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Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering CME SCHOOL REPORT 2015–2017

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

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University of Wollongong QUALITY INDICATORS FOR LEARNING & TEACHING (QILT)

GOOD UNIVERSITIES GUIDE

The Quality Indicators for Learning and Teaching (QILT) is a federal government website that helps prospective students easily compare the study experience and employment outcomes from Australian higher education institutions. All ranking results below were determined by UOW’s ranking based on the average performance across all QILT indicators. QILT Study Areas - Undergraduate

ENGINEERING 1st in NSW/ACT

Undergraduate Rankings (QILT)

UOW was rated Australia’s leading public university for the student experience in the 2018 Good Universities Guide. UOW is one of only two Australian universities – and the only publicly funded university – to achieve a clean 5-star sweep of all student experience measures in the 2018 Good Universities Guide:

HHHHH HHHHH HHHHH HHHHH HHHHH HHHHH

OVERALL EXPERIENCE LEARNER ENGAGEMENT SKILL DEVELOPMENT STUDENT RETENTION STUDENT SUPPORT TEACHING QUALITY

LEARNER ENGAGEMENT 1st in NSW/ACT

LEARNER RESOURCES 1st in NSW/ACT

SKILL SCALE 1st in NSW/ACT

TEACHING QUALITY 1st in NSW/ACT

CME IMPACT STATISTICS SUMMARY 2007

2009

2011

2013

2015

2016

2017

BE

491

622

741

928

943

872

793

PGR Coursework

82

76

86

124

126

125

139

44

69

75

84

95

141

298.1

425.4

517.6

587.2

672.8

639.8

695.3

73

86

139

174

251

262

318

2.30 M

HDR Total EFTSU - all students Research Publications Total Research Income

3.15 M

3.59 M

6.39 M

9.80 M

Academic Staff

23

22

22

22

Research Staff

10

19

24

20

Emeritus & Honorary Staff

5

5

6

8

Professional & Technical Staff HDR Students

10

10

10

10

44

68

75

84

95

141

Postgrad Coursework Students

82

76

86

124

126

125

139

Undergraduates

491

622

741

928

943

872

793

6

10

24

13

12

14

Doctoral Graduates Coursework Graduates

42

41

36

37

BE Graduates

120

161

176

135

Citations by Year Research Publications refereed

2

1527

1385

1385

2381

2187

2626

3312

73

86

139

174

251

262

318

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 MESSAGE FROM HEAD OF SCHOOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 PERSONNEL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Academic Staff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Honorary Staff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Research Staff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Early Career Researchers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Technical Staff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

LEARNING AND TEACHING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 CME Degrees & Programs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Highlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 HDR Student Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Research Students: Degree, Topic, & Supervisors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

RESEARCH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 CME Research Centres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 CME Research Project Reports Structural Engnieering Research Summaries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Geomechanics and Railway Enginering Research Summaries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Mining Engineering Research Summaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Environmental Engineering Research Summaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 CME External Funding Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 CME Facilities and Equipment of Special Interest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Structural Engnieering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Geomechanics and Railway Enginering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Mining Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Water and Environmental Engineering Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

ENGAGEMENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126 Alumni of CME in the News. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 International Visitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 CME Conferences and Workshops. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Seminars-Civil, Mining & Environmental Engineering, 2015-2017. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

IMPACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 CME Impact Statistics Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Accomplishments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Honours, Awards & Appointments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 International Activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Invitations & Keynotes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 CME Publications 2015-2017 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

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CME School Report 2015-2017--Introduction The School of Civil Mining and Environmental Engineering, CME, is one of the three Engineering schools among the six schools of the Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences, EIS. With a history of over 50 years training Australian and international students for careers in Civil, Mining, and Environmental Engineering applications, CME has enjoyed a period on continuous development and improvement over the past ten years. Recent international evaluations have confirmed CME placement among the top Australian engineering faculties; world class reputations in research and teaching have earned CME a place in the Group of Eight Engineering and Associates. The Australian Research Council ranks CME multidisciplinary work well above world standard, with Civil along with manufacturing, materials and mechanical engineering research also rated as above world standard performance. Major performance indicators illustrating both the quantity and the quality of collective CME activities in this period include: Scholarly output, Figure 1, according to the SciVal tools aggregating publications identified by Scopus. Proportionate contributions of academic staff in four main groups are shown over the 20 year period to present, reflecting published results of increasing research products; Citations, Figure 2, according to SciVal tools reflecting references to publications identified by Scopus showing both the accelerating cumulative citations and the consistently increasing rate; Research funding, Figure 3, is the engine that powers virtually all CME research activity underlying relevant indicators e.g. scholarly output and citations, and providing vitality in continuing professional development among academic staff, and supporting the quality and timeliness of content conveyed to students at all levels; Teaching Productivity, Figure 4, illustrates the intensity of academic staff contribution to student contact at all levels.

Figure 1. Scholarly Output (SciVal)

Figure 2. Citations of CME Peer-reviewed Publications

Figure 3. Research Funding

Figure 4. Teaching Productivity

This Report has been prepared to provide a concise and comprehensive description of the School of Civil, Mining, and Environmental Engineering, its personnel, its teaching and research activities, and the major areas of Engagement and Impact associated with individual and collective academic, research, technical, and honorary staff, and of the undergraduate and postgraduate student communities that CME serves. The report covers the period from the beginning of 2015 through the end of 2017. Effort required for contributions from all CME staff is gratefully acknowledged, particularly that of the School Promotion and Ranking Committee (SPARC) that developed and implemented the concept, content, and preparation of the final product.

4

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


Welcome from Head of School Dear Colleagues and Friends This School Report covers activities and achievements of the School of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering (CME) for the years 2015, 2016, and 2017. Over this period, the School produced stellar performance in teaching, in research and in industry outreach underpinned by world class performance of School’s academic and research staff and graduates. Currently, the School has over 800 undergraduate and postgraduate students and over 80 PhD students with excellent graduate outcomes. All degrees are fully accredited by Engineers Australia and The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. The School thrives on the quality of its academic and technical staff who have won numerous teaching, research and general staff awards, and takes great pride in the quality of its graduates. Greater interaction with industry colleagues in all disciplinary areas has created synergies with the enviable result of industry-based grants in research through the Australian Research Council (ARC) Projects, the Cooperative Research Centre for Rail Manufacturing, and the Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP). The research intensive culture in the School is consistently associated with a strong number of research students, an impressive rate of peer reviewed publications, national and international awards for academic staff in teaching and research, significant infrastructure grants for modernisation of laboratories, and increased participation of international academics in research activities. All of these have contributed towards the reputation of the School as one of the best in the country. This is reflected in worldwide recognition of Mining Engineering program (world’s top 25) and Civil/ Structural discipline (world’s top 150) in the QS World University Rankings 2015-17. The outstanding research staff and student outputs have seen the School achieve a rating of 5 “Well above world standard” (Civil/Environmental) and 4 “Above world standard” (Mining) in the Excellence in Research Australia (ERA) 2015 ranking by the Australian Research Council. While providing an excellent teaching and research environment within the School, the academic staff are also involved in major consultancies and contract research, including modern design and performance verification of roads and rail tracks, ground improvement of reclaimed land for expansion of ports, development of floodplains, protection of national infrastructure from extreme events, innovative composite structures, steel structural design, wastewater treatment and recycling, and landslide risk assessment. The School is at the forefront of fundamental and industry-based research across the breadth of civil, environmental and mining engineering with several recently established cutting-edge research hubs, ARC Training Centre for Advanced Technologies in Rail Track Infrastructure (ITTC-Rail), The International Centre for Composites in Infrastructure (ICCI), and The Centre for Coastal Reservoir Research (CCRR). The School of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering is geared to meet not only future educational challenges for producing the leading graduates in Australia, but also to face dramatically changing industrial trends and environmental changes. I thank all our School’s academic, technical and professional staff, past and present students and the local community for their concerted efforts in making our School for what it is today. I hope you enjoy reading about the exciting research and teaching activities and events of the School of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering.

A/Prof Alex Remennikov Head of School

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

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6

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


PERSONNEL

Personnel

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

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CME Personnel 2015-2017 PERSONNEL

Who are we? The School of Civil Mining and Environmental Engineering is a collaboration of 50 academics comprised of nearly two dozen teaching staff, comparable research staff, an active nucleus of Emeritus and Honorary staff, supported by a highly skilled and dedicated technical staff of nearly a dozen. Collectively they are engaged in teaching, research, and service to the community with the first order of business providing for 7-800 undergraduate students, another 100+ postgraduate coursework students. Teaching in the modern university is inseparable from providing for, conducting, and supervising research, in CME involving nearly 150 higher degree research (HDR) students. 2015

2016

2017

Academic Staff

22

22

22

Research Staff

19

24

22

Emeritus & Honorary Staff

5

6

8

Professional & Technical Staff

10

10

10

HDR Students

84

95

141

Postgrad Coursework Students

126

125

137

Undergraduates

943

872

793

Doctoral Graduates

13

12

14

Coursework Graduates

41

36

37

BE Graduates

161

176

135

The academic staff is divided into the three major disciplines of CME, Civil, Mining, and Environmental. Including active Emeritus and honorary staff, Civil is comprised of 13, Mining specialists account for another 8, and the Environmental group includes 6. The following sections provide brief descriptions of CME staff and students organized into the following groups: Academic Staff; Honorary Staff; Research Staff; Early Career Academics; and Technical Staff.

CME-HOS

Alex Remennikov

Civil Teaching Civil Structural Hadi, M. McCarthy, TJ. Neaz SM. Remennikov, AM. Teh, Lip H. Yu, Tao Zhang, Shishun Flentje, PN Geomech./Rail Heitor, Ana Indraratna, Buddhima N. Liu, Martin D. Rujikiatkamjorn, Cholachat Vinod, J. S.

8

Mining Research ARC-CGSE CGRE CIPMS ITTC-Rail EMERG ICCI Landslide RG

Teaching Mining Aziz, Naj I. Baafi, E. Nemcik, J Shivakumar, K Porter, Ian Ren, Ting Caleja, J. Walker, D. Mineral Processing Tolhurst, Ray

Environmental

Research MRC CIPMS

Teaching Environmental Nghiem, LD. Hai, FI. Sivakumar, M Yang, Shuqing Ongerth, JE Muston, M

Research GeoQuest SWIL CCRR

ARC-CGSE: ARC Centre of Excellence for Geotechnical Science & Engineering CGRE: Centre for Geomechanics & Rail Engineering ITTC-Rail: Industrial Transformation Training Centre for Advanced Technologies In Rail Track Infrastructure EMERG: Engineering & Mathematics Education Research Group Landslide RG: Landslide Research Group ICCI: International Centre for Composites in Infrastructure MRC: Mining Research Centre CIPMS: Centre for Infrastructure Protection and Mine Safety GeoQuest: GeoQuest Centre-Environmental Engineering Research SWIL: Strategic Water Infrastructure Laboratory CCRR: Centre for Coastal Reservoir Research

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


ACADEMIC STAFF PERSONNEL

DISTINGUISHED PROFESSOR BUDDHIMA INDRARATNA

ACADEMIC

BSc-Hons, MSc, PhD, FTSE, FIEAust, FASCE, FGS, FAusIMM, FIES, DIC, CEng, CPEng Professor of Civil Engineering and Research Director for: ARC Industrial Transformation Training Centre for Advanced Rail Infrastructure (ITTC-Rail), and Centre for Geomechanics & Railway Engineering (CGRE) Office Location: Room 4.133 Email: indra@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 3046 Research Interests: (1) Ground Improvement including sub-surface drainage and soft clay stabilization, (2) Large scale Geotechnical testing and process simulation, (3) Railway foundations, (4) Jointed Rock Engineering, (5) Geoenvironmental engineering including remediation of acid sulfate soils, (6) Flow through porous and jointed media including dam filters, (7) Dams and embankment engineering, (8) Numerical and analytical modelling and ground instrumentation. Professional Highlights: Distinguished Professor Buddhima Indraratna is a Civil Engineering graduate from Imperial College, London, and obtained his PhD from the University of Alberta in 1987. He has worked in industry in several countries before becoming an academic, and has been a United Nations Expert and Foreign Advisor to numerous overseas projects. Prof Indraratna’s pioneering contributions to railway geotechnology and various aspects of geotechnical engineering have been acknowledged through numerous national and international awards, including the 1st Ralph Proctor Lecture, and 4th Louis Menard Lecture of the International Society of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSMGE (20,000 members; 90+ nations), 2015 Thomas Telford Premium Award (ICE, UK), 2009 EH Davis Memorial Lecture of Australian Geomechanics Society, and 2014 CS Desai Medal for his substantial and sustained contributions to Transport Geotechnics and Ground Improvement, respectively. Nationally, he was awarded the Engineers Australia Transport Medal in 2011. Recently, the New South Wales Minister of Transport awarded Prof Indraratna the 2015 Australasian Railway Society’s Outstanding Individual Award at the State Parliament. Recently he was awarded the highest accolade “Medal for Outstanding Contributions” by the Institute for Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics (IACMAG). His pioneering contributions to railway engineering and ground improvement earned him Fellowship of the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering (FTSE) in 2011. Author of Over 700 scholarly publications including 300+ top ranked, peer-reviewed journals, 10 researchbased books, 400+ peer-reviewed national and international conference papers including 55 invited Keynote papers and Special Guest Lectures. He is one of Australia’s highly-cited geotechnical academics with over 6500 ISI/Scopus citations, and an H-Index of 42 (Scopus), and 55 (Google) with >10,000 citations. He has successfully supervised over 50 PhD and 25 Masters, and over 30 Postdoctoral Fellows, and 1/3 of them have won prestigious awards, e.g. ATA’s David Sudgen Award, AGS’ Hugh Trollope Award, Int. Geosynthetics Award, Churchill Award, AGS/ANZ Young Professional awards and numerous Best Paper awards. Head of School (2006-2012), Founding Director, Centre for Geomechanics & Rail Engineering (since 1995), Research Director (since 2012), UOW Coordinator, CRC - Rail Engineering; CRC - Rail Innovation (since 2007), CRC Rail Manufacturing (since 2014), Chief Investigator and Program leader: ARC Centre of Excellence in Geotechnical Sciences and Engineering (since 2011), Distinguished Adjunct Professor, Asian Institute of Technology (AIT, Thailand) (since 2015), Honorary Professor, University of Shanghai for Science & Technology, China (since 2000), and Beijing Jiaotong University (since 2015). More than $23 million research funding has been secured since 2000, through Commonwealth, State and Local Government grants. UOW’s Centre for Geomechanics and Railway Engineering (GRE) houses one of this region’s most unique geotechnical laboratories with a variety of large-scale testing rigs for roads and rail materials designed by him and built in-house. He was a Program Leader of the CRC for Railway Engineering in 2000, and also a Program Leader of the ARC Centre of Excellence for Geotechnical Science and Engineering funded by ARC in July 2010. Recently, he became the Founding Director of ARC Training Centre for Advanced Technologies in Rail Track Infrastructure (ITTC-Rail). He has contributed directly to revision of national standards AS8700 and AS 2758.7 through Standards Committees on the Execution of Prefabricated Vertical Drains, and Aggregates and Rock for Engineering Purposes: Part 7 Railway Ballast. He is the Editorial Chair of the Journal of Ground Improvement, ICE. and an Associate Editor of two prestigious journals (ASCE Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, and Canadian Geotechnical Journal) and on the editorial board of 6 other international geotechnical and railway journals. He represents Australia on 4 ISSMGE Technical Committees: Transport Geomechanics (TC202), Ground Improvement (TC 211), Soft Soil Foundations (TC 214), Natural Hazards mitigation (TC303); Of these, he is on the Executive Committee of TC202 and TC211.

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PERSONNEL

PROFESSOR TIMOTHY MCCARTHY

ACADEMIC

PhD, MSc, BE (Civil), MIEI Professor of Structural Steel and Design Email: tim_mccarthy@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 4591 Office Location: Room 4.G41 Tel: +61 2 4221 3031 Research Interests: Ecologically sustainable structural design, Sustainable construction materials, Structural steel design, Mooring design for floating wave energy devices, Engineering Education Research, Building Information Modelling.. Professional Interests: Engineering education, employment and professional development

PROFESSOR LONG NGHIEM BEng, PhD, MEdu, FRSC Office Location: Room 4.G37 Email: longn@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 4590 Research Interests: (1) Membrane separation; (2) Resource recovery from wastewater; (3) Anaerobic digestion; (4) Low carbon desalination technologies. Professional Highlights: Prof Nghiem has supervised to completion 17 PhD and 7 Master students. To date, he has published over 240 peer review journal articles. Prof Nghiem has an h-index of 44 with over 7,000 citations (Scopus author ID: 36778460100). His current work focuses on the development of a technology platform for the recovery of energy and resources from wastewater and low carbon seawater desalination.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR ALEX REMENNIKOV BEng, MEng, PhD, MIEAust, MASCE, CPEng Head of School Office Location: Room 4.136 Email: alexrem@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 5574 Research Interests: (1) Behaviour of structures under extreme loading (impact, shock, blast), (2) finite element modelling of structures under impact and blast loads and (3) dynamics of railway tracks, impulsive loading and response of railway track system and components Professional Highlights: Head of CME since 2012; Author of 160 peer reviewed publications and technical reports, 2012 Australian Steel Institute Steel Design Award; 2011 Consult Australia Silver Award; member of ASCE/SEI 59 Standards Committee on Blast Protection of Buildings. Blast consultant to Australian Government and industry.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR ERNEST BAAFI PhD, MSc, BSc, ACSM, MAusImm Mining Engineering Discipline Advisor Em: ebaafi@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 3031 Office Location: Room 4.137 Email: ernest_baafi@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 3031 Research Interests: Geostatistics; Mine system simulation and application of operations research methodologies for mine evaluation and design. Professional Interests: Engineering education, employment and professional development

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PERSONNEL

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR MUHAMMAD HADI

ACADEMIC

BSc, MSc, PhD, FIEAust, F.ASCE, M.ACI, CPEng, NER Associate Professor Office Location: 4.G38 Email: mhadi@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 4762. Research Interests: (1) Behaviour of concrete structures strengthened with FRP, (2) use of composite materials to reinforce concrete structures and (3) Behaviour of geopolymer concrete under different loading conditions. Professional Highlights: Published 1 book, 1 book chapter, 116 journal papers and 229 conference papers. Supervised 11 PhD students and 7 MPhil students. Currently supervising 17 PhD students. H index = 17. Fellow of EA, Fellow of ASCE, Member Concrete Institute Australia, ACI, IABSE, IIFC, ASA. Invited keynote speaker at more than three prestigious national and international conferences. Selected example: CUTE 2016, Vietnam Examiner for 20+ PhD and ME (Research) theses from 4 continents (N. America, Europe, Asia and Australia) in the area of structural engineering.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR IAN PORTER BSc, PhD. Director, Mining Research Centre Email: iporter@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 3451. Research Interests: (1) Simulation of longwall mining operations. (2) Developing a polymer based alternative to steel mesh for coal mine strata reinforcement and confinement. (3) Rock Mechanics and Ground Control in Mining.) Professional Highlights: Director – Mining Research Centre. Author of over 90 scholarly publications. Over $5 million in research funding.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR TING REN BEng, MEng, MSc, PhD, MAusIMM, MMVSA, MIMMM, CEng Co-Director, Centre of Infrastructure Protection and Mining Safety Office Location: Room 4.G43 Email: tren@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 4186 Research Interests: Safety and Occupational Health in Mines: mine gas drainage and CBM, spontaneous combustion and fire; fugitive dusts and mitigations; outburst and burst; Computational modelling and simulation in Mining Engineering: CFD modelling of mine gas emission and transport; longwall goaf inertisation optimisation; dust dispersion in confined workings. Professional highlights: Senior Research Engineer for CSIRO and Senior Research Fellow for the University of Nottingham, UK; Author of 1 book and over 100 peer reviewed publications, over 4 million in research funding including ACARP, ECSC, ARC and major mining companies (BMA. Glencore, South32, Centennial Coal, Peabody Energy, Shenhua, JOY Global and Caterpillar). Expert witness for The Senate Select Committee (Australian Government) on Coal Workers Pneumoconiosis and invited speaker by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine, USA. Award recipient of BMA Health and Safety Award 2009 and The Australian Bulk Handling Review Awards 2012 for his contributions to coal mine dust control in industry. Co-editor for International Journal of Mining Science and Technology invited Special Professor of China University of Mining and Technology. Chair for the 6th and 9th International Symposia on Green Mining.

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PERSONNEL

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR SHIVAKUMAR KAREKAL

ACADEMIC

B.Tech, M.Tech, PhD, Life Member ARMA & ISRMTT, Member ISRM Associate Professor Office Location: Room 4.138 Email: skarekal@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 3363 Research Interests: Mining Geomechanics/ Rock Mechanics; Advanced Numerical Modelling (FEM/ BEM/DEM/CFD) of Mining Excavations; Rock Fracture Mechanics; Advanced rock joints characterisation and constitutive modelling; Slope stability; Mechanical Rock Breakage; Microseismics and Acoustic Emissions; Geophysics and Radar applications to mining; CFD applications to Mining problems; Development and application of new technologies for Mining industry. Professional Highlights: Patent holder, book co-author, chapter author; Best Paper award recipient; Advisor, iCEM; Adjunct Professor PDPU; Editorial Board, J Energy & Management; Conference advisor; Author >50 peer reviewed papers and >40 technical reports.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR CHOLACHAT RUJIKIATKAMJORN PhD (Wollongong), MEng (AIT), BEng, CPEng, FIEAust, NPER, RPEQ, MASCE Associate Professor Email: cholacha@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 5852 . Research Interests: Soft ground improvement; technical development and application of prefabricated vertical drains; innovative solutions and numerical applications to problems in soil mechanics and geotechnical engineering. Professional Highlights: 2016 Fellow, Institution of Engineers, Australia, 2013 ISSMGE Young Member award for innovative solution for soft soil improvement, 2012 Hugh Trollope Medal Australian Geomechanics Society, 2011 University of Wollongong Vice-Chancellor Research Excellence Award, 2011 Award by the IACMAG.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR NEAZ SHEIKH BEng, MPhil, PhD, MIEAust, MIEB Academic Program Director (Civil Engineering) Office Location: Building 4 Room 127 Email: msheikh@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 3009 Research Interests: (1) Earthquake engineering and structural dynamics, (2) Performance-based seismic design, (3) Seismic design and assessment methodologies for low and moderate seismic regions, and (4) Advanced composite materials in civil infrastructure Professional Highlights: Author of over 100 peer-reviewed articles, internationally recognized expert in earthquake engineering and structural dynamics, applied research has contributed to the development of several standards and codes of practice, and Editorial Board member of the Journal of Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR MUTTUCUMARU SIVAKUMAR BSc Eng (Sri Lanka), MEng (AIT), PhD (Newcastle) Environmental Engineering Discipline Advisor Email: siva@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 3055. Research Interests: Water quality monitoring and modelling of engineering systems; development of sustainable water and wastewater treatment technologies; prediction of pollutant export from urban catchments; environmental hydraulics and modelling; water resources engineering including development of coastal reservoirs. Professional Highlights: Academics Program Director and Founder of Environmental Engineering Program, Co-director of Coastal Reservoir Research Centre, Research collaborations in China, India and New Zealand, Visiting Professorships at Tongji University and Sathya Sai University, 25 PhD completions, author of 200 peer reviewed publications and VC award for Excellence in Community Engagement.

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Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


Professional Highlights: Co-author/co-editor of two authoritative North American steel design guides; Co-author of seven steel specification papers; Associate Editor of ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering since 2012; Fellow of ASCE SEI since 2016; Chair of ASCE Structural Members Committee since Oct 2017.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR SHU-QING YANG BEng, MEng, PhD, MASCE, MIAHR, MIACRR Director of Center for Coastal Reservoir Research; Office: Room 4. G33 Email: shuqing@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 3070 Research Interests: 1) Sediment transport in reservoirs, waterways and coastal waters; 2) fundamental research of turbulence structures; 3) interactions of skin friction and form drag on immersed bodies; 3) floodwater development using coastal reservoirs and SPP for inland/coastal regions; 4) drag reduction by polymer additives. Professional Highlights: Founder and director Centre for Coastal Reservoir research. His research in turbulence and sediment transport gets the awards from ASCE, IAHR etc.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR TAO YU PhD, BEng, MIIFC Head of Postgraduate Studies Office Location: Room 4.G42 Email: taoy@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 3786. Research Interests: (1) Infrastructure application of FRP composites; (2) hybrid tubular structures; (3) rehabilitation of steel and concrete structures; and (4) nonlinear finite element analysis of structures Professional Highlights: Co-Director of International Centre for Composites in Infrastructure; Associate Editor of Advances in Structural Engineering; Member of the council and the executive committee of International Institute for FRP in Construction; Discovery Early Career Researcher Award; Chief Investigator of four ARC funded research grants; One of main contributors of the Chinese national standard on FRP in infrastructure.

DR. PHIL FLENTJE BA, Hons Geol, M.App.Sc., PhD, AGS Senior Research Fellow, Engineering Geologist. Office Location: Room 4.129 Email: pflentje@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 3056 Web: http://eis.uow.edu.au/cme/landslide-research/index.html Research Interests: (1) background in Geomorphology, Engineering Geology and Geotechnical Engineering, (2) Landslide Risk Management, (3) field techniques, mapping and remote Landslide Monitoring in near real-time, (4) GIS techniques and landslide Susceptibility modelling using Data Mining and (5) landslide frequency assessments. Professional Highlights: Authored 1 book, 6 book chapters, 17 journals (post 2005) and 67 Ă— conference papers to mid 2017. Google Scholars - 87 publications with an h-index of 14. Co-author of the AGS 2007 Landslide Risk Management Guidelines, member of the QJEG Editorial board.

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

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ACADEMIC

Research Interests: Advanced analysis of steel frames, bolted connections, buckling analysis, climate resilient structures, cold-formed steel structures, modular construction, progressive collapse prevention, retrofitting and strengthening of steel structures, sustainable structural design.

PERSONNEL

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR LIP TEH BE PhD MIEAust CPEng FSEI MASCE Associate Professor Email: lteh@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 3564.


PERSONNEL

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR FAISAL I. HAI

ACADEMIC

BEng, MEng, PhD Director, Strategic Water Infrastructure Laboratory Email: faisal@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 3054 Research Interests: (1) Environmental biotechnology; (2) advanced wastewater treatment, reuse and resource recovery; (3) waste management and bioenergy production. Professional Highlights: Author of over 115 peer reviewed publications; Associate Editor, Water Science and Technology (Journal of International Water Association, UK); Lead editor, Membrane Biological Reactors (top 5% of the bestsellers list for the IWA Publishing books portfolio)

DR ANA HEITOR LicEng, MEng, PhD, MIEAust Senior Lecturer Office Location: Room 4.130 Email: aheitor@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4252 8232 Research Interests: (1) Behaviour of compacted materials (small and large strains), (2) Microstructural characterization and water retention behaviour of unsaturated media and (3) stabilization of marginal materials (including chemicals for soils and mechanical for water materials). Professional Highlights: Author of over 30 peer reviewed publications, 2016 Women of Impact Recognition; Chief Investigator on CRC- Rail Manufacturing and ARC- Linkage Projects, member of AS1726 Standards Committee on Geotechnical Site Investigation, 2016 Nomination for Outstanding Contribution to Teaching and Learning - OCTAL Award.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR JAYAN S. VINOD PhD, M.Tech., B.Tech., MAGS, MAEES, MASCE, MIGS Email: vinod@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 4089. Research Interests: DEM modelling of granular materials, soil dynamics, Energy geotechnics, chemical stabilisation and ground improvement techniques. Professional Highlights: Associate Editor, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, ASCE; Associate Editor, International Journal of Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, IGI Global; Member, ISSMGE Technical Committee (TC105): Geo-Mechanics from Micro to Macro.

DR. SHISHUN ZHANG BEng, MEng, PhD Lecturer Office Location: 4.G33A Email: shishun@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 242981427 Research Interests: His research interests include: (1) FRP-strengthened concrete structures, (2) Novel hybrid FRP structural members, (3) Nonlinear finite element analysis of structures, (4) Application of fiber-optic sensing systems in civil structures, and (5) Seismic retrofit of RC frames.

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Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


Professional Highlights: Three significant accomplishments: (1) The proposal of a compression model for structured clays, (2) The formulation of a simple predictive model, the Structural Cam Clay (SCC) Model, (3) The formulation of a highly accurate model, the Sydney Soil Model (SSM).

MRS JUSTINE CALLEJA BEng Mining (1st Class Hons), MEng; MAusIMM; MBBUGS; MNUGS; MEAGCG Lecturer of Mining Engineering Email: jcalleja@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 3096. Research Interests: (1) Mining health and safety and risk management, (2) Mining sustainability, (3) Mining rock mechanics / geotechnical engineering: rockburst, coalburst, gas outburst, rock mass classification, monitoring systems, geotechnical characterisation, laboratory rock testing, support systems (rock bolts and cable bolts) and design, longwall geomechanics, mining seismicity. Professional Highlights: 20 years working as a professional engineer in the mining industry in NSW and Qld as Senior Geotechnical Engineer for BHP Illawarra Coal mines, Senior Consulting Geotechnical Engineer for SCT Operations, Mine Site Geotechnical Engineer, Long Term Planning Engineer and Mining Engineer. Author of 6 peer reviewed publications, 2016 Green Mining Conference Coalburst Workshop Organiser, 2017 Advisor to Department of Resources and Energy Coal Industry Outburst Risk Review, 2018 Chief investigator on ARC and Industry collaborative research projects.

MR DAVID WALKER BE(Mining), MBA(Woll), Grad Dip Ed (UNE), Grad Dip Vent (UNSW), MAusIMM Lecturer Office Location: 4.128 Email: dwalker@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 5969. Research Interests: (1) Logistics and Supply Chain Management in Underground Coal Mines, (2) Strategic Mine Planning: Design through to business analysis, (3) Humanitarian Engineering and project management within the African context, (4) Truck Shovel Optimisation: Network analysis. Professional Highlights: (1) Mine Undermanager, Mine Deputy and Ventilation Officer. Senior Technical Advisor / Principal Mining Engineer, (2) Principal Mine Planning and Ventilation Engineering Consultant, (3) Publications: several peer reviewed conference papers and journals, and (4) Octal Teaching Award nominee 2016.

HONORARY STAFF PROFESSOR ROBIN CHOWDHURY B. Eng Sc. (Banaras),PG Dip(Roorkee),PhD (Liverpool) Emeritus Professor Office Location: Room 4.141 Email: robin@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 3037 Research Interests: 1) Geotechnical Risk Assessment 2) Slope Stability 3) Reliability Analysis 4) Landslide Management 5) Engineering Sustainability 6) Resilience for Geo-disasters. Professional Highlights: UOW Dean, Engineering, Jan-Oct 2002, Head CME, 1994-2000, Discipline Leader, Civil, 2000-2002, Director, Sustainable Earth Research Centre (SERC) 1990-2002. Published 7 papers 2015-2017, more than 30 papers in last 10years; External PhD examiner, External Reviewer, External Assessor of Research Grants, Conference Invitations, Short Course Presentation 2015, growing readership of over 100 published papers. Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

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HONORARY

Research Interests: (1) Investigating mechanical properties of geo-materials and identifying key parameters for engineering practice, (2) Constitutive modelling of geomaterials including effects such as stress paths, soil structures, soil anisotropy, saturation, creep, and temperature.

PERSONNEL

DR MARTIN DINGFU LIU BEng, MPhil, PhD Office Location: Room 4.126 Email: martindl@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 3035


PERSONNEL

PROFESSOR NAJ AZIZ

HONORARY

BSc Eng, GDIMM and PhD, Office Location: Room 4 G32 Email: naj@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 3449 Research Interests: (1) Tendon Technology, with particular emphasis on tensile and shear behaviour of both rock bolting and cable bolting under in different test environments, (2) Coal mine outburst and control with emphasis on gas sorption and desorption studies and 3) Mine dust control with emphasis dust control in headings, longwall faces and bord and pillar mining. Professional Highlights: Chairman of Annually held Coal Operators’ Conference. Established wellknown Mining Science and Technology website [http://www.miningst.com], Invited key note speaker, Published in excess of 250 peer reviewed publications and more than 50 industry based research/consulting reports. Recipient of the City of Wollongong, 2015 Australia Day award for innovation technology; Adjunct Professor, School of Civil Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland.

DR JAN NEMCIK BEng, MEng, PhD Honorary Senior Fellow Email: jnemcik@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 4492. Research Interests: Rock mechanics, strata control and instrumentation in mines, dynamic fracture mechanics, rock/coal outbursts, numerical modelling/software development, surveying, Professional Highlights: Professional engineer/researcher/senior lecturer at the well known research institutions and companies including ACIRL, CSIRO, Department of Mineral Industries, SCT Operations Pty Ltd and the UOW for over 35 years. Training of engineers in Japan, Mexico, China, Indonesia, India, New Zealand, USA and Czech Republic. Published in excess of 100 peer reviewed publications and more than 100 industry based research/consulting reports.

DR MAX LOWREY ASTC BE ME PhD Honorary Principal Fellow Email: max_lowrey@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 5886 Professional Interests: (1) Engineering education (2) Structural dynamics Professional Highlights: Construction engineer Sydney Water Board; Design engineer BHP Newcastle; Lecturer Wollongong University College; Senior Lecturer, Associate Professor, Sub Dean, Academic staff representative on Council, University of Wollongong. Overseas study leave - Southampton, Bristol, London (UK), Idaho (USA). Reviewer (American) Society for Experimental Stress Analysis. Consultancies - land subdivision computations, stability check new Parliament House flagmast (Canberra).

PROFESSOR JERRY E. ONGERTH BS MS PhD; PE FASCE AWWA Life Member Honorary Principal Fellow Office Location: Room 4.141 Email: jongerth@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 8027 Research Interests: (1) Water quality and public health, (2) Monitoring and analysis of data on Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water, (3) Catchment management regarding Cryptosporidium and Giardia, (4) water and wastewater treatment for control of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, (5) Statistical analysis of water quality data. Professional Highlights: 45 years teaching, research, & professional engineering experience; Authority on Cryptosporidium & Giardia in environmental media, Author of 65 peer reviewed papers, h-index 25. American Water Works Association Best Paper Awards, 1990 & 1996; Registered Professional Engineer: Michigan & California, Consultant to water supply & public health agencies.

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Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


Professional Highlights: Senior management positions Sydney Water; Managing Director Illawarra Ports Authority; General Manager of Wingecarribee Shire Council; Deputy Team Leader on the Datong Cleaner Environment Project in NW China; Deputy Chair of the Southern Rivers Catchment Management Authority; editing the International Water Association reuse specialist group newsletter.

MR. RAY TOLHURST BSc. (Met.) Tech., Grad. Dip. Min. Eng., Tech. Teach. Cert., B.Com. (Ec.) with Merit, M. Ed., M. Pub. Sect. Mgmt., M. AusIMM Honorary Principal Fellow Email: rayt@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 4041. Research Interests: (1) Engineering education, employment and professional development, (2) Process Optimisation, (3) Tailings management and re-use Professional Highlights: Director of Studies TAFE Illawarra, responsible for the delivery of programs for 44,000 students annually throughout south-east NSW; 2014 OLT Citation Award; 2016 AusIMM Beryl Jacka Award for sustained high level Institute service; 2006 TAFENSW Services to Students Medal.

DR ALI MIRZAGHORBANALI BEng, MEng, PhD, CPEng Visiting Research Fellow Email: amirzagh@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 0 4488 59037 Research Interests: (1) Rock defects: mechanical properties of rock joints (2) Strata control: fiber glass rock bolting, steel rock bolting, cable bolting, mesh mechanical properties, grout and resin mechanical properties (3) Numerical simulation: Numerical simulation using UDEC, FLAC 2D&3D, 3DEC Professional Highlights: Senior Lecturer, Geotechnical Engineering, University of Southern Queensland; Editorial board; Advisory Committee, Coal Operators’ Conference, Member of Centre for Future Material (CFM), author, of >40 peer reviewed journal and conference research papers.

DR DENNIS BLACK BEng, PhD, G.Dip. Mine Vent, G.Cert. Mgt, MAusIMM(CP), MSPE, MMAA, RPEQ, RABQSA Honorary Research Fellow Office Location: Room 4.G34 Email: dennisb@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 (0) 401 999542 Research Interests: (1) Outburst risk management to improve mine safety and productivity, (2) Gas drainage and coal seam gas management, including fugitive emission reduction, (3) mine design and mine planning, and (4) mine ventilation and environment. Professional Highlights: Underground Coal Mine Manager, Coal Mine Technical Services Manager, Gas & Ventilation Manager; Awarded 1st Place in the 2001 MCA National Safety & Health Innovation Awards and 2nd Place in the 2000 QMC & AusIMM Occupational Health & Safety Innovation Awards; AGSM Senior Manager Development Program.

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

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HONORARY

Research Interests: Integrated water cycle management and water reuse (such as the AQUAREC project from 2004 – 2007 developing guidelines for sustainable water reuse in Europe) and operation and management of water infrastructure and associated governance and stakeholder management issues; integrated catchment management.

PERSONNEL

MR MICHAEL MUSTON BE (Civil) - FIEAust Honorary Principal Fellow Email: muston@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 (0)411 045 386.


RESEARCH STAFF PERSONNEL

DR BIPLOB KUMAR PRAMANIK

RESEARCH

BEng (RUET, Bangladesh), MEng (UKM, Malaysia), PhD (RMIT, Australia) Vice-Chancellor Postdoctoral Research Fellow Office Location: Bld 4, R G34 Email: biplobkp@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 3694 Research Interests: (1) Development of a technology platform for the recovery of energy and resources from wastewater and brine solution, (2) water and wastewater treatment using chemical, biological and membrane technologies, and (3) membrane fouling analysis. Professional Highlights: Vice-Chancellor Postdoctoral Research Fellow of UoW since 2017; Author of more than 45 peer reviewed publications; Higher Degree by Research Publications Grant, RMIT University; Best Poster Presentation Award, WETT HDR Symposium; Top HDR Publication Award for 2015 from 160 HDR students, and the second prize for this Award in 2014 from 145 HDR students, in the School of Civil, Environmental and Chemical Engineering at RMIT University.

DR. DONG WANG BEng, MSc, PhD Associate Research Fellow: Email: dongwang@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 3385. Research Interests: (Granular materials; Coupled THM (Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical) analysis in Geomechanics; Unsaturated soil mechanics, Discrete element modelling; Finite element modelling; Shrink/swell soils; Ground improvement; Tunnelling) Professional Highlights: Vice president of Geo Institute Texas A&M Chapter, 2016; Texas A&M University graduate Teaching Fellowship, 2016; University of Southern Califronia Provost Fellowship Award, 2012; Macao SAR Government Postgraduate Scholarships, 2009-2012; MaoYisheng Engineering Educational Scholarship, 2008; Research collaboration with Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, 2016; Research collaboration with University of Beira Interior, 2010.

DR. FERNANDA BESSA FERREIRA MSc, PhD Associate Research Fellow Research Centre for Geomechanics and Railway Engineering Office Location: Room 4.109 Email: fernanda@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 3385 Research Interests: (1) Reinforcement and stabilisation of railway track substructure using geogrids and rubber energy-absorbing layers, (2) deformation and degradation behaviour of railway ballast under highfrequency cyclic and impact loading and (3) behaviour of geosynthetic-reinforced soil walls and slopes under monotonic and cyclic loading conditions. Professional Highlights: Author of 19 publications; 2013-2016 Students Award from IGS (International Geosynthetics Society); 2016 Young Geotechnical Engineers Award (Honorable Mention) from the Portuguese Geotechnical Society; PhD Grant from the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology; Portuguese Representative of the Young IGS Members Committee since 2015.

GANG ZHANG B.S, MEng, PhD Visiting Fellow Office Location: Room 4.109 Email: gangz@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 3385 Research Interests: (1) Filtration of granular materials for dams and subballast (2) Internal erosion and instability analysis, (3) heightening technology on depositing surface in front of soil embankment dams. Professional Highlights: Visiting Research Fellow at University of Wollongong since June 2017, Associate Professor of Ningxia University China, Received Ningxia Natural Science Award in 2016, Team member that received several research grants from Chinese Government. 18

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


PERSONNEL

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR HU FENG

RESEARCH

BEng, MEng, PhD; Member of China Society of Civil Engineering Visiting Principal Fellow Office Location: Room 4.140 Email: hfeng@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 Research Interests: (1) Fibre reinforced cementitious composites for repairing structures, (2) Fibre reinforced Nano cementitious composites, (3) Fibre reinforced cementitious composites with Rubber particles, and (4) Geotechnical engineering grouting technology with quick-hard cement. Professional Highlights: Director of Discipline Construction and Scientific Research Management of School of Civil Engineering, Zhengzhou University; Member of Professor and Academic Committee of School of Civil Engineering, Zhengzhou University; Member of Fibre Concrete Professional Committee of China Society of Civil Engineering; 2017 Science and Technology Progress Award of Henan Province, China.

DR JAHANZAIB ISRAR BSc Eng, MSc Eng, PhD, MASCE, MPEC Associate Research Fellow Office Location: Room 4.109 Email: jahan@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 422 720 004 Research Interests: (1) Mud-pumping in railway substructures, (2) Hydraulic response of granular soils under mechanical loading (complex, static, cyclic loading), (3) discrete element modelling of filtration of granular soils, (4) internal erosion and internal instability of granular filters under static (hydraulic dams) and cyclic (railway) conditions, (5) filtration and drainage characteristics of granular and fine grained soils, (6) characterization, treatment and mechanical response of expansive/swelling soils. Professional Highlights: Formerly PhD candidate in CME 2013-2016; Co-authored 15 peer-reviewed publications; Senior Lecturer of Civil Engineering at University of Engineering and Technology Lahore, Pakistan (On study leave); member of ASCE and Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC).

DR LING LI BEng, PhD Research Associate Office Location: Room 4.109 Email: lingli@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 3385. Research Interests: (1) Prevention of structural progressive collapse, (2) Nonlinear behaviour of steel connection, (3) Numerical simulation of steel structure with fracture evolution and (4) Finite element modelling of ballasted railway under moving load.

DR NGOC TRUNG NGO, PHD Research Fellow Email: trung@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 3385 Research Interests: (1) Discrete Element Modelling (DEM) of ballasted rail tracks; (2) Coupled discretecontinuum modelling (coupled DEM-FEM) of track transition zones; (3) use of geosynthetics inclusions (geogrids, recycled rubber mats) for improved performance of ballast; (4) micro-mechanical analysis of granular materials. Professional Highlights: Research Fellow at the Center for Geomechanics and Railway Engineering (CGRE); Lecturer in Civil Engineering at the University of Wollongong (2013-2016); Authors of 20 peer reviewed publications; 2013 RSTA post graduate thesis award.

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PERSONNEL

DR PANKAJ BARAL

RESEARCH

BEng (IOE), MEng (AIT), PhD (UOW), MIEAust Associate Research Fellow Email: pbaral@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 3385 Research Interests: (1) Prefabricated vertical drains combined with vacuum and surcharge preloading (2) Elasto-visco plastic behaviour of soft soil, (3) Analytical and numerical modelling in geotechnical engineering, and (4) Strain rate dependency of pre-consolidation pressure. Professional Highlights: Associate Research Fellow at UOW since 2017; Author of 15 peer reviewed publications; ISLT Best paper Award 2014; Research Assistant at AIT during 2012-13; “His Majesty King Award” from Royal Highness Princess of Thailand; Member of Engineers Australia (EA), Australian Geomechanics Society (AGS) and Nepal Engineering Council (NEC); President at Nepal Engineers Association- Bangkok Chapter, 2010-2012.

DR SIHUANG XIE BEng (Tsinghua University), PhD (NUI, Galway) Research Associate Office Location: Room 4. G34A Email: Sihuang@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 4192 Research Interests: (1) Bioenergy and resource recovery using combined anaerobic digestion and membrane processes, (2) water and wastewater treatment using biological, chemical and membrane processes, (3) solid waste bioprocessing with emphases on bioenergy recovery and environmental remediation and (4) water-waste-energy nexus Professional Highlights: Author of over 30 peer reviewed publications with a total citation > 689 and H index of 12. Key investigator in research projects with total funding of $2.6 million since 2012, funded by ARC Discovery and Linkage Projects ($1.2 million), Queensland Government Smart Futures Program ($0.40 million), and Remondis Pty Ltd ($1 million).

DR UDENI NAWAGAMUWA BScEng, MEng, DrEng, CEng, FIE(SL) Endeavour Research Fellow (Aug 2017-Feb 2018) Office Location: Room 4.109 Email: udeni@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 3385 Research Interests: (1) Use of industrial wastes in geotechnical engineering applications (2) Railway geotechnics and (3) Landslide studies (4) Ground improvement (4) Development of fast cricket pitches Professional Highlights: Senior Lecturer at Department of Civil engineering, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka (udeni@uom.lk, currently on sabbatical leave), Visiting Scholar at Vanderbilt University, USA (Jan-July 2017), Editor, Sri Lanka Engineering News (2012-2016), General Secretary, Sri Lanka Association for the Advancement of Science (2013-2014).

MR. BRENDAN GALWAY BSc, MBA Honorary Fellow Email: galway@uow.edu.au Tel: +61 2 4221 Research Interests: Utilisation of food waste products into Anaerobic Digestion to improve biogas production. Use of waste materials as resource inputs into water and wastewater utilities. Professional Highlights: The project we are working on winning the Vice-Chancellor’s Award for Outstanding Achievement in Research Partnership and Impact.

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Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


DR BIPLOB KUMAR PRAMANIK Dr Biplob Kumar Pramanik is a UOW Vice-Chancellor’s Postdoctoral Research Fellow at SWIL: PhD from RMIT University; Master’s in Water Resources & Environmental Engineering, Department of Civil & Structural Engineering of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and BSc in Civil Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology, Bangladesh. While conducting postgraduate research work Biplob was also involved in teaching at RMIT University and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Since 2008, Dr. Pramanik has completed projects focussed on technology platform development for simultaneous water, energy and resources recovery from wastewater and brine solution. Results have supported 30 articles most in highly ranked peer reviewed journals (h-Index, 9) and presentations at conferences, seminars, and workshops. In addition to the UOW VC Postdoctoral Research Fellowship, Dr. Pramanik has received awards for papers and presentations, and has been awarded competitive internal and external grants while conducting PhD research at RMIT University. Dr Pramanik continues his research in collaboration with international researchers at institutions and industry in Sweden, South Korea, Malaysia, and China contributing to cutting-edge research outcomes.

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PERSONNEL

DR ANA HEITOR Ana Heitor received a Licentiate degree (New University of Lisbon) in 2004, a master’s (Kyoto University) and doctoral (University of Wollongong) degrees in Geotechnical Engineering in 2009 and 2013, respectively. From 2004 to 2006 she also worked in consultancy and construction companies in Portugal. During her PhD study, undertaken under the auspices of an Australian Research Council (ARC) linkage project, she was honoured in the Young Geotechnical Professional Competition (2010) and with the AGS NSW Research Student Award (2012) for her innovative research work on the investigation of cost effective and non-destructive testing methods for evaluating the compaction efficiency of reclamation fills at Penrith Lakes. A lecturer in CME initially in 2013 and senior lecturer from 2017, her research interests include use of compacted waste materials in transport infrastructure. Her work includes a range of projects for the NSW EPA, ARC Linkage and Cooperative research Centre (CRC) projects. Her achievements both in research and teaching have been recognized in the 2016 UOW Women of Impact and by the John Carter Award for Young Professionals in 2017. Her research has produced scholarly academic publications in international journals and conference proceedings. Dr. Heitor is an editorial board member for Soils and Foundations and Environmental Geotechnics Journals.

EARLY CAREER

EARLY CAREER RESEARCHERS


PERSONNEL

EARLY CAREER

DR NGOC TRUNG NGO Ngoc Trung Ngo, a CME early career researcher, received his BEng (1st Class Honours) from the Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, Vietnam in 2001 with a Masters (MEng) from the University of Wollongong, in 2008, and PhD in Geotechnical Engineering, UOW, January 2013. His PhD research focused on numerical modelling of ballasted tracks using the Discrete Element Method (DEM), and extensive experimental studies to assess and quantify the performance of contaminated (fouled) ballast and to rejuvenate its mechanical behaviour using geogrids. In 2013, Dr. Ngo’s doctoral research was acknowledged by Railway Technical Society of Australasia (RTSA) with the triennially awarded RTSA Postgraduate Thesis Award, for “Contributions to rail industry in transferring the results of advanced computational, theoretical, and laboratory research into professional engineering practices”. Dr. Ngo’s key areas of expertise include advanced computational modelling for ballasted rail tracks using discrete element method (DEM), coupled discrete-continuum method (coupled DEM-FEM) and ground improvement technique (i.e. stone columns) for transport infrastructure.

DR PANKAJ BARAL Pankaj Baral received a Bachelor degree of Civil Engineering in 2010 from Institute of Engineering (IOE), Pulchowk Campus, Tribhuban University, Nepal. He obtained M.Eng degree in Geotechnical and Geo-environmental engineering from Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Thailand in the year of 2012 and PhD degree from University of Wollongong in 2017. He worked as a research assistant from 2012 to 2013 at Asian Institute of Technology and published a number of journal and conference papers on ground improvement techniques. He received “His Majesty King Scholarship” from Royal Highness Princess of Thailand during his master studies. During his PhD, he investigated elastic visco-plastic behaviour of soft clay with special reference to radial consolidation with the help of novel analytical and numerical modelling. Currently he is working as an Associate Research fellow, supported by ARC centre of Excellence. His current research include Prefabricated vertical drains combined with vacuum and surcharge preloading, elasto-visco plastic behaviour of soft soil, and strain rate dependency of pre-consolidation pressure. He is a member of Nepal Engineering Council (NEC), a member of Australian Geomechanics Society (AGS) and a member of Engineers Australia (EA).

DR SHI-SHUN ZHANG Shi-Shun Zhang is a Lecturer in Civil Engineering, CME. He received his PhD degree from The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Poly U), 2012 with the Outstanding PhD Thesis Award, Faculty of Construction and Environment of Poly U, continuing as Postdoctoral Fellow. At UOW since August 2014, his research interests include FRP-strengthened concrete structures, nonlinear finite element analysis of structures, application of fiber-optic sensing systems in civil structures, and seismic retrofit of RC frames. He has a number of scholarly peer-reviewed publications in reputed international journals and has also given presentations and published papers at several international conferences. He is one of the authors of the Hong Kong design guideline “Guide for the Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Structures using FRP Composites” and the main developer of the software package “Composite Strengthening Designer” for the design of FRP-strengthened concrete structures (to be issued). He was/is the secretary-general for the 8th/9th National Conference on FRP in Construction in China and serves as a reviewer for several reputed international journals.

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Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


ALAN GRANT – CME LABORATORY MANAGER Senior Technical Officer Specialisation – managing CME data acquisition including soils, structural, mining, environmental and operating specialised test equipment.

FERNANDO ESCRIBANO Technical Officer Specialisation – responsible for design, construction and fabrication in civil engineering and operating structural test equipment.

CAMERON NIELSON

TRAVIS MARSHALL

Senior Technical Officer

Technical Officer

Specialisation – data acquisition including construction, design, mining, structural, environmental, fluids, and operating specialised test equipment.

Specialisation – responsible for design, construction, machining and fabrication and operation of test equipment for environmental engineering.

DUNCAN BEST

RICHIE MCLEAN

Senior Technical Officer

Technical Officer

Specialisation – data acquisition related to civil and mining and the management and operation of the test rig at the National Rail Centre which will open in 2018.

Specialisation – responsible for design, construction, machining, fabrication and operation of test equipment for civil and mining.

RICHARD BERNDT

RICHARD GASSER

Senior Technical Officer

Technical Officer

Specialisation – responsible for soil experimentation in soft soils and hard rock for CME, data acquisition and operating specialised test equipment.

Specialisation – responsible for design, construction, machining and fabrication of test equipment for civil, mining and environmental engineering.

LING (LINDA) TIE

COLIN DEVENISH

Senior Technical Officer

Technical Officer

Specialisation – responsible for the management of environmental laboratories.

Specialisation – responsible for design, construction, machining and fabrication of test equipment for mining and polymer research activities.

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TECHNICAL

The School of Civil, Mining and Environmental (CME) has 10 professional staff responsible for research and laboratory activities including undergraduate teaching. Part of their role is to develop tests which include design, fabrication and construction. The operation of the test equipment often involves setting up sensors and recording the data for research activities and student projects.

PERSONNEL

TECHNICAL STAFF


PERSONNEL 24

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


TEACHING AND LEARNING

Teaching and Learning

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CME Teaching and Learning The School of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering (CME) has earned a world class reputation for excellence in research, innovative approaches to teaching and learning, with laboratories and workshop facilities that are among the best in Australia. The academic staff and programs of CME provide excellence in teaching, leaders in research and strong collaborations with industry and government.

TEACHING AND LEARNING

CME DEGREES & PROGRAMS

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING-CIVIL ENGINEERING (HONS)

Teaching programs of Civil Mining & Environmental Engineering are presented by 22 full-time academic staff supplemented by 8 emeritus and honorary academics, and more than a dozen visiting and research academics. The school provides undergraduate and postgraduate classroom and practricum teaching averaging nearly 700 equivalent full-time student units per year (1 EFTSU = 48 credit points/year) in the current (2015-2017) period. With undergraduate enrolment among eight major 4-year degree programs in the three discipline areas (Civil, Mining, & Environmental), the School generates more than 130 new Bachelor degreed engineers to meet demands of government and industry in New South Wales and beyond. Steadily rising postgraduate enrolment includes an average of 130 coursework and 85 higher degree research (HDR) students per year, producing nearly 50 Masters degreed engineers and a dozen more PhD trained research engineers serving regional needs in Civil, Mining, and Environmental Engineering. All ten major Bachelors and Masters level Academic programs offered by CME are fully accredited through periodic review by Engineers Australia. Results of the 2016-2017 QILT Employer Satisfaction Survey rated UOW highest among NSW universities and 5th highest among all Australian Universities.

First year subjects common to all engineering disciplines provide exposure to engineering and its different fields before choosing which discipline to study. The common first year provides sound fundamentals in mathematics, statistics, physics, chemistry, computing, engineering science and communication, mechanics, materials, and fluids. Focus on the chosen major proceeds from the second year. A CME degree includes a 12-week handson industry placement. Academic credit may be obtained for relevant work experience in Australia or overseas, through the Professional Options Program. Engineering students have fullyequipped laboratories and the latest computer-aided software used in modern industrial workplaces. Academic staff encourages interaction with students and encourage them and get involved in industry projects and related learning opportunities including:

ŸŸ Laboratory experiments ŸŸ Problem based learning ŸŸ Computer simulations ŸŸ Teamwork assignments ŸŸ Industrial case studies ŸŸ Project management ŸŸ Site visits to industry

Overall satisfaction by institution (Australian Universities only), 2016 & 2017 (%)

MASTER OF ENGINEERING (CIVIL, MINING, ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING) The Master of Engineering (Civil, Mining, Environmental) provides graduate Engineers with discipline specific knowledge and technical skills in advanced civil engineering. This degree covers many areas including sustainable infrastructure, environmental protection, the conservation of resources, as well as the traditional disciplines of structural, geotechnical and transportation engineering, mining and mineral processing. This course is also suitable for practising civil, mining, and environmental engineers with relevant work experience in engineering infrastructure constructions.

CIVIL, MINING, & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING ACADEMIC PROGRAMS CME disciplines include structural design, geomechanics and rail engineering, transportation, construction, mining and mineral processing, water supply and wastewater engineering, waste management and environmental quality control, water resource management. Civil engineers build and maintain the infrastructure of advanced modern living. They plan, design, construct, operate and maintain everything from buildings to bridges, tunnels and dams, highways and airports, power plants, water and sewerage systems. Using computer technologies and advanced materials, Civil engineers design structures that meet the needs of a growing population while protecting the environment, reducing the dangers from natural phenomena and considering the future needs of the community.

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The Master of Engineering delivers expert skills and applied competencies required for the professional engineer. It is designed to train and enhance professional practice, advance technical and specialist skills, and provide an opportunity to put theory into practice with applied projects and research. The degree also delivers communication, strategic and project management skills essential to the practising engineer. Core subjects appropriate to the degree specialization are included: e.g. Engineering Computing, Project Management, Sustainability for Scientists and Professionals, Innovation & Design, and Research Methods. For the Civil Engineering major you will study subjects in Advanced Computer Applications, Advanced Foundation Engineering, Advanced Soil Mechanics, Construction Management, Highway Materials, Structural Design Based on Australian Standards and Engineering Hydrology.

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (ENGINEERING) The research involved in producing a doctoral (PhD) dissertation involves a significant contribution to a field of knowledge. Each PhD candidate has two supervisors. The Faculty will ensure that a supervisor with appropriate expertise is allocated to a candidate at the time of application. Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


ONLINE LABORATORY DEMONSTRATIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

STUDENT ENGAGEMENT AND HANDS-ON EXPERIENCE

As a part of implementing blended learning, online laboratory demonstrations have been developed for the subject Membrane Science & Technology (ENVE377). The video series complements the physical laboratory classes, where students characterise membrane properties and operate fundamental membrane systems. The online experience provides students with insight into research standard lab-scale and pilot-scale equipment. The video series includes demonstrations of reverse osmosis, forward osmosis and membrane distillation theory, operation and applications. Students are provided the opportunity to reinforce theoretical concepts and to consolidate their classroom learning.

The learning and teaching at the School of Civil Mining and Environmental is built on a strong on-campus experience. Student interactions with other students and academic staff are very much a face to face activity that helps to reinforce our sense of the engineering learning community.

AWARD WINNING TEACHING STAFF The CME academic staff members have been the recipients of numerous awards for teaching excellence. Ray Tolhurst, Mining Engineering, and Tim McCarthy are both holders of National Citations for Teaching Excellence presented by the Office of Teaching and Learning. Tim was also awarded the Australasian Association of Engineering Education Award for Student Engagement. The lecturing staff of the school has won a number of awards in recent years. UOW’s Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences Awards for Outstanding Contribution to Teaching and Learning have been awarded to Prof Long Nghiem, A/Prof Faisal Hai, Ray Tolhurst.

TEACHING AND LEARNING

HIGHLIGHTS

A VIRTUAL LABORATORY FOR GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION The virtual geotechnical engineering laboratory is developed to support three major laboratory experiments (1) direct shear box testing (2) triaxial testing (3) consolidation testing as part of the subject Civl462. These three laboratory experiments are widely used to obtain parameters for the design of geo-structures. Therefore, a thorough understanding on the background and testing of these experiments is very important for undergraduate education. In this context, animations of these experiments were developed using the animation software Equella with proper explanation at each stage testing. The major outcome of this project is the user-friendly animation software for major geotechnical laboratory experiments. (http://www.uow.edu.au/cedir/deploy/animations/01883_Geo/ site/2017/01/30/index.html)

Figures: Membrane Science & Technology Online Laboratory. Strategic Water Infrastructure Laboratory members Hung Cong Duong and Ashley Ansari demonstrating the mechanics of pilotscale membrane modules. The School houses a new, state of the art Computing facility with Augmented Reality and Building Information Modelling at its core. Students use this facility for their thesis and project work in a highly collaborative environment. The facility supplements our modern teaching computer labs by providing a space for advanced work with AR/VR and 3D printing.

Front page of the software (screenshot)

The Direct Shear Test (screenshot)

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STUDENT COMPETITIONS AND STUDENT MOBILITY PROGRAM ACTIVITIES Sinniah Navaratnarajah, CME PhD student is a winner of the global challenges travel scholarship video challenge Global Challenges provides ten $2,000 Travel Scholarships to existing PhD Scholarship through a 2 minute Video Challenge. Judged by the Global Challenges Program Leaders, videos are assessed on the quality of the research project, how well the project addresses one of the Global Challenges and the quality of the presentation.    With nearly 50 applications, Sinniah Navaratnarajah has been announced as a winner of the PhD Travel Scholarship.  Sinniah can use his scholarship to conduct fieldwork, attend conferences, or take part in research exchange. Watch his winning video: https://vimeo.com/144072832

TEACHING AND LEARNING

HUMANITARIAN ENGINEERING The School of Civil Mining & Environmental Engineering offers the only Humanitarian Engineering subject at UOW. CME students experience, first hand, the reconstruction of facilities in Rwanda as that country continues on its road to reconciliation after the genocide of 1994. This subject includes tutors who are survivors of the genocide and culminates with our students designing, planning and actually building an essential rural infrastructure facility in Rwanda.

The School of CME is leading the new Team UOW AustraliaDubai for the 2018 contest. In the last quarter of 2017 more than 200 students from every faculty on campus with additional students from TAFE NSW and UOW-Dubai are participated in the research, design, and planning of the new house named Desert Rose. Desert Rose is a dementia-friendly net-zero energy eco-house. Students built this house over the summer of 2017/18 to be completed in the first quarter of 2018. The house will be disassembled into panels for shipping to UOW’s Innovation Campus for practice re-assembly under competition time rules. After commissioning all the facilities in the house it will be tested and exhibited. Finally it will be disassembled, packed in shipping containers for transport to Dubai for the competition. The final assembly will take place in November 2018 at the MBR Solar Park in Dubai, UAE. Team UOW Australia-Dubai will compete against 20 other top universities from around the world in a bid to retain current World Champion status. After the contest, the Desert Rose house will be returned to Wollongong and reassembled beside the Illawarra Flame house as part of our ongoing research into sustainable and modular building.

MINING GAMES 2017

Twenty UOW engineering students in 2016 spent two weeks building an outdoor learning area, preparing the foundation for and installing two 10,000 L water storage tanks for a school at a remote village in Rwanda. The project is part of the innovative Humanitarian Engineering subject designed to foster practical skills enhancing employability.

SOLAR DECATHLON MIDDLE EAST 2018 UOW is the only university from Australia to have competed in the world finals of the International Solar Decathlon competition. This competition, sometimes called the “Energy Olympics” challenges students to design, build and operate a netzero energy home. The student team then transports their home in component pieces to the competition site for construction at the November 2018 competition site in Dubai, UAE. Solar Decathlons have been taking place since 2002 and are coordinated by the US Department of Energy (DoE) in conjunction with international partners.

In August 2017, the AusIMM Illawara Student Chapter took 17 University of Wollongong students from a range of mineralrelated degrees to Melbourne to participate in the AusIMM New Leaders Conference and National Mining Games. The focus of the New Leaders Conference for 2017 was “Building our future on the foundations of history’, which saw students listen to a number keynote speakers and participate in various workshops over the two days. The conference allowed students to gain an understanding of the history of mining as well as underlying themes of change management, ethics, and leadership within the industry, while being able to network with others from the industry. The remainder of the week, the 17 students formed 3 teams, two mixed and one mens, to participate in the National Collegiate Mining Games. As reigning champions from the 2016, the students from Wollongong were keen to show off their skills competing with other universities from all over Australia. The games were a success with Wollongong taking home ten podium finishes, as well as a heightened enthusiasm for their studies and an abundance of industry connections.

UOW entered the 2013 contest held in Datong, China. The design work began in late 2011 and culminated with the construction of the Illawarra Flame House, a net-zero retrofit of a traditional Australian “fibro” cottage. The team dismantled the house and shipped it to China where they rebuilt it in 10 days. Competing against 19 other universities from around the world, Team UOW won overall first prize, with a world record points total of 957.6 out of 1000. This record stands today. The CME team won five individual completion gold medals for Architecture, Engineering, Solar Application, Energy Generation, Hot Water. The team also won 3 silver medals in Communications, Market Appeal and Appliances. Over 50 students and staff were involved in China for up to 6 weeks. Overall, 150 students took part in different phases of the project.

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Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


RESEARCH STUDENT PROFILES CIVIL ENGINEERING STUDENT PROFILE: YUJIE QI

Yujie Qi obtained her bachelor’s degree in engineering in 2011 and master’s degree in civil engineering in 2014 both at Zhengzhou University, China, obtaining the “First-class University Graduate Scholarship” from 20122014, and the “Excellent Scientific Research Scholarship of Zhengzhou University ” in 2013. She was awarded with “The Best Postgraduate Student of Zhengzhou University”, “The Best Academic Innovation Award” by the Engineering Safety Innovation Team of Henan Province, “The Excellent Graduate of Henan province ”, “The Excellent Graduate of Zhengzhou University ”, and the “National Scholarship for graduate Students” which only for the top-class students national wide in China. Under the the supervision of Distinguished Prof. Buddhima Indraratna, her PhD research was focus on “Cyclic Loading Behaviour of Compacted Waste Materials for Transport Infrastructure”. Yujie Qi has published three papers in top ASCE journals like Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering and Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering. With her outstanding contribution to the connections between her PhD research and the industry, she was awarded with “Buddhima Indraratna Award for Industry Engagement ” in 2017.

