remained in force until the end of the century.

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Doctors and Visiting Surgeons One reason for the great interest in Visiting Surgeon positions lay in the financial insecurities of medical practice, especially before the existence of state subsidies for medicine. Throughout the 19th century, and well into the 20th, a small number of medical practitioners rose to prominence and fame, leading to the enjoyment of large fees. However, many others struggled to make a medical living, sometimes due to the doctor’s financial mismanagement, and other times when events such as economic depression made it impossible for patients to pay.

Evening News, 23rd March 1899

Doctors needed to develop extensive professional and governmental networks if they wished to prosper in Maitland Mercury, 14 April 1852 New South Wales. An appointment as Visiting Surgeon to a government gaol – as with similar government medical appointments available at this time – provided this connection with influential individuals and institutions. The positions also came with a very welcome fee – ranging from around £40 per annum for attendance at smaller local institutions through to £250 or £300 for the largest state penitentiaries. th

While the remuneration would not have been considered sufficient for a medical living, the appointment would no doubt have been helpful during doubtful economic times. But the influential connections it gave incumbents meant its value was far higher than its monetary worth.

Newcastle Gaol

Sydney Morning Herald, 4th August 1855

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Visiting Surgeons at Parramatta A case involving the Visiting Surgeon’s position at Parramatta Gaol highlights the importance of the role. When this position became available in the 1880s a number of medical practitioners put forward their names for consideration and the internal departmental selection process was undertaken. However, when the successful applicant’s details became known, the department was on the receiving end of hot words of disapproval, pointing to the new incumbent’s lack of experience and youthfulness. Some nationalistic pride was also invoked, questioning whether the department was discriminating against local medical graduates by appointing an overseas trained doctor.

Evening News, 29th October ober 1896

Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate 5th December 1903

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Parramatta Gaol

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Gendering Prisons In the regular prisons up to the early 20th century, male and female prisoners were housed in the same building with greater or lesser separation depending on the prison. George Street gaol for example, had no physical separation beyond housing men and women on different sides of the building. As was noted at the time, “some of the prisons do not effectually exclude communication between the male and female prisoners… James Backhouse, A Narrative of a Visit to the Australian Colonies, London, 1843

Through most of the 20th century most women incarcerates were held in Darlinghurst or Bathurst. These had separated cell blocks but housed within the same complex. In 1878 Bathurst gaol consisted of 38 separate and 123 associated cells and held 69 male and 18 female prisoners.

Between 1888 and 1908, space was set aside on Cockatoo Island for a women’s prison - called Biloela - but this was generally used for those charged with prostitution or drunkenness. Or as the Comptroller General of Prisons described them, "the broken down class of metropolitan vagrants.”

This situation changed definitively with the opening of the State Reformatory for Women, Long Bay in 1909. This was the first, purpose-built women’s prison in NSW and housed metropolitan prisoners and high security women from outside the metropolis.

Women’s prisons have continued to face intense public scrutiny and debate. The fact of a gendered dimension to both convictions and imprisonment differences, alongside women’s greater parental responsibilities and vulnerability to sexual exploitation, have continued to dominate discussions of women in prison over the 20th century. Caring for the Incarcerated Exhibition Guide

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“A Disgrace to their Sex?” Women in prison It can be argued that women have always been treated differently from men by the criminal justice system. One outcome of this difference can be seen in imprisonment rates.

Out of the over 160,000 people transported to Australia, for example, women represented only 20%. Criminal conviction rates resulting in imprisonment have also been lower for women over the last 230 years. This pattern is similar for Britain and America.

From a different perspective, it could be argued that women’s treatment by the authorities was actually harsher, and more intrusive, than that experienced by men. Why might that happen? One reason is that women become pregnant and have children. These biological facts were (and are) enmeshed in an array of social and cultural prohibitions which made women more at risk of being imprisoned for “social” crimes – such as public drunkenness and prostitution – where men’s imprisonment more frequently involved crimes of violence.

Women’s lower imprisonment rates may be the reason why it took so long to provide separate prisons for women. While institutions such as the dozen or so female factories established in the colonial era were purpose built and gender specific, the reasons for women’s incarceration there ranged from poverty and homelessness, to unmarried pregnancy, through to conviction for serious crimes. Thus unlike the regular gaols (which predominantly housed men) it was women’s gender that was the decisive factor in their incarceration. Caring for the Incarcerated Exhibition Guide

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The Female Factory The Female Factory in Parramatta was first occupied in 1821 providing much needed housing of convict women away from the town gaol. Like the other factories built in the Colonial era, the Parramatta Female Factory was a site of production, producing spun wool and flax. The Factory served as a place where women stayed - awaiting assignment or imprisoned. It also provided medical services for factory and free women, aged and invalid women, and was a lying-in hospital. For many years the Parramatta Factory was the only institution where a deserted infant could be placed with a wet nurse. As well as assigning convict women to various locations and positions, the Female Factory acted as a marriage bureau. It was frequently overcrowded. In the 1830s, the monthly average remained around 500 for women and 130 for children, with the annual turnover around 6000 women and 1600 children. Illness was common; some frequently recorded ailments were fever, pneumonia, dysentery, cholera, convulsions and asthma. Her crime? Pregnancy or murder? By the 1830s, the factory comprised three classes. First class women were those waiting for, or having returned from, assignment; or women promoted from second class. Second class women had committed minor offences or were those promoted from third class. The third class designation was for a plethora of offences including prostitution, highway robbery, continued drunkenness, pregnancy, theft or murder.