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING STUDENT PROFILE: M. BILAL ASIF A recipient of the Australian Commonwealth Government Research Training Program Scholarship, M. Bilal Asif is currently conducting his PhD research in Environmental Engineering at the Strategic Water Infrastructure Lab (SWIL) of the School of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering. Before joining UOW, Bilal was involved in teaching and research activities for five years at the University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila (Pakistan). He completed his Bachelor’s and Master’s degree in Environmental Engineering, and was awarded the President’s Gold Medal by National University of Science and Technology, Pakistan for achieving perfect score (CGPA 4.0/4.0) in MS Environmental Engineering. Under the supervision of A/Prof Faisal I. Hai, his PhD research focuses on the development of an enzymatic membrane bioreactor system for effective removal of emerging contaminants (e.g., pharmaceuticals and pesticides) from water and wastewater. From his PhD research, to-date (2016-17) Bilal has published five articles in highly reputed Elsevier journals in the field such as Bioresource Technology, Journal of Environmental Management, and International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. He has also published three conference papers and a book chapter (Springer publishing) during this period. In 2016, his research paper received the best presentation award at the 9th International Conference in Challenges in Environmental Science & Engineering (CESE) that was held in Taiwan.

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TEACHING AND LEARNING

A recipient of the China Scholarship Council from Chinese government and the International Postgraduate Tuition Award from the University of Wollongong, Yujie Qi has done three and half year’s PhD research in civil engineering, School of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering, University of Wollongong (UOW). She just got her PhD thesis comments awarded with special commendation, and currently she is an associate research fellow in the Centre of Geomechanics and Railway Engineering, UOW.


MINING ENGINEERING STUDENT PROFILE: WEIGUO ZENG

TEACHING AND LEARNING

Weiguo Zeng completed his BE and MEng degrees in mining engineering at the China University of Mining and Technology (CUMT). He is a recipient of the China Scholarship Council (CSC) and the International Postgraduate Tuition Award (IPTA). Weiguo recently submitted his PhD thesis entitled A simulation model for surface mine truckshovel operation for external examination. His thesis supervisors were A/Prof Ernest Baafi, A/Prof Ian Porter and David Walker. Weiguo and published an article in the International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment, and has presented two conference papers including highly reputable Application of Computers and Operations Research in the Mineral Industry (APCOM) Conference.

CIVIL ENGINEERING STUDENT PROFILE: TANAZ DHONDY A recipient of the Australian Commonwealth Government Research Training Program Scholarship, Tanaz Dhondy is currently conducting her PhD research on an innovative topic titled Use of Sea Sand Seawater in Sustainable GFRP Reinforced Concrete Infrastructure in the School of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering under the supervision of A/Prof Alex Remennikov, A/Prof Neaz Sheikh and Dr Shishun Zhang. Tanaz commenced her studies at the University of Wollongong as an undergraduate student in 2013. She completed her Bachelor of Civil Engineering (Honour) in 2016. As a mandatory work placement period of 12 weeks is required for the attainment of a Bachelor of Engineering degree, Tanaz commenced her employment as a Building Cadet with Richard Crookes Constructions in 2015. In June 2016, Tanaz joined Costin Roe Consulting/ Strata Engineering Solutions as an Engineering Cadet and a Design Engineer. Tanaz is also a casual tutor for some of the undergraduate engineering subjects – the same subjects she once completed as an undergraduate student. Tanaz’s first international conference was at the Qatar University, in 2016, where she presented her undergraduate research at the World Congress of Undergraduate Research (World CUR). In 2017, Tanaz was nominated by the University of Wollongong and shortlisted by Engineers Australia for the Student Engineer of the Year Award. Tanaz presented her first research findings from her PhD studies at the 2017 International Workshop on Coastal Reservoirs and was awarded for the best oral presentation. Tanaz will present two papers later this year at the 2018 Australasia Structural Engineering Conference (ASEC).

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Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


Aruni Lakmali Abeywickrama Bamunusing Kankanamge

Ali Qasim Al-Baali

Navid Asadzadeh Aghdaei

Doctor of Philosophy

Master of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy

Behaviour of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) tube reinforced concrete (FTRC) specimens under different loading conditions.

A framework for adaptation and retrofitting an Australian conventional dwelling to improve performance by looking at different investment budget

Supervisor: Muhammad Hadi

Supervisor: Timothy Mccarthy

Sultan Alharbi

Muhammad Bilal Asif

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy

Determination, Remoral and Fate of Degradation By-Products from Waste water Treatment Processes

Optimization of Enzymatic Membrane Reactor for Treatment of Effluent from Pharmaceutical Industry.

Supervisor: Long Nghiem

Supervisors: Faisal Hai, Long Nghiem

Abbas Sahib Abd-Ali Al-Hedad

Emdad Balanji

Doctor of Philosophy (Integrated)

Doctor of Philosophy

Behaviour of Road Pavements.

Behaviour of Circular High Strength Concrete Columns Reinforced with Micro and Hybrid Steel Fibres Under Different Loading Conditions

Performance of Vertical Drains in Mitigating Mud Pumping under Cyclic Train Loads- Numerical and Experimental Perspective Supervisors: Buddhima Indraratna, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn Osama Abozweita Doctor of Philosophy (Integrated) Constitutive Model on the Behaviour of Asphalt Pavement Material Supervisors: Wei-Dong Guo, Martin Liu Habil Ahmad Doctor of Philosophy Assessment of Buildings Supervisors: Neaz Sheikh, Muhammad Hadi Junaid Ahmad Doctor of Philosophy Assessment and Retrofitting of Existing Concrete Structures

Supervisor: Muhammad Hadi Faez Alhussainy Doctor of Philosophy (Integrated) Behaviour of Self-Compacting Concrete Columns Reinforced Longitudinally with Steel Tubes

Supervisors: Muhammad Hadi, Tao Yu

Supervisors: Neaz Sheikh, Muhammad Hadi

Atheer Hilal Mahdi Al - Gburi

Shehroze Ali

Doctor of Philosophy (Integrated)

Doctor of Philosophy

Behaviour of RC Structures.

Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Structures under Quasi Static Loading

Supervisors: Muhammad Hadi, Neaz Sheikh

Supervisors: Muhammad Hadi, Tao Yu

Supervisors: Muhammad Hadi, Neaz Sheikh Pankaj Baral Doctor of Philosophy Anisotropic viscoplastic behaviour for soft soil consolidation subjected to vacuum preloading with special reference to consolidation Supervisors: Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn, Buddhima Indraratna Md Refat Ahmed Bhuiyan Doctor of Philosophy

Qassim Al-Aesawi

Ali Hussein Al-Jubainawi

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy

Oceanographic Characteristics of Alluvial Estuaries, North-West Arabian/Persian Gulf

Development and Performance Study of Three Thermal Compressor (adsorption) Chillers

Supervisor: Shuqing Yang,

Supervisors: Long Nghiem, Long Nghiem

Dennis Pere Alazigha

Mohammed Hussein Ali Almalome

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy (Integrated)

The Efficacy of Lignosulfonate in Controlling the Swell Potential of Expansive Soil and its Stabilization Mechanisms

Structural behavior of Composite Sandwich Panel

Supervisors: Jan Nemcik, Ting Ren

Supervisors: Muhammad Hadi, Tao Yu

Liyong Cai

Supervisors: Vinod Jayan Sylaja, Buddhima Indraratna

Ashley Ansari

Mustafa Sameer Abdulkareem AlAzzawi

Resource Recovery from Wastewater by Forward Osmosis - Membrane Distillation

Supervisor: Ernest Baafi

Supervisors: Faisal Hai, Long Nghiem

Justine Calleja

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy

Slenderness Effect on the Strength of Retrofitted Concrete Columns using FRP Composites. Supervisors: Muhammad Hadi, Tao Yu

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

Analysis & Design of CFS Shear Panels For Midrise Buildings In Australia Supervisors: Lip Teh, Timothy Mccarthy Patrick Booth Doctor of Philosophy A new approach to the estimation and characterisation of gas emissions in the life cycle of underground coal mines

Doctor of Philosophy (Integrated) System Approach To Underground Coal Mine Roadway Development

Doctor of Philosophy Pillar Design and Coal Burst Supervisors: Ian Porter, Jan Nemcik

31

TEACHING AND LEARNING

RESEARCH STUDENTS


Chun Wa Chan

Luca Faidutti

Matthew Goldston

Master of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy

The Compressive Behaviour of Annular Hybrid FRP-Concrete-Steel Tubular Columns

BIM strategies for the optimisation of the design, construction, transport and disassembly processes of sustainable modular structures

FRP-reinforced concrete beams under static and impact loads

Supervisors: Tao Yu, Shishun Zhang Kirti Choudhary Doctor of Philosophy

TEACHING AND LEARNING

Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Jute Prefabricated Vertical Drains and Their Comparison to Synthetic Drains Supervisors: Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn, Buddhima Indraratna Tanaz Dhondy Doctor of Philosophy Use of Sea Sand and Seawater in Sustainable GFRP Reinforced Concrete Infrastructure

Supervisors: Timothy Mccarthy, Lip Teh

Supervisors: Alexander Remennikov, Neaz Sheikh Libin Gong

Nabeel Farhan

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy Design and assessment of RC structures.

CNS Behaviour of Rock Joints Infilled with compacted Sediments

Supervisors: Muhammad Hadi, Neaz Sheikh

Supervisors: Buddhima Indraratna, Ana Paula Ribeiro Heitor

Zulqarnain Fida

Rebecca Grills

Doctor of Philosophy

Master of Philosophy

Occurrence, Fate and Remediation of Emerging Organic Contaminants in Ground Water

Use of Cellular Membranes for Subsoil Stabilisation in Transport Infrastructure

Supervisors: Faisal Hai, Long Nghiem

Supervisors: Ana Paula Ribeiro Heitor, Buddhima Indraratna

Supervisors: Alexander Remennikov, Neaz Sheikh

Chelsea Flood

Jamie Harris

Doctor of Philosophy (Integrated)

Doctor of Philosophy

Gopikrishna Dondapati

Wetland Processes in Treating Urban Wastewater

A Study of Leadership and DecisionMaking During Underground Mine Emergencies

Doctor of Philosophy Comparative Assessment of Shotcrete and Thin Spray-on Liners (TSLs) as a Supporting Element using Experimental and Numerical Analysis Supervisors: Ian Porter, Shivakumar Karekal Mai Duc Doctor of Philosophy Design and Rehabilitation Technique for Roads Supervisors: Muhammad Hadi, Neaz Sheikh Hung Duong Doctor of Philosophy (Integrated) Fresh water production grow saline saline solution by membrane distillation using solar thermal energy Supervisor: Long Nghiem Matthew Elliott Doctor of Philosophy The facilitation of modelling, analysis and design of structural steel connection in Building Information Modelling Supervisors: Lip Teh, Alexander Remennikov

Supervisors: Muttucumaru Sivakumar, Shuqing Yang Nicholas Franklin

Hayder Alaa Hasan

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy

Research into the Development of Prototype, Steel, Mid-Rise Residential Building Designs for the Australian Market

Behaviour of High Strength Concrete Columns Reinforced with GFRP Bars and Helices under Different Loading Conditions

Supervisors: Timothy Mccarthy, Lip Teh

Supervisors: Muhammad Hadi, Neaz Sheikh

Shiran Galpathage

Ellie Hawkins

Doctor of Philosophy Native Vegetation for improving Shear Strength of Soil Supervisors: Buddhima Indraratna, C. Rujikiatkamjorn V. Jayan Sylaja Edward Gan

Master of Philosophy Comparison of Secondary Support Performance In Situ and within the Confines of the Laboratory Supervisors: Shuqing Yang, Najdat Aziz Seyed Ali Heydarshahy

Doctor of Philosophy Using Vegetation for Blast Protection of Urban Infrastructure Supervisors: Alexander Remennikov, Ting Ren Hussamaldeen Goaiz

Doctor of Philosophy An Optimised Design to Rectify the Major Issues Associated with Drill Bits Supervisors: Shivakumar Karekal, Najdat Aziz Le Huang

Doctor of Philosophy (Integrated) Behaviour of Hollow Circular Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) Columns Supervisors: Muhammad Hadi, Tao Yu

32

Supervisors: Jan Nemcik, Najdat Aziz

Doctor of Philosophy Structural Behaviour of FRP-Confined Concrete Encased Steel Columns Supervisor: Tao Yu

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


Frank Hungerford

Dulara Madupushpa Kalubadanage

Yahong Kuang

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy

Otimisation of In-Seam Directional Drilling in Coal Mines.

A Bio-inspired Lightweight Composite System for Blast and Impact Projection

Supervisors: Ting Ren, Najdat Aziz

Supervisor: Alexander Remennikov

Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport of China’s Dongting Lake, and its effective Managements

Ayoob Ibrahim

Hogr Karim

Doctor of Philosophy (Integrated)

Doctor of Philosophy

Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Members.

Behaviour of Circular Concrete Columns Reinforced with GFRP Bars and GFRP Helices

Jahanzaib Israr Doctor of Philosophy Internal Instability of Granular Filters under Cyclic Loading Supervisors: Buddhima Indraratna, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn Mohammed Jameel

Supervisors: Muhammad Hadi, Neaz Sheikh Samuel Kelly Master of Philosophy Constructed Wetlands as a Solution to Shanghai’s Water Crisis Supervisors: Shuqing Yang, M. Sivakumar J. Ongerth

Zhe Li Master of Philosophy Defining Outburst-Free Zones of a Protected Coal Seam in Multiple Seam Mining With Seam Gas Content Method Supervisors: Ting Ren, Jan Nemcik Xuwei Li Doctor of Philosophy Study of Strata Reinforcement with special emphasis on the cable bolts loaded in shear Supervisors: Jan Nemcik, Najdat Aziz

Doctor of Philosophy

Saman Khaleghparast

Jia Lin

Behaviour of FRP confined and circularized hollow core RC columns under different loading conditons

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy (Integrated)

Systematic study of tendon shearing at varying angles of applied load

Supervisors: Muhammad Hadi, Neaz Sheikh

Supervisors: A. Remennikov, N. Aziz

Gas adsorption and desorption characteristics in relation to gas drainage in underground coal mines

Wickramarachchi Withanage Jayasuriya

Qasim Khan

Supervisors: Ting Ren, Ian Porter

Doctor of Philosophy

Jianli Liu Doctor of Philosophy

Use of Under Sleeper Pads (USP) to Mitigate Ballast Degradation

Axial and Flexural Behaviour of Circular Concrete Filled FRP Tube (CFFT ) Columns With and Without FRP Reinforcing Bars

Hydrodynamic and Salinity Simulation in the Lower Lakes, South Australia and Coastal Reservoir Strategy Application

Supervisors: Buddhima Indraratna, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn

Supervisors: Muhammad Hadi, Neaz Sheikh

Supervisors: Shuqing Yang, Muttucumaru Sivakumar

Balagalla Ralalage Pubudu Jayathilaka

Jamshed Khan

Anxiu Liu

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy (Integrated)

Desalination Using Hybrid Forward Osmosis-Membrane Distillation (FO-MD) Process

Pressure Relief Rule of Protected CoalSeam in Thin-Protective-Seam Mining

Doctor of Philosophy

Performance Modelling of a Permeable Reactive Barrier for Treating Acidic Groundwater in Acid Sulphate Soil Terrain

Supervisor: Long Nghiem

Supervisors: Ting Ren, J. Nemcik A. Remennikov

Supervisors: Buddhima Indraratna, Ana Paula Ribeiro Heitor

Warantorn Korkitsuntornsan

Chuhao Liu

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy

Daniel Jones

Effectiveness of Vertical Drains in Preventing Subgrade Clay Liquefaction under Dynamic Railway Loads

Performance of Geogrid stabilised ballast in Rail Tracks

Master of Philosophy Development of a Methodology and Decision Support Tools to Assist in the Economic Evaluation and Technical Feasibility of Retrofitting Residential Buildings

Supervisors: Buddhima Indraratna, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn

Supervisors: Timothy Mccarthy, Timothy Mccarthy

Supervisors: Buddhima Indraratna, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn Wenhai Luo Doctor of Philosophy Removal of trace organic contaminants by a novel osmotic membrane bioreactor Supervisors: Long Nghiem, Faisal Hai

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

33

TEACHING AND LEARNING

Supervisors: Muhammad Hadi, Neaz Sheikh

Supervisors: Shuqing Yang, Muttucumaru Sivakumar


James Maguire

Thanh Nguyen

Matharage Darshana Perera

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy

Analysis and Design of Cold-Formed Steel Storage Racks Subject to Rocking

Sequential and Simultaneous Application of Activated Carbon with Membrane Bioreactor for an Enhanced Removal of Trace Organics

Modelling vertical drains with vacuum preloading considering the soil structure characteristics

Supervisors: Lip Teh, Timothy Mccarthy Rakesh Sai Malisetty Doctor of Philosophy

TEACHING AND LEARNING

‘Dynamic Track Analysis Considering the Effect of Rayleigh Waved Generated by Fast Heavy Haul Trains’

Supervisors: Buddhima Indraratna, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn

Supervisors: Buddhima Indraratna, R. Walker C. Rujikiatkamjorn Hop Phan

Luong Nguyen

Doctor of Philosophy (Integrated)

Doctor of Philosophy

Supervisors: Buddhima Indraratna, Sanjay Nimbalkar

Effectiveness of Natural Biodegradable Drain on Soil Behavior in Comparison with Conventional PVD

Nutrients and trace organic contaminants removal by an Anoxic-aerobic Membrane Bioreactor (MBR): Lab, pilot and fullscale investigations

Nadeeka Miguntanna

Supervisor: Faisal Hai

Supervisor: Faisal Hai

Quynh Anh Nguyen

Yujie Qi

Master of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy

Dynamic Changes in Microbial Structure During anaerobic co-digestion

Cyclic loading behaviour of compacted waste materials with respect to energy absorption

Doctor of Philosophy Evaluation of Technical, Environmental and Socio-Economic Aspects of Stormwater Harvesting Systems for Potable Use Supervisors: Shuqing Yang, Muttucumaru Sivakumar Khelood Mkalaf Doctor of Philosophy A Study of Current Maintenance Strategies and the Reliability of Critical Medical Equipment in Hospitals in Relation to Patient Outcomes. Supervisors: Peter Gibson, Najdat Aziz Ramakrishna Morla Doctor of Philosophy Investigation of Diesel Engine Contaminants in Airflow Restricted Zones and Airways with Typical Ventilation Conditions in Underground Mines Supervisor: Shivakumar Karekal Jinswin Mulackal Thomas Master of Philosophy Sustainable Water/Waste Water Treatment. Supervisor: Long Nghiem Sinniah Navaratnarajah Doctor of Philosophy Use of Energy Absorbing Shock Mats for Mitigating Ballast Degradation

Supervisor: Long Nghiem

Supervisors: Buddhima Indraratna, C. Rujikiatkamjorn V. Jayan Sylaja

Sasha Nikolic Doctor of Philosophy Exploration of the Benefits to Learning of Student Evaluations in the Laboratory Supervisor: Timothy Mccarthy Darshika Palamakumbure GIS based landslide inventory and landslide susceptibility modelling across the Sydney Basin. Supervisor: Phillip Flentje Muditha Pallewattha Improvement of Soil Stability Along Rail corridors through Native Vegetation Supervisors: Buddhima Indraratna, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn Destiny Paris Embedding Aboriginal Perspectives into High School Engineering Education Supervisors: Timothy Mccarthy, Timothy Mccarthy

Master of Philosophy Effects of constitutive model on the stability analysis of roadway tunnels of coal mines

Haleh Rasekh Doctor of Philosophy Shear performance of cable bolts in experimental, numerical and mathematical studies

Md. Harun-Or Rashid Doctor of Philosophy Synthesis,Characterisation and Application of Carbon Nanotube Membranes

Influence of Fibre Type on the Mechanical Properties of Reactive Powder Concrete

34

Marzieh Rajabi

Supervisors: Jan Nemcik, Najdat Aziz

Doctor of Philosophy

Mohsin Nawaz

Supervisors: Ana Paula Ribeiro Heitor, Muttucumaru Sivakumar

Experimental and numerical analysis of thin spray-on liner materials for use in underground mines

Supervisors: Jan Nemcik, Najdat Aziz

Doctor of Philosophy

Kaidi Peng

The use of Geopolymers in civil engineering applications.

Doctor of Philosophy

Supervisors: Jan Nemcik, Ian Porter

Doctor of Philosophy

Supervisors: Buddhima Indraratna, Sanjay Nimbalkar

Doctor of Philosophy

Qiuqiu Qiao

Supervisors: Long Nghiem, Long Nghiem

Master of Philosophy

Supervisors: Tao Yu, Muhammad Hadi

Mehdi Robati Doctor of Philosophy Sustainability based structural design of multi storey reinforced concrete office building Supervisor: Timothy Mccarthy

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


Mandeep Singh

Zhenghao Tang

Master of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy

Capacity Maximisation of Loaded Tensegrity Structures Through Optimal Pretensioning

Performance of Compacted Subballast Subjected to Cyclic Loads under Unsaturated Conditions

Enhanced Seismic Resilience of Light Steel Frame Pallet Racking Systems with Upliftable Base Plate

Supervisors: Timothy Mccarthy, Alexander Remennikov

Supervisors: Buddhima Indraratna, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn

Supervisors: Lip Teh, Alexander Remennikov

Zein Saleh

Xiaoye Song

Miriam Tawk

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy (Integrated)

Doctor of Philosophy

Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Columns under Transverse Impact Load

Trace Organic Removal and Biogas Production by Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor

Role of Unsaturation in Compacted Waste Materials for Transport Infrastructure

Supervisors: Neaz Sheikh, Alexander Remennikov

Supervisor: Long Nghiem,

Supervisors: Buddhima Indraratna, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn

Subhani Samarakoon Jayasekara Mudiyanselage

Mairaj Hyder Alias Aamir Soomro

Krishanthan Thevakumar

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy

Slope Stability Assessment of an Open Pit Mine.

Factors altering mud pumping under cyclic loading

Supervisors: Shivakumar Karekal, Najdat Aziz

Supervisors: Buddhima Indraratna, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn

York Stanham

Jacqueline Thim

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy

Experimental and Analytical Study of Floating Wave Energy Devices.

Thermal behavior of the Desert Rose House 2018 in a defined climatic zone depending on varied wall and roof constructions

Biological and Chemical Clogging of Permeable Reactive Barriers Supervisors: Buddhima Indraratna, Ana Paula Ribeiro Heitor Mazin Mohammed Sarhan Doctor of Philosophy Structural behaviour of structural members. Supervisors: Muhammad Hadi, Lip Teh Saurav Doctor of Philosophy Numerical Modelling and Field Trials of Thin Spray on Lines (TSLs) to Investigate their Properties for Mining Applications Supervisors: Ian Porter, Jan Nemcik Galilee Semblante Doctor of Philosophy Study of sludge minimisation and fate of trace organic contaminants in the oxicsettling- anaerobic process Supervisors: Faisal Hai, Long Nghiem Zhenjun Shan Doctor of Philosophy Geotechnical Assessment of Thin Spray-on Liners (TSL) for Coal Mine Roof Support Supervisors: Ian Porter, Jan Nemcik Firman Siahaan Doctor of Philosophy

Supervisor: Timothy Mccarthy Ahmed Sultan Doctor of Philosophy Behaviour of Concrete Structures. Supervisor: Muhammad Hadi Yifei Sun Doctor of Philosophy Effect of particle angularity and size distribution on the deformation and degradation of ballast under cyclic loading Supervisors: Buddhima Indraratna, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn Pei Tai Doctor of Philosophy Behaviours of Isolated stone Column under Cycle Loading Supervisors: Buddhima Indraratna, C. Rujikiatkamjorn S. Basack Chazath Ibrahim Tamimoul Hansary Doctor of Philosophy

Micromechonically-inspired Stone Cdumn Behariour on soft soil improvement

Behaviour of compacted coalwash under saturated condition incorporating particle breakage

Supervisors: Buddhima Indraratna, C. Rujikiatkamjorn V. Jayan Sylaja

Supervisors: Buddhima Indraratna, A. Ribeiro Heitor C. Rujikiatkamjorn

Supervisor: Timothy Mccarthy Raymond Tolhurst Doctor of Education Developing A Comprehensive Education and Training Model for the Minerals Industry Supervisor: Ernest Baafi Hoang Minh Truong Doctor of Philosophy Cyclic Behaviour and Associated Deformation of Subgrade Soil Subjected to Mud Pumping in Heavy Haul Railroads Supervisors: Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn, Buddhima Indraratna Arbab Tufail Doctor of Philosophy Removal of Pharmaceutical Waste Water by Hybrid Process Based on Fenton Like Oxidation and Enzyme-Catalyzed Degradation Supervisors: Faisal Hai, Long Nghiem Gaetano Venticinque Doctor of Philosophy Advanced Numerical Modeling of Fracture Propagation in Rock Supervisors: Jan Nemcik, N. Aziz T. Ren

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

35

TEACHING AND LEARNING

James Roth


Ana Cristina Villaca Coelho

Yufei Wu

Jian Zhang

Doctor of Philosophy

Master of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy

Integrated building environmental performance assessment: retrofits in retail and commercial buildings

A Study on the Impact of Hailstone on Roofing/Cladding

Investigations of Spontaneous Combustion and Goaf Gas Control in Gassy Coal Mines.

Supervisors: Lip Teh, Timothy Mccarthy

Supervisor: Ting Ren

Tian Xie

Ying Zhang

Master of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy

Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Sewage Sludge and Organic Wastes: Laboratory Study and Pilot Evaluation

Cyclic loading behaviour of stone columns partially wrapped with geogrid

Supervisors: Timothy Mccarthy, Timothy Mccarthy Truong Minh Vu Master of Philosophy

TEACHING AND LEARNING

Phosphorous Recovery from Anaerobically Digested Sludge Centrate by Forward Osmosis Supervisors: Long Nghiem, Faisal Hai Niroshan Walgama Wellalage Doctor of Philosophy Predicting Remaining Service Potential of Railway Bridges based on Visual Inspection Data Supervisors: Richard Dwight, Lip Teh David Walker Doctor of Philosophy The creation of a coal seam extraction margin optimiser Supervisor: Ernest Baafi Gaofeng Wang Doctor of Philosophy (Integrated) Structural Behaviour of FRP Tube Reinforced Concrete (FTRC) Columns

Supervisors: Long Nghiem, Muttucumaru Sivakumar

Haiqiu Zhang

Shufan Yang

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy Removal of micropollutants by a fungusaugmented membrane bioreactor

Desalination of brackish groundwater by stand-alone solar powered vacuum membrane distillation

Supervisors: Long Nghiem, Faisal Hai

Supervisor: Muhammad Hadi

Guanyu Yang

Hua Zhao

Doctor of Philosophy (Integrated)

Doctor of Philosophy

Research on Cable bolting performance under double shear - Experimental and analytical studies

The Technical and Economic Feasibility of a Multi-Thin-Seam Open Cut Coal Mine

Supervisors: Jan Nemcik, Najdat Aziz

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy Study on Energy Storage and Dissipation Associated with Coal Burst

Supervisor: Ting Ren Weiqiang Wang

Jim Youssef

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy

Studies of TBM Rock Cutting and Frictional Ignition Control in Underground Coal Mines

Axial and Flexural Behaviour of GFRP Reinforced and GFRP-ENCASED Square Concrete Columns

Supervisors: Muhammad Hadi, Neaz Sheikh

Supervisor: Muhammad Hadi

Doctor of Philosophy Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and organic wastes Supervisors: Long Nghiem, Faisal Hai Kandage Dona Thushari Kanchana Wijayawardena Doctor of Philosophy Use of Positive Psychology by Women in STEM Fields: An Exploratory Study on Women in Solar Decathlon Projects

Supervisor: Muhammad Hadi Liang Zhao

Xiaohan Yang

Supervisors: Alexander Remennikov, Ting Ren

Richard Wickham

Supervisors: Muttucumaru Sivakumar, Shuqing Yang

Methods to Reduce Early Cover Spalling of Reinforced Concrete Members. Supervisors: Ting Ren, Ernest Baafi Hongchao Zhao Doctor of Philosophy Novel Hybrid FRP Tubular Standing Roof Supports for Long-wall Mining and Roadway Intersections. Supervisors: Tao Yu, A. Remennikov T Ren Lei Zheng

Jiansong Yuan

Doctor of Philosophy (Integrated)

Doctor of Philosophy The experimental study of GFRP I-beam encased in beam members Supervisor: Muhammad Hadi

NF Membrane Filtration for the Removal of Micro-Pollutants in Drinking Water. Supervisor: Long Nghiem Dongli Zhu

Weiguo Zeng

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy (Integrated) A simulation model for truck-shovel dispatching system in an open-pit mine Supervisors: Ernest Baafi, Ian Porter

Combination of Pile and PVD for ground improvement Supervisors: Buddhima Indraratna, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn

Supervisors: Timothy Mccarthy, Timothy Mccarthy

36

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

RESEARCH

Research

37


CME Research 2015-2017 Research is the engine that drives technical progress in every area of society. In general, Civil Engineering (CME) serves the infrastructure needs of society providing for all manner of structures, transportation, water, wastewater and environmental sanitation. In Australia, mineral resources are plentiful and a major economic factor, accounting for the importance of mining related research and application. Research activities in CME in addition to the independent and collaborative activities of individual staff, are facilitated by formal Research Centers serving to focus and coordinate activities for specific purposes and objectives. This report section includes: A description of the nine Research Centers important to research activities of CME staff; Research reports describing in limited detail the scope and variety of research activities of CME staff over the 2015-2017 period; External research funding sources are tabulated including a summary table of income and scholarly output. A brief description is included of CME facilities and equipment that provided for the scope of research catalogued below. 2007

2009

External Research Funding

2015

2016

2017

2.30 M

3.15 M

3.59 M

6.39 M

9.80 M

69

75

84

95

141

6

10

24

13

12

14

73

86

139

174

251

262

318

1527

1385

1385

2381

2187

2626

3312

Doctoral Graduates Citations by Year

2013

44

HDR Students Research Publications refereed

2011

RESEARCH 38

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


CME RESEARCH CENTRES The research of CME is partially organized and facilitated by formal groups, termed Centres, incorporating CME staff with collaborators in other units of the University of Wollongong as well as staff at Universities elsewhere. Currently CME Centres include the following:

– ARC CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE FOR GEOTECHNICAL SCIENCE & ENGINEERING – CENTRE FOR GEOMECHANICS & RAILWAY ENGINEERING – INDUSTRIAL TRANSFORMATION TRAINING CENTRE FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES IN RAIL TRACK INFRASTRUCTURE (ITTC-RAIL) – RAIL MANUFACTURING CRC – CENTRE FOR COASTAL RESERVOIR RESEARCH – CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION & MINING SAFETY – ENGINEERING & MATHEMATICS EDUCATION RESEARCH GROUP – GEOQUEST--ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH – INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR COMPOSITES IN INFRASTRUCTURE (ICCI) – LANDSLIDE RESEARCH GROUP

CENTRE FOR GEOMECHANICS AND RAILWAY ENGINEERING

The ARC Centre of Excellence (ARC COE) for Geotechnical Science and Engineering was established in 2011 through the award of an Australian Research Council grant worth over $20 million. The Centre is expected to operate over a 7 year period via cash funding approaching $20 million, and contributions from ARC, industry, University, and NSW Science Leveraging. ARC COE was formed by merging 3 of the most active and successful geotechnical research centres in Australia: the Centre for Geotechnical and Materials Modelling (Newcastle), the Centre for Geomechanics and Railway Engineering (Wollongong), and the Centre for Offshore Foundation Systems (Western Australia).

Director: Distinguished Professor Buddhima Indraratna

The Centre focuses on large scale laboratory experiments and advanced computational methods in Geotechnical engineering, and for the first time in Australia the Centre will combine experimental and numerical researchers into a cohesive national team. Their combined strengths will generate a powerful capability for understanding and applying Geomechanics. Researchers from the University of Wollongong will lead exciting projects in the fields of energy, transport infrastructure, and ground improvement. This will lead to many new opportunities for research students at the international leading edge of Geotechnical Engineering. The Centre is developing a major outreach program to bring this exciting field to the public. See: http://www.uow.edu.au/eng/research/geotechnical/index. html

CENTRES

ARC CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE FOR GEOTECHNICAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

RESEARCH

– MINING RESEARCH CENTRE

The Centre for Geomechanics and Railway Engineering (GRE) has been built around several inter-disciplinary research phases to undertake advanced research into the design and performance of major infrastructure such as dams and transportation systems. It is one of the three nodes of the Australian Research Council (ARC) Centre of Excellence in Geotechnical Science and Engineering. It leads The Industrial Transformation Training Centre for Advanced Technologies in Rail Track Infrastructure (ITTC-Rail). Researchers at the Centre have successfully secured many ARC (linkage and discovery) grants, in addition to funding from the Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) for Railways, and government and industry organisation. The total annual funding for the Centre now exceeds $3 million. The proven high level research from a team of focused academics, research fellows and high calibre PhD students places the GRE Research Centre on top of the region in many key R & D areas. Objectives: • Establish an inter-disciplinary research team to contribute to the innovative development of sustainable surface and subsurface infrastructure. • Undertake challenging ground structure interaction projects. • Conduct fundamental and applied research on modern ground improvement techniques. • Improve the quality of research and training of postgraduate students with strategic research directions, with a focus on current industry trends.

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

39


The key research areas of GRE are: Soft Ground Engineering and Ground Improvement • Stabilising soft clay embankments using prefabricated vertical drains combined with vacuum preloading. • Chemical stabilisation of problematic soils, including erodible, dispersive, collapsible, and unstable soils. • Use of synthetic materials to improve subsurface drainage and reduce track deflection. • Stabilisation of soft and weak foundation soils using native vegetation that exploits root suction. Rail Track Engineering and Transport Geotechnics • Dynamic modelling and prediction of track performance. • Automated monitoring of track defects. • New materials for track components for increased ballast and sub-ballast performance. • Assessment of rail-ballast-foundation interaction. • Behaviour of granular materials under cyclic loads including particle degradation and cyclic densification • Effect of slope movements on rail tracks and highway cuttings. • Railway sub-ballast filtration under cyclic conditions. Environmental Geotechnics, Filtration and Drainage • Dams and Foundation Engineering • Offshore reclamation with blended waste materials • Design and construction of granular filtration for embankment dams. • Remediation of acid sulphate soils to prevent corrosion of track components. • Role of filtration in eroded soil retention. • Stability analysis of embankment dams and internal piping and erosion assessment.

manufacturing, engineering and design innovations to help grow construction and manufacturing businesses servicing the rail industry. • Assist in reforming technical standards and regulations. • Improve global competitiveness and position the country as a global R&D leader in rail engineering. The ITTC-Rail will build on UOW’s proud reputation for innovation, industry interaction and world-class facilities. The centre’s four integrated research programs are: • Track dynamics, advanced simulation and design innovation. This includes mitigating destabilising forces via mud hole and mud pumping alleviation; improving life span of critical track components; digital designs for safer level crossings; design software for higher axle loads and speeds. • Materials selection and construction processes. This includes improved steel and concrete components; smart sleepers; novel manufacturing processes adopting 3D printing. • Sustainable rail infrastructure using recycled and nontraditional materials. This includes vibration mitigation and damage control through recycle tyre products; innovative subculture stabilisation methods. • Health monitoring, safety and reliability. This includes real-time track monitoring; digital simulation of track components; field data analysis ad performance validation.

RAIL MANUFACTURING CRC UOW Node Coordinator: Distinguished Professor Buddhima Indraratna

CENTRES

RESEARCH

Rock Engineering and Mining Geomechanics • Geomechanics and Mine Planning • Jointed rock engineering. • Rock excavations including tunneling and mining. • Minimisation of Geo-hazards and Geo-environmental Impact • Landslide hazards and risk management. Computational and numerical Geomechanics • Deep foundations and pile dynamics. Earthquake effects on foundations. • Numerical and computational geomechanics. • Constitutive modelling of geomaterials . • Stability assessment of embankments and Transport systems

INDUSTRIAL TRANSFORMATION TRAINING CENTRE FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES IN RAIL TRACK INFRASTRUCTURE (ITTC-RAIL) ITTC-Rail will actively build areas of research capacity and strength, while supporting promising young professionals to be trained for the future workforce. The collaboration will secure the rail industry’s competitive advantage in global rail products manufacturing. The Centre’s key aims include:

The Rail Manufacturing CRC was established to improve the design and performance of major infrastructure. Australia’s Railway Industry is reinventing itself to become the major mode of land transport in the 21st century, with the main challenge of creating a competitive edge through imaginative ideas, innovative research leadership and cutting-edge technology. In addition, the vast majority of the population lives on the coast where the soft and compressible marine soft clays in Australia present significant construction challenges with regard to the design and performance of major infrastructure, such as the stability of transportation systems. Research projects • Performance of recycled rubber inclusions for improved stability of railways • Application of geogrids to minimize track deformation and degradation under high frequency cyclic and heavy haul loading

• Creating innovative engineering solutions and products to provide solutions to major railway challenges that can enhance railway performance and extend infrastructure longevity. • Developing a skilled professional workforce through a series of R&D, and training programs carried out in partnership with participants from all sectors of the rail industry. This will address the future technological requirements of the industry by rejuvenating higher degree training. • Advancing fabrication techniques and more resilient product development. The greatest challenge in cost-effective and long-lasting rail infrastructure is track degradation. • Develop and implement strategies to commercialise

40

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION AND MINING SAFETY (CIP&MS)

C2R2 was formed with international collaboration to serve world CR development needs. Group members are actively engaged in of fundamental and applied research with international collaboration of academic, industrial, water service providers, geotechnical/ structural engineering, energy pipeline, coastal flood management, urban designers/planers. The C2R2 objective is to drive scientific approaches to CR’s optimal design and implementation by focusing on achieving sustainable development for coastal communities. Mission

Coordinators: A. Professor Alex Remennikov & A. Professor Ting Ren The Centre for Infrastructure Protection and Mining Safety (CIP&MS) is an integrated interdisciplinary research centre that facilitates, coordinates and promotes innovative activities involving wide collaboration in the areas of infrastructure protection and mining safety. The CIP&MS provides a platform for researchers from Civil, Mining and Environmental disciplines of School of CME to collaborate in order to efficiently utilise the unique technical expertise and capabilities currently existing within the School thus maximise our impact to industries. All activities and research- and-development conducted by the CIP&MS will be aimed at enhancing the image and standing of UoW as a leading research institution in line with the current UoW vision “to enrich people, communities and the environment by making original and creative connections across disciplinary, social and cultural boundaries”.

• Provide coastal communities required feasibility studies for CR projects to achieve a win-win solution for environment and water development. • Promote a scientific approach to CR engineering focused on achieving outcomes for coastal communities.

LANDSLIDE RESEARCH Coordinators: Sr Research Fellow Phillip Flentje & Professor Emeritus Robin Chowdhury

• Apply Computational Fluid Dynamics to mine ventilation and fugitive dust/gas problems; • Develop novel methods to enhance gas drainage in tight and low permeable seams using directional drilling • Studies of rock and coal burst in underground coal mines • Applications of advanced micro-seismic monitoring methods for coal/rock burst and outburst events in underground mines; • Protection and retrofitting of buildings against effects of natural and man-made hazards, • Safety of railway infrastructure, • High-performance computing and modelling severe load effects on critical infrastructure, • Demolitions of large structures in Civil and Mining industries. For more information: http://www.uow.edu.au/eng/research/ UOW095476.html

CENTRE FOR COASTAL RESERVOIR RESEARCH (C2R2)

Research concerning slope stability has been conducted at the University of Wollongong for nearly three decades, starting from conventional geotechnical analysis of slopes, soil testing and site investigation. Over the last decade it has progressed on to the development of Landslide Inventories, the assessment of landslide susceptibility and the assessment of landslide hazard. When combined together with the understanding and assessment of the consequences of landsliding, the risk of landsliding can be examined in detail. Research & Applications: • Development of landslide lnventories, • Assessment of landslide susceptibility • Quantitative assessment of landslide hazard • Application of GIS and remote sensing to landslide risk potential • Understanding and assessment of landsliding consequences, • Detailed quantification of landslide risk.

INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR COMPOSITES IN INFRASTRUCTURE (ICCI) Coordinators: A/Prof Tao Yu, Co-Director (UOW), & Prof Jin-Guang Teng Co-Director (International)

Coordinators: A. Professor Shu-Qing Yang and A. Professor M. Sivakumar

The International Centre for Composites in Infrastructure (ICCI) was established in 2016 at the University of Wollongong (UOW). The ICCI has the founding support of the following five institutions as its partners: The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Queen’s University Belfast, Tsinghua University, University of Queensland and Southern Cross University. In 2017 the ICCI has three new partners: University of Adelaide, Zhejiang University, Swinburne University of Technology.

The Centre for Coastal Reservoir Research (C2R2) at the University of Wollongong (UOW) is a world 1st for coastal reservoir research. CR is a technology to harvest floodwater from rivers arriving at a coastal terminus before mixing seawater limiting its use. Currently Shanghai has the largest CR in the world providing water supply for about 1.3 million people. The

The ICCI aims to develop advanced technologies for the use of composites in infrastructure through international collaborative research, and to engage in the transfer and dissemination of these technologies through specialist consultancy, postgraduate teaching, continuing professional training and development of design codes/guidelines.

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CENTRES

Develop innovative monitoring and control strategies for underground mining and safety;

RESEARCH

Research projects


Activities: • International Symposium for Emerging Researchers in Composites for Infrastructure (ISERCI) held in July 2017 and the two • The ISERCI symposium included a two-day program with some 40 presentations, and attracted over 70 attendees from six countries, including academics, research students and industry practitioners. In particular, the ISERCI symposium included a special industry session for industry practitioners to share their advances in practice, to generate mutually beneficial discussions and to promote potential future collaborations between researchers and practitioners. • International summer schools on Composites in Infrastructure (ISSCI), July 2016 and July 2017. • The ISSCI summer schools included a three or four-day teaching programme, which provided a comprehensive and thorough treatment of the behaviour, modelling and design of structures incorporating composite materials. The two ISSCI summer schools each attracted around 50 attendees including structural engineers, researchers, industry partners and research students.

competitive OLT grants in addition to being collaborating investigators on four other research projects led by other institutions. There are currently 6 PhD students working on Engineering and Mathematics Education research projects. Research projects: • An Aboriginal Approach to Cultural Competency in Engineering Education. • Development of a Sustainable Process Model via IndustryDriven Career Focused ICT Curriculum in Producing SoughtAfter ICT Graduates - The Malaysian Context • Use of Positive Psychology by Women in STEM Fields: An Exploratory Study on Women in Solar Decathlon Projects • The Role of Student Evaluations in Improving the Engineering Teaching Laboratory • Optimising Higher Education Admission Policy in Oman • Mathematics in a connected world • Incorporating augmented reality for teaching threshold engineering concepts. See: http://eis.uow.edu.au/emerg/index.html

MINING RESEARCH CENTRE

GEOQUEST ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH

Director: Associate Professor Ian Porter

Coordinator: Prof. Long Nghiem

Mining Engineering at the University of Wollongong (UOW) is a major provider of research outcomes to the Australian minerals industry. Academics are actively engaged in a number of fundamental and applied research projects which are externally funded and industry sponsored in various areas of mining engineering. CENTRES

RESEARCH

Objectives: Provide research outcomes for the international minerals industry support the mining industry with established expertise in mine safety, ground control, and mine design. Current research projects include: • Mine Safety - in the areas of coal gas migration mechanisms, underground mine dust control, dust suppression technologies, coal mine outburst prediction and control. • Mining Geotechnical Engineering and Ground Control – with a focus on strata reinforcement, rock bolting, numerical modelling and mine subsidence prediction. • Computer Applications and Operations Research Methodologies – an active program of systems approach to mine productivity improvements. The work currently being conducted focuses on discrete simulation modelling, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and numerical modelling of ground movement. See: https://eis.uow.edu.au/cme/mining-research-centre/ index.html

ENGINEERING & MATHEMATICS EDUCATION RESEARCH GROUP (EMERG) Coordinator: Professor Tim McCarthy EIS is the only Faculty at UOW to have a dedicated research group studying disciplinary tertiary research. EMERG is a group, hosted by the School of CME ,that spans the Faculty of EIS bringing together Engineering and Mathematics researchers who have also demonstrated track record in scholarly research in the growing field of Engineering and Mathematics Education Research. Members of EMERG have been recognised for their teaching excellence with a number of Office of Learning and Teaching (OLT) citations and research funding. In the last five years we have been lead institution in over $1.2M in nationally

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Environmental Engineering is based on several key aspects relating to society’s interaction with the Environment. This includes the development of engineering solutions to environmental problems which impact on our land, water, air quality, and provision of clean water and air for domestic, industrial, and agricultural purposes. Our research is developed on the principle of sustainability and centres on water quality and treatment as well as water resource engineering. Research projects: • Novel high retention membrane bioreactors for sustainable water reuse: Process performance and optimization. • Assessment and optimisation of N-nitrosamine rejection by reverse osmosis for planned portable water recycling applications. • Optimising nanofiltration and reverse osmosis filtration processes for water recycling: effects of fouling and chemical cleaning on trace contaminant removal. • Biosolids management: odour and volume reduction. • Co-digestion of wastewater sludge and organic waste for biogas production. • A novel carbon neutral desalination process based on forward osmosis (FO) and membrane distillation (MD). • Development of a membrane based platform for energy and resource recovery from wastewater. See: https://smah.uow.edu.au/geoquest/water-resources/index. html

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


Structural Engineering Research Summaries Current research activities in civil and structural engineering topic areas reflect the research interests of the academic and research staff of CME. The ten brief descriptions of projects conducted over the 20152017 period provided here illustrate the research interests related to technical specialties of the staff, their interactions with collaborators, and the wider interests of civil engineering expressed by allocation of the funding essential to project implementation. The collection of technical expertise among the staff in combination with specialized equipment and facilities have made these projects possible as part of the continuing scholarly output of the group and its contribution to providing cutting edge additions to civil engineering technology and to instructional capability. Principal interests and specialized expertise in structural engineering include: • Reinforced concrete design with application of novel reinforcing materials • Steel frame design including advanced analytical techniques, modular, and sustainable elements, retrofit application • Seismic design and earthquake engineering • Rehabilitation of structures and structural component • Modelling of structures and structural elements including dynamic, nonlinear, and finite element techniques • Structural behaviour under extreme conditions related to shock/blast effects and related design REPORTS: STRUCTURAL

• Analysis and design for dynamic loading of structural components including rail applications

RESEARCH

REPORTS OF CURRENT RESEARCH INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING: – Axial & Flexural Effects in FRP Bar Reinforced CFFT Columns Key researchers: Muhammad N. S. Hadi, Qasim S. Khan and M. Neaz Sheikh

– Direct Tensile Testing of Self-Compacting Concrete

Key researchers: Faez Alhussainy, Hayder Alaa Hasan, Sime Rogic, M. Neaz Sheikh and Muhammad N. S. Hadi

– GFRP Reinforced Square Concrete Columns under Axial and Eccentric Loading Key Researchers: Muhammad Hadi and Jim Youssef

– Determining the Effects of Hailstone Impact on Cold-Reduced Steel Sheets Yufei Wu, Aziz Ahmed, Lip Teh

– Explosive Breaching of Walls Subjected to Contact Charge Detonations Key Researchers: Alex Remennikov and Jim Youssef

– Hybrid Multi-Tube Concrete Columns Incorporating Composite Materials Key researchers: Tao Yu, Lip Teh, Scott Smith (SCU) and Jin-Guang Teng (HK PolyU)

– Investigation of drying shrinkage behaviour of concrete pavements reinforced with geogrids Key researchers: Muhammad N. S. Hadi, Abbas S. A. Al-Hedad, and Ebony Bambridge

– Production of Alkali Activated Concrete at Ambient Curing Condition Using the Taguchi Method Nabeel A. Farhan, M. Neaz Sheikh, Muhammad N.S. Hadi

– Seismic Design of Storage Racks Subjected to Rocking James Maguire, Zhenghao Tang, G. Charles Clifton, Lip Teh, James Lim

– Self-Compacting Concrete Column Behaviour Reinforced with Longitudinal Steel Tubes Key researchers: Muhammad N. S. Hadi, Faez Alhussainy and M. Neaz Sheikh

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AXIAL & FLEXURAL EFFECTS IN FRP BAR REINFORCED CFFT COLUMNS Key researchers: Muhammad N. S. Hadi, Qasim S. Khan and M. Neaz Sheikh

INTRODUCTION Steel bar Reinforced Concrete (RC) columns are used in bridges and buildings to transfer loads from superstructure to substructure. The load carrying capacity of steel RC column reduces over the design life of the structure due to the corrosion of steel bars. The large repair and maintenance costs and strength deterioration of steel RC columns over the design life are among the main concerns associated with steel RC columns. The National Association of Corrosion Engineers International reported that the United States annually spend about US$ 2 billion for repairs and replacement of bridge piers and about US$ 1 billion for marine piling systems (Khan et al. 2017).

RESEARCH

REPORTS: STRUCTURAL

One of the solutions to reduce repair and maintenance costs is to use Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) reinforcement as a substitute of steel reinforcement for the construction of new concrete structures for increased service life and economy as FRP composites have higher ultimate tensile strength to weight ratio, and higher corrosion and chemical resistance than steel (Hadi et al. 2016). The Concrete Filled FRP Tube (CFFT) technique for new column construction have received significant research attention as a practicable alternative of steel RC column in recent years. The CFFT acts as a formwork for new columns and a barrier to corrosion accelerating agents. It increases the strength and the ductility of RC columns (Khan et al. 2016 and Khan et al. 2018).

(a) Concentric load

(b) Eccentric load

Figure 1: Testing of specimens under axial compression: (a) concentric & (b) eccentric load

FAILURE MODES The failure of specimens tested under concentric axial load was marked by rupturing of fibers at the mid-height of the specimen and concrete crushing

EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM The experimental program comprised five groups of column specimens. The first group, REF consisted of steel RC specimens. The second group, CT consisted of Carbon FRP (CFRP)-CFFT specimens without FRP bars. The third group, GT consisted of Glass FRP (GFRP)-CFFT specimens without FRP bars. The fourth group, CTCR consisted of CFRP bar reinforced CFRPCFFT specimens. The fifth group, GTGR consisted of GFRP bar reinforced GFRP-CFFT specimens. From each group, the first specimen was tested as a column under concentric axial load. The second specimen was tested as a column under 25 mm eccentric axial load. The third specimen was tested as a column under 50 mm eccentric axial load. The fourth specimen was tested as a beam under four-point bending. The REF specimens were reinforced longitudinally with six N12 (12 mm diameter deformed bars with 500 MPa nominal tensile strength) steel bars (reinforcement ratio = 2.2%) and helically with R10 (10 mm diameter plain bars with 250 MPa nominal tensile strength) steel helix of 150 mm inner diameter with a pitch of 60 mm. The FRP tubes were designed with outer layer of fibers oriented along the skew direction (±60° with the longitudinal direction) and inner layer of fibers oriented along the circumferential direction (90° with the longitudinal direction). In CFRP tubes, 34% of the fibers were oriented along the circumferential direction and 66% of the fibers along the skew direction. In GFRP tubes, 38% of the fibers were oriented along the circumferential direction and 62% of the fibers along the skew direction. The CFRP tubes consisted of 63% fibers and 37% resin by volume whereas the GFRP tubes consisted of 60% fibers and 40% resin by volume.

TEST PROCEDURES The specimens were tested under a displacement controlled load application at a rate of 0.3 mm/min until the rupture of FRP tube or the resistance of the specimens dropped to 25% of the peak load as shown in Figs. 1-2.

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Figure 2: Testing of specimens under four-point bending (Fig. 3). The steel bar RC specimens tested under concentric and eccentric axil loads failed by crushing of concrete (Figs. 3-5). The unreinforced CFFT specimens tested under eccentric axial load were split in two halves at the mid-height of the specimen with crushing of concrete (Figs. 4-5). The FRP bar reinforced CFFT specimens tested under eccentric axial load failed by rupturing of fibers close to the mid-height of the specimen with outward buckling of FRP bars and crushing of concrete (Figs. 4-5). Figure 3 (left): Failure modes of specimens tested under concentric axial loads

Figure 4 (right): Failure mode of specimens tested under 25 mm eccentric axial loads The failure of Specimen REF-B was marked by long and wide flexural cracks in the tension region and crushing of concrete in the compression Figure 5: Failure mode of specimens tested under 50 mm eccentric axial loads

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


SUMMARY

region (Fig. 6). The unreinforced CFFT specimens tested under four-point bending failed by rupturing of fibers and splitting of concrete in two halves in the middle third segment whereas the FRP bar reinforced CFFT specimens failed by rupturing of fibers with bending of bars and crushing of concrete (Fig. 6).

The construction of CFFT column with and without FRP reinforcing bars can be recommended for enhancing the peak axial load and ductility of columns under concentric and eccentric axial compression as an alternative of steel RC columns in areas where corrosion of steel bar is a major concern.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

REFERENCES

The experimental axial load-deformation curves of specimens tested under concentric and eccentric axial loads, and flexural load-midspan deflection curves of specimens tested under fourpoint bending are presented in Figs. 7-10.

Hadi, M. N. S., Khan, Q. S., and Sheikh, M. N. (2016). “Axial and flexural behavior of unreinforced and FRP bar reinforced circular Concrete Filled FRP Tube Columns.” Journal of Construction and Building Materials, 122, 43-53.

Figure 7 (left): Axial load & deformation curves for specimens tested under concentric axial loads

Khan, Q. S., Sheikh, M. N., and Hadi, M. N. S. (2016). “Axial compressive behavior of circular CFFT: Experimental database and design oriented model.” Steel and Composite Structures, an international Journal, 21(3), 921-947. Khan, Q. S., Sheikh, M. N., and Hadi, M. N. S. (2017). “Axial-flexural interactions of Concrete Filled Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Tube (GFRP-CFFT) Columns with and without reinforcing GFRP bars.” Journal of Composites for Construction, 21(3), 04016109-1-12

Figure 8 (right): Axial load-deformation curves of specimens tested under 25 mm eccentric axial load

Khan, Q. S., Sheikh, M. N., and Hadi, M. N. S. (2018). “Concrete Filled Carbon FRP Tube (CFRP-CFFT) columns with and without CFRP reinforcing bars: Axial-flexural interactions.” Composites Part B: Engineering, 133, 42-52.

The unreinforced CFFT (CT and GT) specimens resisted higher axial loads and axial deformation at peak loads than the REF specimens under concentric axial loads. The CT and GT specimens resisted smaller axial loads than the REF specimens under axial eccentric loads. The average axial and lateral deformations at peak loads in CT and GT specimens were higher than those in the REF specimens under eccentric axial loads. The unreinforced CFFT (CT-B and GT-B) specimens resisted smaller flexural loads and midspan deflections than Specimen REF-B. Figure 9 (left): Axial load-deformation curves of specimens tested under 25 mm eccentric axial load

Figure 10 (right): Flexural load-midspan deflection curves of specimens tested under four-point bending

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RESEARCH

Figure 6: Failure mode of specimens tested under four-point bending

REPORTS: STRUCTURAL

The FRP bar reinforced CFFT (CTCR and GTGR) specimens exhibited higher average axial loads and higher axial and lateral deformations at peak loads than the REF specimens tested under concentric and eccentric axial loads. The FRP bar reinforced CFFT (CTCR-B and GTGR-B) specimens exhibited higher ultimate midspan deflections than Specimen REF-B. Specimen GTGR-B resisted higher flexural load than Specimen REF-B. Specimen CTCR-B resisted smaller flexural load than Specimen REF-B due to slippage of CFRP bars.


DIRECT TENSILE TESTING OF SELFCOMPACTING CONCRETE Key researchers: Faez Alhussainy, Hayder Alaa Hasan, Sime Rogic, M. Neaz Sheikh and Muhammad N. S. Hadi

length of the specimen. No concrete cracking occurred at either end of the specimens, as the designed claws created a strong and evenly distributed bond between the claws and the concrete. In combination with the universal joints, proper alignments were achieved avoiding end crushing and slippage.

INTRODUCTION The mechanical properties of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) have been extensively studied over the past few years (Persson, 2001). However, only few studies investigated the direct tensile stress-strain behaviour of the SCC. This is mainly attributed to the difficult test setup and the proper execution of the experiments. Perfect alignment, secondary flexure, slippage and high stress-concentration at the ends of specimen due to gripping are considered the main factors that affect the direct tensile testing of the concrete (Van Mier and Van Vliet 2002; Alhussainy et al. 2016; Hasan et al. 2016). Accordingly, the direct tensile strength is usually calculated based on the test results obtained from splitting tensile strength or flexural strength using conversion factors. However, conversion factors might not be applicable for SCC. Understanding the direct tensile stressstrain behaviour of the SCC is significantly important, as it affects the deflections, cracking, shear and bonding behaviours of reinforced concrete elements constructed with SCC. This study proposes a new test setup to determine the direct tensile testing of the SCC.

DIRECT TENSIL TEST SETUP AND LOADING

RESEARCH

REPORTS: STRUCTURAL

Wooden boxes of 100 Ă— 100 mm in cross-section and 500 mm in length were used as formwork for the specimens. Two gripping claws were embedded at both ends of the box which extend 125 mm in the specimen, as shown in Figure 1.The claws were made from 20 mm diameter threaded rod which had four 8 mm diameter pins welded at 90 degrees with spacing of 20 mm, as shown in Figure 2. In order to keep the claws level and aligned within the formwork, a washer was welded to the threaded rod inside the box, whilst a nut and a washer were used on the outside to dismantle the box formwork. To induce failure in the middle of the specimen, two pieces of timber triangles with a base of 20 mm and a height of 10 mm were glued inside the wooden box vertically at the middle on the opposite sides. In this study, strain was used to test the specimens. To measure rate of the strain within each specimen, two 120 mm long strain gauges were attached in the middle on the opposite flat sides.

Figure 2: The claw designed for direct tensile testing of SCC specimen (Alhussainy et al. 2016) Table 1 summarises the mechanical properties of the SCC obtained from standard tests and direct tensile tests. Three specimens were tested to observe the direct tensile stress-strain behaviour of the SCC. The difference between the maximum and minimum values of the direct tensile strength of the SCC specimens was 5.8%. It was observed that the direct tensile strength of the SCC is less than the flexural strength (modulus of rupture) and splitting tensile strengths. The average direct tensile strength of the SCC was found to be 3.5 MPa, while the average flexural strength and splitting tensile strength were found to be 6.5 MPa and 3.8 MPa, respectively. Table 1: Summary of testing results for SCC* Type of test

Specimens

Average result

S1

S2

S3

Compressive strength (28 days)

56.5

57

-

57 MPa

Indirect tensile strength (Brazil or splitting test)

3.7

3.78

3.87

3.8 MPa

Flexural strength (modulus of rupture)

6

6.39

7.1

6.5 MPa

Modulus of elasticity (compression)

29.5

30

31

30 GPa

Modulus of elasticity (direct tension)

19.5

20.4

21

20 GPa

Direct tensile strength

3.4

3.49

3.6

3.5 MPa

* Data from Alhussainy et al. (2016)

Figure 1: Details of direct tensile testing of SCC specimen (Alhussainy et al. 2016)

RESULTS

The direct tensile strength of the SCC specimens tested based on the designed and developed test setup was approximately equal to 90 percent of the splitting tensile strength, which is consistent with AS 3600-2009. The modulus of elasticity of the SCC was calculated using the slope of direct tensile stress-strain curves, Figure 3. The average modulus of elasticity in direct tension was found to be 20 GPa, which was equal to two-thirds of the modulus of elasticity in compression.

As predicted, failure of all specimens occurred in the middle where the cross section was reduced by 20%. Reduction of the cross-sectional area of the specimens resulted in increasing the stress in the middle of the specimens, which induced a consistent failure in the middle. The reduction of the cross-section also prevented the failure to occur at undesirable locations along the

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Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


GFRP REINFORCED SQUARE CONCRETE COLUMNS UNDER AXIAL AND ECCENTRIC LOADING Key Researchers: Muhammad Hadi and Jim Youssef

REFERENCES

EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

Alhussainy, F., Hasan, H. A., Rogic, S., Sheikh, M. N. and Hadi, M. N. S. “Direct tensile testing of Self-Compacting Concrete,” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 112, 2016, pp. 903-906.

In this study, six square concrete columns were cast and tested under concentric and eccentric loads. All the columns had a side dimension of 210 mm and a height of 800 mm. The columns were divided into two groups. The first group of columns were reinforced longitudinally and transversally with steel bars (Group RS). The second group of specimens were reinforced with GFRP bars (Group RF). For comparison purposes, the longitudinal and transverse reinforcement ratios of the two groups of specimens were similar. Each group consisted of three specimens with one specimen tested concentrically, one tested under 25 mm eccentricity and one tested under 50 mm eccentricity. All of the specimens were tested with the Denison 5000 kN compression testing machine until failure at the University of Wollongong, Australia. The test setup for the reinforced concrete columns under static loading is shown in Fig. 1.

Figure 3: Direct tensile stress-strain behaviour of the SCC specimens (Alhussainy et al. 2016)

SUMMARY 1. The designed and developed experimental setup was adequate in ensuring that specimens failed in the middle where the crosssectional area was reduced by 20%. Due to adequate gripping, slippage and flexural induced cracking did not occur during loading. 2. The average direct tensile strength of the SCC was found to be less than the average flexural strength (modulus of rupture) and splitting tensile strength. Similarly, the modulus of elasticity in direct tension was found to be two-thirds of the modulus of elasticity in compression.

Alhussainy, F., Hasan, H. A., Sheikh, M. N. and Hadi, M. N. S. “A New Method for Direct Tensile Testing of Concrete,” Journal of Testing and Evaluation, under review 2017. Hasan, H. A., Alhussainy, F., Sheikh, M. N. and Hadi, M. N. S. “Direct tensile test of high strength concrete with and without steel fibres,” Mechanics of Structures and Materials: Advancements and Challenges, Nov 2016, pp. 487-492. Persson, B 2001, “A comparison between mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete and the corresponding properties of normal concrete.” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 193-198. Van Mier, J & Van Vliet, M 2002, “Uniaxial tension test for the determination of fracture parameters of concrete: State of the art.” Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 235-247.

Figure 1: Experimental setup for column testing

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RESEARCH

3. The developed procedure for applying direct tensile strength to the SCC was found to be effective and efficient. Further research is needed to apply the developed procedure to determine the direct tensile strength of other types of concrete (Alhussainy et al., 2017).

The use of reinforcement with fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials have emerged as one of the alternatives to steel reinforcement for concrete structures prone to corrosion issues. However, the mechanical behaviour of FRP reinforcement is different from that of steel reinforcement. Therefore, due to the differences in properties, FRP bars cannot simply replace steel bars (ISIS 2007). Currently, design standards have been developed for FRP reinforced flexural members, including ACI 440.1R-15 (ACI 2015). On the other hand, the level of understanding of the behaviour of FRP reinforced compression members has not reached a level where design standards are available for such members. Having said this, the current ACI 440.1R-15 (ACI 2015) design guideline recommends neglecting the compressive contribution of FRP reinforcement when used as reinforcement in columns, in compression members, or as compression reinforcement in flexural members. Furthermore, most of the findings of studies investigating FRP reinforced concrete columns have been reported based on testing under concentric loading. However, in reality, perfect axial concentric loading of columns does not exist because of the introduction of bending moments caused by geometric imperfections or eccentricities. Therefore, given the lack of experimental data about FRP reinforcement in compression members, this study aims to expand the understanding of the compression behaviour of concrete columns internally reinforced with glass FRP (GFRP) bars (Hadi and Youssef 2016).

REPORTS: STRUCTURAL

INTRODUCTION


GFRP BAR TENSILE TESTING A total of nine tensile tests were conducted on GFRP bars with two different diameters. These tests were conducted to obtain the tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and rupture strain of the GFRP bars. The stress-strain relationships of the GFRP bars were linear elastic until failure. Furthermore, the failure of the GFRP bars was by the gradual splitting and delamination of the fibres as shown in Fig.2.

Figure 3: Failure mode of concentrically loaded columns

Figure 2: Failure mode of GFRP bars in tension

RESEARCH

REPORTS: STRUCTURAL

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The failure mode of the concentrically loaded specimens after failure is shown in Fig.3. The column specimens reinforced with steel bars achieved a higher load carrying capacity as compared to the column specimens reinforced with GFRP bars for all loading conditions. The load-carrying capacity of the column specimen reinforced with GFRP bars loaded concentrically was 4.8% lower than its steel counterpart, as shown in Fig. 4. On the other hand, the load-carrying capacities of the column specimens reinforced with GFRP bars and loaded eccentrically were on average 18.5% lower than their steel counterparts. Therefore, a higher drop in load-carrying capacity was experienced for the eccentrically loaded GFRP-reinforced column specimens with respect to the equivalent steel-reinforced column specimens. The GFRPreinforced column specimens subjected to eccentric loading were able to sustain an increase in load after the sudden concrete spalling and eventually a second peak load was achieved. This was not the case with the steel reinforced column specimens subjected to eccentric loading, as shown in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6.

Figure 4: Axial load-deflection curves of the concentrically loaded columns

Figure 5: Axial and lateral load-deflection curves of the 25 mm eccentrically loaded columns

For concentrically loaded columns, the steel-reinforced column specimen achieved a better ductile performance compared to the GFRP-reinforced column specimen. For eccentric loading conditions, GFRP-reinforced column specimens achieved similar ductility as compared to the steel-reinforced specimens. However, the eventual failure mechanism of the GFRPreinforced column specimens was brittle and sudden in nature, whereas the steel-reinforced column specimens did not fail abruptly but continued to displace until the termination of the test. Figure 6: Axial and lateral load-deflection curves of the 50 mm eccentrically loaded columns

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Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


REFERENCES ACI (American Concrete Institute). (2015). “Guide for the Design and Construction of Structural Concrete Reinforced with Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bars.” ACI 440.1 R-15, Farmington Hills, MI. Hadi, M.N.S., and Youssef, J. (2016). “Experimental Investigation of GFRP Reinforced and GFRP Encased Square Concrete Specimens under Axial and Eccentric Load, and Four-Point Bending Test.” Journal of Composites for Construction, 20(5), 04016020-1– 04016020-16. ISIS (2007), “Design Manual 3: Reinforcing Concrete Structures with Fibre Reinforced Polymers.” ISIS 2007, The Canadian Network of Centres of Excellence on Intelligent Sensing for Innovative Structures, Winnipeg, Canada. Youssef, J., and Hadi, M. N. S. (2017). “Axial load-bending moment diagrams of GFRP reinforced columns and GFRP encased square columns.” Construction and Building Materials, 135, 550-564.

DETERMINING THE EFFECTS OF HAILSTONE IMPACT ON COLDREDUCED STEEL SHEETS Key Industry Partner: BlueScope Limited Funding Source: ARC Industrial Transformation Research Hubs and UOW’S Sustainable Building Research Centre Yufei Wu, Aziz Ahmed, Lip Teh

INTRODUCTION With an insurance loss of approximately $1.7 billion and total economic costs of over $2 billion, the Sydney hailstorm of 14 April 1999 was the costliest natural disaster in the Australian insurance history (Schuster et al. 2005). The Australian Building Codes Board (2010) predicted that the hail-days per year along the eastern coastline could increase from 1 currently to 6 in 2070, which means more economic losses due to hailstorms in the future. With regard to COLORBOND® and ZINCALUME® steel roofing, sheets thicker than 0.42 mm is believed to remain structurally sound in the event of hailstones, but indentations may occur leading to ponding and dirt accumulation which may eventually promote corrosion. At present, there is no reliable methodology for predicting the size of indentation due to hailstone impact as a function of the material yield stress, sheet thickness, hailstone mass and impact velocity. In addition, artificial hailstones (ice balls) employed in the previous testing could not accurately represent hail impact because they broke after impacting on steel sheets while natural hailstones often remain intact.

OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH Many methods had been proposed to improve the strength of artificial hailstones so that they did not break upon impact at terminal velocity, but none has succeeded (Moore and Wilson 1978; Render and Pan 1995; Kim et al. 2003; Flüeler et al. 2008; Swift 2013). The first objective is therefore to develop an effective method to make artificial hailstones that remain intact after impacting steel roof sheeting at velocities up to the terminal velocity of the natural hailstones. Such artificial hailstones are then used in the experimental program to determine the effects of material yield stress and sheet thickness on the dent resistance of a steel roof sheeting.

ARTIFICIAL HAILSTONES Artificial hailstones made with four different methods were tested in the experiment (See Fig. 1). The tests showed that only the chemically reinforced artificial hailstones consistently remained intact after impacting the steel sheeting at terminal velocities. This achievement is believed to be the first in the hail impact research area.

LABORATORY TESTS The experimental facility for hailstone impact tests including the equipment for launching artificial hailstones (see Fig. 2) is located in the High Bay Lab of Sustainable Building Research Centre (SBRC), University of Wollongong. Artificial hailstones of various masses were fired at different velocities to provide experimental data of the effects of hailstone impact on steel sheets having different yield stresses and thicknesses. The impact velocity is calculated from the images recorded by a high speed camera and the grid line panel set behind the steel barrel (shown in Fig. 3).

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This study is believed to give an understanding on the behaviour of GFRP reinforced concrete columns subjected to various loading conditions. An analytical study was also carried out to determine the axial load-bending moment interaction diagrams of GFRP reinforced columns. It was concluded from the analytical study that concrete columns reinforced with GFRP bars can be potentially analysed using the same procedure used for conventional steel RC columns (Youssef and Hadi 2017).

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SUMMARY


Figure 3: Images of an artificial hailstone at 2500 frames per second: (a) just leaving the barrel; (b) just before impact

DENT ANALYSIS

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Figure 1: Artificial hailstones made with different methods: a) dry ice (solid carbon dioxide) dipping; b) bottom-to-top freezing; c) micro-fibre reinforced; d) chemically reinforced

In the present work, 3D scanning technique was used to analyse the details of the dents caused by the impact of artificial hailstones. Each dent was scanned from four different directions with a high-accuracy 3D scanner, shown in Fig. 4. Both dent depth and dent diameter can be accurately determined from the scanned file (See Fig 5 and Fig. 6).

Figure 4: 3D scanning device used for analysing the dents on steel sheets

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Figure 5: Dent diameter analysis

Figure 2: Artificial hailstone launcher device developed for hailstone impact testing at SBRC

Figure 6: Dent depth analysis (a)

PRELIMINARY TEST RESULTS The test results demonstrate the significance of the integrity of the artificial hailstones in impacting the steel sheeting, showing that the dent depths caused by the intact artificial hailstones can be up to 104% greater than those caused by the broken artificial hailstones. The results also indicate that, for a given impact energy, the dent depth is a function of the hailstone size.

(b)

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FlĂźeler, P., Stucki, M., Guastala, F., and Egli, T., 2008. Hail impact resistance of building materials testing, evaluation and classification. In: 11DBMC International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components. Istanbul. Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul. Kim, H., Welch, D.A., and Kedward, K.T., 2003. Experimental investigation of high velocity ice impacts on woven carbon/ epoxy composite panels. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 34(1), 25-41. Moore, D. M., and Wilson, A., 1978. Photovoltaic solar panel resistance to simulated hail. California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California. Reed, J., 1985. Energy losses due to elastic wave propagation during an elastic impact. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 18(12), 2329. Schuster, S.S., Blong, R.J., Leigh, R.J., and McAneney, K.J., 2005. Characteristics of the 14 april 1999 sydney hailstorm based on ground observations, weather radar, insurance data and emergency calls. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 5(5), 613-620. Swift, J. M., 2013. Simulated hail ice mechanical properties and failure mechanisms at quasi-static strain rates. Master Thesis, Master of Science in Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Washington.

EXPLOSIVE BREACHING OF WALLS SUBJECTED TO CONTACT CHARGE DETONATIONS Key Researchers: Alex Remennikov and Jim Youssef

INTRODUCTION Explosive breaching of walls is an important operation that is used by firefighters or special operations groups as a method to gain immediate access into a structure for emergency situations as a direct substitute for conventional breaching methods. Explosive breaching of walls is also used in military operations, particularly in urban terrain locations where the structures are in close proximity to each other which limits the use of large demolition charges. Therefore, it is important to understand the physics of explosive breaching of wall barriers which is critical for both military and firefighting operations and there is a constant need to optimise the breaching of walls for these important purposes. Explosive charges can be used in contact with or in close proximity to a target in order to breach concrete or masonry walls to create openings for civil and military operations or for the demolition of bridge structures. The successful breaching of structures is influenced by the placement, shape, size, confinement and type of breaching charges. The main objective of breaching charges is to transfer enough energy to the target material to produce spalling and create a crater or opening, sufficient in size to allow access through the target for special operations groups. A number of researchers have proposed methods to predict the damage response of concrete structures subjected to contact charge detonations (Lonnqvist et al. 1993 and Morishita et al. 2000). However, these proposed methods are purely based on regression analysis of experimental data with empirical formulas proposed. In the most recent study, Remennikov et al. (2015) proposed an analytical model to predict the dimensions of a wall breach for contact charge detonations. This engineering model is formulated based on the principles of blast physics and the conservation laws for the parameters of contact charges necessary to create a wall breach of the intended size and shape. In this study an experimental program is carried out to investigate the damage of reinforced concrete slabs exposed to contact charges. The experimental breach parameters of the failure modes are compared with the predicted values determined by the analytical models proposed in Remennikov et al. (2015).

EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM In this study, five square double-reinforced concrete panels having side dimensions of 500 mm and thickness of 100 mm were designed and tested. The concrete panels were cast with two different compressive strengths of concrete which were normal strength and high strength concrete. The contact charges were cylindrical in shape and utilised Composition B explosive. The influence of steel protective plates was investigated by placing 9.5 mm thick steel plates on the top face of two of the panels. The test setup for the contact charge detonation tests is shown in Fig. 1.

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Australian Building Codes Board, 2010. An investigation of possible building code of Australia (BCA) adaptation measures for climate change. Australian Building Codes Board.

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REFERENCES


(a)

(b)

Figure 3: Failure mode: (a) Detonation face; and (b) Back face (a)

The failure mechanism of the high strength concrete panel with a steel cover subjected to a 250 gram contact charge is shown in Fig. 4. An interesting observation is that the shape of the breach hole is not the same as that formed for the panels without steel cover plates. The concrete panels without steel cover plates formed both noticeable ejection and spalling craters. However, a clear ejection crater was not formed on the top surface of the panels with steel covers, Therefore, this means that for the concrete panels with steel cover plates, the dynamic compression strength of the concrete was not exceeded which is mainly the result of the protection of the top surface of the concrete panel by the steel cover. In addition, the diameter of the ejection crater, spall and breach hole for the panel without steel cover was considerably larger as compared to the same values for the two panels with steel covers, which means the steel cover was able to limit the blast impact.

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(b) Figure 1: Experimental set-up for contact charge detonation testing: (a) concrete panels without steel covers: and (b) concrete panels with steel covers

MEASUREMENT OF BREACH PARAMETERS After the contact charges were detonated, the measurements of the internal and external breach parameters of the panels were taken. The visual representation of the measured parameters is shown in Fig. 2.

Figure 4: Failure mode of concrete panel with steel cover Detonation face

ANALAYTICAL VERIFICATION

Figure 2: Breach Parameters

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The failure mechanism of the normal strength concrete panel without a steel cover subjected to a 150 gram contact charge is shown in Fig. 3. It was observed that all three concrete panels without steel covers failed by a typical concrete breaching failure mechanism in which both the ejection crater and spalling crater merged to produce a clear breach hole through the panel. Furthermore, for the same applied charge, the breach clear diameter as well as the diameter of ejection and spalling craters for the normal strength concrete panel was larger than that produced for the high strength concrete panel.

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Including the three panels tested in this study, the breach parameters from a total of forty one panels without steel covers subjected to cylindrical and hemispherical contact charges were compiled from the literature and analysed to compare the measured and predicted breach parameters determined by the analytical model proposed by Remennikov et al. (2015). The relationship between the experimentally measured and the predicted normalized breach diameter (D/h) using the method in Remennikov et al. (2015) is shown in Figure 5. It can be seen that the majority of the predicted breach diameters are in good agreement with the measured values.

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


HYBRID MULTI-TUBE CONCRETE COLUMNS INCORPORATING COMPOSITE MATERIALS Key researchers: Tao Yu, Lip Teh, Scott Smith (SCU) and Jin-Guang Teng (HK PolyU) Funding Source: Australian Research Council

INTRODUCTION

Figure 5: Relationship between predicted and measured breach hole diameter (D)

The deterioration of civil infrastructure constructed with steel and concrete is a huge global challenge and has led to massive rehabilitation and maintenance costs worldwide. Furthermore, the increasing focus of the construction industry on ease of manufacture and efficiency of transportation/assembly calls for innovations in structural forms and uses of structural materials. The incorporation of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites as well as high-strength steel (HSS) with concrete offers tremendous opportunities, provided that the materials are used in arrangements which maximise the benefits that they offer (Yu et al. 2016a).

REFERENCES Lonnqvist, L. (1993). “The effects of high explosives in contact with reinforced concrete plates.” Proc. of 6th International Symposium on Interaction of nonnuclear Munitions with Structures, Panama City Beach, Florida. Morishita, M., Tanaka, H., Ito, T., and Yamaguchi, H. (2000). “Damage of reinforced concrete slabs subjected to contact detonations.” Journal of Structural Engineering A, 46, 1787-1797. Remennikov, A., Mentus, I., and Uy, B. (2015). “Explosive breaching of walls with contact charges: theory and applications.” International Journal of Protective Structures, 6(4), 629-647.

Figure 1: Typical cross-sections of HMTCCs (Yu et al. 2016b) This project investigates the development of a new form of hybrid structural column that is herein termed hybrid multitube concrete column (HMTCC, see Figure 1). In HMTCCs, the outer FRP tube provides a durable cover as well as effective confinement to the concrete core. Multiple small HSS tubes are placed within the column in varying arrangements to provide further confinement to the concrete as well as longitudinal reinforcement. These HSS tubes are prevented from local bucking due to constraints from both inside and outside of the tubes. The surrounding concrete can also provide a durable shield to the steel. The project aims to develop a comprehensive understanding of the static and seismic behaviours and to establish a safe and cost-effective design procedure for HMTCCs.

ADVANTAGES OF HMTCCS In HMTCCs, the three materials (i.e. FRP, concrete and steel) are combined in an optimal manner, which allows the high yield stress of HSS tubes to be fully exploited as both the inward and outward local buckling are well constrained. The use of small HSS tubes eliminates the difficulties associated with the manufacturing, transportation and installation of large steel tubes. Furthermore, HMTCCs are expected to be highly durable because of the use of a corrosion-resistant FRP outer tube. HMTCCs can thus be superior to conventional reinforced concrete or concrete-filled steel columns. Other advantages of HMTCCs include: (a) excellent ductility as the concrete is effectively confined by the steel tubes in addition to the FRP outer tube; the use of multiple circular small steel tubes is highly effective in confining the concrete inside these tubes due to the fact that the confinement is more effective in circular columns and the confining effectiveness decreases with the diameterto-thickness ratio of the confining tube; the multiple concretefilled steel tubes also form a stiff “wall” to confine the concrete surrounded by them; (b) complete elimination of the need for formwork; (c) opportunity of optimizing the locations of the small steel tubes for improved structural performance. Because of their expected superior corrosion resistance, HMTCCs are desirable for use in outdoor structures such as

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This study is believed to give a better and indepth understanding of the explosive breaching of concrete plates with and without steel covers that are subjected to contact charge detonations. The data from the experimental program along with data from the literature was used to assess the analytical model proposed by Remennikov et al. (2015) to predict the characteristics of contact charges required to produce a wall breach of the required shape and size. Based on the analysis of the experimental and predicted results, it was concluded that the predicted breach diameter showed good correlation with the experimentally measured values.

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SUMMARY


bridges and coastal structures that are likely to be exposed to a harsh environment. In those applications, HMTCCs can be used as compression members such as bridge piers, piles and various towers (e.g. wind turbine towers and electricity transmission towers). HMTCCs are also a desirable option for columns in tall buildings where their reduced cross-section size leads to enlarged usable floor areas. HMTCCs can be cost-effective. The functions of the FRP tube as explained above mean that a relatively thin FRP tube is sufficient. The cost of such a thin FRP tube as well as the HSS tubes can be offset by the elimination of labour and material costs of temporary formwork and steel bars in conventional reinforced concrete columns. The use of HSS and the full exploitation of its strength mean a further reduction in the material cost. The reduced cross-section size also leads to additional economic benefits through cost savings in the transportation/construction process and through gains in usable floor areas in buildings. Finally, the anticipated superior corrosion resistance of HMTCCs means large cost savings in maintenance over the useful life of the structure. Connections of these columns to the beams can be achieved in a way similar to conventional connection technology for concretefilled steel tubes, noting that the FRP tube may be locally discontinued in the longitudinal direction as it is mainly used to provide resistance in the hoop direction only. For the same reason, the FRP tube can be sacrificed in a fire.

Figure 3 shows a comparison of the axial load-strain curves of an HMTCC specimen (i.e. M15-I) and a CFFT specimen (i.e. C15), which had the same FRP tube and similar rupture strains from the column tests. For comparison, the sum of specimen C15 and the steel tubes in specimen M15-I is also shown in Figure 3. It is evident from Figure 3 that the curve of the sum falls almost exactly on the curve of the HMTCC specimen, but the former terminates at a much smaller axial strain with a smaller ultimate load. It should be noted that the curve of the steel tubes alone was calculated using results from the hollow steel tube tests where the steel tubes were subjected to uniaxial compression. In an HMTCC specimen, the steel tubes are expected to be subjected to hoop tension as well as axial compression because of the expansion of the concrete inside the steel tubes. Therefore, at the same axial strain, the axial load resisted by the steel tubes in an HMTCC is expected to be lower than that resisted by the same steel tubes subjected to uniaxial compression only, especially when the axial strain is relatively large (e.g. larger than the strain at the peak stress of unconfined concrete). Taking this into consideration, it may be reasonable to conclude that, compared with concrete in CFFT columns, the concrete in HMTCCs with the same FRP tube has a stiffer response, a larger compressive strength and a larger ultimate axial strain.

AXIAL COMPRESSION TESTS

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As a first step in developing the new concept into a practical construction technology, a series of axial compression tests on circular HMTCCs (Figure 1) were conducted at the University of Wollongong. In parallel, tests were conducted on corresponding concrete-filled FRP tubes (CFFTs) without steel tubes (Yu and Teng 2011) for comparison. All specimens had an outer diameter of 203 mm and a height of 600 mm. All compression tests were conducted using a 500 tonne Denison testing machine with a displacement control rate of 0.6mm/min. More details about the compression tests are available in Yu et al. (2016b). All specimens displayed a continuous, monotonically ascending load-shortening curve until ultimate failure, which was due to rupture of the FRP tube under hoop tension and was accompanied with loud noises. The steel tubes of all the HMTCC specimens were taken out for examination, and no significant buckling deformation was found (Figure 2a). Considering that the hollow steel tubes with the same dimensions and tested alone under axial compression all experienced a combination of overall buckling and local buckling (Figure 2b), this observation suggests that the FRP tube and the surrounding concrete provided effective restraints to the internal steel tubes.

Figure 3: Comparison between HMTCC and CFFT

ONGOING RESEARCH Supported by the Australian Research Council, research on HMTCCs is ongoing at the University of Wollongong, with the focus on the development of an in-depth understanding of, and theoretical models for, the stress-strain behaviour of the confined concrete and the buckling behaviour of the steel tubes in HMTCCs.

REFERENCES Yu, T. and Teng, J. G. (2011). “Design of concrete-filled FRP tubular columns: provisions in the Chinese Technical Code for Infrastructure Application of FRP Composites”, Journal of Composites for Construction, 15(3), 451-461. Yu, T., Teh, L. H. and Hadi, M. N. S. (2016a). “High strength steel plates in hybrid FRP-concrete-steel columns: concept and behaviour”, Advances in Structural Engineering; published online on 21 July. Yu, T., Chan, C., Teh, L. and Teng, J.G. (2016b). “Hybrid FRPconcrete-steel multi-tube concrete columns: stub column tests”, Proceedings, the 24th Australian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials (ACMSM24), 6-9 December, Perth, Australia.

(a) Steel tubes from HMTCC

(b) Steel tube alone

Figure 2: Buckling of steel tube

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INVESTIGATION OF DRYING SHRINKAGE BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE PAVEMENTS REINFORCED WITH GEOGRIDS Key researchers: Muhammad N. S. Hadi, Abbas S. A. AlHedad, and Ebony Bambridge

INTRODUCTION Drying shrinkage of Portland cement concrete can lead to cracking of concrete elements. Particularly, when the concrete is cast or hardened within a drier environment or when the curing conditions of concrete are inadequate. Reducing the amount of drying shrinkage became the aim of researchers and designers who work in the concrete industry. Since there are wide internal and external factors that can lead to the shrinkage of concrete, geogrid materials, which are considered one of the geosynthetic products, were selected in this research study to reduce the excessive drying shrinkage in the concrete.

All dimensions in mm Figure 2: Configuration of concrete prism specimens reinforced with geogrid (Al-Hedad et al. 2017) Single rib of Biaxial geogrid

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In general, the geogrids, such as biaxial geogrids (Figure 1), have many structural and economic benefits that made them suitable as a reinforcement material (Al-Hedad and Hadi, 2017). For example, the literature and experimental tests achieved here illustrate that the tensile strength and corrosion resistance of geogrids are very high. Also, the orientation of ribs of the geogrid and roughness of nodes surface can provide an appropriate bond between the geogrid layer and the surrounding concrete.

Figure 3: Tensile test of single geogrid sib, 10 kN machine capacity For the main experiment, the specimens were tested after seven days from casting of the specimens. They were dried by placing them in a drying controlled chamber for 56 days, as shown in Figure 4. The temperature and relative humidity inside this chamber were about 23 ± 3˚C and 60 ± 10%, respectively. Prism specimens

Figure 1: Biaxial geogrid (Al-Hedad et al. 2017)

EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM The experimental program adopted in this study was included preparing nine concrete prism specimens having the dimensions of 75×75×280mm and tested according to AS 1012.8.4:2015. Three specimens were unreinforced (UP) and taken as references. The other three specimens were reinforced with the geogrid layer located at 20 mm (GP20) from the top of surface. The last three specimens were reinforced with the geogrid placed at 37.5 mm (GP37.5) from the top of the surface (Al-Hedad et al., 2017), as shown in Figure 2. The biaxial geogrid type was used in this study. The properties of this type of the geogrid were determined following ATSM D6637/D6637M-15 (2015). Five single geogrid rib samples (SGR) were tested. The uniaxial tensile load was applied at a rate of 10% strain/min, as shown in Figure 3. Figure 4: Modified drying chamber

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EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The changes of length of the prism specimens (Figure 5) in one direction were measured over the drying time. During this time, test readings were collected at ages of 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56 days, using the vertical length comparator device. The clustered column form was used for comparing the drying shrinkage results, as shown in Figure 6. Accordingly, the effect of geogrid reinforcement on the shrinkage behaviour of Specimens GP20 and GP37.5 clearly appeared after 14 days from casting.

PRODUCTION OF ALKALI ACTIVATED CONCRETE AT AMBIENT CURING CONDITION USING THE TAGUCHI METHOD Nabeel A. Farhan, M. Neaz Sheikh, Muhammad N.S. Hadi

INTRODUCTION The alkali-activated concrete (AAC) is a type of concrete that does not include any Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The OPC is associated with the significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions causing adverse impact to the environment. The AAC is proven to have good mechanical properties with reduced greenhouse gas emissions. The main parameters which influence the properties of AAC include aluminosilicate source, curing conditions, type of alkaline activator, combination and concentration of the alkaline activator, and the alkaline activator to binder ratio [1]. It might be difficult to investigate the influence of all the parameters in a single investigation. However, through a well-designed experimental program, the parameters which influence the properties of AAC can be adequately investigated [1]. The Taguchi method [2] can be used for this purpose.

Figure 5: Concrete prism specimens

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Figure 6: Drying shrinkage versus age of drying time for unreinforced and geogrid reinforced concrete prism specimens (Al-Hedad et al. 2017)

EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS Optimal mix design of the alkali-activated concrete The Taguchi method [2] (an optimization method for experimental studies) was used to design optimum mix proportions for AAC at ambient curing condition [3]. A total of nine experimental trial mixes were evaluated in this study. Four main parameters including binder content (400, 450, and 500 kg/m3), alkali activator to binder content (AL/Bi) ratio (0.35, 0.45, and 0.55), sodium silicate to sodium hydroxide (Na2SiO3/ NaOH) ratio (1.5, 2, and 2.5), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentration (10 M, 12 M, and 14 M) were investigated. The response index of each parameter was determined by taking the average of the compressive strengths for the trial mixes which included the considered parameters. Finally, the results were evaluated by using the analysis of the variance (ANOVA) to determine the optimum proportion of each parameter.

SUMMARY

Preparation and casting of specimen

The drying shrinkage behaviour of concrete prism specimens reinforced with biaxial geogrid was investigated. The specimens were cured within the controlled environmental conditions, with the temperature of 23 ± 3˚C and relative humidity of 60 ± 10%. The findings illustrate that, except the early drying interval, the geogrid reinforcement could reduce the drying shrinkage of concrete within an acceptable percentage.

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) moulds of 100 mm diameter and 200 mm length were used for testing the compressive strength of the AAC specimens. After casting, the AAC specimens were left in the laboratory at an ambient condition for 24 hours. The specimens were then removed from the moulds and left in an ambient condition until the day of testing. The preparation and casting of the AAC specimens are shown in Figure 1.

REFERENCES Al-Hedad, A. S. A., Bambridge, E. & Hadi, M. N. S. 2017, ‘Influence of Geogrid on the Drying Shrinkage Performance of Concrete Pavements’, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 46, pp. 165-174. Al-Hedad, A. S. & Hadi, M. N. S. 2017, ‘Flexural Behaviour of Concrete Pavements Reinforced with Geogrid Materials’, in ACMSM24 24th Australian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials: Advancements and Challenges 2016, Curtin University, 6-9 December. AS 1012.8.4 (2015), Methods of testing concrete; Method 8.4: Method for making and curing concrete-Drying shrinkage specimens prepared in the field or in the laboratory, Australian Standard. ASTM D6637 (2015), Standard Test Method for Determining Tensile Properties of Geogrids by the Single or Multi-Rib Tensile Method, ASTM D6637/D6637M-15.

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(a)

(b)

NaOH concentration with a percentage of participation of 13.1%. The NaOH concentration of 14 M was found to be the optimum level. The third influential parameter is the binder content with a percentage of participation of 9.1%. The binder content of 450 was found to be the optimum level. The Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio has the lowest percentage of participation of 5.6%. The Na2SiO3/ NaOH ratio of 2.5 was found to be the optimum level. Finally, to confirm the test results, an additional trial mix T10 was cast and tested considering the optimum levels of the parameters (binder content of 450 kg/m3, Al/Binder ratio of 0.35, Na2SiO3/NaOH of 2.5, and NaOH concentration of 14 M) presented in Table 2. The average compressive strength of T10 was 62.1 MPa on the 28th day, which was greater than the compressive strengths obtained from the 9 previous experiments (T1-T9). Table 1: Percentage of participation and Optimum levels of the considered parameters on the 28-day compressive strength [4]. Parameter Percentage of participation Optimum Level

Binder Content

Al/ Binder

Na2SiO3/ NaOH

NaOH

9.1

72.2

5.6

13.1

450 kg/ m3

0.35

2.5

14 M

(d)

Figure1: Preparation of specimens: (a) AAC mix, (b) PVC mold, (c) Casting the AAC, and (d) AAC specimen

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The compressive strength of the AAC was used as a criterion for evaluating the 9 trial mixes (T1-T9) obtained from the design of experiments by Taguchi Method. The highest average compressive strength of the AAC was obtained by T4 specimens (Figure 2). The lowest average compressive strength of the AAC was obtained by T9 specimens (Figure 2). It is difficult to determine the optimum proportions of each considered parameter. Factorial analysis was conducted using Qualitek-4 [4] to explore the influence of each parameter on the compressive strength of the AAC. The response index for each parameter was determined by taking the average of the 28-day compressive strengths for the trial mixes which included the considered parameter. The percentage of participation of the considered parameters and the optimum level of each parameter are shown in Table 2.

REFERENCES [1] A. Nazari, H. Khanmohammadi, M. Amini, H. Hajiallahyari, A. Rahimi, Production geopolymers by Portland cement: designing the main parameters’ effects on compressive strength by Taguchi method, Mater. Des. 41 (2012) 43–49. [2] G. Taguchi, S. Chowdhury, Y. Wu, Taguchi’s Quality Engineering Handbook, Wiley-Interscience, 2005. [3] M.N.S. Hadi, N.A. Farhan, and M.N. Sheikh, Design of geopolymer concrete with GGBFS at ambient curing condition using Taguchi method, Const. Build. Mater. 140 (2017) 424-431. [4] R.K. Roy, Qualitek-4 Software for Automatic Design of Experiment Using Taguchi Approach. IBM or Compatible computer, Nutek, Inc. http://Nutekus. com/wp-q4w. html,2001.

Figure 2: The 7- and 28-day compressive strength of the geopolymer concrete specimens. It can be seen in Figure. 2 and Table 1 that the Al/Bi ratio is the most significant parameter that influences the AAC with a percentage of participation of 72.2%. The Al/Bi ratio of 0.35 was found to be the optimum level. The second important parameter is the

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(c)

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SUMMARY Based on the experimental results, it is possible to produce Alkali Activated Concrete (AAC) with compressive strength higher than 60 MPa under ambient curing conditions at 28 days. The AAC with a binder content of 450 kg/m3, AL/Binder ratio of 0.35, Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 2.5, and NaOH concentration of 14 M achieved the highest 28-day compressive strength (62.1 MPa) at ambient curing conditions.


SEISMIC DESIGN OF STORAGE RACKS SUBJECTED TO ROCKING James Maguire1,2, Zhenghao Tang1,2, G. Charles Clifton2, Lip Teh1, James Lim2

INTRODUCTION Cold-formed steel storage racks are used extensively worldwide to store industrial and household goods. The light-gauge steel members have the capacity to carry loads much heavier than the structure itself. The combination of high loading and light steel members makes storage racks susceptible to collapse during strong ground motion, as seen in all recent major earthquakes. Observations of the 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquakes included failures of upright baseplates and cross-aisle collapse (Crosier, Hannah, & Mukai, 2010; Uma & Beattie, 2011). Notably, Crosier et al. (2010) reported that cross-aisle collapses had occurred in anchored racks in a metal fabricator warehouse, while no failures occurred for unanchored racks. Unanchored racks, and racks with flexible baseplates, can experience rocking motion in the cross-aisle direction. It has been determined that large, slender rocking structures can be stable (Housner, 1963; Pompei, Scalia, & Sumbatyan, 1998; Psycharis & Jennings, 1983). Additionally, rocking can dissipate seismic energy, reduce ductility demand and allow for selfcentring. Currently, however, the dynamic performance of rocking storage racks is not well understood.

Figure 1 Snapback test setup for 4.8m high three-level loaded storage rack

FINITE ELEMENT MODELS Finite element models have been created using OpenSees. The models were validated against snapback test results. Dynamic behaviour, including damping and period, match experimental data as shown in Figure 2. The axial force in the uprights (shown in Fig. 3) also match well with experimental results.

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OBJECTIVES There is strong industry interest in the development of cost effective methods of increasing the seismic performance of cold-formed storage racking. Before rocking can be proposed as a solution, the performance of rocking storage racks must be better understood. The objectives of this research are: (1) determine the upright axial forces during rocking; (2) determine the key dynamic response characteristics (period and damping ratio) during rocking; (3) develop a baseplate optimised for rack performance and cost; and (4) develop a design methodology for rocking storage racks.

EXPERIMENTAL TESTING The experimental facility for experimental work is the Structures Test Laboratory of the University of Auckland. Snapback testing of a three-level storage rack was completed in 2016 (see Fig. 1). This experiment provided data on upright strains, uplift, level displacements and level accelerations during static pullback and dynamic free rocking motion for five different baseplate types, including unanchored.

Figure 2 Finite element validation of top level displacement during rocking

Figure 3 Validation of axial force during rocking The experiment and finite element model results were compared to the Housner’s rigid rocking block model (Housner, 1 Department of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering, University of Wollongong 2 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland

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1963), shown in Figure 4. It was found that the rack behaved as expected for a rigid rocking block if the amplitude of the angle of rack rotation was above 0.02 times the critical rotation angle for overturning. Below 0.02 of the critical angle, the experimental results show that the rack responds with a constant period just below 0.6s, corresponding to the racks structural period.

Figure 6 Shaking table in the University of Auckland

Typically, the rigidly anchored racks behaved more reliably as defined by having a similar peak response regardless of the ground motion record.

REFERENCES Crosier, J., Hannah, M., & Mukai, D. (2010). Damage to steel storage racks in industrial buildings in the Darfield earthquake. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 43(4), 425. Housner, G. W. (1963). The behavior of inverted pendulum structures during earthquakes. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 53(2), 403–417. Pompei, A., Scalia, A., & Sumbatyan, M. A. (1998). Dynamics of rigid block due to horizontal ground motion. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 124(7), 713–717. Psycharis, I. N., & Jennings, P. C. (1983). Rocking of slender rigid bodies allowed to uplift. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 11(1), 57–76. Uma, S. R., & Beattie, G. J. (2011). Observed performance of industrial pallet rack storage systems in the Canterbury earthquakes. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 44(4), 388–393.

Figure 5 Peak upright axial loads across 44 ground motion suite

FUTURE DIRECTIONS Further experimental testing is scheduled to be completed in 2017. Proof of concept testing of a friction sliding energy dissipating baseplate will be conducted in July 2017. The field test will be conducted on a 10.2m high six-level two-bay storage rack. The rack will be loaded with 24 x 1.3T pallets and pulled to 5% drift in the cross-aisle direction before being released to rock freely. The test will be repeated in the down-aisle direction so that the down-aisle stiffness provided by the baseplate design can be determined. Shaking table testing of the 4.8m storage rack will begin in August 2017 at the University of Auckland’s shaking table (shown in Figure 6). Five racks will be subjected to the H1 component of the Yarimka 1999 earthquake in the cross-aisle direction. The five racks will each have a different baseplate system ranging from unanchored to rigid. The ground motion intensity will be increased until rack collapse occurs.

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RESEARCH

The models were subjected to a suite of 44 ground motions. It was found that the unanchored rack typically had a significantly lower peak upright axial force (Fig. 5). Unanchored racks had larger peak displacements, as expected.

REPORTS: STRUCTURAL

Figure 4 Validation of rocking period against experimental results and Housner’s rigid rocking block model

Shaking table test data will be used to validate a second version of the finite element models that accurately describe ultimate limit state behaviour. These models will be used to perform parameter studies that will inform the development of a reliable and appropriate design methodology for rocking storage racks.


SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE COLUMN BEHAVIOUR REINFORCED WITH LONGITUDINAL STEEL TUBES

with four specimens in each group. From each group, one specimen was tested under concentric load, one under 25 mm eccentric load, one under 50 mm eccentric load and one under flexural load.

Key researchers: Muhammad N. S. Hadi, Faez Alhussainy and M. Neaz Sheikh

INTRODUCTION

RESEARCH

REPORTS: STRUCTURAL

Composite columns offer considerable improvements over conventional columns reinforced with steel bars and are used in many structural applications. In traditional reinforced concrete columns, solid steel bars are used as longitudinal reinforcement. In this study, small diameter steel tubes were used as longitudinal reinforcement for concrete columns. Steel tubes that have the same cross sectional area as solid bars have higher second moment of area and radius of gyration than solid bars. Filling these steel tubes with concrete can further increase the yield and ultimate strength as well as the ductility of the concrete columns under axial compression load. This is because the concrete infill will contribute in delaying the local buckling and converts the failure mode of steel tube wall from inward to outward (AISC 2010). For eccentric and flexural loading, using concrete filled steel tubes in lieu of solid bars may increase the stiffness of the cracked concrete section of the specimens, as the second moment of area of the cracked cross section for the steel tube reinforced specimen is slightly higher than that of steel-barreinforced specimen. This is mostly due to the presence of the confined concrete inside the steel tubes. In addition, a circular tube section provides better confinement of concrete than other tube sections because the tube wall resists the concrete pressure by membrane-type hoop stresses instead of the plate bending (Sehneider 1998). Hence, a significant research investigation is needed to explore the behavior of columns reinforced with small diameter steel tubes (Hadi et al. 2017, Alhussainy et al. 2017)

EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM A total of 20 circular SCC specimens reinforced longitudinally with steel bars and tubes were cast and tested. Four specimens were reinforced with normal steel bars (reference specimens) and the remaining 16 with steel tubes. All specimens contained steel helices with a pitch of either 50 mm or 75 mm. Deformed steel bars of 16 mm diameter were used in the four reference specimens as longitudinal reinforcement. Whilst steel tubes of 33.7 mm outside diameter with 2 mm wall thickness (ST33.7) and steel tubes of 26.9 mm outside diameter with 2.6 mm wall thickness (ST26.9) were used as longitudinal reinforcement in the remaining 16 specimens. Figure 1 shows the 20 fabricated reinforcing cages. The specimens were divided into five groups

Figure 1: Fabricated reinforcing cages (Hadi et al. 2017)

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND ANALYSIS Five specimens were tested under concentric axial compression until failure. Table 1 reports the test results. Figure 2 shows the axial load-axial deformation diagrams of the five concentrically tested specimens. For all specimens, initial failure of the concrete cover started with cracks after the maximum load was reached. As the loading continued to increase the buckling of longitudinal reinforcement occurred at the mid-height of the column specimens. Finally, the specimens failed by fracture of the steel helices at the mid-height. The failure modes of the specimens are shown in Figure 3. The average strains in the longitudinal steel bars and steel tubes indicated that steel bars and tubes yielded at the maximum axial load. The axial deformation corresponding to the first helix fracture in Specimen N16H50C was 20 mm, while in Specimen ST33.7H50C and Specimen ST26.9H50C were 33.5 and 36 mm, respectively. Specimen N16H50C had a lower axial deformation at the first fracture because the N16 steel deformed bar buckled earlier than the steel tubes. Consequently more pressure was applied on the steel helix and caused the yielding and fracture of steel helices. Due to the tensile strengths being different, the force contribution of steel tubes ST33.7 and ST26.9 in Specimen ST33.7H50C and Specimen ST26.9H50C were less than N16 steel bars in the reference Specimen N16H50C by 19.9% and 37%, respectively. Nevertheless, Specimen ST33.7H50C had similar yield and maximum load as the reference Specimen N16H50C. Specimen ST26.9H50C had only 5% less maximum load than the reference specimen.

Table 1: Results of specimens tested under concentric loading (Hadi et al. 2017) Specimen

N16H50C

ST33.7H50C

ST26.9H50C

ST33.7H75C

ST26.9H75C

Yield load (kN)

2505

2500

2375

2395

2275

Corresponding axial deformation (mm)

2.35

2.45

2.35

2.65

2.2

Maximum load (kN)

2734

2729

2598

2633

2443

Corresponding axial deformation (mm)

3.08

3.29

3.03

3.44

2.79

20

33.5

36

26.2

30.4

16.96

22

22.84

13.91

18.91

Ultimate axial deformation (mm)* Ductility

* Ultimate axial deformation was defined by the fracture of the steel helices.

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Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


Circular steel tubes provided confinement to the concrete and increased the compressive strength of concrete which resulted in enhancing the capacity of the columns. Besides, the ultimate axial deformation at failure for Specimen ST33.7H50C and Specimen ST26.9H50C were higher than the reference Specimen N16H50C (Table 1). For concentric load, the ductility of the column specimens reinforced with steel tubes were higher than the column specimens reinforced with steel bars for the same pitch of helix. The ductility of Specimen ST33.7H50C and Specimen ST26.9H50C were 30% higher than the reference specimen (Table 1).

SUMMARY Although the nominal yield tensile strength of steel bar was 150 and 250 MPa greater than the nominal yield tensile strength of steel tubes ST33.7 and ST26.9, respectively, the results revealed that Steel Tubes Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete (STR SCC) specimens have ultimate load similar to the reference specimens. The ductility of the concentrically loaded STR SCC specimens was higher than the reference specimen.

REFERENCES AISC (2010). “Specification for structural steel buildings.” ANSI/ AISC 360-10, Chicago, USA. Alhussainy, F., Sheikh, M. N. and Hadi, M. N. S., (2017). “Behavior of small diameter steel tubes under axial compression.” Structures, 11, 155-163. Hadi, M. N. S., Alhussainy, F., and Sheikh, M. N. (2017). “Behavior of self-compacting concrete columns reinforced longitudinally with steel tubes.” Journal of Structural Engineering ASCE, 143(6), 1-14. Schneider, S. (1998). “Axially loaded concrete-filled steel tubes.” Journal of Structural Engineering ASCE, 124(10), 1125-1138.

RESEARCH

REPORTS: STRUCTURAL

Figure 2: Axial load-axial deformation diagrams of specimens tested under concentric loading (Hadi et al. 2017)

Figure 3: Failure modes of column specimens tested under concentric compression (Hadi et al. 2017)

INTRACTION DIAGRAMS The experimental axial load-bending moment interactions of all specimen types are shown in Figure 4. Specimens of Group ST33.7H50 showed similar axial load-bending moment interaction behaviour to the reference specimens of Group N16H50.

Figure 4: Experimental load-bending moment interactions for the tested specimens (Hadi et al. 2017)

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RESEARCH

REPORTS: STRUCTURAL

62

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


Geomechanics & Railway Engineering

Principal interests and specialized expertise in geomechanics and rail engineering include: • Soft ground improvement and foundation engineering including large-scale geotechnical testing and process simulation; computational geotechnics • Mechanical properties of geo-materials and large-scale laboratory testing • Transport Geotechnics and Railroad Engineering including numerical modelling • Geo-environmental engineering including acid sulphate soil management, flow in porous media and jointed rock, and waste recycling for infrastructure foundations Behaviour of compacted granular materials, waste materials placement management, water behaviour in unsaturated soils • Constitutive modelling, FEM and DEM analysis of earth structures, soil dynamics, energy geotechnology • Landslide risk assessment and management, field and remote sensing of landform mobility, and GIS modelling related to slope stability and landslide management • Geotechincal risk quantification, slope stability assessment, landslide management and design for sustainability and resilience.

RESEARCH

REPORTS OF CURRENT RESEARCH INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING: – Application of Geogrids for minimising Track Deformation and Degradation under High Frequency Cyclic and Heavy Haul Loading Key researchers: Buddhima Indraratna, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn, Ana Heitor, Jayan Vinod and Fernanda Ferreira

– Ballast Track Stabilization by Shock Mats

Key researchers: Ngoc Trung Ngo, Buddhima Indraratna and Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn

– Chemical Treatment of Soft and Weak Soils

Key researchers: Buddhima Indraratna; J S Vinod, Ana Heitor & Dennis Alazigha

– Coupled DEM-FEM Analysis for Simulating Ballasted Rail Tracks

Key researchers: Ngoc Trung Ngo, Buddhima Indraratna and Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn

– Cyclic Loading Behaviour of an Energy Absorbing Layer Composed of Waste Materials for Rail Applications Key researchers: Buddhima Indraratna, Yujie Qi, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn and Jayan Sylaja Vinod

– Cyclic Loading Behaviour of Soft Soil with Reference to Axis Rotation

Key researchers: Buddhima Indraratna, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn, John Carter and Thevakumar Krishanthan

– Geotechnical Performance of Granular Wastes

Key researchers: Buddhima Indraratna, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn, Ana Heitor, Dong Wang and Niriamtawk

– Effectiveness of Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVDs) and Vacuum Application in Stabilization of Soft in-situ Clays at Ballina Key researchers at UOW: Prof Buddhima Indraratna, A/Prof Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn and Pankaj Baral.

– Performance of Under Sleeper Pads in a Ballasted Track

Key researchers: Prof. Buddhima Indraratna, A/Prof. Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn, Dr. Sanjay Nimbalkar and Chamindi Jayasuriya

– Constitutive Models for Geomaterials Key researcher: Martin Liu

– Reactive Barriers for Groundwater Treatment in Acid Sulfate Soil

Key researchers: Buddhima Indraratna, Subhani Medawela, Ana Heitor, Udeshini Pathirage, Kerry Rowe

– The role of Osmotic Suction induced by Tree Roots for Strengthening Transport Corridors

Key researchers: Buddhima Indraratna, Ana Heitor, Udeshini Pathirage, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn, Muditha Pallewatha and : Pubudu Jayathilaka

– Methane Hydrate Bearing Sand: DEM Simulations Key researchers: J S Vinod & Buddhima Indraratna

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

REPORTS: GEOMECH AND RAIL

Current research activities in geomechanics and rail engineering topic areas reflect the research interests of the academic and research staff of CME. The dozen brief descriptions of projects conducted over the 2015-2017 period provided here illustrate the research interests related to technical specialties of the staff, their interactions with collaborators, and the wider interests of civil engineering expressed by allocation of the funding essential to project implementation. The collection of technical expertise among the staff in combination with specialized equipment and facilities have made these projects possible as part of the continuing scholarly output of the group and its contribution to providing cutting edge additions to civil engineering technology with significant industry impact while extending instructional capability.

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APPLICATION OF GEOGRIDS FOR MINIMISING TRACK DEFORMATION AND DEGRADATION UNDER HIGH FREQUENCY CYCLIC AND HEAVY HAUL LOADING Key researchers: Buddhima Indraratna, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn, Ana Heitor, Jayan Vinod and Fernanda Ferreira Industry Partners: Global Synthetics Pty Ltd and Foundation Specialists Group Funding Sources: Rail Manufacturing CRC Project R2.5.2

INTRODUCTION

Figure 1: Process Simulation Prismoidal Triaxial Apparatus developed at UOW (Indraratna et al. 2011)

In many parts of the world, especially considering the agriculture and mining sectors, the lack of capacity of current rail transportation infrastructure to support increased freight volume and its efficient mobility (i.e. connecting ports with the regional and rural areas) is of grave concern.

Recent studies have shown that the application of geogrids in rail tracks attenuates the rate of permanent ballast deformation and particle breakage under repetitive wheel loads (e.g., Indraratna et al. 2011, 2013; Ngo et al. 2014). The benefits of the geogrid reinforcement predominantly stem from the interlocking of ballast particles within the geogrid apertures, which restricts the lateral movement and vertical settlement of ballast. Although the effect of geogrids in strengthening the track substructure has been recognised in the past, the interface behaviour between different geogrids and the ballast has not been examined in detail or incorporated into Australian ballasted rail track designs.

PROJECT AIM The key objective of this research is to investigate the potential use of different geogrids in controlling vibration, deformation and degradation on granular track layers and subgrades for enhanced track performance under actual track environments. The Project is divided into two major components including large-scale laboratory testing and computational modelling, as elucidated below.

LARGE-SCALE LABORATORY TESTING UOW has unique facilities to conduct extensive laboratory testing for all track components including ballast, subballast and subgrade. In this research, a large-scale Process Simulation Prismoidal Triaxial Apparatus with a high-frequency dynamic actuator (Figure 1) and a high-capacity Drop-weight Impact Testing Equipment (Figure 2) will be used to test the geogridreinforced track foundation subjected to high cyclic and impact loads, respectively. These tests will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of different geogrid types (i.e., distinct geometry and aperture size) in mitigating the deformation and degradation of ballast aggregates.

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Figure 2: Drop-Weight Impact Testing Equipment developed at UOW (Kaewunruen and Remennikov, 2010) To characterise the extent of particle degradation after testing, the Ballast Breakage Index (BBI) introduced originally by Indraratna et al. (2005) will be used. This method is based on the ballast particle size distribution before and after the test with respect to an arbitrary boundary of maximum breakage. By referring to a linear particle size axis, BBI is determined as follows:

BBI =

A A +B

(1)

where A is the area between the initial and final PSD curves and B is the area between the arbitrary boundary of maximum breakage and the final PSD curve, as illustrated in Figure 3. 1.0

0.6

Arbitrary boundary of maximum breakage

0.4

Final PSD B A

0.2 0.0

d95i

2.36 mm = Smallest sieve size d95i = d95 of largest sieve size

0.8

Fraction passing

RESEARCH

REPORTS: GEOMECH AND RAIL

The ballast layer is a decisive component of the conventional track substructure and its importance has grown with increasing train speeds and axle loads. However, upon repeated wheel loads, ballast deteriorates and spreads laterally which adversely affects the safety and efficiency of railway tracks. Additionally, impact forces induced by wheel and/or rail irregularities (e.g., wheel flats, rail corrugations, dipped rails, expansion gaps between two rail segments, defective rail welds and insulation joints) or variations in the track foundation conditions (e.g., at stiffness transition zones, such as bridge approaches, tunnels and road crossings) lead to exacerbated track degradation and more frequent maintenance operations (Indraratna et al. 2011; Ferreira and Indraratna, 2017).

0

2.36

10

20

Initial PSD

30

40

50

60

Particle size (mm)

Figure 3: Determination of BBI according to the method proposed by Indraratna et al. (2005)

COMPUTATIONAL MODELLING The numerical analysis will be carried out at the micromechanics level adopting a discrete element method (DEM) for

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


The increased demand for heavier and faster trains has posed greater challenges to the railway industry to improve track stability while reducing maintenance costs. A large proportion of track maintenance costs are related to substructure problems such as ballast breakage, poor drainage, differential settlement and track buckling. The improved safety and passenger comfort on high resiliency tracks with enhanced average train speeds through the inclusion of geogrids will potentially generate savings of several millions of dollars every year through increased productivity and operational efficiency. The use of geogrids will not only provide an innovative and effective engineering solution for ballasted tracks for heavy haul fast trains, but also offer cost effective track construction with extended maintenance cycles.

SUMMARY This Project aims to investigate the role of different geogrids in improving track performance under cyclic and impact loads induced by fast moving heavy haul trains. Large-scale laboratory tests will be conducted using prototype facilities design and built at UOW. In addition, an advanced computational model for track design will be developed. The research outcomes are expected to contribute to better design solutions and revised specifications considering the application of geogrids for enhanced track stability and reduced maintenance costs.

REFERENCES Ferreira, F. and Indraratna, B. (2017). Deformation and degradation response of railway ballast under impact loading – effect of artificial inclusions. First International Conference on Rail Transportation, Chengdu, China, July 2017. Indraratna, B., Hussaini, S. K. and Vinod, J.S. (2013). The lateral displacement response of geogrid-reinforced ballast under cyclic loading. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 39: 20-29. Indraratna, B., Lackenby, J. and Christie, D. (2005). Effect of confining pressure on the degradation of ballast under cyclic loading. Geotechnique, 55(4): 325-328. Indraratna, B., Salim, W. and Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2011). Advanced Rail Geotechnology – Ballasted Track. London, UK: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. Kaewunruen, S. and Remennikov, A. M. (2010). Dynamic crack propagations in prestressed concrete sleepers in railway track systems subjected to severe impact loads. ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, 136(6): 749-754. Ngo, N.T., Indraratna, B. and Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2014). DEM simulation of the behaviour of geogrid stabilised ballast fouled with coal. Computers and Geotechnics, 55: 224-231.

Key researchers: Ngoc Trung Ngo, Buddhima Indraratna and Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn Industry Partners: Rail Manufacturing CRC, Tyre Stewardship Australia, Australasian Centre for Rail Innovation (ACRI) Funding Sources: RM CRC, R2.5.1

INTRODUCTION The railway track network plays an essential role of the transportation infrastructure worldwide. The ballast layer plays a crucial part in transmitting and distributing the wheel load from sleepers to the underlying sub-ballast and subgrade at a reduced and acceptable stress level (Selig and Waters 1994). During operation, ballast deteriorates due to the breakage of angular corners and sharp edges, the infiltration of fines from the surface, and mud pumping from the subgrade under train loading (Indraratna et al. 2011). As a result of these actions, ballast becomes less angular, fouled, reduced shear strength and impeded drainage; and this results in uneven track settlement and high maintenance costs. Under ballast mats (i.e. shock mats) are recently used around the world for rail track substructures and are very effective in limiting the degradation on the ballast. However, there has been limited study on quantifying the role of shock mats in reducing ballast degradation due to energy absorbing nature of the shock mats (Nimbalkar at al. 2012). In view of this, a series of laboratory tests, mathematical and computational modelling will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of shock mats in mitigating ballast breakage.

LABORATORY INVESTIGATION Track substructures are often subjected to impact loads due to abnormalities in the wheel or rail such as wheel-flat, dipped rails, turnouts, crossings, insulated joints, imperfect rail welds and rail corrugations, among other factors. These impact loads are of a high magnitude and very short duration, depending on the nature of the wheel or rail irregularities, and on the dynamic response of the track (Jenkins et al. 1974). The large scale dropweight impact testing equipment at UOW designed and built by Remennikov (2010), consisting of a 587.5 kg free fall hammer that can be dropped from a maximum height of 6 m with an equivalent maximum drop velocity of 10 m/s (Fig. 1); it is used in this project to study how impact loads affect the deformation of ballast. A series of tests will be conducted with and without the inclusion of shock mats for stiff (concrete desk) and soft subgrade conditions under varying input energy (i.e. varying drop heights of the hammer as h = 100 mm, 150 mm, 200 mm and 250mm). These drop heights and drop mass are selected to produce dynamic stresses in the range of 350-600 kPa, simulating and a typical wheel-flat and dipped rail joint. Every test is subjected to 10 drops and vertical and lateral deformations of the ballast sample are recorded after each drop using potentiometers and data acquisition unit. After each test, the ballast mass is sieved, and the change in gradation is obtained for investigating the ballast degradation (breakage). Impact loads are monitored by a dynamic load cell (capacity of 1,200 kN), mounted on the drop hammer and connected to a computer controlled data acquisition system (Kaewunruen and Remennikov 2009). An accelerometer is attached on the top surface of ballast assembly to measure accelerations during impact tests. These measurements will provide a good understanding of the energy absorbing capacity of shock mats: (i) how much energy is absorbed by the shock mats and the reduction in the actual component of strain energy transferred to the ballast due to the inclusion of mats; and (ii) understand the extent that mats can bring down the impactinduced forces in the ballast, apart from substantially reducing

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

65

RESEARCH

POTENTIAL OUTCOMES AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS

BALLAST TRACK STABILIZATION BY SHOCK MATS

REPORTS: GEOMECH AND RAIL

a given number of particles subject to a progressive (iterative) degradation process. The three-dimensional discrete element software PFC3D will be used to simulate prototype laboratory tests for geogrid-reinforced ballast assemblies. Geogrids and ballast aggregates will be modelled in DEM through developed subroutines, capturing: (i) varying geometry and aperture size of geogrids; (ii) angularity of aggregates; and (iii) the magnitude and frequency of cyclic loads. The ballast-geogrid interface behaviour will be numerically modelled in detail. The numerical predictions will be calibrated against prototype scale laboratory tests and further validated through real-life field monitoring data, and the inevitable re-examination of the theoretical concepts and/or re-calibration of numerical solution routines will be conducted. Expected outcomes of the numerical predictions will be used to develop design charts and guidelines for ballasted rail tracks, for different subgrade conditions prevail in Australia, considering the role of geogrids in the attenuation of ballast deformations and particle degradation under high frequency cyclic and heavy-haul loading.


the ballast breakage. These are valuable information which is essential for the thorough verification and refinement of a mathematical energy-based model that is to be developed.

SHEAR AND VOMUMETRIC STRAINS Vertical and lateral deformations of the ballast sample are recorded after each blow. The shear strain and volumetric strain of ballast specimens with and without the inclusion of rubber mats are presented in Figs. 3 and 4, respectively. It is seen that both the shear strain and volumetric strains increase with successive impacts. Higher permanent strains (shear and volumetric strains) are predominantly observed in the ballast bed for stiff subgrade compared to soft subgrade. The inclusion of rubber mats (i.e. shock mats) placed at top and bottom of ballast decreases the shear and volumetric strains reduce significantly (i.e. in the order of 40 to 50%). For weak subgrade conditions, this improvement is less marked. Placement of shock mats at the top and bottom of the ballast mass provides significant reduction of the impact induced strains.

SUMMARY This project will confirms that the use of shock mats in track could offer an attractive solution for enhanced performance of ballast through impact attenuation and subsequent mitigation of ballast degradation. In the case of stiff subgrade, a shock mat placed at the bottom of the ballast offers enhanced performance through reduced breakage and track settlement, whereas for relatively softer

Figure 1: High capacity drop weight impact apparatus (modified after Remennikov and Kaewunruen 2010).

subgrades, the shock mat offers optimum protection if it is ideally placed both at the top and bottom of the ballast. The results of experimental tests will be used to validate an energybased model that is to be developed. 25

350

A Without Shock mat B Shock mat placed at top and bottom

200

Multiple Peaks (P1)

0

10

12

Stiff subgrade Weak subgrade

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Cummulative Impact E nergy, E 1 (kNm)

Figure 3: Measured shear strain of ballast with and without shock mat for stiff and weak subgrade (modified after Nimbalkar et al. 2012). Number of blows, N 20

Single Peak (P2) B

A

0

2

B

0 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20

Time, t (sec)

Figure 2: Typical impact force responses measured in laboratory (modified after Nimbalkar et al. 2012).

15

(b)

4 6 Without shock mat Shock mat at top Shock mat at bottom Shock mat at top and bottom

8

10

12

Stiff subgrade Weak subgrade

10

5

0

66

0

A

100 50

8

5

Volumetric strain, ev (%)

150

4 6 Without shock mat Shock mat at top Shock mat at bottom Shock mat at top and bottom

10

(a)

250

2

15

Stiff subgrade

300

0

20

S hear strain, es (%)

The impact load-time response subjected to the 1st drop of the free-fall hammer is presented in Fig. 2 where two distinct types of force peaks, P1 and P2 were clearly observed. It is seen that multiple P1 type peaks followed by the distinct P2 type peak often occurred. A remarkable increase of P2 appeared at the initial stages of impact loading, but became almost insignificant afterwards. This shows that the ballast mass stabilises after a certain number of impacts to produce an almost constant P2. The observed benefits of a shock mat are therefore two folds: (i) it attenuates the impact force, and (ii) it decreases the impulse frequencies thereby extending the time duration of impact.

Impact Force, FI (kN)

RESEARCH

REPORTS: GEOMECH AND RAIL

Number of blows, N

IMPACT LOADING

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Cummulative Impact E nergy, E 1 (kNm)

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


Figure 4: Measured volumetric strain of ballast with and without shock mat for stiff and weak subgrade (modified after Nimbalkar et al. 2012).

CHEMICAL TREATMENT OF SOFT AND WEAK SOILS

REFERENCES

Key researchers: Buddhima Indraratna; J S Vinod, Ana Heitor & Dennis Alazigha

Indraratna, B., Salim, W. and Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2011). Advanced Rail Geotechnology - Ballasted Track, CRC Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK.

Industry Partners: Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads, Chemstab Consulting Pty.Ltd, Douglas Partners, Coffey Geotechnics

Kaewunruen, and Remennikov, (2009) Progressive failure of prestressed concrete sleepers under multiple high-intensity impact loads. Engineering Structures, 31(10), 2460-2473. Nimbalkar, S., Indraratna, B., Dash, S.K. and Christie, D. (2012). Improved performance of railway ballast under impact loads using shock mats. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 138(3), pp: 281-294. Selig, E.T., and Waters, J.M. (1994). Track Geotechnology and Substructure Management, Thomas Telford, London. Remennikov, A.M. and Kaewunruen, S. (2010) Dynamic crack propagation in prestressed concrete sleepers in railway track systems subjected to severe impact loads. ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, 136 (6), pp. 749-754.

Funding Sources: ARC- Linkage Project No. LP-110200447

INTRODUCTION In many parts of the world, the incidence of problematic soft soils including erodible, dispersive and expansive soils causes damage to infrastructure that severely impacts its operation. Chemical stabilisation using traditional admixtures such as cement, lime, fly ash is generally used for stabilising these soils. Typically, these chemical stabilisers generally alter the mineralogical properties of the soil resulting in highly stable soil substances with improved engineering properties. While being costeffective, these alkaline and sometimes corrosive admixtures have directly contributed to substantial rise in the soil and groundwater alkalinity (pH about 8-9) adversely affecting the growth and development of certain native vegetation and subsurface fauna. In contrast, the use of non-toxic lignosulfonates (LS) with much smaller quantities, has been reported to achieve similar results without harming the environment. Lignosulfonate is a soluble dark brown liquid, and it is a byproduct of the timber and paper industry and its chemical composition is shown in Fig 1.

RESEARCH

CH2 - OH CH2 CH – SO3Na

H/ Benzene

OH

OCH3 n

Fig. 1: structure of lignosulfonate (Vinod et al., 2010) The use of lignosulfonate as a soil stabilizer has significant advantages in relation to traditional admixtures with respect to soil and groundwater environment quality. This is because lignosulfonate is readily diluted in water and causes no pH change in the soil upon treatment. An additional benefit is associated with the reduction of brittle behaviour during shear loading that is well known for alkaline mixtures (Athukorala et al., 2015). This project aims to investiagte the effect of LS in controlling the swelling behaviour of expansive soil for which the use of lignosulfonate has yielded comparable and in cases superior performance to that of traditional admixtures.

LABORATORY TESTS ON EXPANSIVE SOIL TREATED WITH LIGNOSULFONATE One dimensional swell tests were performed on untreated and LS treated remoulded samples on a typical Australian expansive soil collected in Queensland. The test results indicated that LS has significant role in controlling the swelling behaviour of this expansive soil (Fig. 2).

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

REPORTS: GEOMECH AND RAIL

Jenkins, H.M., Stephenson, J.E., Clayton, G.A., Morland, J.W. & Lyon, D. 1974. The effect of track and vehicle parameters on wheel/rail vertical dynamic forces. Railway Engineering Journal 3: 2-16.

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the non-expansive minerals. Thus, the amorphous LS stabilizer underwent basal and peripheral adsorption on montmorillonite lattices and only peripheral adsorption on other soil minerals. The adsorption process subsequently coated the clay mineral lattices to form flocs and restricted the characteristic diffraction of the atomic planes especially in montmorillonite and also limiting the movement of water molecules into the entire clay matrix which in turn reduced swelling.

Fig. 2: Swelling behaviour of an expansive soil treated with LS and (after Alazigha et al. 2016) For instance, as the LS content increases the long term vertical expansion is minimised (Fig 3), however larger reduction is observed for small LS dosages, i.e. LS=2%. Furthermore, it seems as the effectiveness of LS in controlling swelling is more effective for low applied vertical pressures, i.e. <80kPa; after this value is exceeded the applied pressure governs the volumetric behaviour to a greater extent (Fig 2). This vertical pressure range is consistent with that of typical transport infrastructure which indicates that LS is a viable stabilization alternative. Moreover, the magnitude of the swelling pressure of the soil was measured to be 105kPa but decreased to 84kPa upon 2% LS addition as shown in Fig. 2. For cement-treated specimens, the swelling pressure is similar to that of 2% LS (82kPa).

XRD was employed in this study to assess the changes in clay mineralogy due to LS addition. The XRD diffractograms of the untreated and 2% LS treated soil are presented in Fig 4. The diffractograms were compared for the existence of new peaks (new minerals) in treated samples.

The microstructure of the stabilized soil specimens was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM) analytical technique. Fig 5 shows the micrographs of the untreated and the treated (2% LS) specimens at a magnification of 3000x. It can be observed marked changes in morphology, the untreated soil structure has transformed from a particle based form to a more integrated composite with larger but fewer inter-aggregates dominate pore spaces. Monroy et al. (2005) reported that the formation of larger inter-aggregate pore spaces causes reduction in the number and volume of intra-aggregate pore spaces which restrict the movement of water molecules into the entire clay matrix.

8 Natural soil 2% LS treated 2% Cement treated

6 Vertical strain (%)

RESEARCH

REPORTS: GEOMECH AND RAIL

MICROSTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

Fig. 4: XRD diffractograms of untreated and 2% LS treated expansive soil (Alazigha et al., 2016)

4

Swell

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Fig. 5: SEM micrographs (a) remoulded untreated (b) 2% LS treated expansive soil (Alazigha et al., 2016)

Applied pressure (kPa)

0 -2 -4

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Fig. 3: Effect of variable vertical pressure (after Alazigha et al. 2016) The distance of the separation of atomic planes (d-spacing) was also investigated to understand the mineralogical alterations in treated specimen. A comparison of untreated and 2% LS treated diffractograms indicates a shift at the 001 montmorillonite peak to the left (an increase in d-spacing) for treated sample. This result suggests that LS intercalated the inner layer of the montmorillonite lattice and forced it to initially expand. In addition, the montmorillonite patterns either broadened or completely absent in the treated sample. The changes in the original montmorillonite lattice suggests that LS altered or destroyed the montmorillonite lattices. The peak intensities of other minerals such as quartz, kaolinite and illite also decreased. However, XRD patterns did not show intercalation of LS into the interlayers of these minerals. This suggests that only peripheral adsorption of LS by these minerals took place. This could be a result of the large molecular weight of LS polymer as compared to the interlayer spaces in

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SUMMARY This study suggests that LS could be a resourceful alternative, considering its low cost and lesser environmental footprint, to traditional alkaline additives for controlling the swelling of expansive soil.