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Commercial Journal and Advertiser, 20th May 1840.

The Female Factory 2013, courtesy Dr J Branley

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Smallpox vaccine Female Factory - vaccine volunteers? Smallpox vaccination was an important health protection measure in the colony. As early as 1803, just a few years after Edward Jenner published his research about using cowpox to protect against smallpox, children in the colony, initially the orphans, were being vaccinated by Mr John Savage, Assistant Surgeon of the Colony.

Keeping the vaccine alive….

Sydney Gazette & NSW Advertiser, 15th May 1803

To keep smallpox vaccine ‘alive’ doctors had to ensure there was always someone who was inoculated and had a lesion active so fresh vaccine could be harvested. The Female Factory in Parramatta, where hundreds of women were housed, was the answer. In 1841, Deputy Inspector General of Hospitals Dr J.V. Thomson informed Governor George Gipps that the Female Factory at Parramatta was ‘.. the only Convict Establishment in which...there exists a sufficient field to keep it up.”

Smallpox vaccine lesion. Image from Jenner E. An inquiry into the causes and effects of the variolæ vaccine. 1798

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- the only place where there were enough unvaccinated people to keep the vaccine alive through arm to arm transfer of live viral material, thus ensuring continuous supply of vaccine.

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Nursing Care In the early days of the Colony, untrained convicts were assigned to general nursing roles both in the community and in the prisons. Both male and female convicts acted as nurses, with the male convicts responsible for the male patients and female convict for female patients. They were not paid any wages although were provided their keep. Prisons often employed the wife of the prison superintendent as the ‘Matron’; however she was not a trained nurse. Gaols continued to employ prisoners as nurses.

The transfer of control of the Prison Medical Service to the NSW Ministry of Health in 1968 heralded a change in the provision of healthcare in the state’s prison system, including the employment of nursing staff. In 1969 two nurses were engaged to provide healthcare to inmates at the Long Bay Correctional Complex. Thereafter, a nursing presence at each of the correctional centres around NSW was established and today there are over 700 nurses providing health care in NSW prisons. Indeed, the prevailing situation in NSW is now one of nurse-led healthcare, with nurses providing most of the primary healthcare required.

This exhibition is a snapshot of provision of medicine in NSW gaols since colonial times. While the research has yielded much valuable and unique information, there remain some aspects of prison medicine about which we still know very little. The crucial and challenging role of nursing in NSW gaols since establishment of the penal colony is one such area.

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Mental Health & History Tackling mental health through architecture and legislation Uncertainty over boundaries between mental illness and criminality played out in prisons as much as in psychiatric institutions. Despite the construction of dedicated institutions such as the Tarban Creek Lunatic Asylum in early colonial Sydney, the ‘insane’ were as likely to be imprisoned in Parramatta or Sydney gaols. Early prison architecture often included the ‘Observation Ward’, the place where the level of mental illness of new inmates was assessed. The desire to control and isolate people deemed unpredictable, or to contain the violence that sometimes accompanied mental illness meant that the social response to ‘madness’ has been incarceration. The first piece of legislation on mental health in NSW for example was passed in 1843. It deemed the most pressing issue to be: “the safe custody of and prevention of crime being committed by persons insane.” In 1867 the NSW Parliament enacted further legislation requiring judges to commit those brought before them and deemed to be dangerous to what was titled a ‘Lunatic Reception House’. While considered a ‘temporary measure’ between a final committal to either prison or asylum, this legislation for the first time attempted to differentiate the prisoners based on their mental health status.

As the medical specialities of what we now called psychiatry developed during the 19th century, a chronic lack of resourcing remained. Even as beliefs around mental illness changed, the capacity to meet the needs of patients was never sufficient.

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Straightjacket Canvas Used to restrain someone to prevent harm to the person or others. On loan from SPASM

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Execution The first public execution at Darlinghurst Gaol was in 1844 when John Knatchbull was hanged for murder. John Trevor Kelly was the last man hanged in New South Wales, in August 1939, at Long Bay Gaol, Sydney. The last person to hang in Australia was Ronald Ryan in Victoria in 1967. Not all gaols had gallows; in NSW, hanging prisons were Darlinghurst, Dubbo, Broken Hill, Grafton, Long Bay, Berrima, Bathurst, Tamworth, Maitland and Armidale. Some current gaols, including Long Bay, still contain remnants of scaffolds. A challenging aspect of the medical role was the requirement for the prison surgeon to be present at the execution and, if acting as the Coroner, to perform the autopsy after death. Newspaper reports often included extensive detail of these events, even including what the prisoner had eaten for breakfast before the “melancholy procession� to the gallows. At Darlinghurst Gaol in 1848, the executioner was paid 3s 6d per day; the surgeon was paid 5s per day and dispenser paid 3s per day.