REFERENCES Alazigha, D;   Indraratna, B and Vinod, J S (2016). The Swelling  Behavior  of Lignosulfonate Treated Expansive soil, Ground Improvement Journal, 169(3), pp.182-193. Athukorala, R., Indraratna, B. and Vinod, J. S. (2015). A Disturbed State Concept –based Constitutive Model for Lignosulfonate Treated Silty Sand, International Journal of Geomechanics, ASCE,15(6),1-10. Vinod, J.S. , Indraratna, B. & Mahamud, M.A.A. (2010). Stabilisation of an erodible soil using a chemical admixture. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Ground Improvement, 163(GII): 43-51. Vinod, J S, Indraratna, B and Heitor, A. (2016), “Soil stabilisation using Lignosulfonate”, Symposium on ground stabilisation techniques for problematic soils and unstable rocks, AGS Sydney chapter, Sydney (in CD).

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COUPLED DEM-FEM ANALYSIS FOR SIMULATING BALLASTED RAIL TRACKS Key researchers: Ngoc Trung Ngo, Buddhima Indraratna and Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn Industry Partners: Rail Manufacturing CRC, Tyre Stewardship Australia, Australasian Centre for Rail Innovation (ACRI) Funding Sources: RM CRC, R2.5.1

INTRODUCTION

Figure 1: Track Process Simulation Apparatus (after Indraratna et al. 2011). qmax=420 kpa

Time

DEM Model Ballast grains

COUPLED DISCRETE-CONTINUUM MODEL A schematic geometric model of the combined discrete-finite difference (DEM-FEM) approach is illustrated in Figure 2, where the dimensions represent the large-scale TPSA. Given that the ballast displaced along the direction of train passage was very small due to confinement by the sleepers (ties), a coupled DEM-FEM analysis was implemented considering plane strain condition. It is noted that the discrete element method (DEM) introduced by Cundall and Strack (1979) has been widely used to model the load-deformation behaviour of granular materials (McDowell et al. 2002, Ngo et al. 2014). In this project, ballast was modelled in DEM while the sub-ballast and subgrade layers were modelled using a continuum approach via the finite element method (FEM). Interaction between the ballast layer and subgrade was facilitated by a series of interface elements generated at the DEM-FEM boundary (Ngo et al. 2017). Cyclic tests at a frequency of f=15 Hz were simulated over a number of load cycles, N=10,000 where most of the ballast deformation and degradation occurred.

FEM Model

Subballast

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A novel large-scale Track Process Simulation Apparatus (TPSA) with a high frequency dynamic actuator (specimen size: 800 mm × 600 mm × 600 mm) was used (Fig. 1) to study the deformation and degradation of ballast (Indraratna et al. 2011). The results and analysis of these tests were presented earlier by Indraratna et al. (2013), and they highlighted that the ballast settled rapidly within the first 100,000 load cycles, followed by a diminished rate of settlement up to 300,000 cycles, and then remained relatively unchanged.

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LABORATORY INVESTIGATION

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Figure 2: Coupled DEM-FEM model to simulate TPSA tests for ballast (modified after Ngo et al. 2017).

APPLICATION TO A CASE STUDY The combined DEM-FEM model was validated by laboratory test data carried out by Indraratna et al. (2013). This model was then used to predict the load-deformation response of actual rail tracks in the town of Singleton north of Sydney. Field data measured by Indraratna et al. (2014) were used to compare with the current numerical analysis. The combined DEM-FEM model used to simulate the settlement Sv of the half-track is shown in Figure 3, where the contact force chains and vertical stress contours were captured at 10,000 cycles. Note that the geometry, boundary conditions, and applied cyclic loads were modelled as closely as possible to field conditions (i.e. mean cyclic stress of 235 kPa; frequency of 15 Hz) to represent simulated freight trains with axle loads of 25-30 tonnes travelling at 80 km/h. The simulation shows that ballast directly underneath a concrete sleeper experiences denser contact forces than ballast at the shoulder of the embankment, and this causes vertical stress (σyy) at the interface between the ballast and capping to be distributed non-uniformly along the interface, where increased stresses occur towards the track centreline; this analysis supports the data measured in the field.

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RESEARCH

�3=10ŸKpa

�3=10 kPa

REPORTS: GEOMECH AND RAIL

qmin=50 kPa

300

Attributed to excessive track degradation, Australian rail industry spends a mammoth budget for frequent track repair and maintenance. Ballast is an essential component of track substructure that is commonly used to distribute the wheel load from sleepers (ties) to the underlying capping layer and natural subgrade, maintain track alignment, and provide track drainage (Selig and Waters 1994; Indraratna et al. 2011, Ngo et al. 2014). Traditional ballast normally consists of medium to coarse rock aggregates (10-53 mm) and a small fraction of sand size grains. Upon repeated train loading, ballast degrades to smaller sizes that can seriously decrease the shear strength and impede the drainage capacity of the track substructure (Indraratna et al. 2013; Tutumluer et al. 2012). In this project, the load-deformation of ballasted rail tracks subjected to cyclic loading is studied in the laboratory using a large-scale track process simulation apparatus (TPSA), and numerically adopting a combined discrete element-finite element approach (coupled DEM-FEM).


REFERENCES Cundall, P.A., and Strack, O.D.L. (1979). A Discrete Numerical Model for Granular Assemblies. GĂŠotechnique, 29(1), 47-65. Indraratna, B., Salim, W., and Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2011). Advanced Rail Geotechnology - Ballasted Track, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK. Indraratna, B., Ngo, N.T. and Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2013). Deformation of Coal Fouled Ballast Stabilized with Geogrid under Cyclic Load. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 139(8), pp: 1275-1289. Indraratna, B., Nimbalkar, S. and Neville, T. (2014). Performance assessment of reinforced ballasted rail track. Proceedings of the ICE - Ground Improvement, 167, pp: 24-34. McDowell, G. R., and Harireche, O. (2002). Discrete Element Modelling of Soil Particle Fracture. GĂŠotechnique, 52(2), 131-135. Ngo, N. T., Indraratna, B. , and Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2014). DEM Simulation of the Behaviour of Geogrid Stabilised Ballast Fouled with Coal. Computers and Geotechnics, 55, 224-231.

Figure 3: Coupled DEM-FEM model for the Singleton track (modified after Ngo et al. 2017).

Selig, E.T., and Waters, J.M. (1994). Track Geotechnology and Substructure Management, Thomas Telford, London. Tutumluer, E., Huang, H., and Bian, X. (2012). Geogrid-aggregate Interlock Mechanism Investigated through Aggregate Imagingbased Discrete Element Modeling Approach. International Journal of Geomechanics, 12(4), 391-398.

0 Field data (hard subgrade)

2 S ettlement (mm)

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REPORTS: GEOMECH AND RAIL

Comparisons of the settlement Sv of ballast for two types of subgrades (soft and stiff subgrades) obtained from the numerical model and field measurements are presented in Figure 4, where settlement is recorded beneath the sleeper. It is seen that the model predicts the track settlement well in relation to the observed field data, where only a slight deviation from the measurements was found. For instance at N=10,000, the measured value of Sv for hard subgrade of 6.07 mm matches reasonably well with the predicted value of 6.71 mm. The notable increase in settlement predicted for soft subgrade (Sv =10.21 mm) compared to the field measurement of Sv = 8.72 mm can be attributed to inevitable discrepancies between the field conditions and the computational model that can be attributed to the plane strain assumptions.

Ngo, N.T., Indraratna, B. and Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2017). Simulation Ballasted Track Behavior: Numerical Treatment and Field Application. International Journal of Geomechanics, 0(0), pp: 04016130.

Model prediction

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S ingleton track, soft subgrade S ingleton track, hard subgrade

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Figure 4: Comparisons of settlement between the model and field data (after Ngo et al. 2017).

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INTRODUCTION In recent years, waste from both steel (i.e. steel furnace slag, SFS) and mining (i.e. coalwash, CW) industries has been incorporated into civil engineering infrastructure such as roads, embankments, and reclamation fills (Indraratna et al. 1994, Maslehuddin et al. 2003). The waste tyres use into civil engineering applications (e.g. rubber crumbs) has become more popular recently for easing the environmental footprint associated with the otherwise stockpiling of vehicle tyres.

To date a series of monotonic tests have been conducted. Some of the results obtained for the different mixtures adopted in the selection framework are shown in this section. Preliminary consolidated drained triaxial tests results show that all the SFS+CW+RC mixtures proportions prepared by weight adopted have enough shear strength compared to traditional sub-ballast (Figure 1). When the rubber crumbs are added in the mixture, the energy capacity increases dramatically comparing to those without rubber and traditional sub-ballast (Figure 2). As the rubber enhances the energy absorbing capacity of mixture, the larger addition of rubber crumbs can efficiently decrease the particle breakage of coal wash. This can be readily observed in Figure 3, which shows the particle breakage observed for different rubber contents. It can be observed that breakage decreases with increasing content of rubber, and for a rubber content exceeding 30% particle breakage of the waste mixtures become negligible. 65

In this project these three waste materials are mixed to explore the possibility of obtaining an energy-absorbing capping layer (sub-ballast) for railway systems. The reuse and recycling of these waste materials is not only economically beneficial and environmental sustainable, but it can also ease track degradation, especially if high speeds are considered.

• Level 1: Suitable gradation. The waste mixtures should have a suitable gradation to prevent upward migration of subgrade particles. • Level 2: Permeability coefficient (hydraulic conductibility). In order to provide adequate drainage for both upper and sublayers, the permeability of sub-ballast should less than that of ballast and greater than that of the subgrade. To ensure good drainage conditions, the sub-ballast materials should have and a permeability coefficient ranging between (Laricar and Indraratna 2010). • Level 3: Peak friction angle (shear strength). The shear strength of the waste mixtures should no less than the available minimum shear strength of the traditional subballast. The minimum friction angle should be larger than 33˚ (Fernandes et al. 2008), and the maximum friction angle tested in this study. should be 45.4˚ under • Level 4: Post-compaction particle breakage. In order to satisfy the filter criterion, the optimum waste mixture should have little or no particle breakage, and may be acceptable for cases where the particle breakage of the waste mixture does not exceed that of the traditional subballast. • Level 5: Energy-absorbing character. The addition of rubber provides the ability of the waste mixtures to absorb more energy from external loading, thus when used as subballast, they can reduce the damage to the ballast particles and subgrade. Therefore the higher energy absorbing capacity the better. • Level 6: Axial displacement. The axial displacement of the optimum mixture should not be larger than that of traditional subballast. The mean acceptable axial strain of traditional subballast is 0.03 (Teixeira et al. 2006). To select the optimal mixture in view of the selection framework, an extensive laboratory testing program will be undertaken. The tests will include compaction tests, permeability tests, monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests, and breakage evaluation through wet sieving after compaction and shearing.

Peak friction angle: °

In order to identify the optimum mixture which has properties similar or superior to that of conventional subballast, a sixlevelled framework was proposed to optimise the composition in terms of weight proportions of SFS+CW+RC mixtures.

SFS50+CW50 SFS45+CW45+RC10 SFS40+CW40+RC20

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SFS70+CW30 SFS63+CW27+RC10 SFS56+CW24+RC20 SFS49+CW21+RC30 SFS42+CW18+RC40

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Figure 1: Peak friction angle of waste mixtures and traditional subballast. 24

SFS50+CW50 SFS45+CW45+RC10 SFS40+CW40+RC20 SFS70+CW30 SFS63+CW27+RC10 SFS56+CW24+RC20 SFS49+CW21+RC30 SFS42+CW18+RC40 Traditional subballast

20

Energy absorbing capacity: kPa

METHODOLOGY

traditional subballast

RESEARCH

Key researchers: Buddhima Indraratna, Yujie Qi, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn and Jayan Sylaja Vinod

PRELIMINARY TEST RESULTS

REPORTS: GEOMECH AND RAIL

CYCLIC LOADING BEHAVIOUR OF AN ENERGY ABSORBING LAYER COMPOSED OF WASTE MATERIALS FOR RAIL APPLICATIONS

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with rubber

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Figure 2: Energy absorbing capacity of waste mixtures and traditional subballast.

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PLANNED ACTIVITIES In light of the selection framework, additional properties of the waste mixtures need to be determined. Then the optimum mixture used as sub-ballast will be identified. After the selection of the optimum mixture for capping layer, a mathematic model will be developed to capture the cyclic loading behaviour incorporating the energy absorbing capacity of the mixture. The concept of the bounding surface theory will be adopted in this model.

CONCLUSIONS Preliminary tests results show that the waste mixtures with selected weight proportions have sufficient shear strength, low particle breakage, and energy absorbing capacity. A capping layer, composed of waste materials, having high energy absorbing capacity can not only reduce the particle breakage, but also reduce the energy transmitted to the ballast and subgrade. This indicated that the incorporation of this layer, designed in this way, can to some degree enhance the in service performance the railway systems, resulting in substantial cost savings. Furthermore, using waste materials is environmental friendly and economical, which will benefit both the industry and the public.

CYCLIC LOADING BEHAVIOUR OF SOFT SOIL WITH REFERENCE TO AXIS ROTATION Key researchers: Buddhima Indraratna, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn, John Carter and Thevakumar Krishanthan

INTRODUCTION The recent development of high speed train lines has experienced worldwide growth due to the increasing needs of expanding populations. However, high speed trains induce continuous cyclic loading onto the railway substructure (Li & Selig, 1998), which means the behaviour of underlying soft clay is a serious problem in geotechnical engineering, particularly during the design stage of railways and roadways built over high compressible and soft clay (Carter et al., 1979). The low bearing capacity and excessive settlement are the main characteristics of soft soil that contribute to its failure. Previous investigations into the effect of repeated loading has mainly concentrated on cyclic triaxial conditions, whereas in reality moving loads induce the major principal stress directions (Figure 1) to rotate. In this project the effect that principle stress rotation has on the shear strength of soft soil is investigated.

RESEARCH

REPORTS: GEOMECH AND RAIL

Breakage index, BI: %

6

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Figure 1: Rotation of Principal Stress Direction for moving loads.

TEST PROCEDURE 2

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Rubber crumbs content: % (by weight)

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Figure 3: Breakage index of waste mixtures with different rubber content.

REFERENCES Indraratna B, Gasson I, Chowdhury RN (1994). Utilization of Compacted Coal Tailings as a Structural Fill. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 31, 614-623. Laricar Dominic OT, Indraratna B (2010). Assessment of subballast filtration under cyclic loading. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 136, 1519-1528.

A mixture of kaolin clay and sand with a liquid limit and plasticity Index of 28 and 11 was used for all of these experiments. The mixture was initially prepared as slurry with a moisture content of 56% (twice the liquid limit), and then consolidated onedimensionally in a custom made mould. The specimen was pre-consolidated at 50kPa such that its final dimensions were 100mm outside diameter, 60mm inside diameter, and 200mm high. Since the sample is high, due care was exercised to avoid air gaps and segregation while pouring of slurry. Pre-consolidation was conducted in three loading stages over a period of 14 days. Finally, a hollow cylinder sample was carefully extruded from the mould to minimise disturbing the specimen. The specimen was then transferred to the Dynamic Hollow Cylinder Apparatus (DHCA, Figure 2) equipment that can simultaneously apply an axial load and rotation. Unlike conventional cyclic triaxial and true triaxial apparatus, it can continuously change the direction of the principal stresses continuously. In conventional triaxial apparatus only the directions of major and minor principal stresses can be changed, whereas in the DHCA the directions of all three principal stresses can be varied by up to 90 degrees (Arthur et al., 1980).

Maslehuddin M, Sharif AM, Shameem M, Ibrahim M, Barry MS (2003). Comparison of properties of steel slag and crushed limestone aggregate concretes. Construction and Building Materials, 17, 105-112. Fernandes G, Palmeira EM, Gomes RC (2008). Performance of geosynthetic-reinforced alternative subballast material in a railway track. Geosynthetics International, 15(5), 311-321. Teixeira PF, López-Pita A, Casas-Esplugas C, Bachiller A, Robusté F (2006). “Improvements in high-speed ballasted track design: Benefits of bituminous subballast layers. Transportation Research Record 1943, 43–49.

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Where are the radial stress, circumferential stress, shear stress and axial stress, respectively. Three different frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 1Hz (i.e. 0.1 Hz, 0.5 Hz and 1 Hz) were selected for testing and a constant confining pressure of 50 kPa was adopted. These values are meant to replicate a railway substructure field condition for which the in-situ soil stress at a depth of 3m is typical.

TEST PROGRAMME The effect of the principal stress rotation (PSR) on the shear strength of soil could be examined using these DHCA tests. Concurrently, additional tests were conducted in the conventional cyclic triaxial apparatus by adopting the same stress path as DHCA but without incorporating the principal stress rotation.

The DHCA apparatus allows for tests in stress and strain control modes, including controlling the axial load and rotational moment (stress), as well as axial and rotational displacement (strain). In this study, an axial load and rotational displacement were applied cyclically as input. Typical forces acting on the soil are shown in Figure 3 (Jian & Changjie, 2014)

DISCUSSION AND FINDINGS The procedures used to prepare hollow clay cylinder specimens is very important because the physical properties of the soil mixture must be repeatable. While conventional triaxial apparatus are widely used to analyse the behaviour of soil subjected to repeated cyclic loads, the shear strength results do not accurately represent the actual in-situ behaviour of soil under moving wheel loads. Although the principal stress directions can be varied by up to 90 degrees in a true triaxial apparatus, continuous rotation cannot be achieved and hence DHAC is better suited for studying the impact of Principal Stress Rotation (PSR) during dynamic loading. Strict attention is required when setting up the loading paths in DHCA because the stress paths are complex, particularly if principal stress rotation is carried out. The effect of frequency and mimicking different trains speeds was also considered.

REFERENCES Arthur, J., Bekenstein, S., Germaine, J., & Ladd, C. (1981). Stress path tests with controlled rotation of principal stress directions. ASTM Special Technical Publication (740), 516-540. Arthur, J. R. F., Rodriguez del C, J. I., Dunstan, T., & Chua, K. S. (1980). Principal stress rotation: a missing parameter. Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, 106(4), 419-433.

Figure 3: Schematic diagram of acting force The stress represented in Figure 3 can be expressed as follows,

Carter, J. P., Booker, J. R., & Wroth, C. (1979). A critical state soil model for cyclic loading: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Queensland. Jian, Z., & Changjie, X. (2014). Impact of Shear Stress on Strain and Pore Water Pressure Behavior of Intact Soft Clay Under Principal Stress Rotation. GEOTECHNICAL TESTING JOURNAL, 37(3). Li, D., & Selig, E. T. (1998). Method for railroad track foundation design. I: Development. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 124(4), 316-322.

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The stress path applied to the sample was the same as the path applied in triaxial apparatus but it incorporated the rotation of principal stress. Radial stress remained constant throughout the test to simulate typical field conditions (i.e. confinement at a certain depth) experienced by a soil element subjected to stresses derived from moving loads.

REPORTS: GEOMECH AND RAIL

Figure 2: Dynamic Hollow Cylinder Apparatus

A 38mm diameter cylindrical sample was used for the cyclic triaxial tests. The increment of axial strain and the development of pore water pressure and degradation were monitored and analysed in both test series, with an increasing number of cycles.


GEOTECHNICAL PERFORMANCE OF GRANULAR WASTES Key researchers: Buddhima Indraratna, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn, Ana Heitor, Dong Wang and Niriamtawk Partner Universities: University of Sydney and University of Newcastle Industry Partners: Douglas Partners, NSW Roads & Maritime Services (NSW RMS), South32, Stabilco Funding Sources: ARC Linkage LP 160100280

INTRODUCTION

RESEARCH

REPORTS: GEOMECH AND RAIL

Australiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population centres and resources (e.g. farming produce, mineral hubs, and coastal ports) are often separated by vast distances. Transportation infrastructure is critical for sustaining the mining and agricultural industries in Australia. The need and demand of reliable transportation infrastructure to accommodate faster and heavier cyclic traffic loading has been steadily increasing in the past decades. However, the geotechnical conditions can be unfavourable along the coastal areas due to the existence of compressible clays, highly erodible silts and collapsible sands. The overarching aim of this newly started project is to provide a scientific sound base for selecting suitable waste materials, which can be transformed into a valuable construction matrix to meet the heavy haul requirements, where there is limited access to traditional (quarried) gravels. Coal mining wastes from the Illawarra region (e.g. coalwash and flyash) have significant monetary benefits over conventional (quarried) aggregates, when utilised in construction and reclamation projects in the form of pavement and embankment materials. (Indraratna et al., 1994). The resilient performance of the overlaying compacted granular strata (i.e. sub-base, base and sub-ballast), under high cyclic stresses and impact loads, becomes critical in design (Figure 1; Indraratna et al., 2010)

In this project, the main thrust is the laboratory study of the matrix material to understand and quantify its constitutive behaviour, supported by microstructural studies (e.g. Scanning Electron Microscopy, Micro CT-scan), numerical modelling (DEM and FEM), and a field trial.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND SPECIMEN PREPARATION The experimental program includes a series of monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests to characterise the fundamental shear behaviour of the specimens prepared on the wet and dry sides of the compaction plane. In compacted materials, specimens having the same void ratio can exhibit different behaviour along the dry or wet side of OMC (Figure 3) in terms of shear strength, bearing capacity and tensile strength. Furthermore, in soft and porous granular materials (e.g. coalwash) where breakage during compaction is unavoidable, this change in gradation with fines fraction can exacerbate subsequent cyclic densification and reduce hydraulic conductivity. The relationships among CBR (California Bearing Ratio), maximum dry density hydraulic conductivity, shear modulus, matric suction (soil water retention) and breakage index will be studied further.

Figure 3: Compaction plane (Heitor et al., 2013)

CYCLIC LOADING AND CONSTITUTIVE BEHAVIOUR Generally, the main factors governing the cyclic behaviour of granular materials including excess pore pressure and associated permanent strain can be divided into two categories: (i) essential soil properties: (relative density (Dr resilient modulus (MR), shear modulus (G), matric suction (ua â&#x20AC;&#x201C; aw) and damping ratio (D)); and

Figure 1: Profile of transport systems using granular waste materials. Despite the significant monetary benefits, and favourable properties such as adequate shear strength (Heitor et al., 2015), the coalwash breakage during compaction and shearing requires detail studies to ensure the engineering satisfactory performance of the granular waste materials. Recent studies conducted at University of Wollongong demonstrated that the particle degradation of the coarser aggregates can be minimised by adding relatively fine-grained material (e.g. flyash) that acts both as void filler and confinement to form a granular matrix material CWFM (CoalWash-Flyash Matrix), as shown by high voltage CT-scanning (Figure 2).

Figure 2: CT-scan of granular (CWFM) matrix

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, (ii) load characteristics (e.g. in-situ effective stresses cyclic load amplitude, = ; frequency, fq; number of cycles, N; and cyclic stress ratio, CSR = ). The laboratory program will be focused on examining and quantifying the role of the above two categories in developing an elasto-plastic model. Special consideration will be given to the impact of matric suction and yielding under cyclic loading. Recently, Indraratna et al. (2011) proposed a bounding surface plasticity model to determine plastic strains under cyclic loading capturing particle breakage, incorporating the evolution of hardening within the bounding surface (Figure 4). Extending this approach, the initial relative density or matric suction can be captured in a modified hardening function (hint) varying with CSR, ideally replacing the conventional stress ratio

Figure 4: Cyclic Bounding Surface Model (Indraratna et al., 2011)

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PROTOTYPE LABORATORY TEST AND FIELD TRIALS The Facility for Cyclic Testing of High-Speed Rail designed and built at University of Wollongong (plan: 8 m × 8 m; height = 6 m) can accommodate a full-scale instrumented track model including the CWFM layer, complete with high-frequency dynamic loading actuators, facilitating a real-life stress-strain response. Vertical and lateral stress distributions, settlement and lateral deformation, suction evolution of individual strata in track (i.e., ballast, CWFM and subgrade), will be recorded using an array of instruments. i.e., ballast, CWFM and subgrade), will be recorded using an array of instruments. To optimise the associated travel and transportation costs, the compaction efficiency of the granular matrix involving 550 tonnes of coalwash and 100 tonnes of flyash will be evaluated along a corridor of a selected road site in regional NSW. The proper interpretation of field data will facilitate best practice guides and more reliable industry standards.

SUMMARY This newly started project aims to resolve uncertainty and instil confidence in using mine waste materials as load bearing matrix. Using the techniques of laboratory tests, numerical simulation and field trials, we will: 1) Evaluate the impact of initial compaction and corresponding suction generated under cyclic loading, with particular reference to volume changes, potential instability and drainage; 2) Formulate a novel micro-mechanical approach; this includes quantifying cyclic densification and subsequent shakedown coupled with deterioration in strength and stiffness; 3) Evaluate the role of particle breakage and implications on the resilient modulus, and the way in which the long term performance is influenced as relevant to strengthdeformation properties; and 4) Develop a predictive life-cycle model inspired by an “in service” performance-based approach.

Key researchers at UOW: Prof Buddhima Indraratna, A/ Prof Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn and Pankaj Baral. Partner Universities: University of Newcastle, Imperial College London. Industry Partners: Menard Oceania, Coffey Geotechnics, National Jute Board, India, Douglas Partners and SoilWicks.

ABSTRACT Soft soils are common in many parts of coastal Australia and often hamper the development of transportation infrastructure including embankments. The use of vacuum pressure and prefabricated vertical drains (PVD) can ensure sufficient drainage of soft clays, thereby increasing the soil strength and minimising long term deformation (Indraratna and Chu, 2005). The main aim is to achieve technological advancement that contributes to our understanding of the use of sustainable PVD-vacuum systems, to lessen the consolidation time, excessive post-construction settlement and lateral movement, as well as the operational costs. Extensive field and laboratory investigations with numerical modelling will result in improved design guidelines.

INDTRODUCTION A circular embankment is being constructed at Ballina town (Research site at Flathead lane), NSW. It has a total height of 3.5 m and crest diameter of 20 m. The side slope of the embankment is 1.5H: 1V. The plan view as well as cross section view of the embankment along with the sub-soil profile is shown in Figs 1 and 2, respectively. To monitor the behaviour of the embankment, several instruments such as vibrating wire piezometers, settlement plates, magnetic extensometers, inclinometers, hydraulic profile gauge, total pressure cells, push in pressure cells, standpipe piezometers have been installed on site.

REFERENCES Indraratna, B., Gasson, I. & Chowdhury, R. (1994). Utilization of compacted coal tailings as structural fill. Can. Geotech. J., 31, 614–623. Indraratna B., Thakur P. K., and Vinod J. S. (2010). Experimental and numerical study of railway ballast behaviour under cyclic loading. International Journal of Geomechanics ASCE, 10(4): 136-144. Heitor, A., Indraratna, B., Kaliboullah, C. I., Rujikiatkamjorn, C., McIntosh, G. W. (2015) Drained and undrained shear behaviour of compacted coalwash. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Heitor, A., Indraratna, B. and Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2013) Laboratory study of small-strain behavior of a compacted silty sand. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 50(2): 179-188. Indraratna, B., Salim, W., & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2011). Advanced rail geotechnology–ballasted track. CRC press.

Figure1. General Plan of Embankment (Indraratna et al., 2016)

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Separate algorithms based on coupled FEM-DEM modelling will be developed as part of this project to simulate the different compaction methods and to capture their degradation during compaction and loading. These findings will have significant implications for the interpretation of the long term performance of transport infrastructure. The DEM simulations will provide a sound insight of the variation of porosity, inter-particle contact areas and contact forces, particle angularity and gradation and the distribution of contact normal vectors.

EFFECTIVENESS OF PREFABRICATED VERTICAL DRAINS (PVDS) AND VACUUM APPLICATION IN STABILIZATION OF SOFT IN-SITU CLAYS AT BALLINA

REPORTS: GEOMECH AND RAIL

NUMERICAL SIMULATION INCLUDING DEM-BASED MICRO-MECHANICAL ANALYSIS


covered with 1.5 mm thick HDPE membrane. A vacuum pressure of 60 kPa will be applied in the system and the embankment height will be raised to 3.5 m in next stage.

Figure4. Panoramic view of installed PVDs

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE PLANS Figure2. Cross section of embankment with sub soil profile (Indraratna et al., 2016)

RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS The University of Wollongong along with CGSE, five industrial partners, and two other universities are currently involved in planning and execution of construction, instrumentation, and data monitoring of the trial VP embankment.

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

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The results of literature review, investigations and rational reasoning and cost estimates have concluded in selection of a circular shape for the embankment in plan. The theory of ring walls for circular shaped loading areas such as silos, water and oil tanks, and heavily loaded roundabouts in business districts was first introduced by Indraratna et al. (2008). This theory will be further extended to be applicable for vacuum preloading in practice.

A circular embankment facilitated with vertical drains and vacuum preloading is being constructed at Ballina and currently at the stage of membrane installation. The next step is vacuum application and to monitor the behaviour of embankment under vacuum preloading. The final fill then will be placed on top of the geomembrane and application of the vacuum will be continued to achieve the required level of consolidation. According to the numerical simulations as shown in Fig. 5, it is expected that the termination of the vacuum can take place within 3 months after placement and sealing of the geomembrane. Further studies will be performed based on the monitoring data to verify the proposed theory for determination of the optimum time of the vacuum application (Kianfar et al., 2015). Several instruments have been installed at the field to monitor the behaviour of embankment in terms of the deformation, excess pore water pressure dissipation and total pressure on the embankment. Time-to-time monitoring of all the instruments has been performed regularly and a Class A prediction paper is being prepared by the research team with the help of available analytical models and numerical simulations.

EMBANKMENT FEATURES The access road (180 m × 4.5 m) for this site has been constructed with the use of recyclable ECOFLEX tyre units. In total, 940 tyre units along with 564 tonnes of crushed rock has been utilised to build access road (see Figure 3). A working platform which is made up of from coffee rock was placed on the ground up to 600 mm height. After the installation of working platform, the circular PVDs with 34 mm diameter were installed to the depth of 12 m with the help of installation rig and mandrel having dimensions 125 × 60 mm.

Figure 5: Time dependent settlement of the soil

REFERENCES Indraratna, B. & Chu, J. 2005. Ground Improvement—Case Histories, London, UK, Elsevier. Indraratna, B., Aljorany, A. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. 2008. Analytical and numerical modeling of consolidation by vertical drain beneath a circular embankment. International Journal of Geomechanics, 8, 199-206. Figure 3. Access track made up of from ECOFLEX tyre unit The panoramic view of drain installation is shown in Fig 4. A wide variety of soil samples (both disturbed and undisturbed) were taken from the field and transported into the UOW laboratory and are being tested for smear zone evaluation as well as for various critical consolidation properties. Sand blanket of 600 mm thickness was installed above the working platform and

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Indraratna, B., Kan, M.E., Potts, D., Rujikiatkamjorn, C. and Sloan, S.W. (2016). “Analytical solution and numerical simulation of vacuum consolidation by vertical drains beneath circular embankments”. Computer and Geotechnics, Vol. 80: 83-96. Kianfar, K., Indraratna, B., Rujikiatkamjorn, C. & Leroueil, S. 2015. Radial consolidation response upon the application and removal of vacuum and fill loading. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 52, 2156-2162.

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BACKGROUND Growing industrial needs and an increasing demand for passenger transportation has led to the introduction of heavier and faster rail traffic in many countries. In turn this has increased the expenditure needed to maintain railway tracks more frequently to maintain passenger comfort and safety levels as the tracks deteriorate faster under larger cyclic loading (Indraratna et al., 2011), due to uneven elastic track deflections or differential settlements. (Paixão, et al. 2014). Track substructure helps to maintain rail geometry, while the ballast layer bears most of the loads transferred by trains. Therefore, studying the performance of ballast under large cyclic loads is very important because the degradation of ballast particles is minimised and the longevity and stability of tracks are enhanced (e.g. Indraratna & Nimbalkar, 2013, 2015). Furthermore, irregularities in the track substructure cause excessive vibrations that create uncomfortable rides for passengers and can also ultimately lead to derailment. (Suiker, 2002). Hence it is important to reduce stresses developed in ballast to mitigate ballast degradation.

INTRODUCTION The use of elastic elements such as rail pads, under sleeper pads (UPS) and under ballast mats (UBM) have been used in track substructure with relative success over last few decades (Insa et al., 2011). Indeed, preliminary field data indicates that these elastic elements improve track performance. Of the various elastic elements used, USP (Figure 1) and UBM have improved the performance of ballast better, so in this research project has focused on determining how under sleeper pads (USP) can minimise degradation of the ballast layer.

• Examining the behaviour of ballast with Under Sleeper pads. • Developing a rheological model to represent various types of railway structures. (Tracks on Embankments, Transition zone , crossings, etc.,) • Developing a mathematical model to represent the behaviour of ballast with USP under cyclic loading. • Identifying the characteristics and parameters of USP (thickness and bedding modulus) that must be optimised to improve ballast degradation. • Identifying the combined effect of rail pads and USP on ballast performance. • Developing a mathematical model incorporating particle breakage in ballast. • Validating the model using a series of laboratory experiments.

METHODOLOGY The performance of fresh ballast with Under Sleeper Pads will be evaluated under different load and frequency conditions in a series of laboratory experiments. Load combinations will be selected so that typical axle loads and speeds can be mimicked in the laboratory. The response of the ballast with and without USP can be tested using a state-of-art prismoidal triaxial apparatus (Figure 2) designed and built at University of Wollongong. It can accommodate an 800mm long by 600mm wide by 600mm high specimen. In this apparatus three independent principal stresses can be applied in three orthogonal directions, and since each wall in this rig can move independently in lateral directions, the ballast specimen is free to deform laterally under a cyclic vertical load and lateral pressure. The cyclic vertical stresses can be measured using stainless steel pressure cells installed under the sleeper and under the ballast (Figure 3). To measure vertical and horizontal deformation, settlement pegs and electronic potentiometers are installed in different sections of the track.

While past studies focused on evaluating the ability of USP to reduce vibration, wheel rail contact forces and differential settlements in tracks (e.g. Johansson et al., 2008), only limited studies have evaluated the use of USP in railway tracks to minimise ballast degradation. Moreover, more emphasis was placed on investigating the transition zones, turnouts, and crossings, rather than examining the behaviour of ballast and its associated degradation.

Figure 3: Prismoidal Triaxial Chamber Figure 2: Cubical Triaxial Apparatus

Figure 1: Under Sleeper Pads

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Key researchers: Prof. Buddhima Indraratna, A/Prof. Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn, Dr. Sanjay Nimbalkar and Chamindi Jayasuriya

OBJECTIVES

REPORTS: GEOMECH AND RAIL

PERFORMANCE OF UNDER SLEEPER PADS IN A BALLASTED TRACK


CONSTITUTIVE MODELS FOR GEOMATERIALS Key researcher: Martin Liu

INTRODUCTION

Figure 3: Prismoidal Triaxial Chamber

CONCLUSIONS A mathematical model to represent the behaviour of ballast with USP under cyclic loading will be developed at a later stage and the characteristics and parameters of USP (thickness and bedding modulus) that must be optimised to improve ballast degradation will be identified.

REFERENCES

RESEARCH

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Indraratna, B., & Nimbalkar, S. (2013). Stress-strain degradation response of railway ballast stabilized with geosynthetics. Journal of geotechnical and geoenvironmental Engineering, 139(5), 684700.

Computations of all engineering structures can perhaps be put into two major categories: the strength and the deformation computations. All these computations can be performed only with employing explicitly or inexplicitly constitutive models for the materials that make up and/or connect the structure. A constitutive model is the sole agent bridging the mechanical response of an engineering structure and our knowledge about its materials (Carter, 2006). Therefore, the work on one structure / object can be utilized in another only after previous information has been summarized in the form of constitutive knowledge. A constitutive model describes the change in the strain state of an element of material to the change in the stress state acting on it. It includes the strength and the deformation. Mathematically, it may be expressed as

In the equation, is strain; is effective stress; d is increment of a quantity; , , and are influencing factors, which change the stress and strain relationship of a material when they differ. This work is focused on developing constitutive equations/ models for geomaterials. Because of its importance and its complexity, the research is enormously challenging as well as exciting and rewarding.

Indraratna, B., & Nimbalkar, S. (2015). Recent advances in railroad infrastructure and track performance-Australian experience. Indraratna, B., Salim, W., & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2011). Advanced rail geotechnology–ballasted track: CRC Press. Insa, R., Salvador, P., Inarejos, J., & Roda, A. (2011). Analysis of the influence of under sleeper pads on the railway vehicle/ track dynamic interaction in transition zones. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, 0954409711430174. Johansson, A., Nielsen, J. C., Bolmsvik, R., Karlström, A., & Lundén, R. (2008). Under sleeper pads—Influence on dynamic train–track interaction. Wear, 265(9), 1479-1487. Loy, H. (2009). Under sleeper pads in turnouts. Railway Technical Review(2), 35. Paixão, A., Alves Ribeiro, C., Pinto, N., Fortunato, E., & Calçada, R. (2014). On the use of under sleeper pads in transition zones at railway underpasses: experimental field testing. Structure and Infrastructure Engineering (ahead-of-print), 1-17. Suiker, A. S. J. (2002). The Mechanical Behaviour of Ballasted Railroad Tracks.

Fig. 1 Material idealization of Sydney Soil Model

CHALLENGES Constitutive modelling of geomaterials is studied extensively ever since Terzaghi’s effective stress principle with hundreds of models proposed. Nevertheless, the reality is that in the research side an ideal/perfect constitutive model is as elusive now as it was then; in the practical side the Modified Cam Clay is the most popular and the most advanced model engineers may use in their design. The reality defines the work of our research: (1) advancing our capability to predict soil behaviour by formulating new models/equations; (2) promoting applications by formulating engineer-friendly practical models; (3) implementing good models for better numerical analyses/tests. The comparisons by Kerisel (1985) tell us that ancient structures which have stood over hundreds of years were actually designed with much less safety margin than their modern references. This embarrassing record comes from the fact that our engineers have less confidence in their analyses and computations,

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mainly because they do not have adequate confidence in their constitutive models. The challenge in constitutive modelling of geomaterials results from the vast range of variations in the materials and in the influencing factors. This results in vast range of variations in the stress and strain response. Taking soils as an example, soils vary immensely in mineralogy, grain size, arrangement of individual grains, and cohesion among individual grains. For the grain size only, soil is commonly divided into clay and sand and they are studied as two different types of materials, and that boundary is hardly conquered. Then the study of the deformation of clay or sand advances separately and progressively.

Fig. 4 Toyoura sand via dry deposition

Influencing factors may significantly alter mechanical properties of geomaterials and lead to different responses of engineering structures. Some of them are: geomaterial types (clay, silt, sand, calcareous soil, gravel, rock, rock mass, joints, and special soils), existence of weak components, structures of geomaterials found in nature or formed artificially, anisotropy (induced and inherent), stress and strain paths including repeated loadings and loadings with over millions of cycles, in the general stress and strain tensor spaces, time, strain rates, temperature, saturation, etc. Research on any influencing factor has significance in advancing geomechanics as a science and in solving practical problems.

Fig. 3 Toyoura sand via moisture placement

The theoretical framework of the Sydney Soil Model (SSM) may be used as a platform for constitutive modelling of geomaterials, or rather serve as one thought line for new ideas, concepts and methods. The SSM is introduced here (Fig. 1). ICL is Isotropic Compression Line. SSM was formulated within the framework of Critical State Soil Mechanics (Muir Wood, 1990). Starting from the assumption that there exist critical states of deformation for soils, and that soil properties at such states are intrinsic properties, a reference state of behaviour is postulated based on the assumption of volumetric hardening (Liu and Carter, 2003). The behaviour of real soil is defined by its behaviour at the reference and those aspects of its mechanical behaviour that are determined by soil structure. The influence of soil structure was introduced by formulating for any general stress or strain path the variation of the “additional” voids ratio associated with soil structure. It has been demonstrated in SSM that the behaviour of structured soils including both clays and sands and calcareous soil can be successfully modelled in a single, consistent theoretical framework. The differences in the mechanical properties between so called “clay” materials and “sand” materials lie in quantitative features rather than in mechanisms. Typically, these differences are the curvatures of the intrinsic compression line, the elastic compression line, and the additional voids ratio compression line; and they can all be incorporated into a single model by allowing soil to possess material dependent compression functions. Some predictions made via SSM are shown here. The surprising behaviour of Emmerstad clay is shown in Fig. 2. The variation of Toyoura sand due to sample preparation methods is shown in Figs 3 and 4.

THE SKY IS THE LIMIT For your research and your achievement on constitutive modelling of geomaterials, the sky is the limit. Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

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Fig. 2 Behaviour of Emmerstad clay

REPORTS: GEOMECH AND RAIL

METHODOLOGIES In the theoretical framework of the Sydney Soil Model, Liu, Carter and Airey demonstrate that the exact mathematical formats of constitutive equations are not important in predicting the stress strain relationship of soil, provided that numerical values for the parameters and for the first derivatives of the parameters are captured accurately (Liu, Carter, and Airey, 2011; Airey, Carter, and Liu, 2011). Consequently, constitutive study will focus on mechanisms/principles and qualitative features and quantitative accuracy of material mechanical properties, not the detailed mathematical derivation of equations. Principles of mathematics and physics are the base of understanding geomaterial behaviour, however, observation method is equally important. Rational interpretation of soil behaviour in the whole stress and strain tensor spaces is essential, based on data that are always limited to tiny parts in the general spaces under highly restraints.


REFERENCES Airey D. W., Carter J. P. and Liu M. D. (2011), “Sydney Soil model: (II) experimental evaluation”, International J. of Geomechanics, ASCE, Vol. 11(3), pp.225-238. Carter J. P., (2006), “Who Needs Constitutive Models?”, Australian Geomechanics Vol. 41(2), pp.1-27. Kerisel J. (1985), “The history of geotechnical engineering up till 1700”, Proc. 11th Int. Conference Soil Mechanics & Foundation Engineering, Vol. 4, pp. 1-93. Liu M. D., Carter J. P. and Airey D. W. (2011), “Sydney Soil model: (I) theoretical formulation”, International J. of Geomechanics, ASCE, Vol. 11(3), pp.211-224. Liu M. D. and Carter J. P. (2003), “The volumetric deformation of natural clays”, International J. of Geomechanics, ASCE, Vol 3(3/4), pp.236-252. Muir-Wood D. (1990), Soil Behaviour and Critical State Soil Mechanics, Cambridge University Press.

REACTIVE BARRIERS FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT IN ACID SULFATE SOIL Key researchers: Buddhima Indraratna, Subhani Medawela, Ana Heitor, Udeshini Pathirage, Kerry Rowe Industry Partners: Glencore and Manildra

INTRODUCTION Acid sulfate soils are naturally occurring sediments, very common along estuarine floodplains and coastland lowlands of Australia. They contain a shallow layer of pyrite that oxidises in the presence of moisture to produce sulfuric acid. The result is leaching of toxic quantities of aluminium (Al) and iron (Fe) into groundwater (Banasiak et al. 2014, Indraratna et al. 2014, Pathirage and Indraratna 2015b). Al is very toxic to aquatic fauna and flora, while sulfuric acid is high corrosive and potentially detrimental to infrastructure such as pipelines, culverts and foundations (Indraratna et al. 2015a).

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REPORTS: GEOMECH AND RAIL

Several engineering solutions have been implemented over a period of two decades in the Shoalhaven, NSW floodplain for remediating acidic groundwater. After numerous trials, Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRBs) have proven to be the most cost-effective and efficient method (Indraratna et al. 2017). However, one of the main factors potentially compromising the performance of PRBs is the chemical and biological clogging of their pores due to mineral precipitation (Al and Fe oxides/ hydroxides in particular) and bacterial activity, respectively. Chemical clogging has been extensively investigated in the past by CGSE researchers, see Pathirage and Indraratna (2015a,b). Bio-clogging, which is the main focus of this project, is associated with Acidothiobacillus ferrooxidans bacteria (Baveye et al. 1998) which catalyse the chemical reactions resulting in mineral precipitation and promote the growth of biofilm on particle surfaces. Therefore, both chemical and biological factors affect the hydraulic characteristics of barriers. The aim of this project is to formulate a coupled bio-geo-chemical model for capturing the change in porosity, n and hydraulic conductivity, K of PRBs due to mineral precipitation and bacterial clogging, that can be used for design purposes in engineering practice.

METHODOLOGY Several studies have been carried out to develop methods for determining the design geometry of PRBs. Elder et al. (2002) proposed a simple one-dimensional (1-D) plug-flow model which provides the PRB thickness as:

where bdes is the design thickness of the PRB, resulting from the optimum thickness bopt by introducing an appropriate safety factor (SF), i is the hydraulic gradient, kr is the first-order reaction rate constant, Cin is the influent contaminant concentration (upstream) and Ce is the effluent concentration (downstream). A more elaborate approach is followed in this project, which is based on the method proposed by Pathirage and Indraratna (2015a). Finite difference codes MODFLOW and RT3D are used to simulate PRB performance over a particular period, while considering the effect of bacterial catalysis on geochemical reactions, and their contribution to clogging mechanisms that affect the hydraulic properties of PRBs. Figure 1 presents the iterative analysis workflow for assessing the optimum PRB width. Solution of the groundwater flow equation within the barrier with MODFLOW requires as input the hydraulic

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Future theoretical, numerical and experimental work on the topic will enable assessing the long-term performance of PRBâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s, as a function of the geochemical reactivity of the PRB material (e.g. limestone aggregates) and Acidothiobacillus ferrooxidans bacteria activity. The refined methodology for the design of PRBs under development will introduce coupling of the hydraulic properties of the barrier with mineral precipitation, biocatalysis and biofilm accumulation during acid neutralisation. The method will be capable of considering seasonal changes in groundwater regime, associated with variations in water acidity, by changing the boundary conditions of the model. A safety factor of SF=2 is proposed to be applied on the optimum width to obtain the design width, considering the uncertainties inherited in this problem.

Figure 2: Pilot-scale PRB and associated monitoring instruments at Shoalhaven, NSW floodplain

REFERENCES Banasiak LJ, Indraratna B, Lugg G, Pathirage U, McIntosh G and Rendell N (2014). Permeable reactive barrier rejuvenation by alkaline wastewater. Environmental Geotechnics, 2 (1), 45-55. Baveye P, Vandevivere P, Hoyle BL, Deleo PC and Lozada DS (1998). Environmental impact and mechanisms of the biological clogging of saturated soils and aquifer materials. Critical reviews in environmental science and technology, 28, 123-191. Elder CR, Benson CH and Eykholt GR (2002). Effects of heterogeneity on influent and effluent concentrations from horizontal permeable reactive barriers. Water Resources Research, 38. Indraratna B, Pathirage PU, Rowe KR and Banasiak LJ (2014). Coupled hydro-geochemical modelling of a permeable reactive barrier for treating acidic groundwater. Computers and Geotechnics, Vol. 55, No. 1, pp. 429-439. Indraratna B, Pathirage U and Banasiak L (2015a). A Review of Acidic Groundwater Remediation in the Shoalhaven Floodplain in Australia. Geotechnical Engineering Journal of the SEAGS & AGSSEA, 46, pp. 41-46. Indraratna B, Pathirage PU and Banasiak LJ (2015b). Remediation of acidic groundwater by way of permeable reactive barrier. Environmental Geotechnics, ICE. DOI 10.1680/ envgeo14.00014.

Figure 1: Flow chart of the design process. The above methodology, albeit without the biological action component which is currently under development, was trialled on a pilot-scale PRB (Fig. 2) composed of recycled concrete aggregates, installed at a local farm in the Shoalhaven floodplain (Pathirage and Indraratna 2015b). A range of influent Al and Fe concentrations (50-250 mg/L) were considered in the analysis to mimic changing field conditions. Clim for both Al and Fe complied to Australian Water Guidelines, and was considered equal to 0.2 mg/L. The required design width (considering a safety factor SF=2) of the recycled concrete PRB calculated as above was bdes=0.9m, hence it was estimated that the PRB installed in situ (width=1.2m) had a factor of safety SF=2.7.

Indraratna B, Heitor A and Pathirage PU (2017) Acidic groundwater remediation in the Shoalhaven floodplain, Proceedings of the Geofrontiers conference â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Orlando, GSP 276 - waste containment, barriers, remediation and sustainable geoengineering, pp. 518 -525 Pathirage PU and Indraratna B (2015a). Assessment of the optimum width and longevity of a Permeable Reactive Barrier installed in an acid sulfate soil terrain., Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 52(7), pp. 999-1004. Pathirage U and Indraratna B (2015b). Reducing the Risk of Acidic Groundwater through Modelling the Performance of a Permeable Reactive Barrier in Shoalhaven Floodplain, Australian Geomechanics, 50(4), 13-22.

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where, C is the concentration of the contaminant, Re is the retardation coefficient, D is the dispersion coefficient, Mk is the molar volume of mineral and Rk is the total reaction rate for a particular substance. This bio-geo-chemical remediation model is linked with RT3D via a user-defined subroutine, and the latter provides the effluent concentration of contaminants, Ce at any given time step. Ce is a design parameter, therefore it needs to be less than an acceptable limit (Clim). If this constraint is satisfied at the particular time step, the initial PRB width bopt is accepted, otherwise bopt must be increased and the calculation is repeated. The above algorithm accounts for precipitation of minerals and biofilm accumulation by reducing the porosity and hydraulic conductivity and updating the reaction rate Rk (Eq. 3) at every time step. Estimating the updated porosity due to clogging requires first calculating the overall reaction rate for a specific mineral Rk at the particular time step t, on the basis of transition state theory (Pathirage and Indraratna 2015b). Accordingly, the reduced hydraulic conductivity can be calculated through the normalised Kozeny-Carmen equation, which provides K(t) at any time step as function of the conductivity and porosity from the previous step. The overall porosity change at a time step incorporates both biocatalysis of precipitation reactions and biofilm growth, hence both chemical and biological effects are introduced in calculating the reduced permeability. The updated values are passed to MODFLOW together with the updated hydraulic head boundary conditions at the entrance of the PRB, and the next step begins until the desired solution time is reached.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

REPORTS: GEOMECH AND RAIL

conductivity, K and porosity, n of the PRB material, as well as the hydraulic head, hent at the boundary of the PRB. The groundwater flow velocity ub is calculated from the pressure head distribution provided by MODFLOW, and is transferred to the reactive transport simulation module of the algorithm (RT3D). The 1-D contaminant transport equation recast to include the reaction component (RkMkC) as a sink term is (Eq. 3):


THE ROLE OF OSMOTIC SUCTION INDUCED BY TREE ROOTS FOR STRENGTHENING TRANSPORT CORRIDORS KEY RESEARCHER: Buddhima Indraratna, Ana Heitor, Udeshini Pathirage, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn, Muditha Pallewatha and : Pubudu Jayathilaka

INTRODUCTION Using native trees to stabilise soft soil is an attractive method of ground improvement that is becoming increasingly popular in Australia. Previous studies on the reinforcement by tree roots discovered that larger roots provide anchorage while the smaller roots can increase the apparent cohesion of soil to increase its strength (Fig 1). Apart from the effect of root reinforcement, soil suction also helps to strengthen soft soil (Indraratna et al., 2006). Evapotranspiration induces root water uptake and dissipates excess pore water pressure from the root zone, which then increases the matric suction in the neighbouring soil.

OSMOTIC SUCTION EFFECT FROM TREE ROOTS The root water uptake model (Eq. 1) used by Indraratna et al., (2006) has been extended to incorporate the effect of osmotic suction.

In Eq. 1, Indraratna et al., (2006) only includes the effect of matric suction to account for the pressure head, however, the osmotic suction related to solute uptake by tree roots in the root water uptake model must be considered, so van Genuchten (1987) proposed an expanded formulation for the total suction, as given by Eq. 2.

where, is the root density distribution, the potential transpiration function and is the root water uptake reduction factor. The interaction between soil and water at the root zone is treated as a continuous media, where the root water uptake is included as a sink term in the flow continuity equation (Eq.3).

RESEARCH

REPORTS: GEOMECH AND RAIL

To calculate the associated changes in matric suction, a simple empirical relationship proposed by Fredlund and Xing (1991) was adopted. For calculating the variation of osmotic suction induced by nutrient uptake, a more rigorous analytical procedure was adopted. In this study the passive solute uptake is considered where the solute concentration is multiplied by the root water uptake (Simuneks and Hopmans, 2009).

In the same manner as shown in Eq. 4, solute uptake by roots can be incorporated into the advection dispersion equation via a sink term, as shown in Equation 11.

Osmotic pressure can be calculated through vanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Hoffâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s approximation (Eq. 6). Fig 1: (a) Schematic of soil-plant-atmosphere (Indraratna et al., 2006) and (b) Root domain (Indraratna et al., 2014) Root water uptake and transpiration are mainly governed by the species of trees (root growth rate, distribution, and canopy area), the type of soil (soil suction and hydraulic conductivity, etc.) and the atmospheric conditions (temperature and humidity). Soil suction consists of matric and osmotic suction. Most conventional methods ignore the effect of osmotic suction sustained as a result of the solute concentration (including the changes of nutrient levels) in the soil. Therefore, the approach proposed in this study focuses more on the changes in osmotic suction near the root zone of a tree governed by the nutrient uptake. Osmotic suction stems from the solute uptake by roots that create a concentration gradient around the root zone, and solute transport near the root zone occurs by mass flow and molecular diffusion where nutrients/salts are absorbed by roots only in their dissolved form in pore water; therefore, when solute uptake commences there is a subsequent concentration gradient. This concentration gradient causes the solutes to diffuse towards the root zone from neighbouring soil. Solute uptake is classified as passive and active, where passive uptake defines mass uptake through root water uptake, and active uptake accounts for all other means such as energy-driven mechanisms due to electromagnetic gradients. This current study only captures the passive solute uptake by roots to minimise an otherwise complex problem.

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Therefore, the change in osmotic suction can be calculated from Eq. 7.

In most previous studies the sink term which captures the solute uptake and associated osmotic suction has been ignored, whereas in this study, the sink term is captured in simulations to obtain a more reliable answer for total suction.

RESULTS The finite element program ABAQUS is adopted to simulate the theoretical model. The rate of root water uptake and solute uptake are included into ABAQUS through PYTHON subroutines. Fig 2 shows the finite element mesh adopted. A finer mesh is used for the root zone to obtain a more refined output, because all the above equations are applied in this zone. The results obtained from the proposed model are compared to the field data for Australian mature gum trees (Eucalyptus) reported in Jaksa et al., (2002) and Potter (2005). Average values from the field data reported in Potter (2005) are compared with the calculated values for osmotic suction in Fig. 2, where the results fundamentally agree but are not a perfect

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match because different field conditions and different species of gum trees are compared with the model predictions.

METHANE HYDRATE BEARING SAND: DEM SIMULATIONS Key researchers: J S Vinod & Buddhima Indraratna Research Collaborator: Masayuki Hyodo (Yamaguchi University, Japan)

INTRODUCTION

Green corridor concept applied to transport corridors (i.e. railway tracks) is another practical use of native vegetation. A series of trees grown at a certain distance along a rail corridor can be useful for stabilising soft soil while gaining a more cost effective and environmentally friendly approach (Fig. 3). Therefore, the developed model can be utilised to predict the effect of suction not only for gum trees, but also for other type of trees, provided that the tree specific parameters are properly assessed.

A wide range of geotechnical and environmental issues has to be addressed before the production of methane gas from MH safely and without damaging the environmental issues. For example, it has been reported that methane hydrate production may collapse and leads to settlement or landslides on the seabed. The marine substructures are vulnerable to the seabed deformations and no attractive technology is currently available to recover methane economically from methane hydrate. Until now, largescale production has not yet commenced as the behaviour of gas hydrates, particularly hydrates of methane, are not fully understood. However, a lot of research on MH as a future energy source has been reported, recently, which shows that countries are eager to develop an effective way to capture MH in order to secure their natural gas stores for the future and also an attempt to combat global warming (e.g. Hyodo et al., 2013). This project will provide an understanding on the micromechanical behaviour of methane hydrate bearing sand.

APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY

Fig 3: Illustration of the Green corridor concept.

REFERENCES Fatahi B, Khabbaz H and Indraratna B (2014) Modelling of unsaturated ground behaviour influenced by vegetation transpiration. Geomechanics and Geoengineering 9(3): 187–207. Fredlund, D. and Xing, A. (1994). Equations for soil water characteristic curve. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 31(3): 521-532.

The main objective of this research is to understand the shear behaviour of MH bearing sand using Discrete Element Method (DEM) (Inset of Fig.1). The shear behaviour of hydrate bearing soil is significantly influenced by the hydrate habit growth (e.g. Pore filling, load bearing & cementation). In this study the pore filling and cementation type hydrate growth habit was modelled using PFC3D for Toyuora sand. DEM simulations were carried out very similar to the laboratory experiments carried out in Yamaguchi University on MH bearing sand. It was shown that that the deviator stress significantly increases with increase in MH saturation (Fig.1). Moreover, the cementation type hydrate growth may exist during shear loading of Toyuora sand in laboratory condition (e.g. Vinod et al.2014)

Indraratna B, Fatahi B & Khabbaz H (2006). Numerical analysis of matric suction effects of tree roots, Geotechnical Engineering, Institute of Civil Engineers 159(2), 77-90. Indraratna, B., Pallewattha, M., Fatahi, B. & Pathirage, U. (2014). ‘Improvement of Soil Stability along Rail Corridors through Native Vegetation’, in 7th International Congress on Environmental Geotechnics Proceedings, Engineers Australia, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 818-825. Pathirage, U., Indraratna, B., Pallewattha, M., Heitor, A. (2017) A theoretical model for total suction effects by tree roots, Environmental Geotechnics (http://dx.doi.org/10.1680/ jenge.15.00065) Simunek L and Hopmans JW (2009) Modeling compensated root water and nutrient uptake. Ecological Modelling 220: 505-521.

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PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS Bioengineering is an emerging technique with environmental and economic advantages for Australia and other tropical regions like South East Asia where fluctuating moisture in soft soil is a problem in landslide prone areas. As shown in this study, native trees can increase the suction in soil due to transpiration. Moreover, they provide root reinforcement from a welldistributed root structure.

REPORTS: GEOMECH AND RAIL

Fig 2: Change in osmotic suction with distance away from the tree trunk (Pathirage et al., 2017).

Methane Hydrates (MH) are crystalline solids consisting of methane molecules surrounded by a cage of interlocking water molecules formed under certain pressure and temperature. It is considered as one of the most feasible sources of energy compared with other known hydrocarbon deposits. The geological survey shows that massive deposits of MH deposits are stored in the deep sea floor. For instance, the deposit on the Krishna Godavari basin, in India, is one of the richest and biggest known MH deposit. However, there are significant challenges both geotechnical and environmental for drilling and production operations of MH. It is understood that the methane is approximately 20 times as effective as greenhouse gas as carbondioxide.


Fig.1: Effect of MH on the stress ratio with axial strain for MH bearing sand (after Vinod et al. 2016 Vinod et al 2014)

SUMMARY A novel DEM model was developed to capture the shear behaviour of methane hydrate sediment mixtures. It was shown that DEM model has captured the stress - strain behaviour similar to the laboratory experiments. It is anticipated that with these numerical studies, it is plausible to expect an efficient environmentally friendly extraction methods for MH will be developed if long term global gas demand warrants MH recovery.

RESEARCH

REPORTS: GEOMECH AND RAIL

REFERENCES Vinod, J S, Hyodo, M,  Indraratna, B and Miller, R. (2016).  “Behaviour of methane hydrate bearing sand during monotonic loading: DEM simulations”, Indian Geotechnical Conference (Invited Lecture, IGC-2016), IITM-Chennai, (in CDR). Vinod, J.S.  Hyodo, M;  Indraratna, B & Miller, R (2014), “DEM Modelling of Methane Hydrate Bearing Sand”, Australian Geomechanics Journal, 49(4): 175-182. Hyodo, M., Yoneda, J., Yoshimoto, N., and Nakata, Y. (2013). Mechanical and dissociation properties of MH bearing sand in deep seabed, Soils and Foundation, 53(2): 299-314.

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Mining Engineering Research Summaries Current research activities in mining engineering topic areas reflect the research interests of the academic and research staff of CME. The brief descriptions of projects conducted over the 2015-2017 period provided here illustrate the research interests related to technical specialties of the staff, their interactions with collaborators, and the wider interests of mining engineering expressed by allocation of the funding essential to project implementation. The collection of technical expertise among the staff in combination with specialized equipment and facilities have made these projects possible as part of the continuing scholarly output of the group and its contribution to providing cutting edge additions to mining engineering technology and to instructional capability. Principal interests and specialized expertise in mining engineering include: • Tendon technology and applications for outburst control • Geo-statistics and mine system simulation • Rock mechanics, strata analysis and control, dynamic fracture mechanisms, and numerical modelling • Longwall simulation, polymer wall and slope reinforcement alternatives • Mine OH&S including gas, dust, and spontaneous combustion sensing and control • Logistics and supply chain applications and optimization in mining applications

REPORTS OF CURRENT RESEARCH INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING: REPORTS: MINING

– Field Trials of Nitrogen Injection into UIS Directional Boreholes to Enhance Gas Drainage in Low Permeable Seams

RESEARCH

Key researchers: Ting Ren, Gongda Wang, Jia Lin and Patrick Booth

– Coal Burst Risk Evaluation with Coal Burst Propensity Index Method Key researchers: Ting Ren, Xiaohan Yang, and Justine Calleja

– Computational Modelling of Dynamic Fracture Mechanisms in Rock Research by: Jan Nemcik & Gaetano Venticinque

– Grout Strength at Various Curing Times Key researchers: Naj Aziz and Ali Mirzaghorbanali

– Numerical Modelling of Abnormal Gas Emission in Underground Workings Key researchers: Ting Ren and Anxiu Liu

– Shear Strength of Tendons under Different Test Conditions Key researchers: Naj Aziz, Haleh Rasekh, Guanyu

– A Roadway Development Simulation Model for Underground Coal Mines Key researchers: Dalin Cai, Ernest Baafi and Ian Porter

– Comparing the Reinforcement Capacity of Welded Steel Mesh and a Thin Spray-on Liner (TSL) using Large Scale Laboratory Test Ian Porter, Zhenjun Shan, Jan Nemcik and Ernest Baafi

– A Discrete-event Truck Simulation Model for Surface Mines Key researchers: Weiguo Zeng, Ernest Baafi and David Walker

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FIELD TRIALS OF NITROGEN INJECTION INTO UIS DIRECTIONAL BOREHOLES TO ENHANCE GAS DRAINAGE IN LOW PERMEABLE SEAMS Key researchers: Ting Ren, Gongda Wang, Jia Lin and Patrick Booth

INTRODUCTION Pre-gas drainage using inseam boreholes has played a critical role in reducing high in-situ gas content below threshold levels to allow normal mining activities (authority to mine) to take place in a safe and timely manner. However difficulties of reducing gas content below threshold values within a given drainage lead time have been encountered in some coal mines in QLD and NSW (Black et al., 2009). For instance, Metropolitan and Tahmoor Colliery in NSW have encountered a number of zones of ‘tight’ and ‘hard-to-drain’ or highly ‘under saturated’ coal during its longwall gateroad development and operation. This has adversely impacted its normal production schedule particularly slowed down gateroad development rate. It is anticipated that such hard-to-drain or low permeable areas will also be encountered in future longwall blocks. An efficient and economical technology for enhancing gas drainage is necessary for these coal mines (Busch & Gensterblum, 2011).

RESEARCH

REPORTS: MINING

This project aims to conduct field trials using underground inseam (UIS) directional boreholes to demonstrate the use of nitrogen flushing to accelerate gas drainage rate to enable statutory threshold values to be met in hard-to-drain or low permeable seams. Laboratory tests and simulation models development are conducted in advance to optimize the parameters used in the field trials.

EXPERIMENTAL Coal samples were obtained from a longwall development heading of an underground coal mine currently extracting the Bulli seam, Sydney basin of Australia. This coal mine is experiencing high CO2 composition greater than 80 percent in some areas and gas drainage results are extremely unsatisfactory. Figure 1 shows the coal lump and core sample.

Figure 2: N2 enhanced gas drainage experimental rig

SIMULATION MODELS DEVELOPMENT Based on the theory of coal seam gas migration, a numerical model of binary gas migration model was developed to illustrate the N2 enhanced gas drainage process. Two fundamental laws were used in this model including Darcy’s flow law and Fickan’s diffusion law. The former one was used to describe the gas flow in the coal seam cleat system and Fickan’s diffusion law was used to illustrate the gas diffusion process between coal seam matrix system and cleat system. The COMSOL Multiphysics was used to simulate the N2 enhanced gas drainage process and the boundary condition was shown in figure 3. We are aiming to simulate from the laboratory level, hence geometry of a coal specimen was built to do the simulation. From the solid deformation aspect, the left and right side of the model is applied confining pressure, a constant confining pressure was applied depending the test requirements. From gas migration aspect, the left and right side of the model is zero flux conditions. In our test, we assume injected N2 was applied at the top of the model and then gas flow out from the bottom of the model.

N2 enhanced gas drainage experiments were conducted using a triaxial cell equipped with a back pressure regulator. CO2 was used as the coal seam gas. By applying different confining pressure to the triaxial cell, the permeability of coal specimen was adjusted to the targeted permeability. Gas sample was collected from the outlet pipeline and the composition of the flue gas was analyzed by the Micro-GC (Agilent 490 series). The flow rate was monitored by the flow meter and recorded in the computer. These data was used for the efficiency analysis. Figure 2 shows the experimental rig.

Figure 3 Boundary conditions of the simulations

EXPERIMENT AND SIMULATION RESULTS Gas composition and residual gas content were monitored during the test process and the simulation process. From the test results, it can be found that CO2 concentration dropped quickly in the first stage and then in the second stage was stable. Figure 1 Coal lump and core sample

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Gas composition (%)

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Time (minute) Figure 5 CO2 residual content comparisons between experiment and simulation: 0.06mD permeability conditions

FIELD TRIALS Four stages of N2 injection were carried out from 27 Oct to 21 Nov, 2016 in Metropolitan Colliery. Two boreholes with spacing of 10m were drilled on the rib in the gateroad. The length of the boreholes was 36m. One borehole was used for the injection of N2 and the other was used as the production borehole. Gas flow rate and gas composition were monitored and recorded.

SUMMARY Two N2 flushing tests were conducted and the flushing effect and efficiency was evaluated from different aspects. The tests demonstrated that N2 injection can significantly improve CO2 drainage efficiency. This technology can be considered for use in underground coal mines especially in the low permeability coal seams to improve gas drainage efficiency. The binary gas migration model can be used to illustrate the gas migration during the N2 enhanced gas drainage process. Compared the gas composition and the CO2 residual content with the laboratory tests, it can be observed that the simulation results match the laboratory results well. From field trials, we found that Nitrogen flushing can accelerate the gas flow between the injection and production boreholes.

REFERENCE Black, D., Aziz, N., Jurak, M., & Florentin, R. (2009). Outburst threshold limits-are they appropriate? Busch, A., & Gensterblum, Y. (2011). CBM and CO2-ECBM related sorption processes in coal: A review. International Journal of Coal Geology, 87(2), 49-71.

a) 27 Oct: stage one, 2 packs (around 300m3) of nitrogen were injected, gas samples from production borehole were collected during and after injection; b) 07 Nov: stage two, one and half packs (around 225m3) of nitrogen were injected, gas samples from production borehole were collected during and after injection; c) 15 Nov: stage three, water inflation packer was used to seal the borehole, five and half packs (around 825m3) of nitrogen were injected, gas flow from production borehole was measured and gas samples were collected during and after injection; d) 21 Nov: stage four, water inflation packer was used to seal the borehole, 1 pack (around 150m3) of nitrogen was injected, gas flow from production borehole was measured and gas samples were collected during and after injection.

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Experimental Simulation

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COAL BURST RISK EVALUATION WITH COAL BURST PROPENSITY INDEX METHOD Key researchers: Ting Ren, Xiaohan Yang, and Justine Calleja

INTRODUCTION Coal burst is a serious problem which posts a threat to the safety of miners. Many advanced monitoring methods such as acoustic emission, electromagnetic emission and micro seismic etc. are adopted by coal mines to predict coal burst accident. However, the cost of these methods is expensive. These methods can only be used during mining or development process as physical signal of coal failure is the monitoring object. Therefore, efficient and simple coal burst risk evaluation method is of great importance for coal mining industry.

TEST PROCEDURE The experiment needs three groups of specimens and every group needs 5 specimens. KE and RC can be obtained from the same group of experiments. WET and DT each need a set of specimens. The specific process is as follow. ŸŸStep1 Sample Preparation: Drill the core and process it into a 110 mm specimen. The height diameter ratio is 2:1. At least fifteen specimens are needed by this test. All the specimen should meets the specimen requirements of ISRM (International Society of Rock Mechanics). ŸŸStep2 Sample Measuring: Select 15 good specimens and divide specimens into three groups. Label each specimen with number 1 to 15. Record all the physical information such as diameter, length, colour and joint of every specimen in the form. Glue two strain gauges on every specimen as shown in Figure 2.

In order to evaluate the elastic behaviour of different coal seam, elastic strain energy index and bursting energy index were proposed by Polish researchers (YS Pan, 1999). The experience of Russian mines shown that these two indices are good indicator of coal burst risk of different coal seams (Braeuner, 1994). Chinese scholars proposed another two indices dynamic failure time and uniaxial compressive strength to evaluate coal burst risk. These four indices are summarized as coal burst propensity index by Chinese scholars and became a good indicator of coal burst risk in China coal mines. The lab experience has shown this method is an economic and efficient way to evaluate coal burst risk of coal seam.

RESEARCH

REPORTS: MINING

TEST INDICES ŸŸElastic strain energy index (WET) The samples is loaded to 80% of its strength and then unloaded. WET is the ratio of elastic strain energy (Ee) and plastic strain energy (Ep). ŸŸBursting energy index (KE) In the load displacement curve of coal sample under uniaxial compression condition, KE is the radio of energy accumulated before the peak value (Eb) and energy consumed after the peak value (Ea). ŸŸUniaxial compressive strength (RC) RC is the ratio of failure force (P) and cross-sectional area of coal samples (A). ŸŸDuration of dynamic fracture (DT) DT is the time that coal samples experienced from peak strength point (T1) to residual strength point (T2).

Figure 2 Strain gauges and Sample ŸŸStep3 RC and KE Test: Select the first group of specimens No.1 to No.5. Place specimen No.1 under the loading machine and load it at a constant displacement rate within 0.3 – 0.5 mm/ min until residual strength. All the data of loading process should be recorded by loading system. Repeat this loading process on specimen No.2 to No.5. ŸŸStep4 Calculation: Determine the average failure force of No.1 to No.5. Calculate the unloading point PU of WET test. ŸŸStep5 WET Test: Select the second group of specimens No.6 to No.10. Load specimen No.6 at a constant displacement rate within 0.3 – 0.5 mm/min until PU. Then unload specimen at the same loading rate until 1% - 5% of . Repeat loading and unloading process on this specimen until failure. The maximum load of every round is 5% higher than previous round. All the data of loading process should be recorded by loading system. Repeat this loading process on specimen No.7 to No.10. ŸŸStep6 DT Test: Select the third group of specimens No.11 to No.15. Load sample at a constant displacement rate within 0.3 – 0.5 mm/min until failure. All the data of loading process should be recorded by loading system. Repeat this loading process on specimen No.11 to No.15. The frequency of data collection should be no less than 10 kHz. ŸŸStep7 Data Processing: The example graph of data is as shown in Figure 5. Determine the test result of every specimen. Calculate the average index of every group.

Figure 1 Schematic Diagram of Indices

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RISK IDENTIFICATION The example graph of data is as shown in Figure 3. Determine the test result of every specimen. Calculate the average index of every group.

COMPUTATIONAL MODELLING OF DYNAMIC FRACTURE MECHANISMS IN ROCK Research by: Jan Nemcik & Gaetano Venticinque

The theoretical basis of this model has also been successfully implemented to numerous problems with outputs of producing modeled fractures as observed in the laboratory tests with examples shown in Figures 1 and 2.

SUMMARY From the aspect of energy, coal burst is an accumulation and releasing process of elastic energy. Different coal seams have different energy storage and releasing behaviour. Coal burst propensity index describe the proportions and magnitude of elastic energy. Thus, the evaluation of coal burst propensity, i.e. the property of elastic energy storage and releasing, can predict the coal burst risk.

REFERENCE Braeuner, G. 1994. Rockbursts in Coal Mines and Their Prevention: Taylor & Francis. YS Pan. 1999, Study on Rockburst Initiation and Failure Propagation (Doctoral dissertation), Tsinghua university. GB/T 25217.2 (2010), Methods for test, monitoring and prevention of rock burst Part 2 Classification and laboratory test method on bursting liability of coal AS 4133.4.2.2 (2013), Rock strength tests-Determination of uniaxial compressive strength-Rock strength less than 50 MPa

Figure 1 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Magnified grid distortions of rock triaxial test using

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Identify coal burst propensity according to Table 1.

Applications of conventional softening numerical models are limited both by theoretical derivation and computational ability to analyse fast dynamically occurring events. This is a serious shortcoming when trying to model the static or dynamic behaviour of rock strata around mine excavations. Now, the research team at the University of Wollongong (UOW) has developed new dynamic fracture theory and written the software to enable simulation of the dynamic fracture propagation in rock as it occurs in nature. Our computational approach mimics the fast rock fracture propagation in real time rather than using the inefficient and computationally demanding method of slow evolving yielding ground. This research explains several previously unknown fracture characteristics and closely mirror the experimental fractures produced in the laboratory samples. The software is able to model any type of fractures in various materials and is ideal to predict the fracture occurrence in the multi-layered rock present in stratified sedimentary strata. Our simulation method is promising to be faster and more suitable for use in 3-dimensional models that are currently very slow to produce any useful results in complex geometries.

REPORTS: MINING

Observations of failure in brittle materials indicate that the propagation of fractures is very fast, rapid and highly dynamic. The brittle failure process involving initiation, growth and the accumulation of micro-fractures in rock is conceptually well established however, conventional geotechnical models employ slow evolving static regimes that are unable to account for the many fracture mechanisms encountered in the field. Currently, geotechnical engineers face major shortcomings through an inability to accurately predict, quantify or explain many dynamically evolving phenomena such as brittle fracture propagation, rock bursts and various other unravelling brittle strata effects observed in the field.


(a) Mohr-Coulomb Elasto-Plastic Model (b) Quasi-Brittle Softening Model (c) New Dynamic Rock Fracture Model (DRFM2D) (d) Versus the laboratory rock test.

Figure 1 Conceptual coal burst mechanism

DYNAMIC NUMERICAL MODEL A FLAC numerical model of a typical 5m wide mine roadway at a depth of 550m was constructed as shown in Figure 2(a) below. The Mohr-Coulomb model was used to allow the seam to yield but for simplicity the roof and floor rock was modelled as an elastic mass Figure 2(b). The immediate coal rib is usually fractured and not well confined and therefore for simplicity it was modelled as a 1m thick loose block of coal 3.92 tonnes in weight. Initially, the model was statically stepped until the equilibrium was reached, then switched to dynamic mode.

RESEARCH

REPORTS: MINING

Figure 2 – LEFT: Numerical simulation of the Brazilian laboratory test using the DRFM2D model and RIGHT: Using DRFM2D a simulation of strata rib-failure behaving in a burstprone manner in response to distanced seismic event. This fundamentally new dynamic fracture simulation research is supported by the Australian Coal Association Research Project (ACARP) with current focus on the highly dynamic geotechnical phenomena of coal/rock bursts and other unravelling brittle strata effects.

NUMERICAL MODEL OF COAL BURST Supported by ACARP, this project is focused on computational systems to mimic natural ground dynamics and model possible types of dynamic events that simulate the coal burst process.

Figure 2

(a) FLAC Model grid and (b) Yielded seam details

As a trial a 1m long section of total bond failure between the coal and rock at the roof level only was initiated at various distances from the rib side as shown in Figure 3 below. Once the bond was broken, the dynamic chain reaction took place where the released elastic compression energy was carried at great speeds across the seam towards the rib side. The dynamically generated mass velocities that propagated towards the rib propelled the loose coal block in the lateral direction of up to 2.3 m/s depending on the location of failure. This momentum transfer in the model can be clearly observed as the velocity arrows in Figure 3 below.

Concepts behind the mine roadway coal bursts: Preliminary dynamic simulation trials clearly indicate that the ejection of a large coal mass from the rib side is only possible if the stored compressive energy within the pillar is released and accumulated as the compression wave travels towards the rib face. Stemming from the “Newtons Cradle” idea depicted below, this is only possible via the conservation of momentum p=mv that begins several metres into the pillar, accumulates released energy and propagates towards the relatively unconfined rib side. Significant lateral stress within the pillar ensures that the coal, whether solid or fractured, is in firm contact enabling transfer of momentum within the coal mass. To initiate this event an external trigger is required. For the energy trigger to occur, a dynamic event such as a fault slip is needed to generate seismic waves and break some of the already critically stressed bonds that exist between the coal seam and the rock surface.

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GROUT STRENGTH AT VARIOUS CURING TIMES Key researchers: Naj Aziz and Ali Mirzaghorbanali Dr Ali Mirzaghorbanali is senior lecture at the school of Civil Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland and visiting fellow at the school of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering, University of Wollongong

INTRODUCTION The uniaxial compressive strength, elastic modulus and creep of two commonly used grout products in Australian coal mining industry. Cable bolts, unlike ordinary rebar bolts, are mostly installed using cementitious grouts. Recent developments in cable bolt design have increased the crucial role of grout products to act as a stable interface between the cable bolt and surrounding rocks with the aim of keeping the underground openings safe and stable for a long period of time.

ŸŸStrands ŸŸBarrel and wedge ŸŸGrout ŸŸThe rock The above mentioned components interact with each other to transfer the load of loose strata to deeper and more stable rock structures. A series of experimental studies was carried out to investigate the Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS), Elastic modulus (E) and creep of two commonly used grout products in the Australian coal mining industry. There are two main research studies in literature concerning the mechanical properties of resin and grout. The first one was carried out by Aziz et al., (2013a, 2013b, 2014a) with the aim of establishing a general practice standard for determination of mechanical properties of resin used mostly for rebar bolt encapsulation. The study included determination of UCS, E value in compression, shear strength and rheological properties. Mechanical properties were examined at the University of Wollongong laboratory in relation to resin sample shape, size, height to width or diameter ratio, resin type, resin age and cure time. The following main conclusions were reported from this investigation:

ŸŸThe UCS values determined from various shaped samples

differed with respect to the sample shape and size and height to diameter ratio. ŸŸTypically, the UCS values were highest for 40 mm cubes and 40 mm diameter cylindrical sample with height to diameter ratio of two. ŸŸThe ratio between cube strength and cylinder strength varied from 1.1 to 1.3. ŸŸThe E value increased as the resin sample curing time increased from 7 to 21 days. ŸŸThe cube samples exhibited higher E values in comparison to cylindrical specimens at various curing time. ŸŸSimilar to UCS values, the average shear strength increased with larger sample curing time. ŸŸCube samples were suggested as a universal shape for testing resin products as they can be easily prepared and tested. A comprehensive report on the above study was further

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Note that this model was kept simple to enable reproduction by other researchers.

REPORTS: MINING

Figure 3. Development of dynamic events in coal rib versus time

Cable bolt failures have been observed in various Australian underground coal mines with no evidence of strand rupture. These failures can be attributed to installation practices and premature failure of grout. Encapsulated cable bolts provide an effective support system over a very large span for blocks and wedges formed in roofs or walls of excavations. The cable bolt reinforcement system consists of four main components as:


published by Aziz et al., (2014b) through the Australian Coal Association Research Scheme (ACARP) organisation.

SAMPLE PREPARATION AND EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE Two types of grout product, Jennmar Bottom-Up 100 (BU100) and Orica Stratabinder HS were selected to prepare samples. Samples were cast using the 50 mm cube mould with mixing ratios of 5 and 7 litres/bag by weight of grout to water, respectively. During sample preparation mild vibration was applied to the mould to release any entrapped air. Samples were then left undisturbed to cure at the room temperature for 1, 7, 14 and 28 days (Figure 1).

Modulus of elasticity in compression (E) In the determination of E values, samples were subjected to a cyclic loading program for three repetitive cycles, at loading rate of 1 mm/min (Figure 4). The maximum load at each cycle was limited to about 80% of the failure load. After three loading cycles, the prescribed load increased monotonically until failure. Both strain gauged and non-strain gauged samples were tested at 14 days curing time. Three methods (secant, tangent and 50 kN loading range) were used to calculate E values as described by Aziz et al., (2014a and b). Figure 5 presents elastic modulus where strain values were obtained using the Instron machine for BU 100 and Stratabinder HS products. The E value for both products was found to range between 2.63 to 4.33 GPa. Stratabinder HS showed higher E values when compared with BU 100. The maximum difference between E values of BU 100 and Stratabinder HS products is 0.98 GPa in tangent elastic modulus while minimum difference is 0.19 GPa in the 50 kN range method.

Figure 1: Prepared samples at 1 day curing time [left] BU 100 [right] Stratabinder HS The UCS values of one day old BU 100 and Stratabinder HS samples are shown in Figure 2. The obtained UCS values varied between 45.46 to 54.18 MPa and 40.09 to 43.2 MPa for BU 100 and Stratabinder HS respectively.

DISCUSSION EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSION RESEARCH

REPORTS: MINING

Uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) More than 18 compression tests were carried out on prepared samples at 1, 7 and 28 days curing time. Some tests were repeated to ensure accuracy of the collected data. The average UCS values of BU 100 and Stratabinder HS samples at different curing times are presented in Figure 2. It appears that the UCS strength of BU 100 and Stratabinder HS increased with longer sample curing time from 1 to 28 days. In general, Startabinder HS samples failed at higher compression loads than those of BU 100. The exception was one day cured speciments whereby BU 100 performed better. All samples failed in compression tests along shear planes as a result of combined axial compression and transverse extension (Figure 3).

Figure 4: Stress â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Strain curves measured by strain gauge and testing machine Creep property Strain gauged samples of BU 100 and Stratabinder HS with curing time of 42 days were subjected to a constant compression load of 100 kN for 15 min. The loading rate from 0 to 100 kN was set at 2 kN/sec. The creep was calculated as the percentage difference between strain values at the end of the test and the onset of 100 kN loading. Figure 6 shows measured strain values under the prescribed constant load of 100 kN compression load for BU 100 and Stratabinder HS samples. Comparison between average creep values of BU 100 and Stratabinder HS is presented in Figure 7. Stratabinder HS offers higher resistance against constant load of 100 kN rather than BU 100. However, the difference between creep values of BU 100 and Stratabinder HS is 0.04% which is not significant.

Figure 2: UCS strength of BU 100 and Stratabinder HS at various curing time Figure 5: Comparison between elastic modulus of BU 100 and Stratabinder HS products

Figure 3: Sample after compression testing (A) BU 100 and (B) Stratabinder HS

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NUMERICAL MODELLING OF ABNORMAL GAS EMISSION IN UNDERGROUND WORKINGS Key researchers: Ting Ren and Anxiu Liu Funding Sources: South32.

SUMMARY The experimental study found that Stratabinder HS grout was marginally better than the BU 100 grout for curing time of more than one day. For one day of curing time however, BU 100 samples showed better performance. Experiments indicated lower elastic modulus values for BU 100 when compared to Stratabinder HS under compressive cyclic loading. It was also observed that the elastic modulus determined by testing the samples using the Instron machine may have been influenced by the pronounced sample end effect, giving non-realistic low values. BU 100 showed higher creep value under a compression load of 100 kN for the duration of 15 min compared with Stratabinder HS. The difference between creep values of BU 100 and Stratabinder HS products was not significant. Both products suit equally for cable bolt installtion in rocks for strata reinforcement.

REFERENCES Aziz, N, Hillyer, J, Joyce, D, Shuqi Ma, Nemcik, J and Moslemi, A, 2013a. New approach to resin sample preparation for strength testing, on Proceedings of 4th Underground Coal Operators Conference, Coal 2013, February 14 -15,Wollongong, (eds: N. Aziz and Kininmonth), pp 152 -155. http://ro.uow.edu.au/coal/449/ Aziz, N, Namcik, J, Ren, T, Peter Craig and Hawker, R, 2013b. Development of new testing procedure for the assessment of resin performance for improved encapsulated roof bolt installation in coal mines, ACARP C21011, Part 1, September.

Incidents of a sudden release of a large volume of gas on a production longwall face have occurred during coal cutting in the Southern coalfield in Australia. This kind of abnormal gas emission or gas burst is a concern for mine safety as it has the potential of overcoming the pressure of normal face ventilation, causing temporal face ventilation interruption and back-flush zones with high gas levels in the vicinity of the burst site. There is a need to understand this process and the extent of its impact on a typical longwall operation scenario so that a safe zone can be established for longwall workers. Based on the field data from Southern coalfield, this project establishes a 3D CFD model and defines boundary conditions to simulate the scenario of a gas outburst event in the vicinity of the cutting drum (MG) at two positions: with shearer cutting close to MG and in the middle of the longwall face. The following objects are achieved. ŸŸBuilding a CFD model capable of predicting the influence extent of a typical gas burst event on a longwall face ŸŸAchieving an insight into the evolution process of a high gas pressure event in relation to face ventilation on a longwall face ŸŸInputting into the establishment of a safe zone on the longwall face should such a high-pressure gas outburst incident becomes imminent and unfolding

DEVELOPMENT OF CFD MODELS Based on information provided, the working face height is 3 m and length is 325 m. The maingate roadway is 5.2 m width and 3m height. The length of support is about 7 m and the Face-end support is about 8m. The support and the shearer are all based on the AutoCAD files provided by Illawarra Coal. For the purpose of this study, CFD models with 60-metre-long maingate and 150-metre-long working face were built. Shearer was positioned at two different locations, as shown in Figure 1. ŸŸScenario A, shearer is positioned at 8m from maingate as shown in Figure 1(a) and; ŸŸScenario B, shearer is positioned at 100m from maingate as shown in Figure 1(b). In each of the above scenarios, it is assumed the coal and gas outburst event was triggered next to the MG shearer drum, as indicated in Figure 1.

Aziz, N, Nemcik, J, Mirzaghorbanali, A, Foldi, S, Joyce, D, Moslemi, A, Ghojavand, H, Ma, S, Li, X and Rasekh, H, 2014a. Suggested methods for the preparation and testing of various properties of resins and grouts, on Proceedings of 14th Coal Operators’ Conference, 2014, Wollongong, (eds: N. Aziz and Kininmonth), pp 163-176. http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent. cgi?article=2171&context=coal Aziz, N, Namcik, J, Ren, T, Peter Craig and Hawker, R, 2014b. Development of new testing procedure for the assessment of resin performance for improved encapsulated roof bolt installation in coal mines, ACARP C21011, Final report, October. Hagan, P and Chen, J, 2015. Optimising the selection of fully grouted cable bolts in varying geotechnical environments, ACARP C22010, Final report, February.

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Figure 7: Comparison between creep values of BU 100 and Stratabinder HS

INTRODUCTION

REPORTS: MINING

Figure 6: Creep test results under 100 kN Compression load


Figure 1 CFD longwall models and outburst sites: (a) Scenario A; (b) Scenario B

MODEL ASSUMPTION The following assumptions were made for the purpose of CFD modelling work in this project: ŸŸThe outburst site was located next to the MG drum; ŸŸThe size of the outburst void is 1m in diameter. The total volume of outburst gas is approximately 1100 m3. The outburst gas contains 50% CH4 and 50% CO2 by volume. ŸŸThe release of gas emission onto the longwall face from this event follows a velocity profile as illustrated in Figure 2, i.e., it increases from 0 to 198 m/s in 6 seconds (s) and then maintains at 198 m/s for 3s before it drops to nearly 0 at about 30s. ŸŸThe ejected coal was not modelled in the CFD model. However, a porous zone was ‘created’ in the CFD model to take into account the blockage effect of the ejected coal from the outburst.

Figure 4 Airflow velocity contours (Q=55m3/s) Figure 5 shows the gas outburst process for Scenario 3a (Q = 55 m3/s) in the first 6 seconds of the outburst event. An amination clip is provided in a separate document to illustrate this process.

Figure 5 Gas outburst process for: Q = 55 m3/s Scenario 3a Figure 6 shows the maximum back-flush distances for Scenario A when the longwall face ventilation rate changes from 20m3/s to 90 m3/s. CFD modelling indicated that the back-flush distance decreases from 5.4m to -0.5m (0.5m away from the MG).

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REPORTS: MINING

Figure 6 Maximum back-flush distance: Scenario A with different ventilation rates (Q) Figure 7 shows the maximum back-flush distances Dmax for Scenario B when the longwall face ventilation rate changes from 20m3/s to 90 m3/s. CFD modelling indicated that the back-flush distance Dmax decreases from 24.3m to 13.8m. Figure 2 Gas release velocity vs time from the outburst event

RESULTS

Figure 3 Airflow velocity contours (Q=55m3/s) Figure 7 Maximum Back-flush distance: Scenario B with different ventilation rates (Q)

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SHEAR STRENGTH OF TENDONS UNDER DIFFERENT TEST CONDITIONS Key researchers: Naj Aziz, Haleh Rasekh, Guanyu

strength. The shearing force is applied by four hydraulic rams located beneath the apparatus and is w measured by both the calibrated pressure transducer and analogue gauge (Figure 2b). Either a hand pump or a power pack of a suitable capacity applied the hydraulic pressure for compression testing machine legs.

Yang and Saman Khaleghparast

INTRODUCTION

Figure 2 MISSTR and LVDT compression and pressure monitoring system The displacement at the shearing plane is measured using a Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT). Two other LVDTs mounted on the cable ends monitors cable debonding. The instrument was fitted with a data-taker recorder that collects test data at the desired time interval. Formatube cylindrical cardboards, 250 mm in diameter and 900 mm in height were used for casting concrete cylinders. For each 1.8 m long side of the full encapsulation two 900 mm long were glued together

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REPORTS: MINING

There are different techniques of evaluating the shear performance of tendons for ground reinforcement in mines and tunnels. Tendons, that are rock bolts and cable bolts, are shear tested under single and double shear conditions. The nature of tendon failure in shear will depend on the type of shearing and the nature of anchorage stability during shearing. Several types of shear testing rigs are developed for this type of study and Figure 1 shows different rig types. The nature of the measured cable bolt shear strength is dependent on the way the cable bolt is held firmly in place during shearing. Testing of cable bolt using double shear method (Li, 2017), two situation tests can be carried out; (1) shear testing of the cable bolt with the medium sheared joint faces coming in contact with each other during shearing, as the case will be when shear testing is carried out in double shear rigs NKI or MKII, (2) shearing of cables without medium joint faces coming in contact with each other. The latter test is carried out using MKIII and MKIV rigs, as well as using a single shear rig.

Figure 3 Concrete cast in the Formatube moulds and 30 mm with PVC tube for creating central hole During casting, a steel rod, 30 mm in diameter and 1000 mm long was placed vertically in the cardboard mould to create the borehole. An 8 mm diameter PVC tube was wrapped around the steel rod for rifle shaping of the hole wall during casting, every two 900 mm cylinders were but-glued to each other, forming a 1.8 m long unit. Epoxy binder and hardener mix was used for gluing the butted end surface of the two concrete cylinders as shown in Figure 4. A long bolt was inserted in the hole and tightened to attach joints completely after smearing joint surfaces with epoxy.

Figure 1 Various types of Shear rigs at the CME

EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM The Megabolt Integrated Single Shear Testing Rig (MISSTR) was used to shear testing of various cable bolts used in Australian mines and in civil engineering tunnel construction (Aziz, et al 2017). This horizontally aligned integrated system consisted of a shearing rig and a 120 t compression machine. The tested cable is encapsulated in centrally located rifled hole in 3.6 m long concrete cylinder as shown in Figure 2a. During shearing the concrete cylinders are covered by steel clamps, providing the radial confinement to the concrete during shearing, for improvement in concrete radial

Figure 4: Application of epoxy on concrete blocks surfaces and positioning concrete blocks on the clamp for gluing A total of four 900 mm long concrete blocks were needed to encapsulate 3.6 mm long cable bolts for shear testing. The cables were initially pretensioned in the concrete blocks and then grouted. Figure 5 show a set of six encapsuleted cables being grouted using Minova Stratabinder cementitious grout. Some tested cables were bulbed.

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Figure 7: the crushing effect of bulb on composite medium column surrounding the cable

REFERENCES Figure 5: Concrete prism specimens

DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY Figure 6 shows a typical load displacement graph of two sheared cables. The peak applied shear force, which cause cable bolt shear shear varies depending on cable type. A total of 19 cables were shear tested and the shear performance varied debonding of the cable strand outer wire surface roughness and variation in pretension load. All tested cables were subjected to either 0.5 t or 15 t pretension. From the study it was found that:

Li X, Aziz N, Mirzaghorbanali A and Nemcik J. (2017). Comparison of the shear test results of a cable bolt on three laboratory test apparatuses. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 61, 82-89 Aziz, Naj, Rink Owen, Rasekh Haleh h, Hawkins Ellie, Mirzaghorbanali Ali, Yang Guanyu, Khaleghparast Saman, Mills Kennith, Nemcik Jan and Xuwei Li, (2017). Single shear testing of various cable bolts used in Australian mines, 17th Coal Operators’ Conference, University of Wollongong, pp. 222-229.

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REPORTS: MINING

Figure 5 typical load displacement graph of two sheared cables. For 1.8 m long cable encapsulation, cable debonding was common with plain surface ŸŸPlain cable bolts have higher peak shear load compared with indented cable bolts of the same type. ŸŸNo debonding was observed in spiral and indented cable bolts because of the influence of increased interlocking in the cable/grout interface ŸŸPlain wired strand cables readily debonded in comparison to the same but indented wire strand cable in the same encapsulation length of 1.8 m ŸŸThe failure modes of the cable strand wires comprise a combination of pure tensile and tensile/shears failures. No strand wire failed in pure shear. ŸŸIn general, the failed cable strand peak shear load was lower with increased pretension load in un-debonded condition. Higher pretension load causes the cable to stiffen and fail with lower vertical shear displacement. ŸŸThe role of bulbs and birdcages along the cable length contributes to improvement in cable bonding characteristics. Based on the exposed surface of the axially cut concrete cylinders shown in Figure 7 the increased local diameter of cable due to bulbing exerts significant crushing force in the surrounding concrete medium, which indicate the positive role that bulbs play in resisting cable shearing displacement and hence debonding.

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A ROADWAY DEVELOPMENT SIMULATION MODEL FOR UNDERGROUND COAL MINES

ŸŸdelays of gas drainage, cut niches, widen roadways; ŸŸcut breakaway and holing through; ŸŸrelocation of mining machine; ŸŸdelays affecting outbye services; and ŸŸdelays affecting face operations.

Key researchers: Dalin Cai, Ernest Baafi and Ian Porter

MineSIM has been extensively tested utilising performance data and other statistics provided by an industry mentor, and with data utilised in the development of an earlier ACARP funded roadway simulation model (RoadSIM) developed by UOW. The MineSIM model is considered highly predictive and has since recently incorporated a number of enhancements to the user interfaces and associated reporting systems to achieve a high level of system transparency and user friendliness. While MineSIM is essentially unlimited in terms of mine configuration (i.e. number of roadways and the dimensions thereof ) the model utilises a standard configuration of roadways which are then repeated a number of times throughout the simulation process.

MineSIM has been developed with the specific aim of providing both roadway development and longwall extraction simulation models utilising state-of-the-art simulation and gaming platforms that are able to fully model the intricacies and complexities of both of these mining processes (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Typical development sequence using one Continuous Miner by MineSIM The model utilises the Flexsim (Flexsim, 2017) simulation engine. MineSIM offers sensitivity analysis tools for evaluating the impact upon roadway development rates from various aspects of the operations that include: TM

ŸŸThe Bolter-Miner configuration typically shows a 7-14% improvement in development rates over a Miner-Bolter in all scenarios modelled due to the ability to concurrently cut, load and support. ŸŸTypical periodic and random delay profiles effectively halve weekly development rates; ––there appears to be significant potential to improve development rates by better managing available time through improved process monitoring and reporting. ŸŸThe development process is essentially support constrained throughout the “normal” range of support installation times modelled; the extent of support constraint evident in the development process warrants a major R&D focus to pursue alternative support regimes and automation of the installation process. ŸŸThe ability for full 1 m cut-out with a Bolter-Miner and continuous haulage system has the potential to improve rates by 10-13%. ŸŸReducing the panel advance time from the standard 21 hours to 15 hours or 10 hours has the potential to improve development rates by 5% and 10%, respectively. ŸŸThe adoption of 150 m cut through centres typically improves average weekly development rates by 7%.

REFERENCE FLEXSIM USER MANUAL, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.flexsim.com/community/forum/downloads. php?do=file&id=116 [Accessed 23.6.2017].

ŸŸpillar and cut through dimensions; ŸŸmining sequences; ŸŸnumber of entries; ŸŸnumber of mining machines in use; ŸŸminer type (bolter miner or miner bolter); ŸŸcycle times for cutting and loading at the development face; ŸŸcoal clearance system utilised; ŸŸshuttle car capacity, tramming speeds; ŸŸcycle time for discharging of a shuttle car; ŸŸroof/rib bolting rigs utilised; ŸŸroof/rib support density; ŸŸbolt type; ŸŸcontinuous haulage system utilised; ŸŸshift roasters; ŸŸpanel advance delay; ŸŸduration and frequency of stone dusting, supply miner, extend vent tube, etc.; ŸŸInstall long tendon/tale-tell length/density/delay; ŸŸmachine breakdowns;

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MINESIM

The key findings with over 300 scenarios modelled with MineSIM for a 10 pillar cycle simulation were:

REPORTS: MINING

The University of Wollongong has supported the development of a mine simulation model MineSIM as part of a post graduate studies program. MineSIM incorporates both roadway development and longwall extraction modelling capabilities and is at an advanced stage of development having been extensively tested against Excel based roadway development models utilised by one of the major mining companies. MineSIM was utilised in an Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) supported initiative to better understand the constraints of the roadway development process during an ACARP Workshop, with participants expressing strong support for the continued development and refinement of MineSIM as an industry standard simulation model.


COMPARING THE REINFORCEMENT CAPACITY OF WELDED STEEL MESH AND A THIN SPRAY-ON LINER (TSL) USING LARGE SCALE LABORATORY TEST Ian Porter1, Zhenjun Shan1, Jan Nemcik1 and Ernest Baafi1

STRATA PRONE TO GUTTERING The aim of this experiment was to study the behaviour of a TSL and welded steel mesh in providing reinforcement to a rock mass prone to guttering. As implied above, tests were conducted on two samples named TSL reinforced sample and steel mesh reinforced sample respectively. Figure 1 shows the sample preparation procedure. A timber mould (Figure 1-1) was firstly placed on the floor, and then concrete was poured into it to prepare triangular prisms. The triangular prisms were 200 mm in width, 400 mm in length and 53 mm in height with acute and obtuse angles of 28° and 124° respectively. 16 mm holes were drilled through some of the triangular prisms so that threaded bar to simulate rock bolts can be grouted in (Figure 1-2). The triangular prisms, 49 whole prisms and 14 half prisms, were layered into the steel frame to form a 400 mm × 400 mm × 800 mm rectangular concrete block. Welded steel mesh cut to size and a 5 mm thick fibre reinforced polymer sheet were bonded and bolted to the concrete surface in a similar way to that employed in the previous experiment.

1

Figure 2. Test set up The sample was forced to expand laterally as it was compressed at the top and bottom surface during the test on the steel mesh reinforced sample. Several triangular concrete blocks were observed to slip or move after only limited displacement, again illustrating the passive nature of steel mesh when used for skin confinement. The test terminated when the front surface of the sample was so close to the laser equipment that it may touch the laser equipment if the test continued. Note that the steel mesh did not fail at this stage. Block slippage or movement was also found in the test on the TSL reinforced sample, but it did not move or slip as much as in the other test. Debonding of the TSL sheet to the triangular prisms was observed in the test. One of the bolts broke during the loading process and the test was stopped for safety reason. As before, this test was halted without failure of the fibre reinforced polymer sheet.

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REPORTS: MINING

2

Figure 3. Load vs deformation

Figure 1. Procedures of sample preparation Again, the tests were performed in a 500 t Avery compression testing machine. The load applied and the deformation of the centre point of the sample front surface was recorded by a 5000 kN load cell and a LVDT laser respectively. Figure 2 illustrates the test set up.

The load versus lateral deformation behaviour of the two samples are illustrated in Figure 3 and The sudden drop in the TSL graph is a result of the failure of the bolts. Load fluctuations can be found in both graphs, a result of block slippage during the test. It is obvious that there are not as many fluctuations in the TSL graph, indicating that blocks did not slip to the same extent as in the steel mesh reinforced sample. The reason for this scenario was that the adhesion at the interface of concrete prism and the TSL restricted the movement of the blocks, while there was no adhesion between the steel mesh and concrete. It can be seen from the figure that the two samples behave similarly up to around 40 mm deformation, however, the TSL reinforced sample had a much stiffer load versus deformation relationship after 40 mm deformation. As neither the TSL sheet nor the steel mesh broke during the test, there was no point to comparing the maximum loads achieved in the two tests. It is worthwhile to note that the load of the steel mesh reinforced sample at a deformation of 80 mm is around 160 kN, while the corresponding value of the other sample is approximately 450

1 The University of Wollongong, School of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering, Wollongong NSW 2500

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kN. Figure 9 shows the state of guttering for the two tests after 80 mm deflection. It is obvious from the figure that the TSL restricts the development of guttering significantly better than steel mesh, a result of the bonded TSL acting as a composite with the sub-strate to immediately limit deformation and assist the strata to maintain integrity whilst substantial deformation is occurring.

CONCLUSION The purpose of this study was to compare TSL and steel mesh in reinforcing a rock mass prone guttering. Results showed that the TSL was much stiffer than steel mesh in reinforcing concrete blocks with guttering.

A DISCRETE-EVENT TRUCK SIMULATION MODEL FOR SURFACE MINES Key researchers: Weiguo Zeng, Ernest Baafi and David Walker A truck-shovel mining system is a flexible mining method commonly used in surface mines. Both simulation and queuing models are commonly used to model the truck-shovel mining operation. One fundamental problem associated with most of these existing simulation an queuing models is that most of the commercial models such as Talpac (RPMGLOBAL Holdings Ltd., 2018) represent the truck haulage system as macroscopic simulation models, which ignore the fact that a truck as an individual vehicle unit dynamically interacts not merely with other trucks in the system but also with other elements of the traffic network. Some important operational factors, such as the bunching effect and the influence of the traffic intersections, are either over simplified or ignored in such a traditional macroscopic model.

RESEARCH

REPORTS: MINING

A discrete-event truck-shovel simulation model, referred to as TSJSim (Truck and Shovel JaamSim Simulator), based on a microscopic traffic and truck-allocation approach has been developed for an open-pit truck-shovel mining system (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Elements of the TSJSIM model TSJSim uses a free and open source Java discrete-event simulation engine, JaamSim, which includes a drag-anddrop user interface, interactive 3D graphics, input and output processing, and model development tools. TSJSim considers a truck as an individual traffic unit that dynamically interacts with other trucks in the system as well as other elements of the traffic network. TSJSim accounts for the bunching of trucks on the haul routes, practical rules at intersections and multiple decision points along the haul routes. TSJSim also offers four truckallocation modules: Fixed Truck Assignment (FTA), Minimising Shovel Production Requirement (MSPR), Minimising Truck Waiting Time (MTWT) and Minimising Truck Semi-cycle Time (MTSCT) including Genetic Algorithm (GA) optimisation and Frozen Dispatching Algorithm (FDA) optimisation. The TSJSim simulation model was validated using operational data. The validated model was used to evaluate various practical scenarios aiming at a better understanding of the impacts of the match factor, the safezone traffic management, the decision points and the truck-allocation strategies on the system performance. The key simulation results based on the model studies are summarised below: 1. As the length of the safezone increased, the utilisation of the main route fleet with no waiting at an intersection was

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significantly improved at the expense of the non-main route commonly used by empty trucks. The management of main route, used by fully loaded trucks in the safezone has a significant impact on the KPIs of the under-trucked fleet. 2. In the simulated truck-shovel system with two fleets, the trends for the production tonnages and queuing time utilising the four truck-allocation strategies (MSPR, MTWT, FDA and GA) all shared similar patterns as the fleet size varied. As the system fleet size increased, the system production tonnes under these truck-allocation strategies firstly increased significantly and then remained stable; the queuing time under these truck-allocation strategies showed a positive relationship with the system fleet size. The bunching times decreased when the truck-allocation strategies were applied. 3. In the truck-shovel network system with multiple traffic intersections, by assigning the trucks to shovels at the intersection, both productivity and fleet utilisation increased.

REFERENCE RPMGLOBAL Holdings Ltd. 2018. Haulage & Loading â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Talpac [Online]. Available: http://www.rpmglobal.com/software/talpac [Accessed 07.04.2018].

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Environmental Engineering Research Summaries Current research activities in environmental engineering topic areas reflect the research interests of the academic and research staff of CME. The brief descriptions of projects conducted over the 2015-2017 period provided here illustrate the research interests related to technical specialties of the staff, their interactions with collaborators, and the wider interests of environmental engineering expressed by allocation of the funding essential to project implementation. The collection of technical expertise among the staff in combination with specialized equipment and facilities have made these projects possible as part of the continuing scholarly output of the group and its contribution to providing cutting edge additions to environmental engineering technology and to instructional capability. Principal interests and specialized expertise in environmental engineering include: • Environmental biotechnology, advanced wastewater treatment and reuse applications, resource recovery, wastewater management and energy recovery • Membrane separation development and application, low carbon desalination, anaerobic digestion • Water quality modelling, Sustainable water and waste water technology development and application, hydraulic modelling and water resource management • Sediment transport, analysis of turbulent structures, skin friction-drag interaction, polymer drag reduction applications

RESEARCH

• Water quality management for public health, public water supply, waterborne pathogen monitoring and data analysis; catchment management for water quality control, Cryptosporidium and Giardia monitoring and control

REPORTS OF CURRENT RESEARCH INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING: – Biocatalytic Membrane Reactors for Trace Organic Contaminant Removal and Biofuel Production Key researchers: Faisal I. Hai

– Characteristics of Premise Plumbing Systems and Risk of Legionella in Potable Water Key researchers: Faisal I. Hai

– Biosolids Management and Renewable Energy Production Key researchers: Long D. Nghiem and Faisal I. Hai

– Novel Membrane Processes for Sustainable Water Resue and Seawater Desalination Key researchers Faisal I. Hai and Long D. Nghiem

– Flood Disaster Mitigation in Dongting Lake by using SPP Strategy Key researchers: Yizhuang Liu, Shu-Qing Yang, Muttucumaru Sivakumar, Keith Enever

– Solar Powered Vacuum Membrane Distillation System

Key researchers: Muttucumaru Sivakumar, Shuqing Yang, Keith Enever, Ying Zhang and Matt Pour

– Oceanographic Characteristics of Alluvial Estuaries, North-West Arabian/Persian Gulf Key researchers: Qassim Al-aesawi, Brian G. Jones, Shu-Qing Yang, Errol McLean

– Paradigm Shift in Water Resources Development for Coastal/Inland Regions across the World Key researchers: Shu-Qing Yang, Muttucumaru Sivakumar, Keith Enever

– Turbulent Structures and Drag Force in Vegetated Open Channel Flows Under Different Vegetation Configurations Key researchers: Muttucumaru Sivakumar, Shuqing Yang, Keith Enever, Nadeeka S Miguntanna

– Efficient Detection of Cryptosporidium & Giardia in Environmental Water Samples by LAMP Key researchers: Dr. Frhat M.A. Saaed, and Prof. Jerry E. Ongerth

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

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• Coastal reservoir principles: planning, analysis, development, and application

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BIOCATALYTIC MEMBRANE REACTORS FOR TRACE ORGANIC CONTAMINANT REMOVAL AND BIOFUEL PRODUCTION

CHARACTERISTICS OF PREMISE PLUMBING SYSTEMS AND RISK OF LEGIONELLA IN POTABLE WATER

Key researchers: Faisal I. Hai

Key researchers: Faisal I. Hai

Further information: https://scholars.uow.edu.au/ display/faisal_hai

Further information: https://scholars.uow.edu.au/ display/faisal_hai

Evidence shows that a range of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) which are suspected to have adverse impacts on humans and wildlife are not completely removed from wastewater by the conventional bacterial processes. Accordingly these TrOCs have been detected in sewageimpacted surface waters all over the world, including Australia. Development of cost-effective methods for TrOC removal is crucial for the safety of the downstream production of water for human consumption. To address this, this project proposes to use fungal-derived oxidative enzymes which have been reported to be useful for the remediation of a wide range of environmental contaminants. To fully exploit the comparative advantages of fungal degradation over bacterial remediation, this project will employ immobilization of enzyme in gel or porous matrix including membranes to improve its stability against thermal and chemical denaturation, and will simultaneously add ‘mediator’ compounds to broaden the range of TrOCs that the enzyme can degrade. The degradation of TrOCs of diverse chemical structures by the proposed combination will be evaluated and the associated biodegradation pathways elucidated. Understanding of the biodegradation pathways will allow more appropriate design and thus contribute to substantial economic savings.

Recent injury and deaths have occurred in Queensland hospitals due to contraction of Legionella found in plumbing systems that have been later attributed to operational decisions that lowered hot water circulation as an initiative to lowering energy usage. Further to this, existing research from the US indicates the negative impact energy and water efficiency drivers may have on p otable water systems in terms of biofilm and microbial growth in distribution system. However research relevant to Australian conditions, regulations and plumbing design is limited. The current study forms a much needed baseline study towards filling in these research gaps. This project is funded by Enware P/L, Australia.

Another aspect of this project is enzymatic biofuel production. Dwindling supplies of fossil fuel along with detrimental release of greenhouse gases have led to the quest for renewable sources of fuel such as bioethanol from cellulosic materials (e.g., sugar cane, corn starch, wood). Conversion of biomass to bioethanol involves a set of ‘biotransformation’ and ‘recovery/ concentration’ processes. With the help of membrane technology, several process steps that were conventionally separate can be integrated and the production of bioethanol simplified. Raw material usually undergoes pretreatment (hydrolysis) via an enzymatic hydrolysis to release sugars such as glucose or xylose before it is fed to fermentation for ethanol production. This study will focus on membrane use in enzymatic pretreatment of cellulose. Membranes can be used to recover glucose during the enzymatic hydrolysis to increase the reaction speed and the conversion rate. This cluster of projects is carried out in collaboration with Novozymes Australia, and Metgen Finland with support from GeoQuEST Research Center (UOW).

Figure: Schematic of TrOC degradation by mediator-enhanced enzymatic catalysis on solid support

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BIOSOLIDS MANAGEMENT AND RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION

NOVEL MEMBRANE PROCESSES FOR SUSTAINABLE WATER RESUE AND SEAWATER DESALINATION

Key researchers: Long D. Nghiem and Faisal I. Hai

Key researchers Faisal I. Hai and Long D. Nghiem

Further information: https://scholars.uow.edu.au/ display/faisal_hai

Further information: https://scholars.uow.edu.au/ display/faisal_hai

Wastewater treatment generates a large amount of solid product or sludge. This can be treated to produce biogas (a valuable renewable fuel) and biosolids for beneficial reuse. Sydney Water, the largest water utility in Australia, produces about a fifth of the total biosolids production of Australia. The management of these biosolids is a major cost to Sydney Water.

A major challenge to mankind is to provide adequate clean fresh water for sanitation as well as industrial and agricultural production. This problem is further heightened in Australia where the climatic pattern is characterised by intense droughts and flooding rains. Despite being the driest continent on Earth, Australia has been a provider of reliable and high quality food to its neighbouring countries and has recently set a national target to become the food bowl of Asia. The key challenge to achieving this target is to ensure ample and steady supply of fresh clean water, that is independent of the hydrological cycle, for urban and agriculture consumption. This project directly contributes to the national effort of securing our fresh water supply by developing and optimising innovative membrane based processes for water reuse and seawater desalination applications. This cluster of projects is supported by The Australian Research Council, Veolia Water, Seqwater, Shoalhaven Water and GeoQuEST research strength (UOW).

REPORTS: ENVIRONMENTAL

Biosolids produced from wastewater treatment plants have tremendous potential for use as fertilisers. However, current treatment processes are generating major issues with the production of malodour. This means that the treatment plant authorities have to transport these substances great distances to customers, at significant cost. If the sludge odour can be reduced or eliminated, new market options much closer to the plants could be explored. It is thus necessary to understand the factors which contribute to the excess generation of malodourous sludge. This will facilitate formulation of more effective control regimes, which will substantially alter the economics of biosolids management.UOW is working with Sydney Water to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of its management of biosolids. There are three main aspects to this: Reducing the overall volume of sludge being produced, Improving the yield of biogas from the sludge, Minimising the production of malodours associated with

RESEARCH

biosolids. This cluster of projects is supported by Sydney Water and GeoQuEST research strength (UOW).

Figure: Pilot scale anaerobic digesters

Figure: Pilot desalination rig

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FLOOD DISASTER MITIGATION IN DONGTING LAKE BY USING SPP STRATEGY

of 43400 m3/s in 1954 while the flood stage rises to 35.94 m with a small discharge of 28800 m3/s in 1998 at Chenglingji station.

Key researchers: Yizhuang Liu, Shu-Qing Yang, Muttucumaru Sivakumar, Keith Enever Partners: Changsha Univ. of Sci. & Tech

INTRODUCTION Flood disaster is one of the natural disasters which causes the most damage and it has been extremely severe in recent years. An analysis of world-wide events shows that there are distinct increases in respect of economic losses, and the rising number of events represents a worrying trend and most of the significant flood disasters occurred in China during 1990-1998 (Berz, 2000). The number of flood events has had a quick increase since the 1980s (see Fig. 1a). The loss amount varies substantially from year to year, but has increased rapidly in general since the 1990s (see Fig. 1b).

Fig. 2 Location of Dongting Lake area

Fig. 3. The schematic diagram of lake evolution process

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REPORTS: ENVIRONMENTAL

(a)

Fig. 4. Evolution of flood stage in different times

(b) Fig. 1, Development in the number and loss of recorded flood events in China (a) Number of flood events, (b) Overall losses. (Munich Re, 2016). Dongting Lake (see Fig.2) is the second largest lake in China, but it suffers frequent floods due to the shrinkage of Dongting Lake resulting in the decrease of the lakeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s capacity (see Fig. 3). From 1954 to 2010, the surface area and capacity of Dongting Lake has decreased by 32% and 35%, respectively (Xu, Kang and He, 2015). The schematic lake evolution process is shown in Fig. 3. In the past, there might be 50% of the flood water mitigated into the lake during the flood season, and 25% of the flood water flow into the lake at present but less than 10% of the flood water could be stored in the lake in the future as the lake shrinks. If the same flood occurred in the different periods (i.e., in the past, at present and in the future), the flood stage evolution in the lake is shown in Fig. 4. In the past the flood stage curve is flat because there is a large capacity to store the flood water while the stage curve becomes steeper with the lake shrinking. Moreover, the stage will peak, rising and falling steeply in the future since there is a very limited capacity for the lake to store the flood water. This can explain that the flood stage is 34.55 m with a large discharge

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PREDICTION OF THE DISCHARGE AT LUOSHAN STATION Fig. 5 shows the prediction of the discharge and water level process at Luoshan station if a flood similar to 1998 happens in the future as Dongting Lake shrinks. With the decrease of lake capacity, the discharge peaks rise and fall steeply as shown in Fig. 5. The conveyance capacity is 55700 m3/s at Luoshan station. This value can be used to calculate the surplus floodwater in 1998 and in the future, i.e., 20.1 billion m3 and 31 billion m3, respectively.

Fig. 5 The prediction of the discharge and water level at Luoshan station in the future.

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SPP STRATEGY FOR FLOODWATER DEVELOPMENT IN DONGTING AREA The layout of SPP applied in Dongting Lake is shown in Fig. 6, where the inner dikes are represented by the blue line and the gates are represent by touching triangles. Dongting Lake capacity is over 30 billion m3 during the flood period indicating that SPP strategy could store the surplus floodwater in 1998 which is considered to be the worst flood disaster after 1954.

SOLAR POWERED VACUUM MEMBRANE DISTILLATION SYSTEM Key researchers: Muttucumaru Sivakumar, Shuqing Yang, Keith Enever, Ying Zhang and Matt Pour Funding Sources: Coastal Reservoir Research Centre

Fig.6. The layout of SPP in Dongitng Lake. The total capacity of the inner lake is approximate to 31 billion m3 when the water depth is 12 m.

CONCLUSIONS The shrinkage of the lake is the main reason that causes a high state even the discharge is small at Luoshan station in recent years. The flood disaster can be solved by using SPP strategy since it has a huge capacity to store the flood water.

REFERENCES Berz, G. (2000). Flood disasters: lessons from the past - worries for the future. Proceedings of the ICE - Water and Maritime Engineering, 148(1), 57-58. Munich Re. (2016) Annual Review of Natural Catastrophes 2016. Munich Reinsurance Company, Munich. Olson, D. M., & Dinerstein, E. (2002). The Global 200: Priority ecoregions for global conservation. Annals of the Missouri Botanical garden, 199-224.

SOLAR-POWERED MEMBRANE DISTILLATION SETUP In this project, we have developed a stand-alone solar powered vacuum membrane distillation system (SVMD) by combining commercial solar collectors with the vacuum membrane distillation system. An evacuated tube collector and two solar PV panels are used for supplying thermal energy and electricity to the system, respectively. Feed water is heated up indirectly by the solar hot water system via a copper coil heat exchanger. Clean water is used in the solar cycle to avoid scaling in the solar collector. Vacuum membrane distillation is one of the major configurations of MD. It is notable because of the high permeate flux resulting from the enhanced driving force by applying vacuum on the permeate side. Meanwhile, a shell-andtube condenser has been designed for efficiently condensing the vapour on the permeate side. So far, we have utilized this SVMD system for treating different types of waters successfully, including seawater, greywater and brackish groundwater. Mathematical models simulating the process have also been developed. (Ramezanianpour and Sivakumar, 2014)

Xu, W. P., Kang W. X., He J. N. (2015). Temporal and spatial variation of storage capacity in Dongting Lake. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 29(3), 62-67. (In Chinese) Nash, J. E., & Sutcliffe, J. V. (1970). River flow forecasting through conceptual models part Iâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;A discussion of principles. Journal of hydrology, 10(3), 282-290.

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Water stress is a major problem being faced by various communities around the world. According to the United Nations, by 2025, 1.8 billion people will be living in regions with absolute water scarcity and two-thirds of world population could be living under water stress conditions (UN-Water, 2013). In order to alleviate water stress and enhance water security in the future, alternative water sources have to be considered for water supply, such as brackish groundwater and seawater. Desalination technologies must be adopted to produce fresh water from these sources. However, currently high energy consumption and operating cost are still features of the desalination industry. Meanwhile most desalination projects are powered by unsustainable fossil fuel energy. Membrane distillation (MD) technology is a thermally driven, membrane based separation process in which only vapour molecules are allowed to pass through a micro-porous hydrophobic membrane. Compared to traditional thermal driven desalination processes, the temperature requirement for MD is relatively low, normally between 60~80°C (El-Bourawi et al., 2006). This operating temperature range enables MD to be easily coupled with solar thermal collectors, such as flat plate and evacuated tube collectors. Solar powered membrane distillation can be a potential solution for water scarcity issue for many arid, semiarid regions which also have abundant solar energy.

REPORTS: ENVIRONMENTAL

INTRODUCTION


after pretreatment was sent to the SVMD system and was tested under real weather condition. A maximum flux of 2.4 L/m2•h was achieved on that specific day.

FLUORIDE, IRON AND MANGANESE REMOVAL FROM BRACKISH GROUNDWATER USING SVMD The removal of naturally occurring contaminants fluoride, iron and manganese from brackish groundwater was investigated using the SVMD system. Effect of initial concentration of contaminants in the feed and salinity of brackish groundwater were studied. All tests were conducted under real weather conditions.

Figure 1: Solar powered vacuum membrane distillation setup.

MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF SVMD PROCESS BASED ON HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER

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REPORTS: ENVIRONMENTAL

A mathematical model of the SVMD process has been developed by performing the thermodynamic analysis in detail. Heat/mass transfer of four major sections have been analysed and integrated into the model, including heat transfer across the solar collector, heat and mass transfer across the membrane, heat transfer in the condenser and heat loss to the environment. A numerical solution for the model was realized using MATLAB program. The performance of the SVMD process was investigated using the model and has been validated with experimental results. The monthly average hourly flux throughout the year was predicted using the model as shown in Figure 2.

Results showed that more than 99.5% overall salt rejection rate and over 97% removal efficiency of fluoride, iron and manganese were achieved. Total dissolved solids of permeate were in the range of 1~10 mg/L while all contaminants concentration were well below the WHO drinking water guideline. During the fluoride removal tests period, membrane permeate flux was largely influenced by the insufficient condensation of produced vapour, which resulted in the linear relationship between membrane permeate side pressure and feed temperature. Relatively low membrane flux was observed due to the permeate pressure variation. The highest hourly average flux 4.97 L/ m2·h was obtained at noon on a sunny day in September 2016. The corresponding daily freshwater production was 2.17 L with an overall thermal efficiency of 26%. Figure 3 shows the daily performance of SVMD in one of the fluoride removal experiments on Sept 19th. In order to improve the performance of the SVMD system, a new copper shell-and-tube condenser was manufactured after the study to replace the initial laboratory glass condenser.

Figure 3: One day performance of SVMD system before the installation of new condenser (September 19th, 2016) Figure 2: Monthly average hourly permeate flux of the SVMD system predicted by the model

GREY WATER TREATMENT USING SOLAR POWERED ELECTRO-COAGULATION AND VACUUM MEMBRANE DISTILLATION SYSTEM

Relatively constant permeate side pressure could be maintained with the installation of the new condenser, resulting in significant improvement in membrane flux. During the iron/ manganese removal tests period, the highest hourly average permeate flux achieved was 8.77 L/m2·h at noon on a sunny day in November 2016, 76.5% higher than the flux before change. Consequently, much higher daily production (5.00 L) and overall thermal efficiency (40%) was obtained.

The reuse of grey water is a sustainable solution for the water stress issue. The membrane distillation process is capable of providing high quality water from grey water. However, grey water contains surfactants that could reduce the contact angle between the feed solution and the membrane surface, which will induce membrane wetting. By using electro-coagulation as a pretreatment method before SVMD, the contaminants in the feed water can be removed efficiently. The negative effect of membrane fouling and wetting will therefore be reduced. It was shown in this study that after 12 minutes of electrocoagulation, the turbidity, TSS, COD, TOC, TN, TP and electrical conductivity was reduced by an average of 94.4%, 89.9%, 83.8%, 71.0%, 73.1%, 96.1%, and 30.2%, respectively. The greywater

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OCEANOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ALLUVIAL ESTUARIES, NORTHWEST ARABIAN/PERSIAN GULF Qassim Al-aesawi1, Brian G. Jones1, Shu-Qing Yang2, Errol McLean1 School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia.

1

School of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering,

2

University of Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia.

INTRODUCTION Figure 4: One day performance of SVMD system after the installation of new condenser (Nov 15th, 2016)

SUMMARY Solar powered vacuum membrane distillation technology is a promising sustainable solution to solve world water stress. In this project, the feasibility of using SVMD in treating greywater and brackish groundwater has been demonstrated. Theoretical modelling based on thermodynamic analysis has also been conducted. These results and approaches will contribute to the application and scaling up of this technology in the future.

An estuary is a transition between a river and a sea. There are two main drivers: the river that discharges fresh water into the estuary and the sea that fills the estuary with salt water, on the rhythm of the tide. Typical riverine characteristics of an estuary are that it has banks, flowing water, sediment transport, occasional floods, fresh water in the upper parts and tidal saline water in the marine domain. Estuaries are affected by changes in sea level and are temporary features since small changes of sea level (Russell, 1967) can create high clear changes. This study focused on the estuary of the Shatt Al-Arab channel, northwestern Arabian/ Persian Gulf (Figure 1).

REFERENCES REPORTS: ENVIRONMENTAL

Ramezanianpour, M. and Sivakumar, M. (2014) “An analytical flux decline model for membrane distillation.” Desalination. 345, P. 1-12.

RESEARCH

Sivakumar, M., Ramezanianpour. M. and O’Halloran. G. (2015) “Brackish water treatment and reuse using vacuum membrane distillation system.” Water Science & Technology: Water Supply. 15 (2) P. 362-369. Ramezanianpour, M., Sivakumar, M. and Stojanovskia, A. G. (2017) “Grey water treatment using a solar powered electrocoagulator and vacuum membrane distillation system” Desalination and Water Treatment. 85, P. 46–54.

Figure 1. Figure 1: Shatt Al-Arab mouth map has modified (Al-Saadi et al., 1977) showing the effect of freshwater discharge on the estuary. Shat Al Arab channel is formed by the confluence of three rivers (Tigris, Euphrates, Karun Rivers) see figure (1). Tidal currents and waves are minor in the Shatt Al-Arab channel (Albadran, 2004) and suspended load and sediment produced from dredging affect the shape of Shatt Al-Arab delta. The semidiurnal tidal system is controlled on the This estuary has characterized as a mixing tide (Al-Ramadhan and Pastour, 1987). the high value of current water, around 0.7 m/sec, and intrusion of marine water have made the stratification phenomenon on the water column. (Al-Mahdi and Abdullah, 1996; Al-Ramadhan and Pastour, 1987) that was presenting how the Shatt Al-Arab effected in the estuary of water quality to appeared the fresh water, the depth is variation between 10 to 15 meters at flood tide and the width around 550 meters at faw port, the tide can be classified as mixed class of diurnal and semidiurnal the later is predominantly, the tide range between (2-3) meters along the shoreline. (A.A and Abdullah, 1999; Al-Ramadhan and Pastour, 1987).

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AIM OF STUDY Prediction of the impact of interventions in the coastal system can be used to determine the amount of fresh water that needs to be released to counterbalance saltwater intrusion and sediment distributions. Human interference in coastal zone dynamics can be described and predicted as a result of, for instance, upstream freshwater abstraction, dredging or sea-level rise. In describing the interactions between tide, topography, water quality, river discharge and sediment characteristics, the model will provide useful information for governmental agencies, hydraulic engineers, morphologists, ecologists, and people concerned with water resources.

SIGNIFICANCE The water resources in the Mesopotamian Basin play important role in the economy and ecological systems in the northern Arabian Gulf. Using modern technology such simulation module like Mike21 could create enough understanding the damage of the water resource, and how to make the decision in order to save the environment.

B- Water classification and the shifting in geomorphology sitting in Shatt Al-Arab estuary.

CONCLUSION Shatt Al-Arab channel is the main freshwater resource to the Arabian/Persian Gulf (APG). The new situation could be different to dynamic the marine water to upstream the channel and be threatening the fresh water supply to Basra city that depends on this water as the source of living demands. The dynamics of salt intrusion are important from the environment and economic points of view although bathymetry and climatology. This intrusion could be affected from the estuary to the upstream the channel by the transformation of the river scheme towards the south of Iraq so the corresponding impact should be carefully assessed. This would be an essential risk assessment of water management and decision maker to make a plan how to prevent the fresh water destroyed in this area.

REFERENCES

RESEARCH

REPORTS: ENVIRONMENTAL

METHODOLOGY

A.A, A.-M. & Abdullah, S. S. 1999. some aspects of the tidal currents in the shatt Al-Arab estuary, south of Iraq. Marine measopotamica, 14, 323-337.

1 Fieldwork including the hydrodynamic measurement such as discharge and tide level. In addition, a sampling of water and sediments.

Al-Mahdi, A. & Abdullah, S. 1996. Tidal phase influence on salinity distribution in the Shatt Al-Arab Estuary. North West Arabian Gulf. Marina mesopotamica, 11, 229-241.

2 Labe work made to measure the salinity of water and suspend load with grain size analysis to the sediment sample.

Al-Ramadhan, B. & Pastour, M. 1987. Tidal characteristics of Shatt Al-Arab River. Marina Mesopotamica, 2, 15-28.

3 Modeling: MIKE 21, a hydrodynamic and water quality model is using to simulate different scenarios that compare the variation of the discharge values at the upstream of the estuary and a tide energy. The hydrodynamic module simulates water level variation and flows, as well, in sediment transport, module describes the deposition, erosion and transport under the action of currents and waves.

Al-Saadi, H. A., Saad, M. A., Hadi, R. A. & Hussain, N. A. Further investigations on some environmental characteristics of northwest Arab Gulf. In: University, B., ed. Proc. Indian Nat. Sci. Acad. Part A, 1977. 183-192. Albadran, B. N. 2004. Delta of River Shatt Al-Arab, South of Iraq. (Sedimentological study). Marine Mesopatamica, 19, 311-322. Russell, R. J. 1967. Origins of estuaries.