Wagga Wagga Advertiser, 15th June 1893

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Milestones in Understanding Disease YEAR


Early ideas about disease

1798 1803 1847

Theories for cause of disease included miasma (poisonous vapour); spontaneous blood generation of disease

Jenner published cow pox experiments Orphans in Sydney inoculated against smallpox using cowpox Semmelweis demonstrated that handwashing reduced childbed fever


Louis Pasteur disproved spontaneous generation


First NSW Board of Health established

1890 1918-19

Koch developed postulates for cause of disease; germ theory of disease Spanish Flu pandemic


Community immunisation started in Australia


Smallpox eradication declared


Hepatitis B vaccine introduced in Australia


Cause of AIDS outbreaks identified

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Gaol Fever Typhoid, enteric, swine... The sanitary conditions in prison contributed to spread of disease. Typhoid fever was common amongst outbreak in gaols, although reports of swine fever from contaminated pig carcasses also occurred.

Contaminated water from crude plumbing and sewers caused problems both in and out of the prison. In 1891, Alderman Knights at Bathurst demonstrated the putrid nature of the water flowing out of the gaol into a nearby creek by bottling a sample and having colleagues smell the contents at their meeting.

Modern day gaols continue to suffer outbreaks such as measles and influenza, and vaccination remains a key public health measure.

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Treating Typhoid? Excerpts from the Journal of Prescriptions, Maitland Gaol Treatment of prisoner William Cheesborough who died in Maitland Gaol of typhoid endemic fever on 23rd December 1882 11th December 1882

Liquor Pot. Sod Carb...three times a day Oatmeal and stewed meat & blue powder 1 every night

13th December

Oil if required and Calomel‌ Corn Flour 1 pint milk

14th December

...add bromide 1 tablespoon every three hours Light soup Fly blister right side

17th December

...give beef tea

18th December

Add to meds bromide and fly blister back

19th December

...small dose oil and chlorodyne

22th December

Port wine and brandy

23rd December

Linseed P on body

What is a Fly Blister? A fly blister is a plaster of the ointment of Spanish flies (cantharides), applied to create a blister upon some part of the body.

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Rare Voices from the Prison Are those rats I hear? The 1861 Report from the Select Committee on the Public Prisons in Sydney and Cumberland was chaired by Henry Parkes Esq. The verbatim transcripts of the prisoners and staff provide a rare insight into many aspects of colonial prison life, including the health of prisoners and the prison environment.

The committee inspected a small cell [in the central Watch House] about seven feet by four and a half‌. In the floor was a large rat-hole. The atmosphere in this cell was almost stifling, the only means of ventilation being two small plates of perforated iron... Are those rats I hear? Yes Is that a rat-hole?

Are the cells dirty? Yes, for there is wood there that has been there for twenty years, and it is eaten by all sorts of vermin. And on the wall you will see the vermin, half-a-dozen in one spot, and when a man wants to lie down at night, they swarm about him.

Yes Do the prisoners complain of rats? Yes, this place is swarming with rats unknown, prisoner

M. Doran, prisoner

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Prisons and ‘Deviance’ Criminality as a disease The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare reported in 2015 that almost half of prison entrants (49%) were told by a health professional that they had a mental health disorder. Around a quarter of prisoners reported that they were currently taking medication for a mental illness. Equally significant is the high rate of substance abuse reported by prisoners. This is a historical issue that has long complicated the place of medicine in modern Australian prisons. Prisons and ‘asylums’ – places created for the management of people with mental illness or psychiatric disorders – were born of the same reforming ideals. Conceptualised as ‘deviance’, criminality was seen as simply another form of mental disorder – and so, as was believed with mental illness, ultimately “curable”.

Plan of Parramatta Lunatic Asylum, 1855

Both prisons and asylums were also designed to segregate, to remove from society those deemed to be deviant. The intermingling of these ambitions, to cure (or rehabilitate) and to segregate, still dominate discussion about the role of prisons. The shared origins also seem to be written in the architecture of the institutions, from which it is clear that both aimed to restrain and isolate.

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The McNaughtan Rules In January 1843 Edward Drummond, secretary to the Conservative British prime minister Robert Peel, was shot and fatally wounded in Westminster. At his trial the gunman’s lawyers pleaded that Daniel McNaughtan was insane because he believed he was being persecuted by the “Tories”. This defence raised the issue of partial insanity. At that time the predominant view among doctors and jurists was that partial insanity did not exist, and even people who suffered from only one form of delusion were considered to be incapable of reasoning.

Asylum, Standish Lawrence Harris, 1824

McNaughtan’s defence assembled some prominent medical opinion to argue that partial insanity did exist, which meant that people like the accused might be able to act reasonably much of the time, but were unable to control their behaviour on some crucial issues. McNaughtan’s trial was halted, and he was acquitted on the grounds of insanity. He then spent the rest of his life incarcerated in institutions, and died at Broadmoor Asylum in 1865. The case was widely reported and caused considerable concern, which led the House of Lords to seek precise clarification of the grounds on which an insanity plea could be accepted by the courts. A panel of judges ruled that offenders suffering from partial delusions are punishable if they knew they were breaking law; a defence on grounds of insanity must prove that at the time of the offence the accused did not know what they were doing, or they did not know it was wrong. These tests for criminal insanity were the M’Naughten (or McNaughtan) rules, and were subsequently adopted and adapted in many criminal jurisdictions, including in Australia. Under these rules, however, it is likely that McNaughtan would have been convicted.

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Sex, Drugs and Tattoos Managing contagion in the era of AIDS Prisons can be high-risk places for disease transmission as a result of intravenous drug use, sharing of needles and syringes, tattoos given using crude unsterile equipment, and high-risk sexual practices and sexual assault.

Contraband tattoo equipment, Cooma Gaol Museum

Recognising that HIV transmission was inevitable given the prevalence of high-risk practices among inmates, various interventions were implemented, including: i Compulsory testing of prisoners i Methadone programs for drug addicts i Bleach for prisoners to clean equipment i Counseling & education Dispensing methadone, Junee Correctional Centre, 2009 / Anya Van Lit

Many challenges... “…. junior officers experienced peer group pressure from their senior counterparts especially when they began wearing rubber gloves during cell searches and blood spill situations.” E. Adamson, 2004

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i Segregation, promoted by the Prison Officers

Prison AIDS Project: “...the AIDS issue confronts traditional beliefs and values about sex, death, drug abuse and prisoner management…” L. Scagliotti, 1990 “AIDS education which stresses individual responsibility is at odds with every other aspect of prison life ....” H. Heilpern & S. Egger, 1992

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AIDS awareness banner Created by inmates On loan from Cooma Gaol Museum

2x2x2 Bleach for cleaning injecting equipment has been available in NSW prisons since 1990. The 2x2x2 cleaning procedure is a rinse cleaning method: the syringe is flushed twice with water, twice with bleach and twice with water.

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Protection, predation & self-harm Prisons can be violent places. Medical care in the prison system necessarily involves managing injuries resulting from altercations between prisoners or episodes of self-harm, with injuries often inflicted using hand-made weapons fashioned from every-day items. In addition, prisoners’ health can be adversely affected during management of riots when gas is used to subdue the prisoners. Items from Goulburn Correctional Centre from the 1970s onwards On loan from Cooma Gaol Museum.

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Illegal drug and tattoo equipment 1970s Goulburn Gaol On loan from Cooma Gaol Museum

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Who Are the Patients? Patients not prisoners... The current prison population of Australia is at an all-time high with over 36,000 adults incarcerated – and another 1,000 young people in some form of detention. There are strong indications given current policy direction that these numbers will continue to climb. In the 230 years since the penal colony of NSW was established, the state has overseen, and for most of this time operated, the prison system. Throughout the period, the people incarcerated have overwhelmingly been drawn from the most disadvantaged in our society and have had some of the highest health needs. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are grossly over-represented in Australia’s prisons, accounting for just over one-quarter of all adult prisoners in 2015 despite representing just 2% of the population. Established indicators of health implications of disadvantage include chronic disease, poor mental health, unemployment, low levels of literacy and substance abuse. These feature heavily in the demographics of newly sentenced prisoners. On entry to prison: iThree-quarters are smokers iTwo-thirds have not finished secondary school iThose sentenced are more likely to have been recently unemployed or homeless compared to the general population iIn 2014, one-third had a long-term health condition or disability which limited daily activities, or restricted participation in education or employment iIn 2014, two-thirds had used illicit drugs in the 12 moths before their imprisonment When one considers an overall population perspective, it is not surprising that many prisoners report improvements in their health once they enter the prison system. As many prisoners tend to be ‘non-help seekers’ or those who find accessing the health system difficult, the prison environment may be the first place where they are able to access health care services. Historically, this picture has not changed much since colonisation. Then, as now, more people were imprisoned, and indeed transported, from economically strained backgrounds than the wealthy. While the crimes that were the ostensible reason for their imprisonment may have changed, the underlying issues of poverty and disadvantage remain. Anthony T (2016) The Conversation