PRIMARY FINDING OF THE STUDY The primary results of the study have presented the damages which were expecting through making the field work and sampling. Essentially, for the short-term monitoring can see in figure 2, how much is reshaped on the river mouth. There are two important factors have seen the significant changes. First, the water quality that takes the intrusion of marine water to the upstream of the Shatt Al-Arab channel. Second, the geomorphological scheme which involves the shifting of the navigation channel within the political border between Iraq and Iran as a result of this deformation.

Figure (2): A- Water classification distribution of study area and geomorphological distribution of Shatt Al-Arab in 1971.

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PARADIGM SHIFT IN WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT FOR COASTAL/INLAND REGIONS ACROSS THE WORLD

water shortage crisis, especially after construction of ThreeGorges dam, the largest dam in the world.

Key researchers: Shu-Qing Yang, Muttucumaru Sivakumar, Keith Enever Partners: G&P Water/Maritime, Malaysia, Changsha Univ. of Sci. & Tech., Indian Institute of Science etc.

INTRODUCTION Water is a scarce resource and is often linked to poverty, hunger, climate change and political issues. There is an ever increasing demand on freshwater sources worldwide due to population growth, urbanisation and industrialisation. This problem is further intensified by the increase in production and consumption patterns and by 2050 the global water demand is set to increase by 55%. (UN-WWAP, 2017). By 2025, it is estimated two-thirds of the world population will face water scarcity (Neno, 2012). In order to combat this shortage, many innovative ideas/methods have been proposed and tested, including: i) more desalination plants for coastal cities;

Fig. 1, The Yangtze River and its relative position of Dongting Lake. The interaction of the Dongting Lake and Yangtze River as well as the conceptual design using SPP strategy is shown in Fig. 2, where the lake is represented by a circle and flow direction in the existing waterways is represented by arrows. To apply the SPP strategy, only an inner dike with sluice gates is needed, thus a bypass canal is formed inside the lake (Yang 2004, 2013).

ii) wastewater recycling and reuse for coastal/inland cities;

v) demand management. Practices across the world show that all these strategies have their own limitations, and cannot provide sufficient high quality water to meet the world’s water demand economically. The basic assumption used for the above strategies is that the world is short of water. By analysing the global water data, CME’s Water Engineering group discovers that the world now only uses 4~6% of its runoff, most of the remainder is floodwater that cannot be captured. We propose two ways to harvest floodwater for coastal/inland cities in a safe, economic and sustainable way: 1) SPP (Separation, Protection and Prevention) strategy for inland regions to harness its floodwater. 2) Coastal reservoirs for coastal regions to harvest floodwater in the sea without seawater desalination.

Fig. 2, Simplified river systems of Dongting Lake and its SPP layout. Every year, before the wet season (March-Sept.), the central water body is lowered to a design level, and all gates are closed in the wet season except disastrous flood as shown in Fig. 3, when the gates are open for flood detention, i.e., highlighted in red. The detail analysis shows that SPP strategy can also reduce sedimentation rate by 90%, protect the wetland and good quality water from external pollution.

Once the floodwater is harnessed by these two strategies, we may conclude that our shortage is not water, but storage, i.e., the world is not running out of water, but water is running out of the world.

SPP STRATEGY FOR FLOODWATER DEVELOPMENT IN INLAND REGIONS For inland regions, there are natural lakes, artificial dams and temporal floodwater detention pools, these jointly mitigate flood disasters in inland regions in an effective way, but little attention has been paid for water resources development for converting floodwater into a water resource. Our research shows that once SPP strategy is applied to natural lakes, the following purposes can be achieved: 1) the flood disasters on inland regions can be significantly mitigated; 2) the floodwater in wet seasons can be effectively converted to water resources in dry seasons. As an example, we investigated the application of the SPP strategy to the Dongting Lake in the middle reach of Yangtze River, the third largest river in the world, and the lake was once China’s largest lake as shown in Fig. 1. In wet seasons, this region is threatened by flood disasters. In dry seasons, this lake has

Fig. 3, the lake’s effective storage is used to store disastrous floodwater (in red), which can be used in dry periods. Our research has also attracted Chinese government’s attention, and a research Center has been founded in Changsha Univ. of Science and Tech. (CUST). This strategy is also applicable in other places in the world.

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iv) rainwater tanks for coastal/inland cities;

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iii) more inland dams for inland cities;


COASTAL RESERVOIRS FOR FLOODWATER DEVELOPMENT IN COASTAL REGIONS

Parameter

Inland Reservoir

1st gener. CR

2nd gener. CR

A coastal reservoir could be simply defined as a freshwater reservoir inside seawater, which could be classified into various categories, in terms of location, barrage, water quality or utilizing purposes. The first generation coastal reservoirs can be found from many places in the world, i.e., Australia, Netherlands, Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and China, these reservoirs just simply enclose a river’s mouth using barrages and form a concave water body. Its shortcomings include:

Water quality

Good (virgin catchment)

Poor (store all contaminants)

Good (only collect clean water)

Water level

>10m above sea level

near sea level

near sea level

Dam alignment

90o with flow direction

90o with flow direction

0o with flow direction

Dam-site

Limited in gorges

Limited in estuaries

Unlimited

Dam design

High pressure, concrete, earth/rock

wave/ tidal surge, concrete, earth/rock.

wave/tidal surge, with/ without soft dam.

Dam length

Short

Short

Long

Environ. impacts

High

Median

Low

Seepage

By pressure difference

By density difference

By density difference

Pollutant

Land lased

Land-based + seawater

Land-based + seawater

displacement cost

High

No

No

Water supply

By gravity

By pump

By pump

100%

100%

1) High construction cost using concrete; 2) Poor water quality which may result in the failure for water supply like Sihwa Lake in South Korea and Alexandrina Lake in Australia. 3) Very high environmental/social impacts as the barrages cut off the connections of sediment, fish and navigation routes between the river and the sea. A 2nd generation coastal reservoirs have been proposed as shown in Fig. 4 where the convex freshwater body is located in the sea with bypass channel (BPC) for unwanted water (i.e., polluted water).

RESEARCH

REPORTS: ENVIRONMENTAL

Water from % 10~50% of catchment. Figure 4, Coastal reservoirs without sealing river mouth. We believe that the second generation of coastal reservoirs could be environmental friendly, socially acceptable, technically feasible and cost-effective, because: 1) The coastal reservoir can select good quality river water to store, thus its water quality could be comparable with those inland dams; 2) The storage capacity can match the water demand exactly (i.e., not too big, or too small);

CONCLUSIONS Our world is facing water shortage crisis which is going to be worsened in the near future. But this crisis is solvable if the floodwater can be developed in a safe and sustainable manner by means of SPP and costal reservoirs. The CCRR intends to make a significant contribution in the worldwide development of floodwater.

REFERENCES

3) The river mouth generally is not fully closed, thus sediment, nutrients, fish and ships can move towards upstream or downstream, without interruption.

WWAP 2015. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2015: Water for a Sustainable World. Paris, UNESCO.

The comparison of different storage methods is shown in Table 1. Our research in coastal reservoirs has resulted in the establishment of International Association for Coastal Reservoir Research and UOW’s Centre for Coastal Reservoir Research (CCRR).

Yang S.Q. (2004), “A method of increasing the storage capacity of lake for flooding control”, Patent No.: 03130017.0 (in China).

Table 1. Difference between Inland Reservoirs and Coastal Reservoirs.

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Neno, S 2012, ‘World Water Day: A global awareness campaign to tackle the water crisis’, Biotechnology Journal, vol. 7, no. 4.

Yang S.Q. (2013). “Innovative Solutions for Yangtze River’s Water Crisis”. Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

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TURBULENT STRUCTURES AND DRAG FORCE IN VEGETATED OPEN CHANNEL FLOWS UNDER DIFFERENT VEGETATION CONFIGURATIONS Key researchers: Muttucumaru Sivakumar, Shuqing Yang, Keith Enever, Nadeeka S Miguntanna, Funding Sources: Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship

INTRODUCTION Figure 1: Different types of artificial vegetation The LDV is an advanced non-intrusive flow measurement technique to obtain the velocity and turbulent structure of vegetated open channel. In addition, a Kistler 3-component force sensor is being used to measure the drag force induced by vegetation in each vegetation configuration. The experimental procedure mainly consists of two stages. Stage 1 act as a calibration stage for the flume system and respective measuring instruments. This stage has been successfully completed. Stage 2 experiments have now commenced with different vegetation configurations.

The longitudinal velocity profiles were obtained in different cross sections using LDV to ensure uniform flow conditions are established. (Example: Figure 2).

RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE Understanding of flow characteristics in vegetated open channel flows would provide valuable scientific means to assess the impacts of vegetation on open channel flows. This challenging task is directly tackled by combining theoretical knowledge together with both laboratory and analytical investigations to examine flows over and through vegetation. Such knowledge is indispensable to provide scientifically based tools that will underpin eco-hydraulics design considerations which in turn facilitate healthy and comfortable living to all living species.

LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS This research project is primarily based on a series of laboratory investigations which is being conducted to examine the effect of different vegetation configurations on flow characteristics of open channel flow. The experimental study is being conducted under controlled laboratory conditions in the Fluids Mechanics Laboratory at University of Wollongong. The main experimental facilities which used are: Laboratory flume system; Artificial Vegetation configurations; a 2D Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDV) system; and Kistler Force Sensor. The experiments are being conducted under fully developed uniform flow conditions. The data collection in this research study has been mainly based on artificial vegetation, for which cylindrical rods will be used (Figure 1). The suitability of rigid cylindrical rods to simulate the vegetation is well described in research literature. In this study three different diameters (namely 6.35 mm, 12.70 mm, and 19.05 mm) of rods in two different heights (namely 200 mm and 100 mm) will be used in staggered and in-line configurations.

Figure 2: Longitudinal profiles at Q-0.020 m3/s; H-105 mm The streamwise velocity profiles, turbulent intensities, and Reynolds shear stresses were obtained using smooth uniform open channel flow. The non-dimensional data plot (Figure 3) fits well with the classical log profile and confirms that the entire flume-flow system works properly and hence can be used for Stage 2 experiments with confidence.

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PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTS-CONFIRMATION OF THE VALIDITY OF THE FLUME SYSTEM

REPORTS: ENVIRONMENTAL

Vegetated open channels play an important role in the sustainable environmental management of urban and periurban systems. Consequently, eco-hydraulics has become an emerging field which mostly addresses sustainable environmental water management techniques. As such, use of eco-hydraulics concepts in river management, river restoration, designing of green channels, and environmental flood management has been greatly emphasised. Hence, there is no doubt that understanding of hydraulics of vegetated open channel flows is paramount in developing sustainable environmental strategies. Once open channels are vegetated, the vegetation-induced drag increases the resistance and reduces the flow discharge in the channels. The reduction in the mean velocity exerts significant changes on physical and biological processes in aquatic environments, and also leads to geo-morphological changes of the floodplain. This explains why most previous works on river hydrodynamics and mechanics of vegetated flows focused on the evaluation of flow structures and resistance (Nepf and Vivoni 2000,Nezu and Sanjou 2008). However, understanding of turbulent flow characteristics of vegetated channels is still limited which severely impedes the efficiency and efficacy of sustainable channel restoration and flood management.


Figure 5: Dynamic drag force for nine rods for H-105 mm

SUMMARY Figure 3: Log law analysis with regards to several aspect ratios

EXPERIMENTS WITH SINGLE ROD- TURBULENT STRUCTURE

RESEARCH

REPORTS: ENVIRONMENTAL

Initially experiments with single rod have been conducted to understand the simplest structure of turbulence and drag induced by vegetation. Firstly the turbulent structure was measured in three locations, which are upstream of the rod, downstream of the rod and in front of the rod. Experiments were conducted to depict both emergent and submerged conditions. It was found that as expected downstream of the rod is most affected (Figure 4). It can be seen that flow velocities inside the canopy are small compared to those above the vegetation. There is a sudden change in the shape of the velocity profile near the top edge of vegetation.

The innovative aspect of this research work consists of a detailed evaluation of velocity profiles and turbulent structures by analysing wake turbulence and eddy formation under different vegetation configurations. A clear mechanism to understand form drag and its interactions with skin friction will be established. An analytical model of velocity and turbulent structure in vegetated open channel flow will be developed and compared with measured data. Both theoretical and experimental studies will help engineers to better understand vegetated open channel flows and assist in sustainable design of channels and flood plains.

REFERENCES Nepf, H. and E. Vivoni (2000). “Flow structure in depth-limited, vegetated flow.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans (1978– 2012) 105(C12): 28547-28557. Nezu, I. and M. Sanjou (2008). “Turburence structure and coherent motion in vegetated canopy open-channel flows.” Journal of hydro-environment research 2(2): 62-90.

Figure 4: Streamwise velocity profiles downstream of the rod

MEASUREMENT OF DRAG FORCE Drag force measurement was carried out for four different rod configurations namely single rod, nine rods (linear), five rods (linear) and five rods (staggered), only in the emergent conditions. The drag forces were measured in both stream wise and span wise directions (Figure 5). Since, the load cell has a drift in its original development specifically for the small loads, special attention was given to correct the drift in every set of measurements.

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EFFICIENT DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM & GIARDIA IN ENVIRONMENTAL WATER SAMPLES BY LAMP

Giardia cysts were detected by EF1-a primers recognizing G. duodenalis assemblages A & B (Ref 4). A typical amplification gel is shown below:

Key researchers: Dr. Frhat M.A. Saaed, and Prof. Jerry E. Ongerth

INTRODUCTION

Nucleic acid amplification using dual primer sets that provide exquisite sensitivity without interfer- ence and Bst polymerase for amplification at room temperature without thermos-cycling

The experimental program began by testing all individual steps in the LDD analytical sequence. DNA was isolated from fresh purified oocysts of Cryptosporidium and from fresh purified cysts of Giardia, both obtained from local bovine sources. LAMP primers were applied and shown to detect DNA of both organisms. Subsequently, LAMP was shown to detect DNA from freeze-thawed purified oocysts and cysts alone and when combined. LAMP was able to reproducibly detect DNA of single oocysts and single cysts seeded to 10L surface water samples when applied to supernatant of freeze-thawed pellets. Direct detection of Cryptosporidium DNA using SAM-1 LAMP and of Giardia DNA using EF1-a LAMP in freeze-thawed pellets of 5 x 10L surface water samples was shown against seeded positive controls & MilliQ water negative control. LAMP results correspond directly to IMS-based analysis.

CONCLUSIONS

RESEARCH

LAMP PRINCIPLES

LAMP DIRECT DETECTION APPLICATION RESULTS

Simplified 2-step LAMP-based simultaneous detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in freeze-thawed pellets from filtered water samples is technically feasible. Results correspond to analytical results obtained from the same samples analyzed by Method 1623. Quantitative Cryptosporidium and Giardia analysis of water samples using RT-LAMP analysis appears possible.

REFERENCES 1. Karanis et al, 2007. Appl Environ Microbiol. 73 (9) No. 17, 5660-5662

EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH LAMP Direct Detection (LDD) was compared to USEPA Method 1623 analysis of both control and environmental samples. The LDD scheme was: Filter to pellet->freeze-thaw>LAMP; Method 1623 requires: Filter->pellet->IMS->IFA/ Microscopy.

2. Bakheit et al 2008. Vet. Parasitol., 158(1-2):11-22. 3. Karanis & Ongerth, 2009. Trends Parasitol. 25(11):498-99. 4. Plutzer & Karanis, 2000. Parasitol Res 104:1527â&#x20AC;&#x201C;1533 5. Eiken Chemical, 2015. LAMP webpage inserts http:// loopamp.eiken.co.jp/e/lamp/

METHODS AND MATERIALS Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by SAM-1 primers recognizing C. parvum, C. hominis, & C. meleagradis (Ref. 2).

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

REPORTS: ENVIRONMENTAL

Application of LAMP, loop mediated isothermal amplification, was demonstrated to efficiently detect single Cryptosporidium and Giardia in 10 L water samples collected from the environment. LAMP has advantages that allow simplified and improved monitoring of these protozoan cysts. LAMP is nucleic acid amplification using a strand extension Bst polymerase active at constant temperature avoiding thermo-cycling. Dual primer sets provide an exceptional degree of specificity and selectivity and freedom from matrix interference. Previous work has demonstrated the efficient independent detection of Cryptosporidium and of Giardia in samples containing extraneous organisms showing the lack of interference from non target DNA. This project confirmed ability of LAMP to detect single Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts simultaneously in unsegregated crude pellets filtered from 10L surface water samples. LAMP results corresponded directly to 1623 identical sample analysis results.

113


CME EXTERNAL FUNDING SUMMARY--2015, 2016, 2017

RESEARCH

EXTERNAL FUNDING

Year

Grant Scheme

Amount Grant Title Recv

All CME Investigators

2015

Centres of Excellence

$221,130

Indraratna, Buddhima

2015

Discovery Projects

$130,682 Evaluation of densification and degradation of ballast under cyclic train loading

Indraratna, Buddhima; Rujikiatkamjorn, Cholachat

2015

Discovery Projects

$90,469

Novel high retention membrane bioreactors for sustainable water reuse: Process performance and optimization

Nghiem, Long; Hai, Faisal

2015

Linkage Projects

$40,206

Cyclic behaviour of unstable soils stabilised by Lignosulfonate with special reference to rapid transport infrastructure

Indraratna, Buddhima; Rujikiatkamjorn, Cholachat; Jayan Sylaja, Vinod

2015

Linkage Projects

$29,219

The role of vegetation and associated root suction and reinforcement on the stabilisation of transport corridors and sloping ground

Indraratna, Buddhima; Rujikiatkamjorn, Cholachat; Jayan Sylaja, Vinod

2015

Linkage Projects

$108,902 Load-displacement and consolidation behaviour of soft soils stabilized by stone columns for transport infrastructure

Indraratna, Buddhima; Rujikiatkamjorn, Cholachat; Guo, Wei-Dong; Kelly, Richard

2015

Linkage Projects

$177,456

Performance of Soft Clay Consolidated by Biodegradable and Geosynthetic Vertical Drains under Vacuum Pressure for Transport Infrastructure

Indraratna, Buddhima; Rujikiatkamjorn, Cholachat; Kelly, Richard

2015

Linkage Projects

$86,522

Analytics to predict anaerobic codigestion & downstream process performance

Nghiem, Long

2015

Discovery Early Career Researcher Award (DECRA)

2015

ARC Centre of Excellence for Geotechnical Science and Engineering

$136,808 Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP)-Confined Concrete-Encased Steel Composite Columns

Yu, Tao

Industrial Transformation Research Hubs

$992,045 The Australian Steel Manufacturing Research Hub

Teh, Lip

2015

Innovation and Development Program

$53,000

McCarthy, Timothy

2015

Grant

2015

Integrating Indigenous student support through Indigenous perspectives embedded in engineering curricula

$389,600 Shear testing of the major Australian cable types under different pretension loads

Aziz, Najdat

Round 4

$45,000

Extraction of water and minerals from coal seam gas produced water for beneficial use

Nghiem, Long

2015

Grant

$11,181

C21011 New Testing Procedure for the assessment of resin performance for improved encapsulated roof bolt installation

Aziz, Najdat; Nemcik, Jan

2015

Grant

$153,954 Polymer based alternative to steel mesh for coal mine strata reinforcement and confinement (ToughSkin)

Porter, Ian; Baafi, Ernest; Nemcik, Jan

2015

Grant

$100,000 Field trials of nitrogen injection into UIS directional boreholes to enhance gas drainage in low permeable seams

Ren, Ting; Remennikov, Alexander; Nemcik, Jan; Nemcik, Jan; Wang, Zhongwei

2015

Research Consulting

$16,000

Computer Simulated Blast Modelling

Remennikov, Alexander

2015

Linkage Projects

$15,000

The role of vegetation and associated root suction and reinforcement on the stabilisation of transport corridors and sloping ground

Indraratna, Buddhima; Rujikiatkamjorn, Cholachat; Jayan Sylaja, Vinod

2015

Research Consulting $100,000 Analytics to predict anaerobic co-digestion & downstream mental health: 1952-1995

Nghiem, Long

2015

Research Consulting

$96,000

2015-2020 RMS Landslide Research Partnership

Flentje, Phillip

2015

Research Consulting

$5,500

Tech Voucher Biological H2S Scrubber

Nghiem, Long

114

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


Amount Grant Title Recv

All CME Investigators

2015

Linkage Projects

$20,000

The role of vegetation and associated root suction and reinforcement on the stabilisation of transport corridors and sloping ground

Indraratna, Buddhima; Rujikiatkamjorn, Cholachat; Jayan Sylaja, Vinod

2015

Research Consulting

$20,000

No title found

Baafi, Ernest

2015

Research Consulting

$30,000

Biosolids Volume reduction and Conveyance Research

Nghiem, Long; Hai, Faisal

2015

Research Consulting

-$10,909

Antistatic Stage 1

Porter, Ian

2015

Research Consulting

$2,250

Tech Voucher Biological H2S Scrubber AustL’Stockex Pty Ltd

Nghiem, Long

2015

Research Consulting

$10,000

Strategic research Partnership Geomechanical performance of an integrated rubber tyre-grav

Indraratna, Buddhima

2015

Research Consulting

$32,500

Australian Parliament House Security Upgrade Group 2 works Blast Consultancy services

Remennikov, Alexander

2015

Research Consulting

$60,000

Development & Support of a predictive animated 3D roadway development simulation system

Baafi, Ernest

2015

Centres of Excellence

2015

Grant

2015

Linkage Projects

2015

$100,000 ARC Centre of Excellence for Geotechnical Science and Engineering

Indraratna, Buddhima

$137,512

Porter, Ian; Baafi, Ernest; Nemcik, Jan

Polymer based alternative to steel mesh for coal mine strata reinforcement and confinement (ToughSkin)

-$20,000 The role of vegetation and associated root suction and reinforcement on the stabilisation of transport corridors and sloping ground

Indraratna, Buddhima; Rujikiatkamjorn, Cholachat; Jayan Sylaja, Vinod

Research Consulting

$15,000

Load-displacement & consolidat behaviour of soft soils stabil by stone columns for tranport

Indraratna, Buddhima

2015

Research Consulting

$20,000

Load-displacement & consolidat behaviour of soft soils stabil by stone columns for tranport

Indraratna, Buddhima

2015

Research Consulting

$20,000

Performance of soft clay conso lidated by biodegradable & Geo synthetic vertical drains unde

Indraratna, Buddhima

2015

Research Consulting

$20,000

Performance of soft clay conso lidated by biodegradable & Geo synthetic vertical drains unde

Indraratna, Buddhima

2015

Research Consulting

$15,000

Performance of soft clay conso lidated by biodegradable & Geo synthetic vertical drains unde

Indraratna, Buddhima

2015

Research Consulting

$40,909

Computational Fluid dynamics (CFD) Modelling of dust flow in LTCC face-Broadmeadow Mine

Ren, Ting

2015

Research Consulting

$37,500

Innovation in priority problem wastes. Performance of REAL for railroad stability

Indraratna, Buddhima

2015

Research Consulting

$10,000

Innovation in priority problem wastes. Performance of REAL for railroad stability

Indraratna, Buddhima

2015

Research Consulting

$12,500

Innovation in priority problem wastes. Performance of REAL for railroad stability

Indraratna, Buddhima

2015

Research Consulting

$40,000

Performance of soft clay conso lidated by biodegradable & Geo synthetic vertical drains unde

Indraratna, Buddhima

2015

Research Consulting

$90,000

Key technologies for the preve ntion & control of fires in co al mines extracting multiple s

Ren, Ting

2015

Research Consulting

$40,000

Computational modelling and field studies of dust problems at Jincheng coal mine

Ren, Ting

2015

Total

$3,590,503

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

RESEARCH

Grant Scheme

EXTERNAL FUNDING

Year

115


Year

Grant Scheme

RESEARCH

EXTERNAL FUNDING

Amount Grant Title Recv

All CME Investigators

2016

Research Consulting

$20,987

Grasstree coal burst geotechnical risk analysis framework for 910MG case study

Calleja, Justine

2016

Industrial Transformation Research Hubs

$45,000

The Australian Steel Manufacturing Research Hub

Teh, Lip

2016

Grant

$187,323 Polymer based alternative to steel mesh for coal mine strata reinforcement and confinement (Tough Skin)

Porter, Ian; Baafi, Ernest; Nemcik, Jan

2016

Industrial Transformation Research Hubs

$560,077 The Australian Steel Manufacturing Research Hub

Teh, Lip

2016

Research Consulting

$4,900

Review of dust control system as currently designed for longwall equipment by caterpillar

Ren, Ting

2016

Research Consulting

$40,000

Key technologies for the prevention & control of fires in co al mines extracting multiple s

Ren, Ting

2016

Linkage Projects

$50,000

Performance of Soft Clay Consolidated by Biodegradable and Geosynthetic Vertical Drains under Vacuum Pressure for Transport Infrastructure

Indraratna, Buddhima; Rujikiatkamjorn, Cholachat; Kelly, Richard

2016

Research Consulting

$5,991

Investigation of structural stability of basketball frames at selected NSW schools

Remennikov, Alexander

2016

Round 4

-$542

Extraction of water and minerals from coal seam gas produced water for beneficial use

Nghiem, Long

2016

$96,000

2015-2020 RMS Landslide Research Partnership

Flentje, Phillip

2016

Linkage Projects

$55,376

Load-displacement and consolidation behaviour of soft soils stabilized by stone columns for transport infrastructure

Indraratna, Buddhima; Rujikiatkamjorn, Cholachat; Guo, Wei-Dong; Kelly, Richard

2016

Research Consulting

$51,500

Australian Parliament House Security Upgrade Group 2 works Blast Consultancy services

Remennikov, Alexander

2016

Research Consulting

$8,125

Australian Parliament House Security Upgrade Group 2 works Blast Consultancy services

Remennikov, Alexander

2016

Research Consulting

$10,000

MND Research

Aziz, Najdat

2016

Research Consulting

$45,000

Subsurface Drainage and Vacuum preloading technique to improve soft soil stability under High

Indraratna, Buddhima

2016

Linkage Projects

$76,275

Performance of granular matrix under heavy haul cyclic loading

Indraratna, Buddhima; Rujikiatkamjorn, Cholachat; Ribeiro Heitor, Ana Paula

2016

Linkage Projects

$15,000

Performance of Soft Clay Consolidated by Biodegradable and Geosynthetic Vertical Drains under Vacuum Pressure for Transport Infrastructure

Indraratna, Buddhima; Rujikiatkamjorn, Cholachat; Kelly, Richard

2016

Research Consulting

$13,000

Assessment of bracing effects of Strong build internal wall panels

McCarthy, Timothy

2016

Research Consulting

$14,792

“Project 3.22 Joining, repair &functionally graded materialsFY2016-17”

Kelly, Richard

2016

Linkage Projects

$20,000

Performance of Soft Clay Consolidated by Biodegradable and Geosynthetic Vertical Drains under Vacuum Pressure for Transport Infrastructure

Indraratna, Buddhima; Rujikiatkamjorn, Cholachat; Kelly, Richard

2016

Research Consulting 

$24,000

NCX - Shear Bolt Testing-Concrete Casting

Aziz, Najdat

2016

Research Consulting 

$20,000

Computational modelling of an 8.8m total extraction longwall coal face in china

Ren, Ting

116

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


Amount Grant Title Recv

All CME Investigators

2016

Research Consulting

$24,844

Development of Foamed concrete highway Acounstic Wall panels

McCarthy, Timothy

2016

Linkage Projects

$20,000

Performance of Soft Clay Consolidated by Biodegradable and Geosynthetic Vertical Drains under Vacuum Pressure for Transport Infrastructure

Indraratna, Buddhima; Rujikiatkamjorn, Cholachat; Kelly, Richard

2016

Grant

$34,215

Polymer based alternative to steel mesh for coal mine strata reinforcement and confinement (Tough Skin)

Porter, Ian; Baafi, Ernest; Nemcik, Jan

2016

Innovation in Priority Problem grants programme

$14,500

Performance of rubber-based absorbing layer (REAL) for railroad stability

Indraratna, Buddhima; Rujikiatkamjorn, Cholachat; Ribeiro Heitor, Ana Paula

2016

Research Consulting

$17,100

Site-specific indicators of Cryptosporidium and Giardia

Ongerth, Jerry

2016

Research Consulting 

$53,636

2015-16 Landslide research on Monitoring

Flentje, Phillip

2016

Research Consulting

$53,636

2016-17 Landslide research on Monitoring

Flentje, Phillip

2016

Industrial Transformation Research Hubs

2016

Research Consulting

$9,992

Glycerol addition to digestion at Sydney Water’s Bondi WWTP

Nghiem, Long

2016

Discovery Projects

$97,322

Novel high retention membrane bioreactors for sustainable water reuse: Process performance and optimization

Nghiem, Long; Hai, Faisal

2016

Linkage Projects

$73,120

Analytics to predict anaerobic codigestion & downstream process performance

Nghiem, Long

2016

$994,310 The Australian Steel Manufacturing Research Hub

Centres of Excellence $100,000 ARC Centre of Excellence for Geotechnical Science and Engineering

2016

Grant

2016

Teh, Lip

RESEARCH

Grant Scheme

EXTERNAL FUNDING

Year

Indraratna, Buddhima

$396,600 Shear testing of the major Australian cable types under different pretension loads

Aziz, Najdat

Research Consulting

$70,000

Biosolids Volume reduction and Conveyance Research

Nghiem, Long; Hai, Faisal

2016

Innovation Priority Problem Waste Management

$17,500

Performance of rubber-based absorbing layer (REAL) for railroad stability

Indraratna, Buddhima; Rujikiatkamjorn, Cholachat; Ribeiro Heitor, Ana Paula

2016

Discovery Early Career Researcher Award (DECRA)

$140,397 Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP)-Confined Concrete-Encased Steel Composite Columns

Yu, Tao

2016

Linkage Projects

$164,885 Analytics to predict anaerobic codigestion & downstream process performance

Nghiem, Long

2016

Grant

$168,780 Field trials of nitrogen injection into UIS directional boreholes to enhance gas drainage in low permeable seams

Ren, Ting; Remennikov, Alexander; Nemcik, Jan; Nemcik, Jan; Wang, Zhongwei

2016

Linkage Projects

$177,352 Performance of Soft Clay Consolidated by Biodegradable and Geosynthetic Vertical Drains under Vacuum Pressure for Transport Infrastructure

Indraratna, Buddhima; Rujikiatkamjorn, Cholachat; Kelly, Richard

2016 2016

Centres of Excellence $184,342 ARC Centre of Excellence for Geotechnical Science and Engineering Total

$4,073,712

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

Indraratna, Buddhima

117


Year

Grant Scheme

Amount Recv

Grant Title

All CME Investigators

2017

Australian Industry Research Grants

$208,640

C24012 Shear testing of major Australian cable types under different pretension loads

Aziz Najdat Ibrahim

2017

Research Income

$10,000

Tensile Testing Coal Samples

Aziz Najdat Ibrahim

2017

 Research Consulting

$45,000

C26055 Control and Management of Outburst Risk

Black Dennis John

2017

Australian Industry Contracts

$20,987

Grasstree coalburst geotech- nical risk analysis framework for 910MG case study

Calleja Justine Drew

2017

State Government

$96,000

2015-2020 RMS Landslide Research Partnership

Flentje Phillip Noel

RESEARCH

EXTERNAL FUNDING

2017

Local Government

$53,636

2016-17 Landslide research an Monitoring

Flentje Phillip Noel

2017

State Government

$28,804

Landslide Research Partnership 2016-17 Sydney Train

Flentje Phillip Noel

2017

Research Income

$913

Data Management Agreement Taroona Landslide CRTM station

Flentje Phillip Noel

2017

Research Income

$12,139

Data for Continous Monitoring CRTM at Bulli pass & Mt Ousley

Flentje Phillip Noel

2017

Research Income

$2,000

Provision of a GIS map of the north side of Mt Kiera for re-alignment

Flentje Phillip Noel

2017

Australian Industry Contracts

$5,454

Flying Fish Cove rock fall ris k management project - Subcont ract

Flentje Phillip Noel

2017

State Government

$6,181

Geotechnical advice during con struction of landslide control Barriers on Bulli Pass- STAGE2

Flentje Phillip Noel

2017

Research Income

$22,328

Development and presentation o f a 9 day engineering Geology course

Flentje Phillip Noel

2017

Research Income

$6,695

Field Techniques - Landslide Assessemnt Continuing Professi

Flentje Phillip Noel

2017

Research

$3,000

Pull out test of eight 12mm bars

Hadi Muhammad Najib

2017

Commonwealth Competitive

$124,908

R2.5.1Performance of recycled rubber inclusions for improved stability of railways

Indraratna Buddhima Nalin

2017

Commonwealth Grant

$30,000

Performance of Geogrid stabili sed ballast in Rail Tracks Student # 5780202 Chuhao Liu

Indraratna Buddhima Nalin

2017

Commonwealth Competitive

$18,920

R2.5.2 Geogrids for minimising deformation & degradation un der high frequency cyclic and

Indraratna Buddhima Nalin

2017

Australian Industry Research Grants

$54,000

Innovation in priority problem wastes. Performance of REAL for railroad stability

Indraratna Buddhima Nalin

2017

International Industry Research

$12,500

Innovation in priority problem wastes. Performance of REAL for railroad stability

Indraratna Buddhima Nalin

2017

Commonwealth Competitive

$999,614

IC1701000006 RC Training Centr for Advanced Technologies in Rail Track Infrastructure

Indraratna Buddhima Nalin

2017

Australian Industry Research Grants

$140,000

Performance of granular matrix under heavy haul cyclic loading

Indraratna Buddhima Nalin

2017

Commonwealth Competitive

$85,000

Mud pumping in heavy haul rail roads - assessment and control 2016-19 ACRI

Indraratna Buddhima Nalin

2017

Commonwealth Competitive

$220,000

Performance of granular matrix under heavy haul cyclic loading

Indraratna Buddhima Nalin

2017

Commonwealth Competitive

$112,500

Mud pumping in heavy haul rail roads - assessment and control

Indraratna Buddhima Nalin

2017

Commonwealth Competitive

$307,512

ARC Centre of Excellence for Geotechnical Science and Engin eering - Newcastle Lead

Indraratna Buddhima Nalin

2017

Research Income

$22,500

The role of Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) for treating acid mine drainage at GGC

Indraratna Buddhima Nalin

118

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


Amount Recv

Grant Title

All CME Investigators

2017

Australian Industry Research Grants

$33,828

Evaluating potential static li quefaction of tailings to prev ent failures

Jayan Sylaja Vinod

2017

Australian Industry Research

$13,000

Assessment of bracing effects of Strongbuild internal wall panels

Mccarthy Timothy John

2017

Australian Industry Research

$74,533

Development of Foamed concrete highway Acounstic Wall panels

Mccarthy Timothy John

2017

Non Commonwealth - Competitive

$8,818

Asbestos stabilisation and containment practices

Mccarthy Timothy John

2017

Australian Industry Research

$6,910

Impact Testing of Retail Shop Front Roller Doors

Mccarthy Timothy John

2017

Non Commonwealth - Competitive

$68,580

Modelling of Dynamic Fracture Mechanisms for improved Strata Control C26054

Nemcik Jan Anton

2017

Australian Industry Research Grants

$240,000

Analytics to predict anaerobic codigestion & downstream process performance

Nghiem Long Duc

2017

Research Income

$12,818

96 Rose Valley Road Planning proposalComponents Assessment

Ongerth Jerry E

2017

Australian Industry Research

$8,125

Australian Parliament House Security Upgrade Group 2 works Blast Consultancy services

Remennikov Alexander

2017

Australian Industry Research Grants

$175,000

National Facility for Physical Blast Simulation (NFPBS)

Remennikov Alexander

2017

Australian Industry and Other Research Grants

$34,000

A bio-inspired lightweight composite system for blast and impact protection

Remennikov Alexander

2017

International Industry Research

$100,000

Research & Development of technology & Equipment for the detection of concealed fire

Ren Ting Xiang

2017

Australian Industry Research

$20,000

Stage II - CFD Modelling of a Sudden Gas Outburst Event on a LW development heading

Ren Ting Xiang

2017

Australian Industry Research

$4,900

CFD Modelling of dust and vent ilation - technical advice

Ren Ting Xiang

2017

Australian Industry Research

$10,000

Coal Burst Propensity Testing

Ren Ting Xiang

2017

Commonwealth Competitive

$85,000

ARC Hub for Nanoscien ce-based Construction Material Manufacturing

Yu Tao

2017

Commonwealth Competitive

$101,000

Hybrid Multiple-Tube Concrete Columns w/ Composite Materials

Yu Tao

2017

Research Income

$8,181

Structural Analysis of EzyDeck Composite Slabs

Yu Tao

2017

Funds ACARP Grant

$100,000

Control and Management of Outburst Risk

Dennis Black and Naj Aziz

2017

Total

$3,651,657

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

RESEARCH

Grant Scheme

EXTERNAL FUNDING

Year

119


CME Facilities & Equipment of Special Interest The School of Civil Mining and Environmental Engineering has developed facilities and equipment not always available in comparable University Civil Engineering programs. The following section highlights some of these that enable aspects of teaching and research not possible elsewhere.

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL PHYSICAL BLAST SIMULATION FACILITY The National Facility for Physical Blast Simulation (NFPBS) is a collaboration of eight Australian universities and the Defence Science and Technology Group (DSTG), and funded by the Australian Research Council (ARC) through the ARC-LIEF Grants Scheme. The NFPBS facility forms an essential physical blast testing facility dealing with blast and impact and relevant high strain-rate loading research for Australian researchers. The establishment of a National Facility for Physical Blast Simulation (NFPBS) in Australia adds new capabilities for systematic experimental studies and development of high-performance blast protection technologies. Experimental test capabilities are the foundation for any research program in blast vulnerability and remain the ultimate method for validating blast protection technologies. The NFPBS overcomes challenges associated with live explosive testing i.e. very high cost, safety, efficiency and repeatability of test results. The facility provides for routine high-quality blast experiments to develop concepts of protecting infrastructure, including individual components such as windows, doors, columns, plates and walls, to system models such as bridges, dams, tunnels and buildings, and to models of city or urban environment.

ADVANCED BLAST SIMULATOR

RESEARCH

FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT

The Advanced Blast Simulator design selected for the NFPBS facility replicates the wave-dynamics of an actual free-field explosive blast. The primary components of an advanced blast simulator include a Driver section to initiate a blast wave, followed by a specially shaped Transition Section expanding geometrically then smoothly re-converging focussing the tailored shockwave entering the Test Section where experiments are conducted. The Driver can be dual-mode using compressed gas or gaseous detonation dependent on the required pressure/impulse range. A special End-wave Eliminator (EWE) device is located at the end of the Test Section to prevent effects of reflected shocks on the Test Section and to mitigate noise. The Advanced Blast Simulator is located at the Research Facility of the Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences, UOW in Russell Vale, NSW 6 km from the UOW main campus. The Research Facility is a 3000 m2 warehouse building equipped with two 5 tonne overhead cranes, compressed air and other equipment for conducting experimental work. Figure 1 shows the NFPBS Advanced Blast Simulator installed in the Russell Vale Research Laboratory. Chief Investigatiors: University of Wollongong, A.Prof A. Remennikov Coordinator, with Universities: Sydney, Western Sydney, Western Australia, Newcastle, Melbourne, QUT, & UTS. Partners: Defence Science & Technology Group (DSTG), Australian Deparment of Defence. Funding: ARC LIEF

Figure 1: View of the Advanced Blast Simulator, Russell Vale Research Lab

120

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


GEOMECHANICS AND RAILWAY ENGINEERING NATIONAL FACILITY FOR CYCLIC TESTING OF HIGH-SPEED RAIL (FCTHSR) Frontier technologies in rail transport demand access to state-of-the-art testing facilities for track modelling. Supported by Australian Research Council, university and industry partners, the National Facility for Cyclic Testing of High-Speed Rail (FCTHSR) is internationally a first-of-its-kind and it was designed and built in-house for examining an array of Australian ground conditions and integrated track components. Supported by our years of experience, collaboration and association with rail stakeholders worldwide, this unique facility offers a national and international hub for industry-driven research and consulting. The project outcomes will propel more Railway consultants, suppliers and contractors to be among the world-leaders of rail technologies providing better solutions to challenging track environments. Prototype testing via FCTHSR will ensure safer and cost-effective track designs.

Figure 2. Hydraulic Power Unit of the FCTHSR

The large-scale triaxial apparatus can accommodate specimens 300mm in diameter and 600mm high. The main components of the apparatus are: (i) cylindrical triaxial chamber, (ii) axial loading unit, (iii) cell pressure control unit in combination of air and water pressure, (iv) cell pressure and pore pressure measurement system, (v) axial deformation measuring device, and (vi) volumetric change measurement unit. The change in volume of a specimen during consolidation and drained shearing is measured by a coaxial piston located within a small cylindrical chamber connected to the main cell, in which the piston moves up or down depending on the increase or decrease in volume. A combination of air and water is used to apply confining pressure to the test specimens. Any change in specimen volume during shearing will affect cell water pressure which is minimised by compressed air in the pressure control chamber. Cell pressure can be decreased by opening an exhaust valve and increased by a control valve, which allows compressed air into the pressure control chamber. Vertical load applied via a pump connected to the hydraulic loading unit is measured by a pressure transducer connected to the loading unit. Cell and pore water pressures are measured by two transducers. Vertical deformation of the specimen and movement of the coaxial piston of the volumetric measurement device are measured by two linear variable differential transducers (LVDT).

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

121

RESEARCH

LARGE DYNAMIC TRIAXIAL APPARATUS FOR TESTING RAIL AND ROAD MATERIALS

FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT

Figure 1. Current stage of construction of the FCTHSR (expected commissioning date: January 2018)


PORT AND MARINE LABORATORY The Port and Marine Laboratory has a range of the different apparatus that can be used for testing geomaterials under typical transport infrastructure (e.g. roads, rail, ports and airports) loads and conditions, e.g. cyclic triaxial apparatus (with unsaturated soil testing capability), direct shear apparatus, hollow cylinder apparatus and simple shear apparatus as well as various edometers, Rowe cells and constant rate of strain consolidometers and a microCT-scan to examine the material microstructure.

MINING ENGINEERING IMPROVED DOUBLE SHEAR “NAJ’S BOX”--PURE TENDON SHEAR STRENGTH MEASUREMENT Continuous research and development since 1990 on tendon technology and ground support in mines and excavations by Professor Naj Aziz, has led to a new Double Shear (DS) apparatus for reliable and consistent measurement of pure rebar and cable bolt shear strength allowing more accurate design of ground reinforcement needs in underground structures and in slope and excavation reinforcement. The new apparatus precludes bending at the test site that here-to-fore has required accounting for a tensile component of materials failure. The apparatus features a central shear load cylinder encasing the steel bolt or cable embedded in a host medium such as concrete two split-cylinder support collar clamps on either side. The central cylinder is loaded vertically producing pure shear at the interfaces between the adjacent support-collar sections bolted rigidly to the truss-brace box. The split-cylinder clamps apply uniform confining stress during test loading to prevent radial cracking of the host medium. The double shear assembly is supported by a truss/brace system as shown below. The brace system prevents axial load transfer to host medium as tendons are pre-tensioned and in shear loading. A minimal gap is maintained between prevent contact between the sheared faces and hence eliminate frictional forces. The total shear force used to shear a bolt is therefore spent only on shearing the rebar or cable bolt and no force is spent on overcoming the friction between sheared concrete joint faces.

RESEARCH

FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT

Figure 1. UOW CME Double shear box, post shear loading

Figure 2. Tendon in 500 t compression double shear test

COMPUTERISED ADIABATIC OXIDATION RIG

This in-house designed computerised adiabatic oxidation rig can be used for the testing of heating and spontaneous combustion propensity of different carboniferous materials such as coals. The key component of this rig is an oil heated bath in which a sample canister is immersed in the temperature-controlled oil to mimic a near-adiabatic condition under which the test carboniferous materials can undergo oxidation and heating. Temperature rise is automatically tracked and controlled by the computer for both oil bath and the sample in the canister. A heat ramping mode can also be used to artificially initiate and accelerate a ‘heating’ event in the canister. Gaseous products from the reaction can then be feed into the gas chromatograph or GC for analysis.

EXPRESS - AN 8-CHANNEL AE BOARD & SYSTEM EXPRESS-8 AE system: In current use with high-speed camera to study of dynamic fracturing and failure behaviour of coal and coal measure rocks with general ability to monitor fracture and failure behaviour of coal measure rocks and other structures under static and dynamic loading.

122

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WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING SYSTEMS HYDRAULICS LABORATORY The CME fluid mechanics laboratory in the SMART facility houses sophisticated computer interfaced compressible and incompressible fluid experimentation equipment. Among these are the 30 m wave tank and 25 m open channel flume permitting data collection in conjunction with simulation of high interest topical issues including: coastal processes related to global warming sea level changes; wave-substrate interactions related to wave-energy recovery processes; interactions between hydraulic energy generation recovery process components and native containment structures.

RESEARCH

FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT

The Facilities not only support a wide array of research activities but provide an important element of teaching in the illustration of fluid dynamic processes and the stimulation of innovative thinking among students.

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STRATEGIC WATER INFRASTRUCTURE LABORATORY The CME Environmental Engineering research facilities include the pilot scale unit process and analytical testing laboratories of the Strategic Water Infrastructure Laboratory (SWIL). Research activities are focused on the water-food-energy nexus and climate change effects in conjunction with industry partners including Sydney Water, Water NSW, local municipal agencies and consultants. Key facilities include: membrane process test equipment supporting a wide array of research avenues related to water quality improvement, wastewater reclamation and reuse, novel process applications for membrane and hybrid membrane-biological system processes, waste to energy conversion digesters, solar-membrane vacuum distillation for desalination of brackish and saline systems, and waterborne pathogen monitoring, data analysis and interpretation.

Figure 1: Pilot-scale sludge-to-energy digester and reverse osmosis membrane filtration system

RESEARCH

FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT

Figure 2: Part of the analytical instruments for water quality testing

124

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ENGAGEMENT

Engagement

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CME Engagement 2015-2017 The staff of CME are thoroughly engaged in the pursuit of their University and professional responsibilities. Engagement is reflected in a wide range of activities with a scope of expression among CME staff related to their fields of interest and expertise and to the geographical sphere professional and research activities. Engagement with the professional community is fostered broadened and maintained through graduates of the various CME degree programs. Alumni placed with employers throughout Australia and abroad maintain contact promoting continued engagement of CME staff with the professional community. University of Wollongong and specifically CME contributions to the broad fields of Civil, Mining, and Environmental Engineering derived from the continually expanding publications, presentations, and citations promote expanding international engagement through international contributions of CME staff and through contributions on international visitors to CME Wollongong facilities. Seminars and presentations by both CME staff and international visitors share technological developments with the community at large and promote collaboration. Engagement of CME staff with local and international professional communities is summarized in this section in the following categories including: Alumni News; Visitors & Collaborations; Seminars & Presentations; and Conferences & Workshops.

2007

2009

2011

2013

2015

2016

2017

BE

491

622

741

928

943

872

793

PGR Coursework

82

76

86

124

126

125

139

44

69

75

84

95

141

Doctoral Graduates

6

10

24

13

12

14

Coursework Graduates

42

41

36

37

BE Graduates

120

161

176

135

Active Full-time Students

HDR Degree Completions

ENGAGEMENT 126

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


ALUMNI OF CME PROGRAMS IN THE NEWS Alumni Items 2015

One of our recent PhD graduate Dr Luong Nguyen has received the Best Oral Presentation Award at the Gala dinner of the Challenges in Environmental Science and Engineering conference which was in held Sydney on 30 Sep 2015. Luong’s PhD thesis was supervised by Dr Faisal Hai and Prof Will Price.

2016

Gordon Akauma has been awarded the prestigious AusIMM Education Endowment Fund Scholarship for 2016; Gordon is BE(Mining) and BCom (Finance) third year student. Dr. Ali Mirzaghorbanali, recent Ph.D. awardee of the UOW Mining program under Professors Naj Aziz and Jan Nemcik has been appointed to a permanent academic position in Civil Engineering at The University of South Queensland Dr. Frhat M. A. Saeed, PhD awardee of the UOW Environmental Engineering program under Professor Jerry Ongerth, is now on the Academic Staff of Department of Zoology, College of Arts and Sciences, Benghazi University, Kufra, Libya.

2017

Final year BE Environmental engineering student Daniel Simpson won a Scholarship from Tongji University, China to attend and present a poster paper at International Student Conference on Environment and Sustainability that took place from June 2 to June 7 at Tongji University in Shanghai, China.

Research projects inspire international student to explore how buildings affect people’s lives Dinithi Fernando growing up in Sri Lanka studied civil engineering at UOW graduating in 2017 with a Bachelor of Engineering (First-Class Honours). In addition to learning the technology fundamental to Civil Engnieering she was engaged, among other activities she founded the Sri Lankan Student Society, helping to create a home away from home for the Sri Lankan cohort on campus. She spent two weeks in Jakarta as part of the PetaJakarta research project that uses data harvested from Twitter to map areas of the Indonesian city affected by monsoonal flooding. A summer research project at UOW, working under the direction of Professor Buddhima Indraratna, changed the direction of Dinithi’s study and her eventual career path. Although she was initially interested in structural engineering, the project focused on soil engineering, which captivated her. Dinithi is applying her skills as a civil engineer for a multinational geotechnical engineering firm in Sydney.

ENGAGEMENT

Dan Simpson awarded Robert Hope Memorial Prize for work in sustainability, international projects When Dan Simpson began his studies at the University of Wollongong, he decided to take a simple approach to the opportunities that came his way: he would say yes to each and every one. It was a decision that would prove a success for the Bachelor of Engineering student. For the past five years, Dan’s life has been filled with community work, extracurricular activities, and travel. Dan was awarded UOW’s most prestigious honour for students, the Robert Hope Memorial Prize. The medal celebrates the life and contribution of the University’s founding Chancellor, Robert Hope. It is awarded to a student who demonstrates exceptional academic performance, outstanding leadership, and a significant contribution to the University and/ or the wider community. In his second year of study, Dan joined a team of students and engineers travelling to Indonesia as part of the PetaJakarta project, which used social media to map flooding danger zones in the Indonesian capital. Later, he was part of a team of students studying a pilot subject in Engineering Management in Developing Nations. The subject took the class to a rural community in Rwanda, where they worked with villagers to create and build a water supply system.

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INTERNATIONAL VISITORS 2016

Prof. Jian-Fei Chen from Queen’s University Belfast received the Vice-Chancellor’s Visiting International Scholar Award from the UOW. Prof. Chen will spend two months at Wollongong in 2016, with his UOW collaborators being Dr. Tao Yu, A/Prof. Alex Remennikov and Dr. Shishun Zhang. Based on existing strong international collaborations in the area of infrastructure applications of FRP composites, an International Centre for Composites in Infrastructure (ICCI) has recently established and approved by the Faculty of EIS. The ICCI will be based at UOW and will have key members from UOW, as well as world-renowned experts from five partner institutions (i.e. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Queen’s University Belfast, Tsinghua University, University of Queensland, and Southern Cross University). The ICCI will be organizing international symposiums, workshops and summer schools in this area which facilitate exchanges among academics and convey research findings to industry. Assoc. Professor Shuqing Yang has recently received the Best Suggestion Award from the Shanghai Government to develop clean water from polluted Huangpu River system in Shanghai based on SPP technology. A VC International Scholar Award (VISA) has been awarded to Prof Tao He from the Shanghai Advanced Research Institute to visit CME in 2016. He will be hosted by Prof Long Nghiem. The value of this award is $15K. The Environmental Engineering research group headed by Prof Long Nghiem hosted last September over 50 international delegates who are professors and graduate students for a seminar and technical tour of the UOWENVE research facilities. Most of them are from China, South Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, etc. They are very impressed with our research facility.

ENGAGEMENT

Prof Hirokai Furumai, University of Tokyo Research Center for Water Environment Technology (RECWET) lectured and participated in teaching for two weeks in April at the CME Strategic Water Infrastructure Laboratory, as an EIS Distinguished visitor with A/Prof Faisal Hai as the host. 2017

DISTINGUISHED VISITING PROFESSOR LINMING DOU, CUMT. Distinguished Professor Linming Dou, Director of State Key Laboratory of CUMT, is currently visiting us as a Visiting Professor with a 3-month China Scholarship Council senior scholarship. Distinguished Professor Yuanping Cheng of CUMT, Director of State Mine Gas Control Centre, is currently on a 4-week visit to CME Mining for collaborative research and scholarship activities. Associate Professor Ying Chen, Deputy Head of Mining Engineering Department, Liaoning Technical University of China, is visiting CME-Mining on a 12-month CSC visiting scholarship. Prof. Tao He from the Shanghai Advanced Research Institutes received the Vice-Chancellor’s Visiting International Scholar Award to visit UOW from Aug to Dec 2016 to collaborate with Prof Nghiem. The collaboration has resulted in joint four journal publications between Profs He and Nghiem.

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CME CONFERENCES & WORKSHOPS 2015-2017 INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR COMPOSITES IN INFRASTRUCTURE (ICCI)

CHANGE FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE--THE ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

The International Centre for Composites in Infrastructure (ICCI) was established in 2016 at the University of Wollongong (UOW). The ICCI has the founding support of the following five institutions as its partners: The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Queen’s University Belfast, Tsinghua University, University of Queensland and Southern Cross University. In 2017 the ICCI has three new partners: University of Adelaide, Zhejiang University, Swinburne University of Technology.

In December 2016, Prof Long Nghiem organized and chaired the Workshop--Change for a Sustainable Future. The workshop held in the SMART Infrastructure Building Theatre was attended by Staff, students, and international participants from China, Germany, Korea, the USA, and Viet Nam. The workshop featured a Plenary presentation by Professor Menachem Elimelech of Yale University, with a dozen thought-provoking presentations by CME staff including Professors Sivakumar and Ongerth, and international participants. Lively discussion was prompted by the stimulating presentations, continuing with a work-shop concluding banquet with continuing genial discussion. World renowned plenary speakers addressed the workshop:

Under the leadership of A/Prof Tao Yu, Co-Director (UOW), and Prof Jin-Guang Teng, Co-Director (International), the ICCI has successfully organized international events, including the International Symposium for Emerging Researchers in Composites for Infrastructure (ISERCI) held in July 2017 and the two international summer schools on Composites in Infrastructure (ISSCI) held in July 2016 and July 2017, respectively. The ISERCI symposium included a two-day program with some 40 presentations, and attracted over 70 attendees from six countries, including academics, research students and industry practitioners. In particular, the ISERCI symposium included a special industry session for industry practitioners to share their advances in practice, to generate mutually beneficial discussions and to promote potential future collaborations between researchers and practitioners. The ISSCI summer schools included a three or four-day teaching programme, which provided a comprehensive and thorough treatment of the behaviour, modelling and design of structures incorporating composite materials. The two ISSCI summer schools each attracted around 50 attendees including structural engineers, researchers, industry partners and research students.

VICROADS-ICCI FRP WORKSHOP In conjunction with VicRoads, the International Centre for Composites in Infrastructure (ICCI) at the University of Wollongong organized the joint VicRoads-ICCI FRP Workshop on 9-10 February 2017. Over two very full days, attendees from VicRoads, industry and academia filling the VicRoads Kew Theatre, heard from expert presenters including founding members of the ICCI, Professor Jin Guang Teng (Hong Kong Polytechnic University), Professor Scott Smith (Southern Cross University), Dr. Tao Yu (University of Wollongong) and other local experts from Melbourne such as Professor Wenhui Duan (Director of ARC Nanocomm Hub), Dr. Kesi Sagoe-Crentsil (Deputy Director of ARC Nanocomm Hub), Professor Riadh Al-Mahaidi (Swinburne University of Technology), Professor Xiao Ling Zhao (Monash University), Professor Priyan Mendis (Melbourne University), Associate Professor Yu Bai (Monash University), Dr. Lihai Zhang (Melbourne University) and Dr. YewChin Koay (VicRoads). The packed workshop agenda included presentations on developments in design methodologies for strengthening of bridges with FRP. The workshop was completed successfully and the feedback from the attendees is very positive.

Prof Menachem Elimelech Yale University

Prof Menachem Elimelech -- An expert and long time researcher in membrane processes applied to desalination and water purification. He has received numerous awards for his research and teaching. Notable are the 2015 Eni Prize for ‘Protection of the Environment’, election to the US National Academy of Engineering, and the 2005 Clarke Prize for excellence in water research. Prof Elimelech is a ThomasReuters Highly Cited Researcher in both Chemistry and inn Environment/Ecology. Prof Chung-Hak Lee Seoul National University

ENGAGEMENT

The ICCI aims to develop advanced technologies for the use of composites in infrastructure through international collaborative research, and to engage in the transfer and dissemination of these technologies through specialist consultancy, postgraduate teaching, continuing professional training and development of design codes/guidelines.

Prof Chung-Hak Lee -- Served as chair of the IWA Membrane Technology Specialist Group from 2010 to 2013 and is now IWA Senior Fellow. His passion is development of membranebased innovative water & wastewater technologies. Prof Lee has opened a new horizon in analysis and control of membrane fouling, promoting “quorum quenching” suggesting a link between molecular biology and engineering for membrane bioreactor fouling control.

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WORKSHOP ON LATEST RAILWAY RESEARCH The Centre for Geomechanics and Railway Engineering (CGRE) hosted a Workshop on Latest Railway Research at Wollongong (Australia) on the 14th of April. The workshop aimed to promote transport infrastructure concepts and geotechnical applications in practice with particular reference to railways. The topics covered in the workshop focused on the research developments untaken at the CGRE in relation to performance of rail infrastructure in terms of design, construction and maintenance. The workshop was attended by over 25 industry representatives from numerous institutions involved in rail track design, construction and delivery of railway projects and railway corporations. The presentations throughout the day were well received by an audience of over 40 people.

The Coal Operators’ Conference continues to play a significant role in bringing advanced technologies and industry innovation to the forefront of mining operations. Research findings on best practice, new methodologies and safety improvements are the central focus in discussion and documentation. Research papers are accepted predominately from Australia but also include papers from Canada, China, Czech Republic, Germany, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, New Zealand, Turkey, UK and USA.

2015-2017 MINING CONFERENCES & WORKSHOPS Coal Operators’ Conference The Coal Operators’ Conference has been held annually at the University of Wollongong since 1998. This iconic conference is the longest running conference in the history of the University of Wollongong (UOW) and is specifically dedicated to serving the Australian coal mining industry and the coal mining industry worldwide. The conference is organised by the UOW Mining Engineering Group of the school of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering of the Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences and is supported by the Illawarra Branch of The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (AusIMM) and the Mine Managers Association of Australia. The conference is sponsored by various mining companies, mining related businesses, manufacturing companies and mining services and research organisations. The Coal Operators’ Conference addresses issues related to various aspects of modern coal mining operations, both surface and underground and offers the opportunity for industry experts to share advice and insights in this area. The conference provides an important platform for UOW researchers to showcase and publicise their achievements and research findings to key mining personnel worldwide.

ENGAGEMENT

Since its inception the conference has seen authors presenting papers on a wide variety of topics. The conference organisers have established a register of all research papers presented (http://ro.uow.edu.au/coal). This register provides the industry with the latest on new and current innovations, cutting edge research and developing technologies within different aspects of coal mining operations. These are relevant to safe, economic and efficient mining operations, and contribute to the professional development of mine employees. At present there are in excess of 680 papers listed on the register, and published in 17 proceedings. These papers have attracted over 100,000 downloads to date since going online in 2008. Figure 1 shows the number of papers and conference attendees at the conferences

Dr Jan Nemcik and Professor Naj Aziz with Dr Petr Waclawik and Dr Radovan Kukutsch, from the Institute of Geonics, Ostrava, Czech Republic wearing their traditional mining uniform Coal Operators Conference 2016. 2016 International Workshop on Coal and Rock Burst The conference started with the first day dedicated to an International Workshop on Coal and Rock burst following an increased interest from both academics and industry as a result of the fatal accident in an Australian underground coal mine in NSW. The workshop attracted some the very top researchers and scholars in this area from China, Australia and CZ Republic. The workshop had 10 technical presentations covering aspects of the fundamental science and theory of coal-rock burst as well as the best practices. The workshop was very well attended by over 80 participants, including many engineers and practitioners from industry. Mining Practices – CSC CUMT Undergraduates As part of their studies at UOW, 10 CUMT undergraduates completed their 10 days mining practice field study in January 2017 in Hunter Valley and Gunnedah Basin, NSW. This mining practice study included visits to two underground coal mines (Lake View Colliery, Narrabri Underground) and an open cut mine (Maules Creek). This was the first time that these Chinese students observed the on-site operations of Australian mines. All students spoke highly of this great learning experience. These students have completed their 1-full term (Spring 2016) course studies in Mining Engineering at UOW and returned to China. This was the 3rd consecutive group of CUMT students supported by China Scholarship Council to undertake studies in Mining Engineering at UOW. Mining Engineering Research Workshop We recently organised a 1-day Mining Research Workshop 20 February 2017, Gerringong Australia. The workshop was attended by our Mining HDR PhD students and visiting fellows. The aim of this workshop was to provide an opportunity to our mining HDR students and visiting fellows to present and discuss their research work and ‘brain storming’ for new research ideas.

Figure 1: Number of papers and attendees in each Coal Operators’ Conference

130

We had 4 technical sessions and 14 presentations in this workshop. Each of the participants was required to make a 15 min presentation followed by Q&A. The workshop was organised by our students with each session being chaired by a nominated student. A mini Proceeding containing all the presentations was also produced after the workshop.

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


2016 Green Mining Conference In collaboration with the State Key Lab of Coal Resources and Mining Safety of China University of Mining and Technology (CUMT), the Centre for Infrastructure Protection and Mining Safety hosted the 2016 Green Mining Conference 28-30th November 2016 on the main campus of UOW. The conference was supported by the CONFERENCE SPONSORSHIP PROGRAM - NSW RESEARCH ATTRACTION AND ACCELERATION PROGRAM, the Office of the Chief Scientist & Engineer of NSW Government. 2016 International Workshop on Coal and Rock Burst

the Australian mining universities and research organisations. In addition to the official support from NSW Government, we also received strong and generous support from Chinese Universities (in particular CUMT) and Australian companies. The conference generated total income of $97k to UOW. The Green Mining conference not only provided a forum for scientific research discussion but also an opportunity to promote UOWâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mining engineering program globally. We further consolidated our collaborations with CUMT and other Chinese Universities that are in alignment with UOWâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s international strategy.

The conference started with the first day dedicated to an International Workshop on Coal and Rock burst following an increased interest from both academics and industry as a result of the fatal accident in an Australian underground coal mine in NSW. The workshop attracted some the very top researchers and scholars in this area from China, Australia and CZ Republic. The workshop had 10 technical presentations covering aspects of the fundamental science and theory of coal-rock burst as well as the best practices. The workshop was very well attended by over 80 participants, including many engineers and practitioners from industry.

The 9th International Symposium on Green Mining (9th ISGM)

ENGAGEMENT

The following two days were dedicated to the 9th International Symposium on Green Mining (9th ISGM). This symposium was initiated by CUMT and it was the second time that UOW had the honour to host this conference (UOW hosted the 6th ISGM in 2013). The conference was officially opened by Professor Judy Raper Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research and Innovation) and Professor Shirong Ge, VC and President of CUMT, via teleconference link. The following two days focused on a wide range of topics on Green and Sustainable Mining, such as strata control, backfill methods, water protection, coal mine methane utilisation and mine waste disposal etc. The conference had 20 technical presentations in 8 technical sessions and received over 60 papers published in a conference proceeding. Some 25 papers from this conference will be selected to published in a special issue of International Journal of Mining Science and Technology (https://www.journals.elsevier.com/international-journal-ofmining-science-and-technology) The last day of the conference provided an opportunity for our international delegates to visit a mine site and a power plant utilising methane gas from underground workings. The conference also offered our delegates useful opportunities of networking and Australian cultural immersion experience This Green Mining Conference attracted over 140 delegates from Australia, China and other countries, including delegates from all

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SEMINARS-CIVIL, MINING, & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING 2015-2017

ENGAGEMENT

Date

Presentation Title

Speaker

22 5 2015

Advanced Geotechnical Equipment

Mr. Robin Power TIC Service Group

23 7 2015

Collaboration in action

Mr Sukumar Pathmanandavel Coffey Geotechnics

25 9 2015

Case studies in soft soil engineering and ground improvement

Dr. Richard Kelly SMEC Australia

29 9 2015

Probabilistic slope stability analysis by random fields

Dr Jinsong Huang The University of Newcastle,

9 2 2016

Accurate Estimation of Plastic Deformation of Soil Subjected To Repetitive Loading

Dr Chaminda Gallage Queensland University of Technology

22 2 2016

Modelling Mechanical Response of Cemented GeoComposites

Dr. An Deng University of Adelaide

17 2 2016

Research activities in the Civil Engineering College of Nanjing Tech University

Dr. Yan XIAO Thousand-talent National Expert Professor and Dean College of Civil Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, China

17 3 2016

Research and Development toward Future Intelligent Civil Structures

Prof Jianchun Li Director, Centre for Built Infrastructure Research, UTS

17 3 2016

Ultra-High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete (UHPRFC) Columns and UHPFRC Filed Double-Skin Steel Tubes columns against blasts

Prof. Chongqing Wu University of Technology Sydney, Australia

23 3 2016

Nonlinear response of laterally loaded rigid piles in sliding soil

A/Prof. Wei Dong Guo University of Wollongong, Australia

31 3 2016

Response of Pile subjected to Torsional Loads

Dr. Sudip Basak University of Wollongong,

9 5 2016

Large strain analysis for radial consolidation

Dr. Rui Zhong University of Wollongong,

15 6 2016

Development of Prediction Models in Geotechnical Engineering Using Artificial Neural Networks

Dr. Silvrano Adonias Dantas Neto University of Wollongong,

31 8 2016

Modelling extreme deformation and dynamic behaviour of materials using mesh-less methods

Dr. Raj Das University of Auckland

3 8 2016

The Deformation and Degradation Mechanisms of Railway Ballast under High Frequency Cyclic Loading

Dr Qideng Sun Centre for Geomechanics and Railway Engineering, University of Wollongong,

14 9 2016

Modelling the long-term cyclic behavior of silty-sand stabilised with cement

Prof. António Viana da Fonseca University of Porto (FEUP), Portugal

3 3 2017

Challenge in Geotechnical Engineering for Methane hydrate production in deep sea bed

Prof. Masayuki Hyodo Yamgauchi University

17 5 2017

The Combined Scaled Boundary Finite-Discrete Element Method: Grain Breakage Modelling in Cohesion-less Granular Media

Prof Andrew H. C. Chan University of Tasmania

23 6 2017

Challenges and Solutions toward Natural Prefabricated Vertical Drains; Consolidation Aided by Natural Prefabricated Vertical Drains

Mr. Thanh Trung Nguyen and Ms. Kirti Choudhary, PhD Candidates, CGRE University of Wollongong,

7 7 2017

Ground Improvement Technologies and Practices – work of Geoharbour

Dr Rui Zhong, Geoharbour Australia Pty Ltd

18 7 2017

Advances in FRP Composites for Infrastructure in China

Prof. Peng Feng Tsinghua University, China

20 7 2017

Static Liquefaction under isotropic/K0 consolidated undrained/drained monotonic loading: Experiment, DEM and constitutive modelling

Dr. Md. Mizanur Rahman, Natural and Built Environment Research Centre, University of South Australia

25 8 2017

Consolidation of Unsaturated Soil & Column Supported Embankment

Mr. Linshuang Zhao, PhD Candidate, University of Macau, China

8 9 2017

Groundborne vibration due to railway traffic: prediction, measurement and mitigation

Dr Pedro Alves Costa, University of Porto, Portugal

22 9 2017

A brief Overview of the Geotechnical Challenges as They Impact upon Wollongong

Mr. Peter Tobin, Wollongong City Council

13 10 2017

Soil-Structure Interaction – Some Case Studies

Dr David Zhang, Cardno Pty Ltd,

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IMPACT

Impact

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CME Impact 2015-2017 The impact of collective academic activities can be partially conveyed by summarizing some of what are considered key performance indicators in the modern academic environment. The numbers of students, most importantly of degrees granted, both undergraduate and postgraduate are the highest priority and historically the principal product of every university, Figure 1. In the modern university research is a virtually universal requirement. Research productivity can be quantified in terms of external funding won under highly competitive conditions, in terms of the number of graduated HDR students, in terms of scholarly output quantified first in numbers of publications and ultimately in terms of the number of citations in peer reviewed publication signifying recognition of a publications value to the technology. In addition to measures of research and scholarly output, CME staff are active professionally in both the local and international environment. Notable activities of CME staff are summarized in this section in the following categories: Accomplishments; International Activities; International Collaborations & Visitors; Honours & Awards; and Publications.

Figure 1. Teaching productivity

Figure 2. Research funding

Figure 3. Scholarly output (SciVal)

Figure 4. Citations of CME peer reviewed publications

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Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


CME IMPACT STATISTICS SUMMARY

2007

2009

2011

2013

2015

2016

2017

BE

491

622

741

928

943

872

793

PGR Coursework

82

76

86

124

126

125

139

HDR

44

69

61

84

95

78

298.1

425.4

517.6

587.2

672.8

639.8

695.3

Research Publications

73

86

139

174

251

262

318

Total Research Income

2.30 M

3.15 M

3.59 M

6.39 M

9.80 M

2007

2009

2011

2013

2015

2016

2017

Academic Staff

23

22

22

22

Research Staff

10

19

24

20

10

10

10

10

59

85

75

84

95

78

Postgrad Coursework Students

82

76

86

124

126

125

139

Undergraduates

491

622

741

928

943

872

793

Total EFTSU - all students

Professional & Technical Staff HDR Students

Doctoral Graduates

6

10

24

13

12

14

Coursework Graduates

42

41

36

37

BE Graduates

120

161

176

135

1527

1385

1385

2381

2187

2626

3312

73

86

139

174

251

262

318

Citations by Year

IMPACT

Research Publications refereed

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

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ACCOMPLISHMENTS 2015

Prof Long Nghiem, Dr Faisal Hai and Prof Will Price won the UOW Pitch 2015 competition Encouragement Award last September with a prize money of $1,000 to further their research in “Poop mining”. Distinguished Professor Buddhima Indraratna, A/ Prof Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn and Dr Ana Heitor have been awarded an Environmental Trust (ET) Grant for the project entitled: Performance of Rubber-based Energy Absorbing Layer for railroad stability. The total cash amount for the project is $150,000 with matching funding committed by Ecoflex Ltd. and Tyre Stewardship Association.

2016

Alex Remennikov and Buddhima Indraratna have been awarded a European Union project as international partners for 1.2 million Euros approved for RISEN - Rail Infrastructure Systems Engineering Network. Distinguished Professor Buddhima Indraratna, A/Prof Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn and Dr Ana Heitor have been awarded a Tyre Stewardship Research Grant for the project titled “Performance of recycled rubber inclusions for improved stability of railways”. The total cash amount for the project is $625,000 for 3 years including funding committed by CRC for Rail Manufacturing, Tyre Stewardship Association, and Australasian Centre for Rail Innovation (ACRI) and Enviro Rubber. Under Australian Research Council-Linkage Scheme, Distinguished Prof Indraratna, A/Prof Rujikiatkamjorn and Dr Heitor have secured $875k for the 3-year project on Performance of granular matrix under heavy haul cyclic loading with other 5 Industry partners. Rail Manufacturing-CRC scheme (2016) with Tyre Stewardship Australia , Australian Centre for Rail Innovation, Envirorubber, $550k – 3 years - Indraratna, B., Rujikiatkamjorn, C., Heitor, A. A new technology about ‘A method and system for predicting the response of rigid piles in moving ground’ has provisionally patented (number 2016901124 with IP Australia), inventor: Guo, Wei Dong. The technology is currently being commercialized.

IMPACT

2017

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With the leadership of Distinguish Professor and Center Director Buddhima Indraratna, The Rail Engineering Training Centre is on track with $6 million in funding: the Australian Research Council (ARC) is funding a new training centre at the University of Wollongong (UOW) to equip the next generation of engineers with the knowledge and skills needed to upgrade Australia’s rail network. The Industrial Transformation Training Centre for Advanced Technologies in Rail Track Infrastructure (ITTC-Rail) was given $3.9 million in ARC funding, to go with $1.8 million from Industry Partner Organisations for total funding of close to $6 million. At least 18 PhD students will be trained at the Centre over the four years. The ITTC-Rail is a collaboration between the UOW and eight partner universities: University of Sydney, Swinburne University of Technology, Monash University, University of Queensland, University of Newcastle, Queensland University of Technology, Curtin University and Western Sydney University. Along with Centre Director Professor Indraratna, nine of the ITTC-Rail’s Chief Investigators are at UOW: Associate Professor Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn, Professor Kiet Tieu, Professor Zhengyi Jiang, Professor Rian Dippenaar, Dr David Wexler, Professor Pascal Perez, Associate Professor Alex Remennikov, Dr Tao Yu and Dr Hongtao Zhu. Another 20 Chief Investigators are spread across the partner universities. Associate Professors Yang and Sivakumar are in the process of establishing a Coastal Reservoir Research Centre (CRRC) within the Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences. Prof Long Nghiem been recently admitted as a fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry. VC’s Outstanding Achievements Award – Prof Long Nghiem (CME) together with Prof Will Price (AIIM) and Prof Pascal Perez (SMART) have been awarded the 2017 VC’s Outstanding Achievement in Research Partnership and Impact Award for the project Analytics To Predict Anaerobic Co-Digestion and Downstream Process Performance in partnership with Sydney Water. ((Prof Long Nghiem has been awarded with the 2017 Vice Chancellor Industry Collaboration and Research Impact Award))

Prof Jin-Guang Teng and Dr Shishun Zhang: They secured a research grant in June 2016 from the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong for the project “Novel FRP-reinforced concrete columns for aggressive and special environments”. The approved cash amount is HKD 675,647 for 3-year duration. The proposed project will significantly advance the technology and theory of FRP-RC columns by developing a new way of using FRP rebars to resist compressive stresses in a ductile manner, which will enable the wider, safer and more economical use of FRP rebars in columns in aggressive (e.g. marine infrastructure) and special (e.g. buildings housing MRI facilities) environments. The project will meet a very important socio-economic need in Hong Kong as well as Australia, where most infrastructures are built near the sea.

A/Prof. Muhammad Hadi recently published a book titled “Earthquake Resistant Design of Buildings”. Uz, ME and Hadi, MNS (2017). Earthquake Resistant Design of Buildings. CRC Press. 290 Pages. ISBN 9780815391722.

Dr Neaz Sheikh and Prof Tim McCarthy have been successful in obtaining a $100k Innovations Connections grant from a Nowra company, Markarno Constructions, to develop lightweight concrete wall panels incorporating recycled glass.

A/Prof Faisal Hai’s book “Membrane Biological Reactor” has been in the top 5% of the bestsellers list for the IWA Publishing (UK).

Dr. Tao Yu has been successful in obtaining two research grants as a partner-investigator: 1. Mechanism and design method for large rupture strain FRP-recycled concrete-steel double-skin tubular columns. In collaboration with Dr. Yulei Bai from Beijing University of Technology. Amount of funding: RMB 600,000 2. Structural behaviour and design method for elliptical FRP-concrete-steel double-skin tubular columns. In collaboration with Dr. Yanlei Wang from Dalian University of Technology. Amount of funding: RMB 620,000

A/Prof Faisal Hai received industry funding to study the impact of interrelated governing factors on the risk of Legionella in potable water systems.

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


HONOURS, AWARDS, & APPOINTMENTS 2016

The 2016 UOW Woman of Impact Initiative review panel has selected the achievements of Dr Ana Heitor to be profiled in the UOW Women of Impact booklet and website. The booklet will showcase the important contributions to research and teaching by women academics across levels and disciplines, and will be launched at an event in June 2016.

Prof. Jerry Ongerth was awarded the Rudolf Hering Medal by the American Society of Civil Engineers, Environmental and Water Resources Institute for his recent paper “Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Water: Reassessment of Occurrence and Significance,” Journal of Environmental Engineering, March 2017. In making this award, the committee particularly noted his stateof-the-art review of current approaches in the U.S. water industry. The award includes a cash prize of $1850 US

Buddhima Indraratna: Appointed as Distinguished Honorary Professor of Geotechnical Engineering – Beijing Jiaotong University, China

In 2017, Prof Long Nghiem has been awarded the Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry status. Achieving Fellow status in the chemical profession denotes to the wider community a high level of accomplishment as a professional chemist. FRSC must have made an outstanding contribution to the advancement of the chemical sciences; or to the advancement of the chemical sciences as a profession; or have been distinguished in the management of a chemical sciences organization.

A/Prof Lip Teh has been appointed Chair of the ASCE/ SEI Technical Committee on Structural Members from October 1, 2017, to September 30, 2020. The technical committee is one of the longest running established by American Society of Civil Engineers, previously known as Technical Committee on Compression and Flexural Members A/Prof Neaz Sheikh has been elected as an EIS representative to the Academic Senate of UOW.

Centre for Geomechanics and Railway Engineering (CGRE) has been honoured as a Corporate Associate of International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (ISSMGE) recognizing the contributions made by CGRE over many years with the objective of bridging the gap between the State of the Art and State of Practice in geotechnical engineering. Prof Buddhima will be part of the core panel that is appointed for this purpose under the leadership of the President, ISSMGE.

In 2017, Prof Long nghiem has been appointed to the Editorial Board of Desalination. Desalination is a prestigious journal dedicated to the development of desalination technology. The 2016 impact factor of Desalination is 5.5. A/Prof Faisal Hai has been reappointed to the Editorial Board of the Journal of Water Environment Technology, journal of the Japan Society on Water Environment.

Martin Liu has been appointed as an Editorial Board Members for Canadian Geotechnical Journal . 2017

Long Nghiem has been appointed to the Editorial Board of Desalination (Impact factor = 5.2) Prof. Ting Ren: Re-elected to the Editorial Board as the Co-editor for the International Journal of Mining Science and Technology (published by Elsevier) Associate Professor Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn was  awarded the  Excellent Regional Contribution Award  (Australasia)  at the 15th  International Association of Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics (IACMAG) Conference held in Wuhan.    The award recognizes  his  research  contributions in the areas of  soil  improvement and soft  soil  engineering, with particular efforts made by him in the Australasian sector. 

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

IMPACT

Dr Ana Heitor received the inaugural John Carter Award for young professionals at the 15th International Association of Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics (IACMAG) Conference held in Wuhan. The award recognizes early career researchers  who have  demonstrated outstanding research potential in Geomechanics as demonstrated by their recent scholarly publications and commitment to geotechnical education.

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INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITIES 2015

Dr Faisal Hai delivered invited lecture as a water expert at the United Nations University (UNU), Tokyo and the University of Tokyo (UT) during14-16 Sep, 2015 on the aspects of water security, conflict over water resources and water development projects, and options to mitigate water problems in the urban areas. Dr Jerry Ongerth spent one month in Aug-Sep 2015 as an invited foreign expert in Xining, China at the Center for Biomedicine and Infectious Disease at the Qinghai Academy of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine . He provided his valuable experience and expertise on characterization of parasites and other microorganisms transmitted by water, as well as alternatives treatment for water. A/Prof (Siva) Muttucumaru Sivakumar was invited as an environmental expert to chair a session on energy sustainability and provide two leadership modules on water related eco technologies and environmental ethics for sustainable development at the Asia Pacific Leadership Program for young leaders that was held in September 2015 at Tongji University, China. This program was conducted directly under the auspices of United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and a Regional University Consortium consisting of seven worldwide universities including UNU and UOW. Dr. Jerry Ongerth Attended 13th IWA Specialized Conference on Small Water and Wastewater Systems in Athens, Greece, presenting the paper “ Effect of System Components on Giardia & Cryptosporidium Removal Performance in Small Water Treatment and Recycling Systems

2016

Buddhima Indraratna is a foreign expert and chief participant of the project “Railway engineering system dynamics” led by Southwest Jiaotong University, funded by the Chinese Ministry of Education and State Administration of Foreign Affairs for 4.5 million RMB (approx. 1 million Australian) for 5 years. A/Prof. Muhammad Hadi presented invited seminars in Zhengzhou University, China and Nanjing University, China in December 2015.

IMPACT

During a study leave in the Autumn session, Lip Teh completed a successful Endeavour Research Fellowship at Stanford University, USA, hosted by Gregory Deierlein, Professor of Engineering at Blume Earthquake Engineering Center. One important outcome of the fellowship is that he was invited to present a proposed series of amendments to the Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (2022), co-authored by Prof. Deierlein, before the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) on 20 June in Chicago. Separately, in March Lip’s four design equations for bolted connections were officially adopted by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) into the 2016 North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members. In February, Lip was elected Fellow of the Structural Engineering Institute of American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), becoming the first SEI fellow from outside USA and Canada (http://www. asce.org/structural-engineering/sei-fellows/).

138

Dr Martin Lu visited the Soil Mechanics Group of Southeast University, China to work on experimental and theoretical study of the behaviour of soils and geoenvironmental sciences, and strength our research collaboration. Dr Martin Lu visited the Soil Mechanics Group of Chulalongkorn University of Technology, Thailand to work on experimental and theoretical study of the behaviour of expansive soils, give one seminar on the Structured Cam Clay model and one seminar about study in Australia, particularly in UOW, and to start our research collaboration in this field. Dr Martin Lu visited the Soil Mechanics Group of Suranaree University of Technology, Thailand to work on experimental and theoretical study of the behaviour of structured soils, to give one full week of lectures on constitutive modelling of geomaterials and the Structured Cam Clay model, including one seminar about study in Australia, particularly in UOW, and to explore opportunities to co-supervise higher degree students. Prof McCarthy attended the World Green Economy Summit at Dubai where UOW was successful in gaining entry to the Solar Decathlon Middle East 2018 competition. Team UOW will be designing and building a net zero energy dementia friendly house to take to Dubai in late 2018. Colleagues are invited to become active partners in the R&D for this exciting project. Prof Long Nghiem and Dr Konrad have been awarded with a DAAD-Australia Universities International collaboration grant to establish research collaboration with the Technical University of Munich. The award includes $10K for UOW researcher and $10K for TUM researchers. Prof Long Nghiem received an UIC grant of $15K to establish research and teaching collaboration with Vietnamese universities. Long Nghiem has been awarded with an August-Wilhelm Scheer Visiting Professorship by the State of Bavaria to visit TU Munich for up to 3 months. Deliver a series of invited lectures at the UFSCar Summer School (Jan 2015) at the Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Brazil. Attend the 2016 RSC Editors’ Symposium in London and visit the 3 co-digestion plants in Northern Italy (Feb – Mar 2016). Research collaboration with Dr Konrad Koch and Prof Jorg Drewes at the Technical University of Munich, visit 3 waste to energy plants in Bavaria and the Bavarian Agriculture research centre near Munich (May – Jun 2016). Dr. Ongerth Attended the 6th International Cryptosporidium and Giardia Conference in Havana Cuba presenting “Efficient Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Water Samples by LAMP”.

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


2016 INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON COAL AND ROCK BURST The conference started with the first day dedicated to an International Workshop on Coal and Rock burst following an increased interest from both academics and industry as a result of the fatal accident in an Australian underground coal mine in NSW. The workshop attracted some the very top researchers and scholars in this area from China, Australia and CZ Republic. Professor Ting Ren: Visits to China University of Mining and Technology (CUMT) and other Chinese CUMT by actively engaging scholarship and learning activities with Professors Yuanping Cheng, Jialin Xu and Linming Dou and their research teams. Ting also visited Liaoning Technical University, Beijing University of Science and Technology and China Coal Research Institute, and further developed and consolidated our collaborations with these Chinese institutions & Universities and research institutions: Prof. Ting Ren: Visits to Institute of Geonics, Academy of Science, and VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava: Ting spent 4 weeks at Ostrava visiting these two institutions, in particular, at the Institute of Geonics with Dr Petr Konicek and Dr Radovan Kukutsch, who are the top researchers in Rock/Coal burst, and Professor Ing. Alois Adamus who is a leading scholar and expert in mining safety. 2017

An International Association for Coastal Reservoir Research (IACRR) has been recently established and UOW is its permanent headquarters. The UOW’s EIS faculty has also approved a new research group called Centre for Coastal Reservoir Research (CCRR). Joint Directors of CCRR are: A/Prof S Yang and A/Prof M Sivakumar. At the 37th IAHR world congress (the largest association in hydraulic engineering) to be held in Kuala Lumpur in August 2017, and in recognition to the importance of Coastal reservoir development around the world two special   sessions have been allocated for paper presentations and discussion. A/Profs Yang and Sivakumar will be presenting papers on Coastal reservoirs at this session. Professor Naj Aziz convened this year’s Coal Operators Conference held in Wollongong on 8-10 February 2017; the Conference attracted 41 papers from Australia as well as from overseas

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

A/Professor Ting Ren visited China by invitation of China University of Mining and Technology (CUMT) and China Coal Research Institute (CCRI), in July and further developed and consolidated our collaborations with Chinese universities and research institutes in Mining Engineering. Major activities Ting visited Henan Polytechnic University and was awarded an Open Fund ($10,000) by the Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Gas Geology and Gas Control on the study of innovative technologies on gas drainage in low permeable seams. Ting visited CCRI Xian and delivered a presentation on gas drainage practices in Australia, and in collaboration with URSYS Pty Limited (Australia), CCRI Xian and Professor Zhen Yang of CUMT, a Global Connections Fund Bridging Grant of $50,000 has been awarded by The Australian Academy of Technology and Engineering (ATSE) to promote the development of Big Data Mapping System (BDMS) for applications in the mining industry. Ting visited CCRI in Beijing and delivered an invited presentation on mine health and safety research and discussed areas of research and product development for the mining industry. Ting visited CCRI Shenyang and had final project meetings on two collaborative projects with CCRI Shenyang, both projects are scheduled to complete this year. Ting visited Beijing University of Science and Technology and China University of Mining and Technology Beijing, and had meetings with senior professors on collaborative research, international conferences, exchange of scholars and recuitment of HDR students. Ting have developed two research proposals in collaborations with Chinese professors at CUMT for ACARP 2017, both have been shortlisted for full proposal due by 30th July 2017. Prof. Ting Ren has been invited as the Guest-Editor for a Special Issue on Green Mining by the International Journal of Mining Science and Technology (by Elsevier B.V.) Dr. Jerry Ongerth Attended the AWWA-Water Quality Technology Conrference in Portland OR, presenting “Cryptosporidium & Giardia in Pacific Northwest Surface Water: History and Interpretation” A/Prof Lip Teh and Dr. Tao Yu gave eleven presentations at Chongqing University, Tsinghua University, Southeast University and Beijing University of Technology in September. All the schools are in China’s Top 10 for civil engineering. Joint PhD student programs and access to laboratories have been agreed in principle including a university-wide MOU signed with Chongqing University. A delegation of research academics from Chongqing will visit UOW in July 2018 for a workshop to promote their joint PhD supervision. A combined “3 + 2” program is being proposed by Chongqing whereby a student will study for 3 years at Chongqing to obtain their bachelor degree and 2 years at UOW to obtain their masters degree Prof. Tim McCarthy is attending the Dubai Solar Show and WETEX2017 where a solar decathlon student will be presenting the Desert Rose House project. A scale model of the Desert Rose House will also be on display during the exhibition. Prof. McCarthy will also be attending the World Green Economy Summit 2017, representing Team UOW.

139

IMPACT

2016 GREEN MINING CONFERENCE In collaboration with the State Key Lab of Coal Resources and Mining Safety of China University of Mining and Technology (CUMT), the Centre for Infrastructure Protection and Mining Safety hosted the 2016 Green Mining Conference 28-30th November 2016 on the main campus of UOW. The 2016 Green Mining Conference attracted over 140 delegates from Australia, China and other countries, including delegates from all the Australian mining universities and research organisations. In addition to the official support from NSW Government, we also received strong and generous support and financial sponsorships from Chinese Universities (in particular CUMT) and Australian companies. The conference generated total income of $97k to UOW.


INVITATIONS & KEYNOTES 2015

A/Prof Faisal Hai delivered invited lecture at the United Nations University (UNU), Tokyo and the University of Tokyo (UT) on water security, conflict over water resources and water development projects, and options to mitigate water problems in the urban areas.

2016

A/P Muhammad Hadi gave a keynote lecture at the First International Conference on Sustainable Development of Civil, Urban and Transportation Engineering which was held at Ton Duc Thang University, Veit Nam, 11-14 April 2016 Also, he presented another research paper in the conference. A/P Muhammad Hadi has been invited to present a seminar at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) on 27 April 2016. A/P Wei-Dong Guo delivered a special invited lecture in the Chinese national 19th “Huang-Wen-Xi Lecture” on April 9, 2016. Delivering lecture at the “Huang-Wen-Xi Lecture” was a great honour, given there were thousands researchers and academicians (including those from researcher institute) participated in the lecture.

Martin Liu: an invited lecture at International Convention on Civil Engineering, Thailand. Martin Liu: a seminar at Senior Scholar Seminar, 2017, Khaoyai, Thailand. Prof Long Nghiem has been invited to deliver a plenaray at the 4th International Symposium - Innovative Water Resources Development 20-22 Nov 2017 in Suwon, South Korea. The Symposium focuses on the issues of innovative water resources development. It dedicates to create a stage for exchanging the latest research results and share the advanced technologies for desalination and water reuse. The Symposium will bring together academicians, engineers and researchers from both academia and industry in Korea. Prof Long nghiem has been invited to deliver a keynote at the International Desalination Association (IDA) Annual Workshop in Busan Korea from 22 - 25 Nov 2017.

Buddhima Indraratna: ISSMGE’s Inaugural Ralph Proctor Lecture Award for Transport Geotechnology, Portugal, Sept. 2016; ISSMGE’s 4th Louis Menard Lecture for Ground Improvement, Seoul, Korea (ISSMGE – International Society of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering: > 20,000 members from 90 + countries) Buddhima Indraratna : Keynote Papers on International Soft Soil Embankment Prediction Symposium, Newcastle, Australia, Sept. 2016; 4th International Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE), UK, has invited Distinguished Professor Buddhima Indraratna to be the new Editor-in-Chief and the Chair of the Editorial Board of the Ground Improvement Journal from December 2016. The Ground Improvement Journal is now in its 170th year and is one of the oldest journals of the ICE, UK. Prof Indraratna has accepted this prestigious and onerous position, with the support of the University and Faculty. Buddhima has been invited to deliver the Keynote Paper at Special Technical Symposium on Railroad Materials Testing organised by American Society for Testing Methods (ASTM). The 2nd Membrane Bioreactor Workshop will be held in Shanghai, Tongji University on July 16-17, 2016. Prof Long Nghiem has been invited as one of the keynote speakers on the 2nd MBR Workshop in recognition to his significant contribution to this area. 2017

Prof McCarthy has been selected as an assessor for the 2017 Australian Awards for University Teaching. He is attending the assessment in Canberra on 2/6/17

IMPACT

Associate Professor Shu-Qing Yang was invited to attend an International Workshop on coastal reservoir on July 19 in India, and delivered his plenary speech. Martin Liu: a keynote lecture at Embankment Prediciton Symposium, Newcastle, Wollongong, Australia.

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Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


CME PUBLICATIONS 2015-2017

Al-Hedad, A., Bambridge, E. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2017). Influence of geogrid on the drying shrinkage performance of concrete pavements. Construction and Building Materials, 146 165-174. Al-Jubainawi, A., Ma, Z., Guo, Y., Nghiem, L. D., Cooper, P. & Li, W. (2017). Factors governing mass transfer during membrane electrodialysis regeneration of LiCl solution for liquid desiccant dehumidification systems. Sustainable Cities and Society, 28 30-41. Anbazhagan, P., Sheikh, M., Bajaj, K., Mariya Dayana, P., Madhura, H. & Reddy, G. R. (2017). Empirical models for the prediction of ground motion duration for intraplate earthquakes. Journal of Seismology, Online First 1-21. Ansari, A. J., Hai, F. I., Price, W. E., Drewes, J. E. & Nghiem, L. D. (2017). Forward osmosis as a platform for resource recovery from municipal wastewater a critical assessment of the literature. Journal of Membrane Science, 529 195206. Asif, M. B., Hai, F. I., Singh, L., Price, W. E. & Nghiem, L. D. (2017). Degradation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products by white-rot fungi—a critical review. Current Pollution Reports, Online First 1-16. Aziz, N. & Mirzaghorbanali, A. (2017). Effect of air column in transport canisters on measured gas contents of coal. Journal of Mining and Environment, 8 (1), 1-9. Basack, S. & Nimbalkar, S. (2017). Numerical solution of single pile subjected to torsional cyclic load. International Journal of Geomechanics, Online First 1-17. Chai, J., Suddeepong, A., Liu, M. D. & Yuan, D. (2017). Effect of daily fluctuation of groundwater level on land-subsidence. International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering, 3 (1), 1-1-1-10. Chen, G., Li, J. T., Yin, Z. K. & Xu, G. M. (2017). Improvement of microstructure and properties in twin-roll casting 7075 sheet by lower casting speed and compound field. Materials Characterization, 127 325-332. Dantas Neto, S. Adonias., Indraratna, B., Oliveira, D. Americo Fortuna. & de Assis, A. Pacheco. (2017). Modelling the shear behaviour of clean rock discontinuities using artificial neural networks. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, Online First 1-15.

Dong, J., Cheng, Y., Jin, K., Zhang, H., Liu, Q., Jiang, J. & Hu, B. (2017). Effects of diffusion and suction negative pressure on coalbed methane extraction and a new measure to increase the methane utilization rate. Fuel, 197 70-81. Duong, H. C., Hai, F. I., Al-Jubainawi, A., Ma, Z., He, T. & Nghiem, L. D. (2017). Liquid desiccant lithium chloride regeneration by membrane distillation for air conditioning. Separation and Purification Technology, 177 121-128. Efstratiou, A., Ongerth, J. E. & Karanis, P. (2017). Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: review of worldwide outbreaks - an update 2011–2016. Water Research, 114 14-22. Faria, A. F., Liu, C., Xie, M., Perreault, F., Nghiem, L. D., Ma, J. & Elimelech, M. (2017). Thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes functionalized with graphene oxide-silver nanocomposites for biofouling control. Journal of Membrane Science, 525 146-156. G. Rajan, J. S. Vinod, T. Moses, B. Gangadhara. Prusty & J. Xi, “Ballast breakage analysis using FBG acoustic emission measurement system,” Geotechnical and Geological Engineering: an international journal, vol. Online First, pp. 1-9, 2017. Goldston, M. W., Remennikov, A. & Sheikh, M. (2017). Flexural behaviour of GFRP reinforced high strength and ultra high strength concrete beams. Construction and Building Materials, 131 606-617. Gracanin, V., Guatelli, S., Prokopovich, D., Rosenfeld, A. B. & Berry, A. (2017). Development of a Geant4 application to characterise a prototype neutron detector based on three orthogonal 3He tubes inside an HDPE sphere. Physica Medica: an international journal devoted to the applications of physics to medicine and biology, 33 189-196. Hadi, M. N. S. & Yuan, J. (2017). Experimental investigation of composite beams reinforced with GFRP I-beam and steel bars. Construction and Building Materials, 144 462-474. Hadi, M. N. S., Alhussainy, F. & Sheikh, M. Neaz. (2017). Behavior of selfcompacting concrete columns reinforced longitudinally with steel tubes. Journal of Structural Engineering, 143 (6),

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

04017024-1-04017024-14. Hadi, M. N. S., Farhan, N. A. & Sheikh, M. Neaz. (2017). Design of geopolymer concrete with GGBFS at ambient curing condition using Taguchi method. Construction and Building Materials, 140 424-431. Hadi, M. N. S., Jameel, M. T. & Sheikh, M. Neaz. (2017). Behavior of circularized hollow RC columns under different loading conditions. Journal of Composites for Construction, Online First 1-13. Hasan, H., Sheikh, M. & Hadi, M. N S. (2017). Performance evaluation of high strength concrete and steel fibre high strength concrete columns reinforced with GFRP bars and helices. Construction and Building Materials, 134 297-310. Heydarshahy, S. & Karekal, S. (2017). Investigation of PDC cutter interface geometry using 3D FEM modelling. International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa, 29 45-53. Indraratna, B., Sun, Q.,  Ngo, N.  &  Rujikiatkamjorn, C.  (2017).  Current research into ballasted rail tracks: model tests and their practical implications.  Australian Journal of Structural Engineering, 18 (3), 204-220. Indraratna, B., Zhong, R., Fox, P. J. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2017). Large-strain vacuum-assisted consolidation with nonDarcian radial flow incorporating varying permeability and compressibility. Journal Of Geotechnical And Geoenvironmental Engineering, 143 (1), 04016088-104016088-9. Jameel, M. T., Sheikh, M. Neaz. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2017). Behaviour of circularized and FRP wrapped hollow concrete specimens under axial compressive load. Composite Structures, 171 538-548. Ji, C., Nguyen, L. N., Hou, J., Hai, F. I. & Chen, V. (2017). Direct immobilization of laccase on titania nanoparticles from crude enzyme extracts of P. ostreatus culture for micro-pollutant degradation. Separation and Purification Technology, 178 215-223. Kan, M. E., Taiebat, H. A. & Taiebat, M. (2017). A framework to assess Newmarktype simplified methods for evaluation of earthquake-induced deformation of embankments. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 54 (3), 392-404. Karim, H., Sheikh, M. Neaz. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2017). Load and moment interaction diagram for circular concrete columns reinforced with GFRP bars and GFRP helices. Journal of Composites for Construction, 21 (1), 04016076-104016076-12.

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IMPACT

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Darestani, M., Haigh, V., Couperthwaite, S. J., Millar, G. J. & Nghiem, L. D. (2017). Hollow fibre membrane contactors for ammonia recovery: current status and future developments. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 5 (2), 1349-1359.

PUBLICATIONS

2017


Kelly, R. B., Pineda, J. A., Bates, L., Suwal, L. P. & Fitzallen, A. (2017). Site characterisation for the Ballina field testing facility. Geotechnique: international journal of soil mechanics, 67 (4), 279-300. Lerch, M. L. F., Dipuglia, A., Cameron, M., Fournier, P., Davis, J., Petasecca, M., Cornelius, I., Perevertaylo, V. & Rosenfeld, A. B. (2017). New 3D Silicon detectors for dosimetry in Microbeam Radiation Therapy. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 777 (1), 012009-1-012009-5. Li, L., Wang, W., Chen, Y. & Teh, L. (2017). Column-wall failure mode of steel moment connection with inner diaphragm and catenary mechanism. Engineering Structures, 131 553-563. Li, X., Aziz, N., Mirzaghorbanali, A. & Nemcik, J. (2017). Comparison of the shear test results of a cable bolt on three laboratory test apparatuses. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 61 82-89. Liang, Y., He, M., Cao, C., Wang, S. & Ren, T. (2017). A mechanical model for conebolts. Computers and Geotechnics, 83 142-151. Lin, Q., Wang, S., Liang, Y., Song, S. & Ren, T. (2017). Analytical prediction of coal spontaneous combustion tendency: velocity range with high possibility of self-ignition. Fuel Processing Technology, 159 38-47. Liu, Q., Cheng, Y., Jin, K., Tu, Q., Zhao, W. & Zhang, R. (2017). Effect of confining pressure unloading on strength reduction of soft coal in borehole stability analysis. Environmental Earth Sciences, 76 (4), 173-1-173-11. Luo, Q., Ren, T., Liang, D., Zhang, J. & Shen, H. (2017). A study on the thermal decomposition temperature (TDT) and critical ambient temperature (CAT) of cotton. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry: an international forum for thermal studies, Online First 1-9. Luo, W., Phan, H. V., Xie, M., Hai, F. I., Price, W. E., Elimelech, M. & Nghiem, L. D. (2017). Osmotic versus conventional membrane bioreactors integrated with reverse osmosis for water reuse: biological stability, membrane fouling, and contaminant removal. Water Research, 109 122-134.

IMPACT

PUBLICATIONS

Ma, S., Zhao, Z., Nie, W., Nemcik, J., Zhang, Z. & Zhu, X. (2017). Implementation of displacement-dependent Barton-Bandis rock joint model into discontinuous deformation analysis. Computers and Geotechnics, 86 1-8. Mahmoudi, M-R, Ongerth, JE, Karanis, P. 2017. Cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis: The Asian perspective. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 220(7):10981109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. ijheh.2017.07.005

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Merchant, A. H., Guatelli, S., Petesecca, M., Jackson, M. & Rozenfeld, A. B. (2017). Monte Carlo characterisation of the Dose Magnifying Glass for proton therapy quality assurance. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 777 (1), 012015-1012015-5. Mirzaghorbanali, A. & Aziz, N. (2017). An experimental study of axial load transfer mechanisms of cable bolts using axially split embedment apparatus. Journal of Mining and Environment, 8 (2), 131-137. Navaratnarajah, S. K. & Indraratna, B. (2017). Use of rubber mats to improve the deformation and degradation behavior of rail ballast under cyclic loading. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Online First 1-15. Nghiem, L. D., Koch, K., Bolzonella, D. & Drewes, J. E. (2017). Full scale codigestion of wastewater sludge and food waste: bottlenecks and possibilities. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 72 354-362. Nghiem, L. D., Wickham, R. & Ohandja, D. (2017). Enhanced biogas production and performance assessment of a fullscale anaerobic digester with acid phase digestion. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, Online First 1-7. Ngo, N., Indraratna, B. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2017). A study of the geogrid–subballast interface via experimental evaluation and discrete element modelling.  Granular Matter, 19 (3), 54-1-54-16. Ngo, N., Indraratna, B. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2017). Micromechanics-based investigation of fouled ballast using largescale triaxial tests and discrete element modeling. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 143 (2), 04016089-1-04016089-16. Ngo, N., Indraratna, B. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C.  (2017).  Closure to “MicromechanicsBased Investigation of Fouled Ballast Using Large-Scale Triaxial Tests and Discrete Element Modeling”.  Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 143 (9), pp: 07017027. Ngo, N., Indraratna, B. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2017). Simulation ballasted track behavior: numerical treatment and field application. International Journal of Geomechanics, 17 (6), 04016130-104016130-12. Ngo, N., Indraratna, B. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2017). Stabilization of track substructure with geoinclusions— experimental evidence and DEM simulation. International Journal of Rail Transportation, Online First 1-24. Ngo, N., Rujikiatkamjorn, C. & Indraratna, B. (2017). DEM modelling of geocellstabilised sub-ballast under cyclic loading. International Journal of GEOMATE, 12 (31), 23-29.

Oliveira, D. & Diederichs, M. S. (2017). Tunnel support for stress induced failures in Hawkesbury Sandstone. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 64 10-23. Ongerth, JE, 2017. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Water: Reassessment of occurrence and significance. J Environ Engr, 2017, 143(3): 04016084, http:// dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)EE.19437870.0001161 Ongerth, J. E. & Saaed, F. (2017). Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts—A practical and sensitive method for counting and manipulating small numbers. Acta Tropica, 169 119-121. Ongerth, J. E. (2017). Cryptosporidium and Giardia distribution in water: reevaluation. Journal of Environmental Engineering, J. Environ Engr, 143(6): 06017004, http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/ (ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0001193 Patel, V. Ishvarbhai., Liang, Q. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2017). Nonlinear analysis of biaxially loaded rectangular concretefilled stainless steel tubular slender beam-columns. Engineering Structures, 140 120-133. Patel, V. Ishvarbhai., Liang, Q. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2017). Nonlinear analysis of circular high strength concrete-filled stainless steel tubular slender beam-columns. Engineering Structures, 130 1-13. Perera, D., Indraratna, B., Leroueil, S., Rujikiatkamjorn, C. & Kelly, R. (2017). Analytical model for vacuum consolidation incorporating soil disturbance caused by mandrel-driven drains. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 54 (4), 547-560. Perret, J. L., Plush, B., Lachapelle, P., Hinks, T. S. C., Walter, C., Clarke, P., Irving, L., Brady, P., Dharmage, S. C. & Stewart, A. (2017). Coal mine dust lung disease in the modern era. Respirology, 22 662-670. Rasekh, H., Mirzaghorbanali, A., Nemcik, J., Aziz, N. & Li, X. (2017). A new equation for the shear strength of cable bolts incorporating the energy balance theory. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering: an international journal, Online First 1-20. Rashid, M., Triani, G., Scales, N., in het Panhuis, M., Nghiem, L. D. & Ralph, S. F. (2017). Nanofiltration applications of tough MWNT buckypaper membranes containing biopolymers. Journal of Membrane Science, 529 23-34. Remennikov, A., Ngo, T., Mohotti, D., Uy, B. & Netherton, M. (2017). Experimental investigation and simplified modeling of response of steel plates subjected to close-in blast loading from spherical liquid explosive charges. International Journal of Impact Engineering, 101 78-89.

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


Semblante, G. U., Hai, F. I., Dionysiou, D. D., Fukushi, K., Price, W. E. & Nghiem, L. D. (2017). Holistic sludge management through ozonation: a critical review. Journal of Environmental Management, 185 79-95. Stansook, N., Petasecca, M., Utitsarn, K., Newall, M., Metcalfe, P., Carolan, M., Lerch, M. & Rosenfeld, A. B. (2017). The angular dependence of a two dimensional monolithic detector array for dosimetry in small radiation fields. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 777 (1), 012020-1-012020-4. Sun, Y., Indraratna, B., Carter, J. P., Marchant, T. & Nimbalkar, S. (2017). Application of fractional calculus in modelling ballast deformation under cyclic loading. Computers and Geotechnics, 82 16-30. Tran, T. M. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2017). Shear strength model of reinforced-concrete exterior joint under cyclic loading. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Structures and Buildings, Online First 1-15. Utitsarn, K., Alrowaili, Z., Stansook, N., Lerch, M., Petasecca, M., Carolan, M. & Rosenfeld, A. (2017). Optimisation of output factor measurements using the Magic Plate 512 silicon dosimeter array in small megavoltage photon fields. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 777 (1), 012022-1-012022-5. Wang, D., Wang, Z., Smith, S. T. & Yu, T. (2017). Seismic performance of CFRPconfined circular high-strength concrete columns with high axial compression ratio. Construction and Building Materials, 134 91-103. Wang, G., Ren, T., Qi, Q., Lin, J., Liu, Q. & Zhang, J. (2017). Determining the diffusion coefficient of gas diffusion in coal: development of numerical solution. Fuel, 196 47-58. Wang, Z., Ren, T. & Cheng, Y. (2017). Numerical investigations of methane flow characteristics on a longwall face Part I: Methane emission and base model results. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, Online First 1-12. Xiao, S. & Guo, W. (2017). Limit analysis of ground anchor forces. Proceedings

Xiao, S., Zeng, J. & Yan, Y. (2017). A rational layout of double-row stabilizing piles for large-scale landslide control. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 76 (1), 309-321. Xie, S., Wickham, R. & Nghiem, L. D. (2017). Synergistic effect from anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and organic wastes. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 116 191-197. Xie, T., Xie, S., Sivakumar, M. & Nghiem, L. D. (2017). Relationship between the synergistic/antagonistic effect of anaerobic co-digestion and organic loading. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, Online First 1-7. Yang, S., McDonald, J., Hai, F. I., Price, W. E., Khan, S. J. & Nghiem, L. D. (2017). The fate of trace organic contaminants in sewage sludge during recuperative thickening anaerobic digestion. Bioresource Technology, Online First 1-10.

19th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Seoul 2017 (pp. 1403-1406). International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Rajan, G., Karekal, S., Jayan, V. S. & Prusty, G. B. (2017). Fibre Bragg Grating sensor based crack activity monitoring for mining applications. OFSIS2017 2nd International Conference Fibre-Optic and Photonic Sensors for Industrial and Safety Applications Conference Handbook (pp. 66-66). Remennikov, A., Goldston, M. W. & Sheikh, M. Neaz. (2017). Impact performance of concrete beams externally bonded with carbon FRP sheets. In H. Hao & C. Zhang (Eds.), Mechanics of Structures and Materials: Advancements and Challenges: Proceedings of the 24th Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials (ACMSM24) (pp. 1693-1700). Boca Ratan, United States: CRC Press.

Yang, S., Phan, H. V., Bustamante, H., Guo, W., Ngo, H. & Nghiem, L. D. (2017). Effects of shearing on biogas production and microbial community structure during anaerobic digestion with recuperative thickening. Bioresource Technology, 234 439-447. Youssef, J. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2017). Axial load-bending moment diagrams of GFRP reinforced columns and GFRP encased square columns. Construction and Building Materials, 135 550-564. Yu, T., Zhang, S., Huang, L. & Chan, C. (2017). Compressive behavior of hybrid double-skin tubular columns with a large rupture strain FRP tube. Composite Structures, 171 10-18. Zheng, Y., Yu, T., Yang, J., Li, Y. & Sun, C. (2017). Investigation of the behaviour of reinforcement-free concrete deck slabs restrained by FRP rods. Engineering Structures, 135 191-208.

CONFERENCE PUBLICATIONS Ngo, N., Indraratna, B.  &  Biabani, M.  (2017).  Performance Assessment of Geocell-Reinforced Subballast: Modeling and Design Implications. In  T. L. Brandon  &  R. J. Valentine  (Eds.),  Geotechnical Frontiers 2017: Transportation Facilities, Structures, and Site Investigation: Selected Papers from Sessions of Geotechnical Frontiers 2017 (pp. 374383). Reston, United States: American Society of Civil Engineers.

IMPACT

S. Nikolic, T. F. Suesse, T. J. McCarthy & T. L. Goldfinch, “Maximising resource allocation in the teaching laboratory: understanding student evaluations of teaching assistants in a team-based teaching format,” European Journal of Engineering Education, vol. Online First, pp. 1-19, 2017.

of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Geotechnical Engineering, 170 (2), 175185.

PUBLICATIONS

Ren, T., Wang, G., Cheng, Y. & Qi, Q. (2017). Model development and simulation study of the feasibility of enhancing gas drainage efficiency through nitrogen injection. Fuel, 194 406-422.

Ngo, N., Indraratna, B.,  Rujikiatkamjorn, C.  &  Neville, T.  (2017).  DEM modelling of geocells reinforced subballast in rail tracks.  Proceedings of the

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

143


2016 JOURNAL ARTICLES Abdul Halim, N., Whitten, P. G. & Nghiem, L. D. (2016). Characteristics and cadmium extraction performance of PVC/Aliquat 336 electrospun fibres in comparison with polymer inclusion membranes. Separation Science and Technology (Philadelphia), 51 (9), 1515-1522. Abdul Halim, N., Whitten, P. G. & Nghiem, L. D. (2016). The effect of aging on thermomechanical and metal extraction properties of poly (vinyl chloride)/Aliquat 336 polymer inclusion membranes. Desalination and Water Treatment, 57 (7), 3298-3303.

Ansari, A. J., Hai, F. I., Price, W. E. & Nghiem, L. D. (2016). Phosphorus recovery from digested sludge centrate using seawater-driven forward osmosis. Separation and Purification Technology, 163 1-7. Autin, O., Hai, F., Judd, S. & McAdam, E. J. (2016). Investigating the significance of coagulation kinetics on maintaining membrane permeability in an MBR following reactive coagulant dosing. Journal of Membrane Science, 516 64-73. Aziz, N., Craig, P., Mirzaghorbanali, A. & Nemcik, J. (2016). Factors influencing the quality of encapsulation in rock bolting. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 49 (8), 3189-3203.

ALAZIGHA, D., Indraratna, B., Vinod, J. S. & Ezeajugh, L. Emeka. (2016). The swelling behaviour of lignosulfonate treated expansive soil. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Ground Improvement, 169 (3), 182-193.

Bahrami, S., Doulati Ardejani, F. & Baafi, E. (2016). Application of artificial neural network coupled with genetic algorithm and simulated annealing to solve groundwater inflow problem to an advancing open pit mine. Journal of Hydrology, 536 471-484.

Alharbi, S. K., Price, W. E., Kang, J., Fujioka, T. & Nghiem, L. D. (2016). Ozonation of carbamazepine, diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim and formation of major oxidation products. Desalination and Water Treatment, Online First

Basack, S., Indraratna, B. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2016). Analysis of the behaviour of stone column stabilized soft ground supporting transport infrastructure. Procedia Engineering, 143 347-354.

Alhussainy, F., Hasan, H., Rogic, S., Sheikh, M. Neaz. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2016). Direct tensile testing of Self-Compacting Concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 112 903-906. Alnaghy, S., Safavi-Naeini, M., Franklin, D. R., Han, Z., Cutajar, D. L., Petasecca, M., Lerch, M. & Rosenfeld, A. B. (2016). Analytical modelling and simulation of single and double cone pinholes for real-time in-body tracking of an HDR brachytherapy source. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 63 (3), 1375-1385. Al-Nasrawi, A. K. M., Jones, B. G., Alyazichi, Y. M., Hamylton, S. M., Jameel, M. T. & Hammadi, A. (2016). Civil-GIS incorporated approach for water resource management in a developed catchment for urban-geomorphic sustainability: Tallowa Dam, southeastern Australia. International Soil and Water Conservation Research, 4 (4), 304-313.

IMPACT

PUBLICATIONS

Altalyan, H. N., Jones, B., Bradd, J., Nghiem, L. D. & Alyazichi, Y. M. (2016). Removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from groundwater by reverse osmosis and nanofiltration. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 9 9-21. Ansari, A. J., Hai, F. I., Guo, W., Ngo, H. H., Price, W. E. & Nghiem, L. D. (2016). Factors governing the pre-concentration of wastewater using forward osmosis for subsequent resource recovery. Science of the Total Environment, 566-567 559-566.

144

Basack, S., Indraratna, B. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2016). Modeling the performance of stone columnreinforced soft ground under static and cyclic loads. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 142 (2), Bennie, N. & Metcalfe, P. (2016). Practical IMRT QA dosimetry using Gafchromic film: a quick start guide. Australasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine, 39 (2), 533-545. Biabani, M. Mahdi., Indraratna, B. & Ngo, N. (2016). Modelling of geocell-reinforced subballast subjected to cyclic loading. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 44 (4), 489-503. Biabani, M. Mahdi., Indraratna, B. & Nimbalkar, S. (2016). Assessment of interface shear behaviour of sub-ballast with geosynthetics by large-scale direct shear test. Procedia Engineering, 143 1007-1015. Biabani, M. Mahdi., Ngo, N. Trung. & Indraratna, B. (2016). Performance evaluation of railway subballast stabilised with geocell based on pull-out testing. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 44 (4), 579-591. Buckley, J., Wilkinson, D., Malaroda, A. & Metcalfe, P. (2016). Evaluation of dose from kV cone-beam computed tomography during radiotherapy: A comparison of methodologies. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 777 (1), 012003-1-012003-4.

Calderon Vizcarra, G., Nimbalkar, S. & Casagrande, M. (2016). Modeling behaviour of railway ballast in prismoidal apparatus using discrete element method. Procedia Engineering, 143 1177-1184. Cao, C., Ren, T. X., Zhang, Y., Zhang, L. & Wang, F. (2016). Experimental investigation of the effect of grout with additive in improving ground support. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 85 52-59. Cao, D., Chiew, Y. & Yang, S. (2016). Injection effects on sediment transport in closed-conduit flows. Acta Geophysica, 64 (1), 125-148. Chen, C. & McDowell, G. R. (2016). An investigation of the dynamic behaviour of track transition zones using discrete element modelling. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, 230 (1), 117-128. Chen, L., Yu, Q. & Dai, Z. (2016). Finite difference solution based on composite stiffness and bi-parameter method for calculating vertical and horizontal bending piles. Yanshilixue Yu Gongcheng Xuebao/ Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, 35 (3), 613-622. Chen, Q., Indraratna, B. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2016). Behaviour of lignosulfonate-treated soil under cyclic loading. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Ground Improvement, 169 (2), 109-119. Chen, Q., Indraratna, B., Carter, J. P. & Nimbalkar, S. (2016). Isotropicâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; kinematic hardening model for coarse granular soils capturing particle breakage and cyclic loading under triaxial stress space. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 53 (4), 646-658. Chen, W., Yan, B., Lian, G. & Zhang, Y. (2016). Numerically pricing American options under the generalized mixed fractional Brownian motion model. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 451 180-189. Choudhary, K., Indraratna, B. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2016). Pore pressure based method to quantify smear around a vertical drain. Geotechnique Letters, 6 (3), 1-5. Clarke, W. P., Xie, S. & Patel, M. (2016). Rapid digestion of shredded MSW by sequentially flooding and draining small landfill cells. Waste Management, 55 1221. Dai, Z., Wang, Y. & Lu, C. (2016). Numerical solution of link finite element based on composite stiffness and biparameter method for computation of laterally loaded single pile. Yanshilixue Yu Gongcheng Xuebao/Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, 35 (10), 2115-2123.

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


Flentje, P. & Chowdhury, R. (2016). Resilience and sustainability in the management of landslides. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Engineering Sustainability, Online First 1-12. Fujioka, T., Takeuchi, H., Tanaka, H., Nghiem, L. D., Ishida, K. P. & Kodamatani, H. (2016). A rapid and reliable technique for N-nitrosodimethylamine analysis in reclaimed water by HPLC-photochemical reaction-chemiluminescence. Chemosphere, 161 104-111. Fyfe, J., Hagare, D. & Sivakumar, M. (2016). Dairy shed effluent treatment and recycling: Effluent characteristics and performance. Journal of Environmental Management, 180 133-146. Gao, D., Chen, G., Hadi, M. N. S. & Wang, W. (2016). Mechanical properties and calculation method for ultimate tensile load of corroded steel fibres. Jianzhu Cailiao Xuebao/Journal of Building Materials, 19 (3), 436-441. Goldston, M., Remennikov, A. & Sheikh, M. Neaz. (2016). Experimental investigation of the behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars under static and impact loading. Engineering Structures, 113 220-232. Guo, H., Cheng, Y., Ren, T., Wang, L., Yuan, L., Jiang, H. & Liu, H. (2016). Pulverization characteristics of coal from a strong outburst-prone coal seam and their impact on gas desorption and diffusion properties. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 33 867-878. Guo, H., Cheng, Y., Yuan, L., Wang, L. & Zhou, H. (2016). Unsteady-state diffusion of gas in coals and its relationship with coal pore structure. Energy and Fuels, 30 (9), 7014-7024. Guo, W. (2016). Response of rigid piles during passive dragging. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 40 (14), 19361967. Guo, Y., Ma, Z., Al-Jubainawi, A., Cooper, P. & Nghiem, L. D. (2016). Using electrodialysis for regeneration of aqueous lithium chloride solution in liquid desiccant air conditioning systems. Energy and Buildings, 116 285-295.

Hadi, M. N. S. & Youssef, J. (2016). Experimental investigation of GFRPreinforced and GFRP-encased square concrete specimens under axial and eccentric load, and four-point bending test. Journal of Composites for Construction, 20 (5), 04016020-104016020-16. Hadi, M. N. S., Karim, H. F. & Sheikh, M. Neaz. (2016). Experimental investigations on circular concrete columns reinforced with GFRP bars and helices under different loading conditions. Journal of Composites for Construction, 20 (4), 04016009-1-04016009-12. Hadi, M. N. S., Khan, Q. S. & Sheikh, M. Neaz. (2016). Axial and flexural behavior of unreinforced and FRP bar reinforced circular concrete filled FRP tube columns. Construction and Building Materials, 122 (September), 43-53. Han, J., Zhang, H., Liang, B., Rong, H., Lan, T., Liu, Y. & Ren, T. (2016). Influence of large syncline on in situ stress field: a case study of the Kaiping Coalfield, China. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 49 (11), 4423-4440. Heitor, A., Indraratna, B. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2016). Small strain behaviour of a compacted subgrade soil. Procedia Engineering, 143 260-267. Heitor, A., Indraratna, B., Kaliboullah, C. I., Rujikiatkamjorn, C. & McIntosh, G. W. (2016). Drained and undrained shear behavior of compacted coal wash. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 142 (5), 04016006-104016006-10. Hu, G., Xu, J., Ren, T., Dong, Y., Qin, W. & Shan, Z. (2016). Field investigation of using water injection through inseam gas drainage boreholes to control coal dust from the longwall face during the influence of abutment pressure. International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment, 30 (1), 48-63. Hussaini, S., Indraratna, B. & Vinod, J. S. (2016). A laboratory investigation to assess the functioning of railway ballast with and without geogrids. Transportation Geotechnics, 6 45-54. Indraratna, B., Kan, M. E., Potts, D., Rujikiatkamjorn, C. & Sloan, S. W. (2016). Analytical solution and numerical simulation of vacuum consolidation by vertical drains beneath circular embankments. Computers and Geotechnics, 80 83-96.

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

Indraratna, B., Nguyen, T. Trung., Carter, J. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2016). Influence of biodegradable natural fibre drains on the radial consolidation of soft soil. Computers and Geotechnics, 78 171-180. Indraratna, B., Nimbalkar, S. Shrawan., Ngo, N. Trung. & Neville, T. (2016). Performance improvement of rail track substructure using artificial inclusions – experimental and numerical studies. Transportation Geotechnics, 8 69-85. Indraratna, B., Zhong, R. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2016). An analytical model of PVD-assisted soft ground consolidation. Procedia Engineering, 143 1376-1383. Jiang, J., Chen, Q. & Nimbalkar, S. (2016). Field data based method for predicting long-term settlements. American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 9 (3), 466-476. Jing, D. H., Yu, T. & Liu, X. D. (2016). New configuration of transverse reinforcement for improved seismic resistance of rectangular RC columns: concept and axial compressive behavior. Engineering Structures, 111 383-393. Kaewunruen, S., Ishida, T. & Remennikov, A. M. (2016). Impact analyses for negative flexural responses (hogging) in railway prestressed concrete sleepers. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 744 (1), 012101-1-012101-11. Southampton, United Kingdom 13th International Conference on Motion and Vibration Control (MOVIC 2016) and the 12th International Conference on Recent Advances in Structural Dynamics (RASD 2016) 4–6 July 2016 Kaewunruen, S., Kahawatta Gamage, E. & Remennikov, A. M. (2016). Modelling railway prestressed concrete sleepers (crossties) with holes and web openings. Procedia Engineering, 161 1240-1246. Procedia Engineering Kaewunruen, S., Kahawatta Gamage, E. & Remennikov, A. M. (2016). Structural behaviours of railway prestressed concrete sleepers (crossties) with hole and web openings. Procedia Engineering, 161 1247-1253. Procedia Engineering Kan, M. E. & Taiebat, H. A. (2016). Application of advanced bounding surface plasticity model in static and seismic analyses of Zipingpu Dam. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 53 (3), 455-471. Karim, H., Sheikh, M. Neaz. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2016). Axial load-axial deformation behaviour of circular concrete columns reinforced with GFRP bars and helices. Construction and Building Materials, 112 1147-1157. Khan, Q. S., Sheikh, M. Neaz. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2016). Axial-flexural interactions of GFRP-CFFT columns with and without reinforcing GFRP bars. Journal

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IMPACT

Duong, H. C., Duke, M., Gray, S., Nelemans, B. & Nghiem, L. D. (2016). Membrane distillation and membrane electrolysis of coal seam gas reverse osmosis brine for clean water extraction and NaOH production. Desalination, 397 108-115.

Hadi, M. N. S. & Tran, T. M. (2016). Seismic rehabilitation of reinforced concrete beam–column joints by bonding with concrete covers and wrapping with FRP composites. Materials and Structures, 49 (1), 467-485.

PUBLICATIONS

Duong, H. C., Cooper, P., Nelemans, B., Cath, T. Y. & Nghiem, L. D. (2016). Evaluating energy consumption of air gap membrane distillation for seawater desalination at pilot scale level. Separation and Purification Technology, 166 55-62.


of Composites for Construction, Online First 1-12. Khan, Q., Sheikh, M. Neaz. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2016). Axial compressive behaviour of circular CFFT: Experimental database and design-oriented model. Steel and Composite Structures: an international journal, 21 (4), 921-947. Kosasih, B. & Saleh Hudin, H. (2016). Influence of inflow turbulence intensity on the performance of bare and diffuseraugmented micro wind turbine model. Renewable Energy, 87 154-167. Li, X., Aziz, N., Mirzaghorbanali, A. & Nemcik, J. (2016). Behavior of fiber glass bolts, rock bolts and cable bolts in shear. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 49 2723-2735. Lima, M. M., Doh, J., Hadi, M. N. S. & Miller, D. (2016). The effects of CFRP orientation on the strengthening of reinforced concrete structures. The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, 25 (15), 759-784. Lin, G., Yu, T. & Teng, J. G. (2016). Designoriented stress–strain model for concrete under combined FRP-steel confinement. Journal of Composites for Construction, 20 (4), 04015084-1-04015084-11. Lin, Z. & Dai, Z. (2016). Interaction factor method for piles group settlement by static load tests of single pile. Yantu Gongcheng Xuebao/Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 38 (1), 155-162. Liu, M. D. & Indraratna, B. (2016). Strength criterion for intact rock. Indian Geotechnical Journal, Online First 1-4. Liu, Y., Wei, J. & Ren, T. (2016). Analysis of the stress wave effect during rock breakage by pulsating jets. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 49 (2), 503-514. Luo, W., Hai, F. I., Price, W. E., Elimelech, M. & Nghiem, L. D. (2016). Evaluating ionic organic draw solutes in osmotic membrane bioreactors for water reuse. Journal of Membrane Science, 514 636-645. Luo, W., Hai, F. I., Price, W. E., Guo, W., Ngo, H. H., Yamamoto, K. & Nghiem, L. D. (2016). Phosphorus and water recovery by a novel osmotic membrane bioreactor – reverse osmosis system. Bioresource Technology, 200 297-304.

IMPACT

PUBLICATIONS

Luo, W., Phan, H. V., Hai, F. I., Price, W. E., Guo, W., Ngo, H. H., Yamamoto, K. & Nghiem, L. D. (2016). Effects of salinity build-up on the performance and bacterial community structure of a membrane bioreactor. Bioresource Technology, 200 305-310. Luo, W., Xie, M., Hai, F. I., Price, W. E. & Nghiem, L. D. (2016). Biodegradation of cellulose triacetate and polyamide forward osmosis membranes in an activated sludge bioreactor: observations and implications. Journal of Membrane 146

Science, 510 284-292. Mohammadi, I. & South, W. (2016). General purpose cement with increased limestone content in Australia. ACI Materials Journal, 113 (3), 335-347. Navaratnarajah, S. K., Indraratna, B. & Nimbalkar, S. (2016). Application of shock mats in rail track foundation subjected to dynamic loads. Procedia Engineering, 143 1108-1119. Nghiem, L. D., Hai, F. I. & Listowski, A. (2016). Water reclamation and nitrogen extraction from municipal solid waste landfill leachate. Desalination and Water Treatment, 57 (60), 29220-29227. Ngo, N. & Indraratna, B. (2016). Improved performance of rail track substructure using synthetic inclusions: experimental and numerical investigations. International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering, 2 24-1-24-16. Ngo, N. & Tung, T. (2016). Coupled discrete-continuum method for studying load-deformation of a stone column reinforces rail track embankments. Procedia Engineering, 142 138-144. Ngo, N., Indraratna, B. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2016). Modelling geogrid-reinforced railway ballast using the discrete element method. Transportation Geotechnics, 8 86-102. Ngo, N., Indraratna, B., Rujikiatkamjorn, C. & Biabani, M. Mahdi. (2016). Experimental and discrete element modelling of geocell-stabilized subballast subjected to cyclic loading. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 142 (4), 04015100-104015100-14. Nguyen, L. N., Hai, F. I., Dosseto, A., Richardson, C., Price, W. E. & Nghiem, L. D. (2016). Continuous adsorption and biotransformation of micropollutants by granular activated carbon-bound laccase in a packed-bed enzyme reactor. Bioresource Technology, 210 108-116. Nguyen, L. N., van de Merwe, J. P., Hai, F. I., Leusch, F. D.L., Kang, J., Price, W. E., Roddick, F., Magram, S. F. & Nghiem, L. D. (2016). Laccase-syringaldehydemediated degradation of trace organic contaminants in an enzymatic membrane reactor: removal efficiency and effluent toxicity. Bioresource Technology, 200 477-484. Ni, J., Zhu, Y., Chen, Y., Du, X. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2016). Cumulative pore water pressure behaviour of soft clays installed with prefabricated vertical drains under cyclic loads. Rock and Soil Mechanics, 37 (2), 383-389. Nimbalkar, S. & Indraratna, B. (2016). Field assessment of ballasted railroads using geosynthetics and shock mats. Procedia Engineering, 143 1485-1494.