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Art in Prison The works in this display reflect a small part of the varied nature of arts in prisons. A relatively recent phenomenon, enabling prisoners to develop or apply their artistic skills has been shown to increase well-being and improve mental health. Engaging with the arts is recognised as providing both a pathway for making sense of inmate life and as a healing process. Many prisons are now providing outlets for inmates’ diverse artistic expression, recognising the potential for self-actualisation through the arts. Such projects aim to engage inmates and ex-inmates in developing socially and culturally relevant skills, albeit in often difficult circumstances. The works displayed in this exhibition are doubly significant, however, as these are the creations of Indigenous people who were former inmates. As is widely acknowledged, Indigenous incarceration rates in Australia are grossly disproportionate to population rates and so raise questions about the underlying causes of these inequities. Prison services are recognising the important role arts programs can play in reconnecting Aboriginal prisoners with their culture. As the group Justice Action* point out: “Prison art can be described as a genre that is able to go beyond the confines of an art room, taking on numerous forms including prison walls and is capable of encapsulating some of the most basic desires of the human experience. Prison art is a reflection and a representation of a culture. Even though this may be a subculture or a counter-culture, the art can be symbolic of common values, attitudes, behavioural practices and knowledge, whilst remaining connected to the theme of ‘outside’.” By facilitating artistic expression, and creating an audience for those expressions, the experience of incarceration from an Indigenous point of view is also made possible. We are grateful to these artists for allowing us to present their works in this history of the NSW prison medical service. The artworks by David Nolan displayed in the exhibition were on loan from the art collection of the University of Wollongong. *Justice Action, Art in Prison report (

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by Shari Lett

It is my belief that each small moment in our lives contributes to the bigger picture of our experience on earth. Every day we make seemingly small decisions that have the power to change the course of our lives. In 2002, a man by the name of David Nolan made an error of judgement that would have an immeasurable impact on his future and ultimately his freedom. One mistake was the catalyst for a chain of events that would see Nolan behind bars. During his time in gaol Nolan rekindled his childhood love of art and went on to create a series of drawings that captured his surroundings, acting as an imprint of prison life. Strict routines and random searches made the simple act of creating a difficult task. Custodial Guards (Screws) kept record of every possession in a place where even drawings were considered contraband. This suite of etchings based on those drawings are the result of Nolan’s tireless effort to conceal, what for us are, everyday items. Nolan reflects on his time in prison with contrasting emotions: joy for the moments when friendships were made and sadness for the way the system works on its captives. Prison is not simply a holding yard for those who have made bad decisions, but an institution that tries to break rather than rehabilitate. It is not an enjoyable place to be by any means, and for the thousands of men, women and youths who spend a large proportion of their lives in cells restricted by the walls of what is essentially a giant cage, it can turn a bad situation into something even worse. Through all of the hardships that Nolan faced he emerged seemingly unaffected. He did not get pulled into a cycle of crime and punishment - instead he made a new life for himself. After his release Nolan re-established himself in Nowra on the south coast of NSW and went on to study Fine Art at TAFE, In 2011, Nolan won the COFA Professional Development Award and completed a semester long residency in the printmaking department, during which he created these etchings. As an artist he is naturally gifted, one of the lucky few who are able to recreate a moment in time with such precision that it mirrors a photograph. But more important than his talent is his humanity. He persevered through the years of being a captive of the system and emerged with his soul intact. These etchings are more than just an embodiment of his talent, they are a testament to his resilience, and a celebration of a man who was simply a victim of his circumstances and has gone on to make the most of his life.

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Bird on a Wing David Nolan

David Nolan Bird on a Wing Etching aquatint 2012

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The Cell David Nolan

David Nolan The Cell Etching aquatint 2012

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Shelf Detail David Nolan

David Nolan Shelf Detail Etching aquatint 2012

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Training Ground David Nolan

David Nolan Training Ground Etching aquatint 2012

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The Tick of the Clock by Wayne Douglas

Every day time has a slow purpose from when the sun rises to when the door is locked, Early mornings waking to cereal and tea, But then – training starts for an hour or more, A retreat to a hot shower eases the mind, Waiting for lunch just to kill time playing cards was on my mind to the yell it muster time; The tick of the clock continues to run right through to dinner is Done until the guy with the keys says locking time the Day is done! The Tick of the Clock is published in: Dreaming Inside – Voices from Junee Correctional Centre, Black Wallaby Indigenous Literary Program, 2017. Reproduced with permission.

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Prison Medicine: a new age

Looking to the future... The NSW prison medical service has throughout its life reflected and, at times, influenced the wider medical profession. The intensifying professionalisation of medicine through the 20th century was mirrored in the changes occurring in the prison medical service. A wider appreciation of the value of related professional staff, such as nurses, was one sign. From around the middle of the 20th century, prisons began to employ professional nursing staff, replacing the system of assigning inmates to nursing duties. Most prisons also formalised their relationships with another community institution: the local hospital. For many inmates, the experience of ill health required being transported to a mainstream hospital for treatment. Following the 1978 Nagle Commission’s report into the NSW Prison Service, a new structure for the provision of medical services in prisons was created. With the formation of the Justice Health & Forensic Mental Health Network in 2011, management and provision of medical services was standardised and further professionalised across the state. This development represented a world-first, and continues to be seen as a model for those wishing to provide excellence in prison health care.

Trial Bay Gaol Images: Greg Farmer

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Sydney Gaol (1797-1798) George St Sydney

Sydney Gaol II (1798-1822)



Old Parramatta gaols (1798-1834) Parramatta Gaol (Correctional Centre) (1835-2011)





Newcastle Gaol (1822-1848)

Liverpool Gaol/Asylum (1819 -1839)


Carters’ Barracks

Bathurst Gaol (1830- )


Berrima Gaol (1839-1909)


Campbelltown Gaol (1827-1843)

Maitland Gaol (1848-1998)


Dubbo Gaol (1847-1966)


Goulburn Gaol (1848 -)

Melbourne Gaol (1845-1954)

Darlinghurst Gaol (1841-1914)

Carters’ Barracks Debtors Prison (1835-c.1843) Brickfields Hill

Lunatic Asylum Parramatta

Windsor Gaol (1859-1899)


Early gaols 1788 to 1859

Carters’ Barracks (Carters’ House of Correction) Convict Boys (1820-1835) Brickfields Hill

Convict ship

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Biloela, Cockatoo Island (1871-1908)


Cooma Gaol (1873-1877)

Newcastle Reformatory School for Females (1869-1871)


Sydneyy Sydne


Young Gaol (1874-1923)

Albury Gaol (1874-1943)

Bega Gaol (1874-1940)

Deniliquin Gaol (1874-1935)

Mudgee Gaol (1874-1909)

Wagga Wagga Gaol (18741909)

Wollongong Gaol (18741915)




Shaftesbury Institution (1880-1929)


Yass Gaol (1883-1909) -

Taree Gaol (1884-1940)


Biloela Women's Gaol (1888-1909)



Cootamundra Gaol (1886-1935)


Balranald Gaol (1887-1932)

Trial Bay Gaol (1886-1918)

West Kempsey Gaol (1884-1941)

Gaols built 1860 to 1890

Coonabarabran Gaol (1878-1903)


Grenfell Gaol (1877-1905)

Wentworth Gaol (1874-1928)

Hay Gaol (18741947)

Narrabri Gaol (18741982)

Braidwood Gaol (1874 -1909)

Bathurst Gaol (1874 - )

Armidale Gaol (1874-1920)

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Tuncurry Afforestation Camp (1913-1938)

Shaftesbury Institution (1904-1910)

Wyalong Gaol (1899-1909)


Bombala Gaol (1892-1939)


State Penitentiary Long Bay (1914 - )

State Reformatory for Women (1909-1970)

Condobolin Gaol (1902-1905)

Burrowa Gaol (1899-1904) (

Silverton Gaol (became Broken Hill) (1891 - )

Sydneyy Sydne





Glen Innes Correctional Centre (1928 - )

Oberon Correctional Centre (1930 - )


Mannus Correctional Centre (1930 - )


Leslie Nott Afforestation Camp, Laurel Hill (1957-1995)

Berrima Correctional Centre (1949 - )


Kirkconnell Correctional Centre (1958 - )

Port Macquarie Gaol (19521978)

Emu Plains Correctional Centre (1941 - )

Gaols built 1890 to 1960

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Yasmar Juvenile Justice Centre (1981-2006)



Defence Force Correctional Establishment (1989 - )

St Heliers Correctional Centre (1990 - )



Broken Hill Juvenile Justice Centre (2012-2013)


Brewarrina (Yetta Dhinnakkal) Centre (2000 - )

Mid North Coast Correctional Centre (2004 - )

Wellington Correctional Centre (2007 - )

2006 Orana Juvenile Justice Centre (2000 - ) Acmena Juvenile Justice Centre (1998 - )


Junee Correctional Centre (1993 - )


Kariong Youth Correctional Centre (1991 - )


Parklea Correctional Centre (1983 - )


Cobham Juvenile Justice Centre (1980 - )


South Coast Correctional Centre (2010 - )

Juniperina Juvenile Justice Centre (2005 - )

Dillwynia Women's Correctional Centre (2004 - )

Ivanhoe (Warakirri) Correctional Centre (2000 - )

Metropolitan Remand and Reception Centre (1997 - )

John Morony Correctional Centre (1991 - )

Tamworth Correctional Centre (1991 - )

Lithgow Correctional Centre (1990 - )

Riverina Juvenile Justice Centre (1984 - )

Keelong Juvenile Justice Centre (1978-2009)

Cessnock Correctional Centre (1972 - )


Reiby Juvenile Justice Centre (1973 - )

Silverwater Correctional Grafton Correctional Centre (1969 - ) Centre (1974 - )


Silverwater Women's Correctional Centre (1970 - ) Yarrangobilly Gaol (1966-1993)


Gaols built 1960 to 2013

Frank Baxter Juvenile Justice Centre (1999 - )

Acknowledgements x

University of Wollongong Global Challenges Program


Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, UOW


School of Medicine, UOW


University of Wollongong Library


University of Wollongong Art Collection


Professor Alison Jones, Deputy Vice-Chancellor, UOW


Justice Health & Forensic Mental Health Network


Corrective Services New South Wales


Cooma Gaol Museum


Wollongong City Library


The Society for Preservation of Artefacts of Surgery & Medicine (SPASM)


National Library of Australia


State Library of New South Wales


New South Wales State Records and Archives


University of Sydney Rare Books Collection


The Black Wallaby Writers, South Coast Writers Centre


David Nolan


Aunty Barbara Nicholson, Honorary Doctor of Laws, Wadi Wadi Elder, Member Aboriginal Deaths in Custody Watch Committee


Mrs Kathy Dwyer, Glenbrook

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References and sources Panel or page title

Image or text

Reference or source

Title page and foreword

Caring for the Incarcerated Exhibition

Images by Greg Farmer, 2017

Introduction panel and exhibition details

Wollongong Gaol Hospital

Wollongong City Library


Padlock, Cooma Gaol Museum

Image by K Weston, 2017

Front gate, Wollongong Gaol

Wollongong City Library

Springwood lock-up

L McCarthy, 2016

Watercolour of Darlinghurst Gaol

Watercolour by inmate Henry Louis Bertrand, 1891; State Library of New South Wales

Bathurst Gaol

Image by Ian Sutton. 2009, Creative Commons Lic.

Manacles, Cooma Gaol Museum

Image by K Weston, 2017

Caring for the Incarcerated

A Prison Within a Prison

Song of the Prison

Cold neglect … deep disease

Medicine in Prisons

Panorama of Sydney and close detail Thomas Woore. Courtesy Mitchell Library, State of George Street Gaol Library of New South Wales Poem by Henry Lawson

From the book: Sydney Riders and Other Verses by Henry Lawson; Sydney and Dunedin, Fergusson Ltd, 1910

Henry Lawson image

State Library of New South Wales

Convict image

Part of: Dinner Parade – cooks at attention in the kitchen waiting for the governor. 19th Century lithograph. Iconographic collection, Wellcome Images. Creative Commons Lic.

Poem by Vindex

The Sydney Gaol. Fate of Alexander Still. THE SYDNEY GAOL. (1830, March 17). The Australian (Sydney, NSW:1824-1848), p.2. Retrieved July 8, 2017 from

Goulburn Gaol

Prison in Goulburn. Date: [between 1870 and 1890?]. No copyright, Max Wagner collection, State Library of Victoria. http://

Cat o’Nine Tails,

Cooma Gaol Museum. Image by K Weston, 2017

Hyde Park painting

Hyde Park, Museum, Darlinghurst Gaol. Sydney Grammar School. Burdekin’s and Lyons’ Terraces, 1842. Painted by John Rae, Dixson Galleries, State Library of New South Wales. Out of copyright.

Sydney Gaol Plan

Plan of the New Gaol for Sydney, ca. 1840, Sydney: J.G. Austin & Co., lithog. From the collections of the State Library of New South Wales, SLNSW SSV1/Gao/Darh/1. Out of copyright.

Close detail of prison hospital

From above image, K Weston, 2017

Military Hospital, Sydney

E.T. Blacket’s sketch-book, 1842. SLNSW PXE 925 (Box 1). Out of copyright.

Legislating Prisoner Health

References and sources Panel or page title

Image or text

Reference or source

Long Bay Penitentiary Hospital Block

Architectural drawing

Copy from State Records and Archives New South Wales

Visiting Surgeons at Parramatta

Image of Parramatta Gaol

General view of Parramatta Gaol, Government Printing Office 1-06117. From the collections of the State Library of New South Wales FL1764656

Artistic impression of Cockatoo Island

Cockatoo Island, ca. 1864 / unknown atist, Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales, FL3301123.

Gaol Plan, Cockatoo Island

Report from the Select Committee on the public prisons in Sydney and Cumberland: together with the Proceedings of the Committee, Minutes of Evidence (comprising statements of prisoners) and appendix, Sydney: Gov’t Printer, 1861.

Cockatoo Island

Entrance to Sutherland Dockyard, Cockatoo Island. C.1880. NSW State Archives and Records

Female Factory

Picture by Augustus Earle. Female penitentiary or factory, Parramata [i.e. Parramatta], New South Wales, 1826. National Library of Australia.

Old Court House, Watch House and Gaol, Bathurst

Created by American and Australasian Photographic Company, 1870-75 Mitchell Library

Reading the Bible

[Elizabeth Fry reading the bible in a women’s prison] 1830.; Out of copyright.

Contemporary image

Image by Dr J Branley, 2013.

Jenner publication

The title page of the first edition of Jenner’s Inquiry, 1798. Edward Jenner: An inquiry into the causes and effects of the Variolae Vaccinae, a disease discovered in some of the western counties of England, particularly Gloucestershire, and known by the name of the cow-pox

Smallpox vaccine lesion.

Image from Jenner E. An inquiry into the causes and effects of the variolae vaccine. 1798. Image supplied by Rare Books and Special Collections, Fisher Library, University of Sydney.

Cockatoo Island

Gendering Prisons

Women in Prison

The Female Factory

Smallpox vaccine

Ted Kennedy, Chief Nurse-Chemist of the New South Wales Prisons Department, with two patients Ted Kennedy with hospital patients in a hospital ward at the New South Wales State Penitentiary, 1963-64 [picture]. With permission from the National Library of Australia Nursing Care

Exterior Long Bay Gaol Hospital

Image courtesy: Ute Wegmann

Carters’ Barracks

Standish Lawrence Harris - Report & Estimate of the Value of the Improvements which have taken place in the Public Buildings of Sydney, Parramatta, Windsor, Liverpool and Campbelltown. 1824. State Library of NSW

References and sources Panel or page title

Image or text

Reference or source

Map of Tarban Creek and location of Asylum Centre

[Lunatic Asylum Reserve Parramatta River, Tarban Creek, Lane Cove River] [Sketch book 4 folio 83]; Sketch books [Surveyor General] State Archives NRS 13886

Darlinghurst Reception Centre

Old reception house, Darlinghurst: Government Printing Office 2 – 22067; 20/8/1962. State Library of NSW

Original canvas straightjacket

On loan from SPASM [Society for the Preservation of the Artifacts of Surgery and Medicine]. Photography Greg Farmer

Sketch of a mentally ill patient in a strait-jacket attached to the wall

Part of image available from Wikimedia Commons. Wellcome V0016643ER.jpg

Scaffold Darlinghurst gaol

The scaffold at Darlinghurst gaol drawn by a confinee. State Library NSW.

Louis Pasteur in his laboratory, painting by Albert Edelfelt, 1885

Source: Louis-Pasteur

Polio vaccine on sugar lump

Wellcome Library, London. Image from The History of Vaccines. The College of Physicians of Philadelphia

Prisoners Toilets, Silverton Gaol

Photography Greg Farmer. 2019

Gaol Fever

Salmonella typhosus, cause of typhoid fever

A photomicrograph of Salmonella typhosus bacteria using a Flagellar stain technique. Kat Masback 2009

Treating typhoid?

Spanish Fly (cantharides)

Cantharides rustica. wiki/File:Cantharides_rustica_jg.jpg. Creative commons Lic.

Sir Henry Parkes

From image Sir Henry Parkes with Ministry, 1880. Blue Mountains Local Studies Photostream. No known copyright restrictions. Blue Mountains City Library

Prisoners in uniform, Darlinghurst gaol

Part of photograph. Government Printing Office 1 06641, Original negative held by State Archives & Records Authority of New South Wales.


Image by M Kawasaki 2016. Wikimedia Commons

Plan of Lunatic Asylum Parramatta

Lunatic Asylum ground plan, Parramatta, 1855 / New South Wales Colonial Architect. Collections of the State Library of New South Wales


‘Asylum’. Standish Lawrence Harris - Report & Estimate of the Value of the Improvements which have taken place in the Public Buildings of Sydney, Parramatta, Windsor, Liverpool and Campbelltown, 1824. From the Collection of the State Library of NSW

Mental Health and History



Milestones in Understanding Disease

Rare Voices from the Prison

Prisons and Deviance

The McNaughtan Rules

References and sources Panel or page title

Image or text

Reference or source

Contraband tattoo equipment

Part of display at Cooma Gaol Museum. Image by K Weston 2017

Dispensing methadone

Dispensing methadone and medicine taken on the spot, Junee Correctional Centre, 2009. Collection 18: Photographs of Junee Correctional Centre, 2009 / Anya van Lit.: Copyright status: In copyright - Life of artist plus 70 years . Call number: a3196 Online ; IE number:IE565405 ; File number: FL565431 ; File title: 19. / Anya Van Lit

AIDS Awareness


Banner made by inmates. On loan from Cooma Gaol Museum. Photography Greg Farmer.

Predation, protection and selfharm


Items from Goulburn Correctional Centre from the 1970s onwards. On loan from Cooma Gaol Museum. Photography Greg Farmer.

Illegal drug and tattoo equipment


Items from Goulburn Correctional Centre from the 1970s onwards. On loan from Cooma Gaol Museum. Photography Greg Farmer.

Image incarceration rates

ABS image from article: Anthony T. Data gaps mean Indigenous incarceration rates may be even worse than we thought. The Conversation July 27, 2016

Bird on a Wing

By David Nolan, Etching Aquatint 2012. Reproduced with permission

The Cell

By David Nolan, Etching Aquatint 2012. Reproduced with permission

Shelf Detail

By David Nolan, Etching Aquatint 2012. Reproduced with permission

Training Ground

By David Nolan, Etching Aquatint 2012. Reproduced with permission


The Tick of the Clock is published in: Dreaming Inside – Voices from Junee Correctional Centre, Black Wallaby Indigenous Literary Program, 2017. Reproduced with permission.

Click image

Public domain image at board-clock-twelve-time-teaching-1672403/

Prison Medicine: a new age

Trial Bay Gaol Historic site

Contemporary images. Photography Greg Farmer



Cooma Gaol Museum. Image K Weston 2017

Sex, Drugs and Tattoos

Who Are The Prisoners?

Art in Prison

The Tick of the Clock


Profile for University of Wollongong - Research

Caring for the Incarcerated Exhibition Guide  

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