Nimbalkar, S. & Indraratna, B. (2016). Improved performance of ballasted rail track using geosynthetics and rubber shockmat. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 142 (8), 04016031-1-04016031-13. Ongerth, J. E. (2016). Cryptosporidium and Giardia in water: reassessment of occurrence and significance. Journal of Environmental Engineering, Online First 1-8. Pham, T. M., Hadi, M. N. S. & Youssef, J. (2016). Effects of fabrication technique on tensile properties of fiber reinforced polymer. Journal of Testing and Evaluation, Online First 1-12. Pham, T. M., Youssed, J., Hadi, M. N. S. & Tran, T. M. (2016). Effect of different FRP wrapping arrangements on the confinement mechanism. Procedia Engineering, 142 306-312. Phan, H. V., Hai, F. I., Zhang, R., Kang, J., Price, W. E. & Nghiem, L. D. (2016). Bacterial community dynamics in an anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactor - impact on nutrient and trace organic contaminant removal. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 109 61-72. Phan, H. V., McDonald, J. A., Hai, F. I., Price, W. E., Khan, S. J., Fujioka, T. & Nghiem, L. D. (2016). Biological performance and trace organic contaminant removal by a side-stream ceramic nanofiltration membrane bioreactor. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 113 49-56. Qian, X., Chen, S. & Ahmed, A. (2016). Assessment of cleavage fracture in specimens with a curved crack front for high-strength steels in offshore applications. Procedia Structural Integrity, 2 2046-2053. Qin, H. & Guo, W. (2016). Response of piles subjected to progressive soil movement. Geotechnical Testing Journal, 39 (1), 106-125. Qin, H. & Guo, W. (2016). Response of static and cyclic laterally loaded rigid piles in sand. Marine Georesources and Geotechnology, 34 (2), 138-153. Rao, P., Chen, Q., Nimbalkar, S. & Liu, Y. (2016). Laboratory study on impulse current characteristics of clay. Environmental Geotechnics, Online First 1-10. Rasekh, H. & McCarthy, T. J. (2016). Delivering sustainable building projects – challenges, reality and success. Journal of Green Building, 11 (3), 143-161. Robati, M., McCarthy, T. J. & Kokogiannakis, G. (2016). Incorporating environmental evaluation and thermal properties of concrete mix designs. Construction and Building Materials, 128 422-435.

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


Sheikh, M. Neaz. & LĂŠgeron, F. (2016). A checking method for multiple seismic performance objectives of bridge piers designed according to code provisions. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 20 1148-1168. Song, X., McDonald, J., Price, W. E., Khan, S. J., Hai, F. I., Ngo, H. H., Guo, W. & Nghiem, L. D. (2016). Effects of salinity buildup on the performance of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor regarding basic water quality parameters and removal of trace organic contaminants. Bioresource Technology, 216 399-405. Sun, Q. Deng., Indraratna, B. & Nimbalkar, S. (2016). Deformation and degradation mechanisms of railway ballast under high frequency cyclic loading. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 142 (1), 04015056-104015056-12. Sun, Q., Indraratna, B. & Nimbalkar, S. (2016). An elasto-plastic method for analysing the deformation of the railway ballast. Procedia Engineering, 143 954960. Procedia Engineering Sun, Y., Xiao, Y., Zheng, C. & Hanif, K. Fikry. (2016). Modelling long-term deformation of granular soils incorporating the concept of fractional calculus. Acta Mechanica Sinica, 32 (1), 112-124. Teh, L. H. & Gilbert, B. P. (2016). A buckling model for the stability design of steel columns with intermediate gravity loads. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 117 243-254. Teh, L. H. & Uz, M. E. (2016). Combined bearing and shear-out capacity of structural steel bolted connections. Journal of Structural Engineering, Online first 04016098-1-04016098-7. Teng, J. G., Zhang, S. S. & Chen, J. F. (2016). Strength model for end cover separation failure in RC beams strengthened with near-surface mounted (NSM) FRP strips. Engineering Structures, 110 222-232. Thirukumaran, S. & Indraratna, B. (2016). A review of shear strength models for rock joints subjected to constant normal stiffness. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 8 (3), 405-414. Thirukumaran, S., Indraratna, B., Brown,

To, V., Nguyen, T., Vigneswaran, S., Nghiem, L. Duc., Murthy, S., Bustamante, H. & Higgins, M. (2016). Modified centrifugal technique for determining polymer demand and achievable dry solids content in the dewatering of anaerobically digested sludge. Desalination and Water Treatment, 57 (53), 25509-25519. Waclawik, P., Lubomir, S., Nemcik, J., Konicek, P. & Kalab, T. (2016). Determination of stress state in rock mass using strain gauge probes CCBO. Procedia Engineering, 149 544-552. Wang, A., Ma, L., Wang, Z., Zhang, D., Li, K., Zhang, Y. & Yi, X. (2016). Soil and water conservation in mining area based on ground surface subsidence control: development of a high-water swelling material and its application in backfilling mining. Environmental Earth Sciences, 75 (9), 779-1-779-12. Wang, B., Bosco, G. L., Gilbert, B. P., Guan, H. & Teh, L. H. (2016). Unconstrained shape optimisation of singly-symmetric and open cold-formed steel beams and beam-columns. Thin-Walled Structures, 104 54-61. Wang, B., Gilbert, B. P., Guan, H. & Teh, L. H. (2016). Shape optimisation of manufacturable and usable cold-formed steel singly-symmetric and open columns. Thin-Walled Structures, 109 271-284. Wang, B., Gilbert, B. P., Molinier, A. M., Guan, H. & Teh, L. H. (2016). Shape optimisation of cold-formed steel columns with manufacturing constraints using the Hough transform. Thin-Walled Structures, 106 75-92. Wang, D. Y., Wang, Z. Y., Smith, S. T. & Yu, T. (2016). Size effect on axial stressstrain behavior of CFRP-confined square concrete columns. Construction and Building Materials, 118 116-126. Wang, G., Ren, T., Qi, Q., Wang, K. & Zhang, L. (2016). Mechanism of adsorptiondesorption hysteresis and its influence on deep CBM recovery. Meitan Xuebao/ Journal of the China Coal Society, 41 (1), 49-56. Wang, G., Ren, T., Qi, Q., Zhang, J. & Zhang, L. (2016). Mathematical model of coal seam methane displacement by injecting CO2/nitrogen. Yanshilixue Yu Gongcheng Xuebao/Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, 35 3930-3936. Wang, W., Sheikh, M. Neaz. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2016). Axial compressive behaviour of concrete confined with polymer grid. Materials and Structures, 49 (9), 38933908.

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

Wang, W., Sheikh, M. Neaz. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2016). Experimental study on FRP tube reinforced concrete columns under different loading conditions. Journal of Composites for Construction, 20 (5), 04016034-1-04016034-11. Wickham, R., Galway, B., Bustamante, H. & Nghiem, L. D. (2016). Biomethane potential evaluation of co-digestion of sewage sludge and organic wastes. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 113 3-8. Woo, Y. Chul., Kim, Y., Shim, W., Tijing, L. D., Yao, M., Nghiem, L. D., Choi, J., Kim, S. & Shon, H. Kyong. (2016). Graphene/PVDF flat-sheet membrane for the treatment of RO brine from coal seam gas produced water by air gap membrane distillation. Journal of Membrane Science, 513 74-84. Wu, C., Chen, Q., Basack, S., Xu, R. & Shi, Z. (2016). Biaxial creep test study on the influence of structural anisotropy on rheological behaviour of hard rock. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 28 (10), 04016104-1-04016104-12. Xiao, S. (2016). A simplified approach for stability analysis of slopes reinforced with one row of embedded stabilizing piles. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, Online First 1-12. Xiao, S., He, H. & Zeng, J. (2016). Kinematical limit analysis for a slope reinforced with one row of stabilizing piles. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2016 5463929-1-5463929-15. Xiao, Y., Liu, H., Liu, H. & Sun, Y. (2016). Unified plastic modulus in the bounding surface plasticity model. Science China Technological Sciences, 59 (6), 932-940. Xiao, Y., Liu, H., Sun, Y. & Liu, H. (2016). Modeling of strength and deformation of overconsolidated clays based on bounding surface plasticity. Science China Technological Sciences, 59 (9), 1452-1462. Xiao, Y., Sun, Y., Liu, H. & Yin, F. (2016). Critical state behaviors of a coarse granular soil under generalized stress conditions. Granular Matter, 18 (2), 17-117-13. Xie, S., Hai, F. I., Zhan, X., Guo, W., Ngo, H. H., Price, W. E. & Nghiem, L. D. (2016). Anaerobic co-digestion: a critical review of mathematical modelling for performance optimization. Bioresource Technology, 222 498-512. Xie, S., Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Dwyer, T., Freguia, S., Pikaar, I. & Clarke, W. P. (2016). Effect of biomass concentration on methane oxidation activity using mature compost and graphite granules as substrata. Waste Management, 56 290-297. Yang, S., Hai, F. I., Price, W. E., McDonald, J., Khan, S. J. & Nghiem, L. D. (2016). Occurrence of trace organic contaminants

147

IMPACT

Semblante, G. U., Hai, F. I., Bustamante, H., Price, W. E. & Nghiem, L. D. (2016). Effects of sludge retention time on oxicsettling-anoxic process performance: biosolids reduction and dewatering properties. Bioresource Technology, 218 1187-1194.

E. T. & Kaiser, P. K. (2016). Stability of a rock block in a tunnel roof under constant normal stiffness conditions. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 49 (4), 1587-1593.

PUBLICATIONS

Semblante, G. U., Hai, F. I., Bustamante, H. A., Guevara, N., Price, W. E. & Nghiem, L. D. (2016). Biosolids reduction by the oxic-settling-anoxic process: impact of sludge interchange rate. Bioresource Technology, 210 167-173.


in wastewater sludge and their removals by anaerobic digestion. Bioresource Technology, 210 153-159. Yinlin, J., Ren, T., Wynne, P., Wan, Z., Ma, Z. & Wang, Z. (2016). A comparative study of dust control practices in Chinese and Australian longwall coal mines. International Journal of Mining Science and Technology, 26 (2), 199-208. Yu, T., Hu, Y. M. & Teng, J. G. (2016). Cyclic lateral response of FRP-confined circular concrete-filled steel tubular columns. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 124 12-22. Yu, T., Lin, G. & Zhang, S. S. (2016). Compressive behavior of FRP-confined concrete-encased steel columns. Composite Structures, 154 493-506. Yu, T., Teh, L. H. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2016). High-strength steel plates in hybrid fiber-reinforced polymerâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;concreteâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; steel columns: concept and behavior. Advances in Structural Engineering: an international journal, Online First 1-16. Zhang, J., Liang, Y., Ren, T. X., Wang, Z. & Wang, G. (2016). Transient CFD modelling of low-temperature spontaneous heating behaviour in multiple coal stockpiles with wind forced convection. Fuel Processing Technology, 149 55-74. Zhang, J., Ren, T., Liang, Y. & Wang, Z. (2016). A review on numerical solutions to self-heating of coal stockpile: Mechanism, theoretical basis, and variable study. Fuel, 182 80-109. Zhang, S. S. & Yu, T. (2016). Analytical solution for interaction forces in beams strengthened with near-surface mounted round bars. Construction and Building Materials, 106 189-197. Zhang, Y., Wang, J., Xue, S., Wu, Y., Li, Z. & Chang, L. (2016). Evaluation of the susceptibility of coal to spontaneous combustion by a TG profile subtraction method. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 33 (3), 862-872. Zhang, Y., Zhang, C., Zhang, X., Feng, L., Zhou, Q. & Li, Y. (2016). Waste activated sludge hydrolysis and acidification: a comparison between sodium hydroxide and steel slag addition. Journal of Environmental Sciences (China), 48 200208.

IMPACT

PUBLICATIONS

Zhao, W., Cheng, Y., Jiang, H., Jin, K., Wang, H. & Wang, L. (2016). Role of the rapid gas desorption of coal powders in the development stage of outbursts. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 28 491-501. Zhou, Y., Chen, Q., Chen, F., Xue, X. & Basack, S. (2016). Active earth pressure on translating rigid retaining structures considering soil arching effect. European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, Online First 1-17.

148

BOOK CHAPTERS Hai, F. I.., Nguyen, L. N., Nghiem, L. D., Liao, B., Koyuncu, I. & Price, W. E. (2016). Trace organic contaminants removal by combined processes for wastewater reuse. In D. Fatta-Kassinos, D. D. Dionysiou & K. Kummerer (Eds.), Advanced Treatment Technologies for Urban Wastewater Reuse (pp. 39-77). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. http://link. springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-31923886-9 Nghiem, L. D. & Fujioka, T. (2016). Removal of emerging contaminants for water reuse by membrane technology. In N. P. Hankins & R. Singh (Eds.), Emerging Membrane Technology for Sustainable Water Treatment (pp. 217247). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier. Nghiem, L. D., Hai, F. I., Price, W. E., Wickham, R., Ngo, H. H. & Guo, W. (2016). By-products of anaerobic treatment: methane and digestate from manures and cosubstrates. In D. Lee, V. Jegatheesan, H. H. Ngo & P. C. Hallenbeck (Eds.), Current developments in biotechnology and bioengineering: biological treatment of industrial effluents (pp. 469-484). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier. Ngo, H. H., Guo, W., Tram Vo, T. P., Nghiem, L. D. & Hai, F. I. (2016). Aerobic treatment of effluents from the aquaculture industry. In D. Lee, V. Jegatheesan, H. Huu. Ngo, P. C. Hallenbeck & A. Pandey (Eds.), Current developments in biotechnology and bioengineering: biological treatment of industrial effluents (pp. 35-77). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier. P. Flentje, T. Miner, D. Stirling, D. Palamakumbure & D. Windle, "Landslide inventory and susceptibility zoning across SE Australia," in Developments in Engineering Geology, M. G. Culshaw, M. J. Eggers, J. S. Griffiths & S. Parry, Eds. London, United Kingdom: Geological Society of London, 2016, pp.119-133.

CONFERENCE PUBLICATIONS Algburi, A. H. M., Sheikh, M. Neaz. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2016). Influence of steel, glass and hybrid fibres on the behaviour of reactive powder concrete. In H. Hao & C. Zhang (Eds.), Mechanics of Structures and Materials XXIV: Proceedings of the 24th Australian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials (pp. 493-497). Boca Ratan, United States: CRC Press. Al-Hedad, A. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2016). Flexural behaviour of concrete pavements reinforced with geogrid materials. In H. Hao & C. Zhang (Eds.), Mechanics of Structures and Materials XXIV: Proceedings of the 24th Australian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials (pp. 843-848). Boca Ratan, United States: CRC Press.

Aziz, N. & Mirza, A. (2016). The effect of air column in transport canisters on measured gas contents. In N. Aziz & B. Kininmonth (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2016 Coal Operators' Conference (pp. 357-366). Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia: The University of Wollongong. Aziz, N., Chen, W., Mirzaghorbanli, A. & Yuzhao, J. (2016). The strength properties of fibre glass dowels used for ground control in coal mines. In H. Mitri, S. Shnorhokian, M. Kumral, A. Sasmito & A. Sainoki (Eds.), Operational and Environmental Mine Health and Safety Practice and Innovation: 3rd International Symposium on Mine Safety, Science and Engineering Proceedings (pp. 557-563). Montreal, Canada: McGill University. Aziz, N., Mirza, A. & Nemcik, J. (2016). A follow up to the behaviour of cable bolts in shear; experimental study and mathematical modelling. In E. Nordlund, T. Jones & A. Eitzenberger (Eds.), Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Ground Support in Mining and Underground Construction (pp. 1-8). Lulea, Sweden: Lulea University of Technology. Aziz, N., Mirza, A., Nemcik, J., Li, X., Rasekh, H. & Wang, G. (2016). Load transfer characteristics of plain and spiral cable bolts tested in new non rotating pull testing apparatus. In N. Aziz & B. Kininmonth (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2016 Coal Operators' Conference (pp. 32-39). Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia: The University of Wollongong. Aziz, N., Mirza, A., Nemcik, J., Rasekh, H. & Li, X. (2016). A follow up to study the behaviour of cable bolts in shear: experimental study and mathematical modelling. In N. Aziz & B. Kininmonth (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2016 Coal Operators' Conference (pp. 24-31). Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia: The University of Wollongong. Aziz, N., Mirza, A., Rasekh, H., Nemcik, J. & Li, X. (2016). Behaviour of cable bolts in shear: experiment and mathematical modelling. In H. Mitri, S. Shnorhokian, M. Kumral, A. Sasmito & A. Sainoki (Eds.), Operational and Environmental Mine Health and Safety Practice and Innovation: 3rd International Symposium on Mine Safety, Science and Engineering Proceedings (pp. 432-441). Montreal, Canada: McGill University. Balanji, E. K. Z., Sheikh, M. Neaz. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2016). Behavior of hybrid steel fiber reinforced high strength concrete. In R. Komurlu, A. Gurgun, A. Singh & S. Yazdani (Eds.), Interaction Between Theory and Practice in Civil Engineering and Construction: Proceedings of the First European and Mediterranean Structural Engineering and Construction Conference (pp. 29-34). United States: ISEC Press.

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


Calleja, J. & Nemcik, J. (2016). Coalburst causes and mechanisms. In N. Aziz & B. Kininmonth (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2016 Coal Operators' Conference (pp. 310-320). Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia: The University of Wollongong. Calleja, J. & Porter, I. (2016). Coalburst control methods. In N. Aziz & B. Kininmonth (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2016 Coal Operators' Conference (pp. 321-329). Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia: The University of Wollongong. Farhan, N. A., Sheikh, M. Neaz. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2016). Design of alkali activated concrete using the Taguchi method. In H. Hao & C. Zhang (Eds.), Mechanics of Structures and Materials XXIV: Proceedings of the 24th Australian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials (pp. 465-469). Boca Ratan, United States: CRC Press. Guo, Y., Ma, Z., Al-Jubainawi, A., Cooper, P. & Nghiem, L. D. (2016). Development and performance evaluation of a liquid desiccant air conditioning system with hybrid electrodialysis and thermal regeneration. CLIMA 2016: Proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress (pp. 1-9). Denmark: Aalborg University. Hasan, H., Alhussainy, F., Sheikh, M. Neaz. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2016). Direct tensile test of high strength concrete with and without steel fibres. In H. Hao & C. Zhang (Eds.), Mechanics of Structures and Materials XXIV: Proceedings of the 24th Australian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials (pp. 487-492). Boca Ratan, United States: CRC Press. Heitor, A., Kaliboullah, C. I., Indraratna, B. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2016). Stressdilatancy behaviour of compacted coalwash as a landfill option. In S. Huat. Chan, T. Aun. Ooi, W. Hui. Ting, S. Fatt. Chan & D. Ong (Eds.), Proceedings of the 19th Southeast Asian Geotechnical Conference & 2nd AGSSEA Conference

Indraratna, B. & Nimbalkar, S. (2016). Improved behaviour of railway track substructure using 2D (planar) and 3D (cellular) geo-inclusions. CORE 2016: Maintaining the Momentum (pp. 522531). Melbourne, Australia: Railway Technical Society of Australasia. Kan, M. E. & Taiebat, H. (2016). Static and seismic analyses of the Zipingpu dam using an advanced bounding surface plasticity model. In C. Yoga. Chandran & M. I. Hoit (Eds.), Proceedings: Geotechnical and Structural Engineering Congress (pp. 1555-1566). United States: American Society of Civil Engineers. Mirza, A., Aziz, N., Ye, W. & Nemcik, J. (2016). Mechanical properties of grouts at various curing times. In N. Aziz & B. Kininmonth (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2016 Coal Operators' Conference (pp. 84-90). Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia: The University of Wollongong. Ngo, N. T., Indraratna, B. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2016). Loaddeformation behaviour of a stone column using the coupled DEM-FDM method. In C. Yoga. Chandran & M. I. Hoit (Eds.), Proceedings of the Joint Geotechnical & Structural Engineering Congress 2016 (pp. 1618-1626). United States: American Society of Civil Engineers. Ngo, N., Indraratna, B. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2016). Study on the interface behavior of a geosynthetics-reinforced fouled ballast using the discrete element method. In K. R. Reddy, N. Yesiller, D. Zekkos, A. Farid & A. De (Eds.), GeoChicago 2016: Sustainable Materials and Resource Conservation (pp. 730-738). Reston, United States: American Society of Civil Engineers. Nimbalkar, S. & Indraratna, B. (2016). In-situ performance assessment of ballasted railway track stabilised using geosynthetics and shock mats. In B. M. Lehane, H. E. Acosta-Martinez & R. Kelly (Eds.), Geotechnical and Geophysical Site Characterisation 5 ISC'5: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Geotechnical and Geophysical Site Characterisation 5. Volume 2 (pp. 14111416). St Ives, Australia: Australian Geomechanics Society. Nimbalkar, S., Indraratna, B. & Biabani, M. M. (2016). Deformation and degradation of railroad granular layers under high frequency cyclic loading and the benefits of using geosynthetics. In K. R. Reddy, N. Yesiller, D. Zekkos, A. Farid & A. De (Eds.), Geo-Chicago 2016: Sustainable Materials and Resource Conservation (pp. 222232). Reston, United States: American Society of Civil Engineers. Pathirage, U., Indraratna, B. & Heitor,

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

A. (2016). Soft soil stabilisation through native vegetation along rail corridors. In S. Huat. Chan, T. Aun. Ooi, W. Hui. Ting, S. Fatt. Chan & D. Ong (Eds.), Proceedings of the 19th Southeast Asian Geotechnical Conference & 2nd AGSSEA Conference (19SEAGC & 2AGSSEA) (pp. 529-532). Malaysia: Institution of Engineers, Malaysia. Qin, H. Y. & Guo, W. D. (2016). Evaluation of CPT-based ultimate lateral pile resistance in sand. In B. M. Lehane, H. E. Acosta-Martinez & R. Kelly (Eds.), Geotechnical and Geophysical Site Characterisation 5 ISC'5: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Geotechnical and Geophysical Site Characterisation 5. Volume 2 (pp. 12651270). St Ives, Australia: Australian Geomechanics Society. Remennikov, A. M., Goldston, M. W. & Sheikh, M. Neaz. (2016). Impact resistance of ultra-high strength concrete beams with FRP reinforcement. In J. G. Teng & J. G. Dai (Eds.), Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites in Civil Engineering (CICE 2016) (pp. 1374-1380). Hong Kong, China: The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Saghafi, A. (2016). Determination of the gas content of coal. In N. Aziz & B. Kininmonth (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2016 Coal Operators' Conference (pp. 347-356). Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia: The University of Wollongong. Stanham, Y., McCarthy, T. J. & Stappenbelt, B. (2016). Numerical analysis of a water column and structure heave velocity relationship for a floating oscillating water column wave energy device. The Twenty-sixth (2016) International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference (pp. 678-683). Cupertino, CA, USA: ISOPE. Sun, Q. D., Indraratna, B. & Nimbalkar, S. (2016). The deformation and degradation of granular material under high-frequency cyclic loading. In C. Yoga. Chandran & M. I. Hoit (Eds.), Proceedings of the Joint Geotechnical and Structural Engineering Congress 2016 (pp. 1700-1707). Virginia, United States: American Society of Civil Engineers. Uz, M. E. & Teh, L. H. (2016). Tilt bearing capacity of single-shear single-row bolted connections in cold-formed steel. In A. Zingoni (Ed.), Insights and Innovations in Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation (pp. 1241-1246). Leiden, The Netherlands: CRC Press. Venticinque, G. & Nemcik, J. (2016). Modelling of dynamic fracture propagation in coal pillars using FLAC 2D. In N. Aziz & B. Kininmonth (Eds.),

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Booth, P., Nemcik, J. & Ren, T. (2016). A critical review and new approach for determination of transient gas emission behaviour in underground coal mines. In N. Aziz & B. Kininmonth (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2016 Coal Operators' Conference (pp. 367-379). Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia: The University of Wollongong.

(19SEAGC & 2AGSSEA) (pp. 537-542). Malaysia: Institution of Engineers, Malaysia.

PUBLICATIONS

Balanji, E. K. Z., Sheikh, M. Neaz. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2016). Performance of high strength concrete columns reinforced with hybrid steel fiber under different loading conditions. In R. Komurlu, A. Gurgun, A. Singh & S. Yazdani (Eds.), Interaction Between Theory and Practice in Civil Engineering and Construction: Proceedings of the First European and Mediterranean Structural Engineering and Construction Conference (pp. 35-40). United States: ISEC Press.


Proceedings of the 2016 Coal Operators' Conference (pp. 91-98). Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia: The University of Wollongong.

2015

mitigation. Desalination, 366 113-120. Desalination

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Wilson, L. J., Kouretzis, G. P., Pineda, J. A. & Kelly, R. B. (2016). On the determination of the undrained shear strength from vane shear testing in soft clays. In B. M. Lehane, H. E. Acosta-Martinez & R. Kelly (Eds.), Geotechnical and Geophysical Site Characterisation 5 ISC'5: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Geotechnical and Geophysical Site Characterisation 5. Volume 1 (pp. 455460). Sydney, Australia: Australian Geomechanics Society.

Aziz, N. Heemann, K. Nemcik, J. Mayer, S and Mirzaghorbanali, A (2015), Shear strength properties of Hilti plain and indented strand cable bolts, Canadian Geotechnical journal.

Chen, Q. & Indraratna, B. (2015). Deformation behavior of lignosulfonatetreated sandy silt under cyclic loading. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 141 (1), 06014015-1-06014015-5.

Yang, S. & Balachandar, R. (2016). Determination of velocity distribution and flow resistance in vegetated channel flows. In G. Constantinescu, M. Garcia & D. Hanes (Eds.), River Flow 2016: Proceedings of the International Conference on Fluvial Hydraulics (pp. 2211-2218). Leiden, The Netherlands: CRC Press/Balkema.

Ansari, A. J., Hai, F. I.., Guo, W., Ngo, H. H., Price, W. E. & Nghiem, L. D. (2015). Selection of forward osmosis draw solutes for subsequent integration with anaerobic treatment to facilitate resource recovery from wastewater. Bioresource Technology, 191 30-36.

Yang, S. (2016). Coastal reservoir to supply SE Queensland sufficient freshwater from the sea without desalination. Proceedings of the Twelfth (2016) Pacific-Asia Offshore Mechanics Symposium (pp. 360-365). California, United States: International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers. Youssef, J. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2016). Experimental investigation of GFRP reinforced square concrete columns under axial and eccentric loading. In J. G. Teng & J. G. Dai (Eds.), Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites in Civil Engineering (pp. 1234-1239). Hong Kong, China: The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Yuan, J. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2016). Experimental study on bond behavior between concrete and GFRP pultruded i-section using push-out test. In J. G. Teng & J. G. Dai (Eds.), Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites in Civil Engineering (pp. 1228-1233). Hong Kong, China: The Hong Kong Polytechnic University.

IMPACT

PUBLICATIONS

Zeng, W., Baafi, E., Walker, D. & Cai, D. (2016). A 3D discrete event simulation model of a truck-shovel network system. Proceedings of the Ninth AusIMM Open Pit Operator's Conference (pp. 265-273). Carlton, Australia: The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy.

Abousnina, R. M., Nghiem, L. D. & Bundschuh, J. (2015). Comparison between oily and coal seam gas produced water with respet to quantity, characteritics amd treatment technologies: a review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 54 (7), 1793-1808.

Athukorala, R., Indraratna, B. & Vinod, J. S. (2015). Disturbed state concept-based constitutive model for lignosulfonatetreated silty sand. International Journal of Geomechanics, 15 (6), 04015002-104015002-11. Badge, M. N. & Karekal, S. (2015). Fatigue properties of intact sandstone in pre and post-failure and its implication to vibratory rock cutting. ISRM (India) Journal, 4 (1), 22-27. Banasiak, L. Joan., Indraratna, B., Lugg, G., Pathirage, U., McIntosh, G. & Neil Rendell, N. (2015). Permeable reactive barrier rejuvenation by alkaline wastewater. Environmental Geotechnics, 2 (1), 45-55. Basack, S. (2015). Design recommendations for pile subjected to cyclic load. Marine Georesources and Geotechnology, 33 (4), 283-287. Biabani, M. Mahdi. & Indraratna, B. (2015). An evaluation of the interface behaviour of rail subballast stabilised with geogrids and geomembranes. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 43 (3), 240-249. Chen, C., Indraratna, B., McDowell, G. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2015). Discrete element modelling of lateral displacement of a granular assembly under cyclic loading. Computers and Geotechnics, 69 474-484. Chen, G., Hadi, M. N. S., Gao, D. & Zhao, L. (2015). Experimental study on the properties of corroded steel fibres. Construction and Building Materials, 79 165-172. Chen, G., Wang, Z., Nghiem, L. D., Li, X., Xie, M., Zhao, B., Zhang, M., Song, J. & He, T. (2015). Treatment of shale gas drilling flowback fluids (SGDFs) by forward osmosis: membrane fouling and

150

Chen, Q. & Indraratna, B. (2015). Shear behaviour of sandy silt treated with lignosulfonate. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 52 (8), 1180-1185. Chen, Q., Xiong, H. & Gao, G. (2015). A computational model for equivalent cyclic number of multidirectional earthquake loading. Rock and Soil Mechanics, 36 (12), 3345-3359. Chen, R., Sun, Y., Zhu, B. & Guo, W. (2015). Lateral cyclic pileâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;soil interaction studies on a rigid model monopile. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Geotechnical Engineering, 168 (2), 120130. Chiaro, G., Indraratna, B. & Tasalloti, S. Ali. (2015). Predicting the behaviour of coal wash and steel slag mixtures under triaxial conditions. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 52 (3), 367-373. Chiaro, G., Indraratna, B., Tasalloti, S. Ali. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2015). Optimisation of coal washâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;slag blend as a structural fill. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Ground Improvement, 168 (GI1), 33-44. Dang, H., Price, W. E. & Nghiem, L. Duc. (2015). Rejection and adsorption behaviour of phytoestrogens by nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes. Desalination and Water Treatment, 54 (4-5), 890-899. Duong, H. C., Chivas, A. R., Nelemans, B., Duke, M., Gray, S., Cath, T. Y. & Nghiem, L. D. (2015). Treatment of RO brine from CSG produced water by spiral-wound air gap membrane distillation - a pilot study. Desalination, 366 121-129. Duong, H. C., Cooper, P., Nelemans, B., Cath, T. Y. & Nghiem, L. D. (2015). Optimising thermal efficiency of direct contact membrane distillation by brine recycling for small-scale seawater desalination. Desalination, 374 1-9. Duong, H. C., Gray, S., Duke, M., Cath, T. Y. & Nghiem, L. D. (2015). Scaling control during membrane distillation of coal seam gas reverse osmosis brine. Journal of Membrane Science, 493 673-682. Ferdous, W., Manalo, A., Van Erp, G., Aravinthan, T., Kaewunruen, S. & Remennikov, A. (2015). Composite railway sleepers - recent developments, challenges and future prospects. Composite Structures, 134 158-168. Fernando, D., Yu, T. & Teng, J. G. (2015). Behavior and modeling of CFRP-

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


Fujioka, T. & Nghiem, L. D. (2015). Fouling control of a ceramic microfiltration membrane for direct sewer mining by backwashing with ozonated water. Separation and Purification Technology, 142 268-273.

Guo, W. (2015). Nonlinear response of laterally loaded rigid piles in sliding soil. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 52 (7), 903-925.

Fujioka, T. & Nghiem, L. D. (2015). Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy as a tool for further insights into the transport of water and solutes during reverse osmosis. Journal of the Japanese Positron Society, 4 (2015), 43-48. Fujioka, T., Khan, S. J., McDonald, J. A. & Nghiem, L. D. (2015). Rejection of trace organic chemicals by a hollow fibre cellulose triacetate reverse osmosis membrane. Desalination, 368 69-75. Fujioka, T., Khan, S. J., McDonald, J. A. & Nghiem, L. D. (2015). Rejection of trace organic chemicals by a nanofiltration membrane: the role of molecular properties and effects of caustic cleaning. Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, 1 846-854. Fujioka, T., Khan, S. J., McDonald, J. A. & Nghiem, L. D. (2015). Validating the rejection of trace organic chemicals by reverse osmosis membranes using a pilotscale system. Desalination, 358 18-26. Fujioka, T., Oshima, N., Suzuki, R., Higgins, M., Price, W. E., Henderson, R. K. & Nghiem, L. D. (2015). Effect of heat treatment on fouling resistance and the rejection of small and neutral solutes by reverse osmosis membranes. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 15 (3), 510-516. Fujioka, T., Oshima, N., Suzuki, R., Price, W. E. & Nghiem, L. D. (2015). Probing the internal structure of reverse osmosis membranes by positron annihilation spectroscopy: gaining more insight into the transport of water and small solutes. Journal of Membrane Science, 486 106118. Ganesalingam, D., Read, W. & Sivakugan, N. (2015). Radial consolidation of soil layer under truncated cone fill. Environmental Geotechnics, 2 (EG1), 56-62. Gao, D., Chen, G., Hadi, M. Najib Sadraddin ., Zhao, L., Wang, W. & Li, C. (2015). Bondslip behavior and constitutive model between rebar and steel fibre reinforced concrete. Jianzhu Jiegou Xuebao/Journal of Building Structures, 36 (7), 132-139. Gao, G., Shi, C. & Chen, Q. (2015). A predictive model on equivalent number of strain cycles for earthquake loads. Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 37 (11), 1-5.

Hadi, M. N. S. & Uz, M. (2015). Investigating the optimal passive and active vibration controls of adjacent buildings based on performance indices using genetic algorithms. Engineering Optimization, 47 (2), 265-286. Hadi, M. N. S., Wang, W. & Sheikh, M. Neaz. (2015). Axial compressive behaviour of GFRP tube reinforced concrete columns. Construction and Building Materials, 81 198-207. Han, Y., Yang, S., Dharmasiri, N. & Sivakumar, M. (2015). Experimental study of smooth channel flow division based on velocity distribution. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 141 (4), 06014025-1-06014025-6. Hao, X., Fan, W., Shan, Z. & Liu, P. (2015). An integrated approach for the prediction of underground-induced strata movement over longwall coal mining panels. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering: an international journal, 33 (3), 681-692. Heffernan, E., Pan, W., Liang, X. & de Wilde, P. (2015). Zero carbon homes: Perceptions from the UK construction industry. Energy Policy, 79 23-36. Heitor, A., Indraratna, B. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2015). The role of compaction energy on the small strain properties of a compacted silty sand subjected to drying – wetting cycles. Geotechnique: international journal of soil mechanics, 65 (9), 717-727. Hilgers, G., Bug, M. U., Gargioni, E. & Rabus, H. (2015). Secondary ionisations in a wall-less ion-counting nanodosimeter: quantitative analysis and the effect on the comparison of measured and simulated track structure parameters in nanometric volumes. European Physical Journal D: Atomic, Molecular, Optical and Plasma Physics, 69 (10), 1-18. Horpibulsuk, S. & Liu, M. D. (2015). Structured cam clay model with cementation effect. Geotechnical Engineering, 46 (1), 86-94. Hu, G., Xu, J., Ren, T., Gu, C., Qin, W. & Wang, Z. (2015). Adjacent seam pressurerelief gas drainage technique based on ground movement for initial mining phase of longwall face. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 77 237-245. Hussaini, S., Indraratna, B. & Vinod, J. S.

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

(2015). Application of optical-Fiber Bragg Grating sensors in monitoring the rail track deformations. Geotechnical Testing Journal, 38 (4), 387-396. Indraratna, B., Biabani, M. & Nimbalkar, S. (2015). Closure to “Behaviour of geocell reinforced subballast subjected to cyclic loading in plane strain condition”. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 141 (6), 07015028-107015028-2. Indraratna, B., Biabani, M. Mahdi. & Nimbalkar, S. (2015). Behavior of geocellreinforced subballast subjected to cyclic loading in plane-strain condition. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 141 (1), 04014081-104014081-16. Indraratna, B., Heitor, A. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2015). Ground improvement methods for port infrastructure expansion. Geotechnical Engineering, 46 (3), 125-130. Indraratna, B., Israr, J. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2015). Geometrical method for evaluating the internal instability of granular filters based on constriction size distribution. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 141 (10), 04015045-1-04015045-14. Indraratna, B., Kumara, C., Zhu , S. & Sloan, S. (2015). Mathematical modeling and experimental verification of fluid flow through deformable rough rock joints. International Journal of Geomechanics, 15 (4), 04014065-1-04014065-11. Indraratna, B., Ngo, N. Trung., Rujikiatkamjorn, C. & Sloan, S. W. (2015). Coupled discrete element–finite difference method for analysing the load-deformation behaviour of a single stone column in soft soil. Computers and Geotechnics, 63 267-278. Indraratna, B., Ni, J., Rujikiatkamjorn, C. & Zhong, R. (2015). A partially drained model for soft soils under cyclic loading considering cyclic parameter degradation. Australian Geomechanics Journal, 50 (4), 89-95. Indraratna, B., Pathirage, U. & Banasiak, L. (2015). A review of acidic groundwater remediation in the Shoalhaven floodplain in Australia. Geotechnical Engineering, 46 (4), 41-46. Indraratna, B., Perera, D., Rujikiatkamjorn, C. & Kelly, R. (2015). Soil disturbance analysis due to vertical drain installation. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Geotechnical Engineering, 168 (3), 236-246. Indraratna, B., Sun, Q. & Nimbalkar, S. (2015). Observed and predicted behaviour of rail ballast under monotonic loading capturing particle breakage. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 52 (1), 73-86.

151

IMPACT

Guo, W. (2015). Nonlinear response of lateral piles with compatible cap stiffness and p-multiplier. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 141 (9), 06015002-106015002-11.

PUBLICATIONS

strengthened rectangular steel tubes subjected to a transverse end bearing load. International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics, 15 (8), 1540031-11540031-24.


Indraratna, B., Thirukumaran, S., Brown, E. T. & Zhu , S. (2015). Modelling the shear behaviour of rock joints with asperity damage under constant normal stiffness. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 48 (1), 179-195. Ju, J., Xu, J. & Shan, Z. (2015). Mechanisms of the abnormal first weighting in â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;knife handle shaped faceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; with 7.0 m high supports. International Journal of Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, 9 (3), 348-358. Karimullah Hussaini, S. Khaja., Indraratna, B. & Vinod, J. S. (2015). Performance assessment of geogridreinforced railroad ballast during cyclic loading. Transportation Geotechnics, 2 99-107. Transportation Geotechnics Kianfar, K., Indraratna, B., Rujikiatkamjorn, C. & Leroueil, S. (2015). Radial consolidation response upon the application and removal of vacuum and fill loading. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 52 (12), 2156-2162. Li, K., Safavi-Naeini, M., Franklin, D. R., Han, Z., Rosenfeld, A. B., Hutton, B. & Lerch, M. L. F. (2015). A new virtual ring-based system matrix generator for iterative image reconstruction in high resolution small volume PET systems. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 60 (17), 6949-6973. Li, X., Nemcik, J., Mirzaghorbanali, A., Aziz, N. & Rasekh, H. (2015). Analytical model of shear behaviour of a fully grouted cable bolt subjected to shearing. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 80 31-39. Liu, H., Chen, L., Davar, Z. & pour, M. Ramezanian. (2015). Insecurity of an efficient privacy-preserving public auditing scheme for cloud data storage. Journal of Universal Computer Science, 21 (3), 473-482. Liu, M. D., Horpibulsuk, S. & Du, Y. J. (2015). A framework for the destructuring of clays during compression. Geotechnical Engineering, 46 (4), 96-101. Liu, Y., Wei, J., Ren, T. X. & Lu, Z. (2015). Experimental study of flow field structure of interrupted pulsed water jet and breakage of hard rock. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 78 253-261.

IMPACT

PUBLICATIONS

Lu, M., Wang, S., Sloan, S. W., Indraratna, B. & Xie, K. (2015). Nonlinear radial consolidation of vertical drains under a general time-variable loading. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 39 (1), 51-62. Luo, T. & Cao, C. (2015). Simulation and effects analysis of region models for interior fire hazard. Journal of Construction, 14 (1), 47-52. Luo, T., Wang, S., Liu, X., Zou, Z. & Cao, C.

152

(2015). Stability analysis of tunnel-slope coupling based on genetic algorithm. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review, 8 (3), 65-70. Luo, W., Hai, F. I., Kang, J., Price, W. E., Guo, W., Ngo, H. H., Yamamoto, K. & Nghiem, L. D. (2015). Effects of salinity build-up on biomass characteristics and trace organic chemical removal: Implications on the development of high retention membrane bioreactors. Bioresource Technology, 177 274-281. Luo, W., Hai, F. I.., Kang, J., Price, W. E., Nghiem, L. D. & Elimelech, M. (2015). The role of forward osmosis and microfiltration in an integrated osmoticmicrofiltration membrane bioreactor system. Chemosphere, 136 125-132. Luo, W., Hai, F. I.., Price, W. E. & Nghiem, L. D. (2015). Water extraction from mixed liquor of an aerobic bioreactor by forward osmosis: membrane fouling and biomass characteristics assessment. Separation and Purification Technology, 145 55-62. Luo, Y., Jiang, Q., Ngo, H. H., Nghiem, L. D., Hai, F. I.., Price, W. E., Wang, J. & Guo, W. (2015). Evaluation of micropollutant removal and fouling reduction in a hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor system. Bioresource Technology, 191 355-359. Ma S, Nemcik J, Aziz N, Zhang Z. Numerical Modeling of Fully Grouted Rockbolts Reaching Free-End Slip. International Journal of Geomechanics. 2015:04015020. Mashiri, M. S., Vinod, J. S., Sheikh, M. Neaz. & Tsang, H. (2015). Shear strength and dilatancy behaviour of sand-tyre chip mixtures. Soils and Foundations, 55 (3), 517-528. Nghiem, L. D., Elters, C., Simon, A., Tatsuya, T. & Price, W. (2015). Coal seam gas produced water treatment by ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and multieffect distillation: a pilot study. Separation and Purification Technology, 146 94-100. Ngo, N. T., Rujikiatkamjorn, C. & Indraratna, B. (2015). Experimental investigation of coal-fouled ballast stabilised with geogrid. Australian Geomechanics Journal, 50 (4), 105-112. Ngo, N., Indraratna, B. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2015). Investigating the shear behaviour of fouled ballast using discrete element modelling. International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering, 9 (12), 1542-1546. Ngo, T. D., Mohotti, D., Remennikov, A. & Uy, B. (2015). Numerical simulations of response of tubular steel beams to close-range explosions. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 105 151163.

Nguyen, L. N., Hai, F. I., Price, W. E., Kang, J., Leusch, F. D.L ., Roddick, F., van de Merwe, J. P., Magram, S. F. & Nghiem, L. D. (2015). Degradation of a broad spectrum of trace organic contaminants by an enzymatic membrane reactor: complementary role of membrane retention and enzymatic degradation. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 99 115-122. Ni, J., Indraratna, B., Geng, X., Carter, J. Philip. & Chen, Y. (2015). Model of soft soils under cyclic loading. International Journal of Geomechanics, 15 (4), 04014067-1-04014067-10. Palamakumbure, D., Flentje, P. & Stirling, D. (2015). Consideration of optimal pixel resolution in deriving landslide susceptibility zoning within the Sydney Basin. Computers and Geosciences, 82 13-22. Patel, V. Ishvarbhai., Liang, Q. Quan. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2015). Biaxially loaded high-strength concrete-filled steel tubular slender beam-columns, part II: parametric study. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 110 200-207. Pathirage, U. & Indraratna, B. (2015). Assessment of optimum width and longevity of a permeable reactive barrier installed in an acid sulfate soil terrain. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 52 (7), 999-1004. Pathirage, U. & Indraratna, B. (2015). Modelling the performance of a permeable reactive barrier utilised to reduce the risk of acidic groundwater in the Shoalhaven Floodplain. Australian Geomechanics Journal, 50 (4), 13-20. Pham, T. M., Hadi, M. N. S. & Tran, T. M. (2015). Maximum usable strain of FRPconfined concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 83 119-127. Pham, T. M., Hadi, M. N. S. & Youssef, J. (2015). Optimized FRP wrapping schemes for circular concrete columns under axial compression. Journal of Composites for Construction, 19 (6), 04015015-104015015-10. Phan, H. V., Hai, F. I., McDonald, J. A., Khan, S. J., Van De Merwe, J. P., Leusch, F. D. L., Zhang, R., Price, W. E., Broeckmann, A. & Nghiem, L. D. (2015). Impact of hazardous events on the removal of nutrients and trace organic contaminants by an anoxicaerobic membrane bioreactor receiving real wastewater. Bioresource Technology, 192 192-201. Phan, H. V., Hai, F. I., McDonald, J. A., Khan, S. J., Zhang, R., Price, W. E., Broeckmann, A. & Nghiem, L. D. (2015). Nutrient and trace organic contaminant removal from wastewater of a resort town: comparison between a pilot and a full scale membrane bioreactor. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 102 40-48.

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


Rajesh, S., Choudhary, K. & Chandra, S. (2015). A generalized model for geosynthetic reinforced railway tracks resting on soft clays. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 39 (3), 310-326. Ramakrishna, M., Rao, B., Krishna, T. & Ren, T. (2015). Inertisation options for BG method and optimisation using CFD modelling. International Journal of Mining Science and Technology, 25 (3), 401-405. Ramezanianpour, M. & Sivakumar, M. (2015). Energy evaluation and treatment efficiency of vacuum membrane distillation for brackish water desalination. Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination, 5 (2), 119-131. Rao, P., Chen, Q., Zhou, Y., Nimbalkar, S. & Chiaro, G. (2015). Determination of active earth pressure on rigid retaining wall considering arching effect in cohesive backfill soil. International Journal of Geomechanics, Online First 04015082-104015082-9. Remennikov, A. M. & Kaewunruen, S. (2015). Determination of prestressing force in railway concrete sleepers using dynamic relaxation technique. Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 29 (5), 04014134-1-04014134-7. Remennikov, A., Mentus, I. & Uy, B. (2015). Explosive breaching of walls with contact charges: theory and applications. International Journal of Protective Structures, 6 (4), 629-647. International Journal of Protective Structures Ren, T. & Wang, F. Tian. (2015). Gas reservoir simulation for enhanced gas recovery with nitrogen injection in low permeability coal seams. International Journal of Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, 10 (3), 272-292. Rujikiatkamjorn, C. & Indraratna, B. (2015). Analytical solution for radial consolidation considering soil structure characteristics. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 52 (7), 947-960. Rujikiatkamjorn, C. & Indraratna, B. (2015). Briefing: effect of drain installation patterns on rate of consolidation. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Ground Improvement, 168 (4), 236-245. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Ground Improvement

Saghafi, A. & Pinetown, K. L. (2015). A new method to determine the depth of the de-stressed gas-emitting zone in the underburden of a longwall coal mine. International Journal of Coal Geology, 152 (Part A), 156-164. Semblante, G. U., Hai, F. I., Bustamante, H., Guevara, N., Price, W. E. & Nghiem, L. D. (2015). Effects of iron salt addition on biosolids reduction by oxic-settlinganoxic (OSA) process. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 104 391-400. Semblante, G. U., Hai, F. I., Huang, X., Ball, A. s., Price, W. E. & Nghiem, L. D. (2015). Trace organic contaminants in biosolids: impact of conventional wastewater and sludge processing technologies and emerging alternatives. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 300 1-17. Sharafi, P., Hadi, M. N. S. & Teh, L. H. (2015). Closure to “geometric design optimization for dynamic response problems of continuous reinforced concrete beams” by P. Sharafi, M. N. S. Hadi, and Lip H. Teh. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, 29 (1), 07014003-1-07014003-1. Sharafi, P., Teh, L. H. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2015). Conceptual design optimization of rectilinear building frames: a knapsack problem approach. Engineering Optimization, 47 (10), 1303-1323. Shi, W., Chen, Q., Nimbalkar, S. & Liu, W. (2015). A new mixing technique for solidifier and dredged fill in coastal area. Marine Georesources and Geotechnology, Online First 1-32. Sitharam, T. & Vinod, J. S. (2015). Nepal earthquake of April 25, 2015. International Journal of Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, 6 (1), 81-90. Sivakumar, M., Ramezanianpour, M. & O’Halloran, G. (2015). Brackish water treatment for reuse using vacuum membrane distillation process. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 15 (2), 362-369. Skouteris, G., Saroj, D., Melidis, P., Hai, F. I.. & Ouki, S. (2015). The effect of activated carbon addition on membrane bioreactor processes for wastewater treatment and reclamation - a critical review. Bioresource Technology, 185 399-410. Strong, P. J., Xie, S. & Clarke, W. P. (2015). Methane as a resource: can the methanotrophs add value?. Environmental Science and Technology

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

(Washington), 49 (7), 4001-4018. Suebsuk, J., Horpibulsuk, S. & Liu, M. D. (2015). Finite element analysis of the non-uniform behavior of structured clay under shear. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, Online First 1-14. Sun, Y., Xiao, Y. & Hanif, K. Fikry. (2015). Compressibility dependence on grain size distribution and relative density in sands. Science China. Technological Sciences, 58 (3), 443-448. Sun, Y., Xiao, Y. & Hanif, K. Fikry. (2015). Fractional order modelling of the cumulative deformation of granular soils under cyclic loading. Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica, 28 (6), 647-658. Tasalloti, S. M. A., Indraratna, B., Rujikiatkamjorn, C., Heitor, A. & Chiaro, G. (2015). A laboratory study on the shear behavior of mixtures of coal wash and steel furnace slag as potential structural fill. Geotechnical Testing Journal, 38 (4), 361-372. Teh, L. H. & Uz, M. (2015). Ultimate shear-out capacities of structural steel bolted connections. Journal of Structural Engineering, 141 (6), 04014152-104014152-9. Teh, L. H. & Uz, M. E. (2015). Block shear failure planes of bolted connections - direct experimental verifications. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 111 70-74. Teng, J. G., Fernando, D. & Yu, T. (2015). Finite element modelling of debonding failures in steel beams flexurally strengthened with CFRP laminates. Engineering Structures, 86 213-224. Engineering Structures Teng, J. G., Lin, G. & Yu, T. (2015). Analysisoriented stress-strain model for concrete under combined FRP-steel confinement. Journal of Composites for Construction, 19 (5), 04014084-1-04014084-14. Teng, J. G., Xiao, Q. G., Yu, T. & Lam, L. (2015). Three-dimensional finite element analysis of reinforced concrete columns with FRP and/or steel confinement. Engineering Structures, 97 15-28. Tennakoon, N., Indraratna, B., Nimbalkar, S. & Sloan, S. W. (2015). Application of bounding surface plasticity concept for clay-fouled ballast under drained loading. Computers and Geotechnics, 70 96-105. Tu, K. L., Chivas, A. R. & Nghiem, L. D. (2015). Chemical cleaning effects on properties and separation efficiency of an RO membrane. Membrane Water Treatment, 6 (2), 141-160. Vinod, J. S. & Sridharan, A. (2015). Laboratory determination of coefficient of consolidation from pore water pressure measurement. Geotechnique Letters, 5 (4), 294-298. Walker, R. T. R . & Indraratna, B. (2015).

153

IMPACT

Qiao, Q., Nemcik, J., Porter, I. & Baafi, E. (2015). Laboratory tests on thin spray-on liner penetrated rock joints in direct shear. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 48 (5), 2173-2177.

Safavi-Naeini, M., Han, Z., Alnaghy, S., Cutajar, D., Petasecca, M., Lerch, M. L. F., Franklin, D. R., Bucci, J., Carrara, M., Zaider, M. & Rosenfeld, A. B. (2015). BrachyView, a novel in-body imaging system for HDR prostate brachytherapy: Experimental evaluation. Medical Physics, 42 (12), 7098-7107.

PUBLICATIONS

Qiao, Q., Nemcik, J. & Porter, I. (2015). A new approach for determination of the shear bond strength of thin sprayon liners. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 73 54-61.


Application of spectral Galerkin method for multilayer consolidation of soft soils stabilised by vertical drains or stone columns. Computers and Geotechnics, 69 529-539. Wang, L., Ren, T., Nie, B., Chen, Y., Lv, C., Tang, H. & Zhang, J. (2015). Development of a spontaneous combustion TARPs system based on BP neural network. International Journal of Mining Science and Technology, 25 (5), 803-810. Wang, S., Li, N., Li, C. & Cao, C. (2015). Distribution characteristics analysis of pressure-arch in horizontal stratified rocks under coal mining conditions | Analiza karakteristika raspodjele tlaka stropa u horizontalno slojevitim stijenama u uvjetima iskapanja ugljena. Tehnicki Vjesnik, 22 (4), 997-1004. Wang, W., Sheikh, M. Neaz. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2015). Behaviour of perforated GFRP tubes under axial compression. ThinWalled Structures, 95 88-100. Wijekoon, K. C., McDonald, J. A., Khan, S. J., Hai, F. I.., Price, W. E. & Nghiem, L. D. (2015). Development of a predictive framework to assess the removal of trace organic chemicals by anaerobic membrane bioreactor. Bioresource Technology, 189 391-398. Xiao, P., Nghiem, L., Yin, Y., Li, X., Zhang, M., Chen, G., Song, J. & He, T. (2015). A sacrificial-layer approach to fabricate polysulfone support for forward osmosis thin-film composite membranes with reduced internal concentration polarisation. Journal of Membrane Science, 481 106-114. Xiao, Y., Liu, H., Sun, Y., Liu, H. & Chen, Y. (2015). Stress-dilatancy behaviors of coarse granular soils in three-dimensional stress space. Engineering Geology, 195 104-110. Xiao, Y., Sun, Y. & Hanif, K. Fikry. (2015). A particle-breakage critical state model for rockfill material. Science China. Technological Sciences, 58 (7), 1125-1136. Xie, M., Bar-Zeev, E., Hashmi, S. M., Nghiem, L. D. & Elimelech, M. (2015). Role of reverse divalent cation diffusion in forward osmosis biofouling. Environmental Science and Technology (Washington), 49 (22), 13222-13229.

IMPACT

PUBLICATIONS

Xie, M., Lee, J., Nghiem, L. D. & Elimelech, M. (2015). Role of pressure in organic fouling in forward osmosis and reverse osmosis. Journal of Membrane Science, 493 748-754. Xie, M., Zheng, M., Cooper, P., Price, W. E., Nghiem, L. D. & Elimelech, M. (2015). Osmotic dilution for sustainable greenwall irrigation by liquid fertilizer: Performance and implications. Journal of Membrane Science, 494 32-38. Xie, S., Strong, P. J., Clarke, W. P. &

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Ma, Y. (2015). Fluctuation of dissolved heavy metal concentrations in the leachate from anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste in commercial scale landfill bioreactors: the effect of pH and associated mechanisms. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 299 577-583. Xuwei Li, Nemick, J, Mirzaghorbanali, A, Aziz, N, and Rasekh, H (2015). Analytical model of shear behaviour of a fully grouted cable bolt subjected to shearing, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, Science Direct, December pp 31-39. Yang, S. (2015). A preliminary feasibility study for a backup water supply-coastal reservoir in Southeast Queensland, Australia. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology Aqua, 64 (4), 470-485. Yu, T., Zhang, B. & Teng, J. G. (2015). Unified cyclic stress-strain model for normal and high strength concrete confined with FRP. Engineering Structures, 102 189-201. Yuan, J., Yang, Q., Zhang, Z., Li, G., Luo, W. & Zhang, D. (2015). Use of additive and pretreatment to control odors in municipal kitchen waste during aerobic composting. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 37 83-90. Zhang L, Aziz, N, Ren T, Nemcik, Tu, Shihao (2015). Nitrogen injection to flush coal seam gas out of coal: an experimental study, Archives of Mining Science, Vol 60, No 4 pp 1013-1028, http://mining. archives.pl. Zhang, B., Teng, J. G. & Yu, T. (2015). Experimental behavior of hybrid FRPconcrete-steel double-skin tubular columns under combined axial compression and cyclic lateral loading. Engineering Structures, 99 214-231. Zhang, B., Yu, T. & Teng, J. G. (2015). Behavior of concrete-filled FRP tubes under cyclic axial compression. Journal of Composites for Construction, 19 (3), 04014060-1-04014060-13. Zhang, L., Aziz, N., Ren, T., Nemcik, J. & Tu, S. (2015). Nitrogen injection to flush coal seam gas out of coal: an experimental study. Archives of Mining Sciences, 60 (4), 1013-1028. Zhang, S. S. & Teng, J. G. (2015). End cover separation in RC beams strengthened in flexure with bonded FRP reinforcement: simplified finite element approach. Materials and Structures, Online First 1-14. Zhang, Z., Nemcik, J., Qiao, Q. & Geng, X. (2015). A model for water flow through rock fractures based on friction factor. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 48 (2), 559-571. Zhao, J. L., Yu, T. & Teng, J. G. (2015).

Stress-strain behavior of FRP-confined recycled aggregate concrete. Journal of Composites for Construction, 19 (3), 04014054-1-04014054-11. Zhu, B., Sun, Y. X., Chen, R. P., Guo, W. D. & Yang, Y. Y. (2015). Experimental and analytical models on laterally loaded rigid monopiles with hardening p-y curves. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, 141 (6), 04015007-104015007-11. Zuthi, M. F. R., Ngo, H. H., Guo, W. S., Nghiem, L. D., Hai, F. I., Xia, S. Q., Zhang, Z. Q. & Li, J. X. (2015). Biomass viability: an experimental study and the development of an empirical mathematical model for submerged membrane bioreactor. Bioresource Technology, 190 352-358.

BOOK CHAPTERS Patel, V. Ishvarbhai., Liang, Q. Quan. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2015). Nonlinear Analysis of Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Columns. Germany: Scholarâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Press. https://www. scholars-press.com/catalog/details// store/gb/ book/978-3-639-66536-9/ nonlinear-analysis-of-concrete-filledsteel-tubular-columns Basack, S., Indraratna, B., Rujikiatkamjorn, C. & Siahaan, F. (2015). Theoretical and numerical perspectives on performance of stone-columnimproved soft ground with reference to transport infrastructure. In B. Indraratna, J. Chu & C. Rujikiatkamjorn (Eds.), Ground Improvement Case Histories: Embankments with Special Reference to Consolidation and Other Physical Methods (pp. 751-795). Oxford, United Kingdom: Butterworth Heinemann. Fatahi, B., Pathirage, U., Indraratna, B., Pallewattha, M. & Khabbaz, H. (2015). The role of native vegetation in stabilizing formation soil for transport corridors: an Australian experience. In B. Indraratna, J. Chu & C. Rujikiatkamjorn (Eds.), Ground Improvement Case Histories: Chemical, Electrokinetic, Thermal and Bioengineering (pp. 591-628). Oxford, United Kingdom: Butterworth Heinemann. Flentje, P., Palamakumbure, D. & Thompson, J. (2015). Assessing rockfall along the Illawarra Escarpment. In G. Lollino, D. Giordian, G. Crosta, J. Corominas, R. Azzam, J. Wasowski & N. Sciarra (Eds.), Engineering Geology for Society and Territory - Volume 2 (pp. 2031-2036). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. http://www. springer.com/us/book/9783319090566 Hai, F. I., Fattah, K. P., Saroj, D. P. & Moreira, M. T. (2015). Membrane reactors for bioethanol production and processing. In A. Basile, L. Di Paola, F. I. Hai & V. Piemonte (Eds.), Membrane Reactors for Energy Applications and Basic Chemical

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


Indraratna, B. & Nimbalkar, S. (2015). An Australian perspective on modernization of rail tracks using geosynthetics and shockmats. In B. Indraratna, J. Chu & C. Rujikiatkamjorn (Eds.), Ground Improvement Case Histories: Compaction, Grouting, and Geosynthetics (pp. 583-608). United Kingdom: Elsevier. Indraratna, B. (2015). Recent advances in soft soil consolidation. In B. Indraratna, J. Chu & C. Rujikiatkamjorn (Eds.), Ground Improvement Case Histories: Embankments with Special Reference to Consolidation and Other Physical Methods (pp. 3-32). Oxford, United Kingdom: Butterworth Heinemann. Indraratna, B., Rujikiatkamjorn, C., Balasubramaniam, A. S. & Wijeyakulasuriya, V. (2015). Predictions and observations of soft clay foundations stabilized with geosynthetic drains and vacuum surcharge. In B. Indraratna, J. Chu & C. Rujikiatkamjorn (Eds.), Ground Improvement Case Histories: Embankments with Special Reference to Consolidation and Other Physical Methods (pp. 209-240). Oxford, United Kingdom: Butterworth Heinemann. Indraratna, B., Sathananthan, I., Bamunawita, C. & Balasubramaniam, A. S. (2015). Theoretical and numerical perspectives and field observations for the design and performance evaluation of embankments constructed on soft marine clay. In B. Indraratna, J. Chu & C. Rujikiatkamjorn (Eds.), Ground Improvement Case Histories: Embankments with Special Reference to Consolidation and Other Physical Methods (pp. 83-122). Oxford, United Kingdom: Butterworth Heinemann. Miner, A. S., Paul, D. R., Parry, S. & Flentje, P. (2015). What does hazard mean? Seeking to provide further clarification to commonly used landslide terminology. In G. Lollino, D. Giordian, G. Crosta, J. Corominas, R. Azzam, J. Wasowski & N. Sciarra (Eds.), Engineering Geology for Society and Territory - Volume 2 (pp. 1789-1792). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. Palamakumbure, D., Stirling, D., Flentje, P. & Chowdhury, R. (2015). ArcGIS v.10 Landslide Susceptibility Data Mining add-in tool integrating data mining and GIS techniques to model landslide

Pathirage, U., Banasiak, L., Indraratna, B. & Lugg, G. (2015). Numerical modeling of clogging in a permeable reactive barrier and rejuvenation by alkaline fluid injection in the Shoalhaven Floodplain, Australia. In B. Indraratna, J. Chu & C. Rujikiatkamjorn (Eds.), Ground Improvement Case Histories: Chemical, Electrokinetic, Thermal and Bioengineering (pp. 205-238). Oxford, United Kingdom: Butterworth Heinemann. Ramezanianpour, M. & Sivakumar, M. (2015). Min water treatment techniques and the application of vacuum membrane distillation. In M. E. Jarvie-Eggart (Eds.), Responsible Mining: Case Studies in Managing Social & Environmental Risks in the Developed World (pp. 461-488). Englewood, United States: Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration Inc. Xie, M., Nghiem, L. D., He, T. & Price, W. E. (2015). Removal of emerging trace organic chemicals by forward osmosis. In H. Shon, S. Phuntsho, T. C. Zhang & R. Y. Surampalli (Eds.), Forward Osmosis: Fundamentals and Applications (pp. 363394). Virginia, United States: ASCE.

CONFERENCE PUBLICATIONS Athukorala, R., Indraratna, B. & Vinod, J. S. (2015). A constitutive model for lignosulfonate treated silty sand. In A. Kulathilaka, K. Senanayake, J. S. M. Fowze, N. Priyankara, P. Rathnaweera, U. Nawagamuwa & N. De Silva (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering (ICGEColombo2015) (pp. 293-296). Sri Lanka: Sri Lankan Geotecnical Society. Aziz, N. Craig, P. Mirzaghorbanali, A. Rasekh, H. Nemcik, J. Li, X (2015), Behaviour of cable bolts in shear, experimental study and mathematical modelling, In coal operator conference, Wollongong, Australia. Aziz, N. Hawker, R. Mirzaghorbanali, A. Nemcik, J. Li, X and Rasekh, H (2015) Strength characteristics of Secura hollow groutable cable bolts, In coal operator conference, Wollongong, Australia. Baafi, E., Cai, D. & Porter, I. (2015). Application of the theory of constraints to the pillar development cycle of an underground coal mine. In S. Bandopadhyay, S. Chatterjee, T. Ghosh & K. Vaibhav Raj (Eds.), Application of Computers and Operations Research in the Mineral Industry (APCOM 2015): Proceedings of the 37th International Symposium (pp. 980-994). Colorado,

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

United States: Metallurgy.

Society

for

Mining

Balanji, E. K.Z., Sheikh, M. Neaz. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2015). Models for predicting the axial compressive strength of steel fibre reinforced normal and high strength concrete square columns. In Z. Wu, G. Wu & X. Wang (Eds.), Joint Conference of the 12th International Symposium on Fiber Reinforced Polymers for Reinforced Concrete Structures (FRPRCS-12) & the 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on Fiber Reinforced Polymers in Structures (APFIS-2015) (pp. 1-6). Baral, P., Bergado, D. T., Rujikiatkamjorn, C. & Indraratna, B. (2015). The practice of an MSE wall/embarkment on a hard foundation: a case study from Phitsanulok, Thailand. In A. Kulathilaka, K. Senanayake, J. S. M. Fowze, N. Priyankara, P. Rathnaweera, U. Nawagamuwa & N. De Silva (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering (ICGEColombo2015) (pp. 463-466). Sri Lanka: Sri Lankan Geotecnical Society. Basack, S., Indraratna, B. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2015). Numerical modelling capturing the behaviour of reinforced soft ground for public transport infrastructure. 12th Australia New Zealand Conference on Geomechanics (ANZ 2015): “The Changing Face of the Earth – Geomechanics & Human Influence” (pp. 1-8). New Zealand: The Conference Company Ltd. Basack, S., Siahaan, F., Indraratna, B. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2015). Analysis of the performance of soft ground stabilized by stone columns. In A. Kulathilaka, K. Senanayake, J. S. M. Fowze, N. Priyankara, P. Rathnaweera, U. Nawagamuwa & N. De Silva (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering (ICGEColombo2015) (pp. 391-394). Sri Lanka: Sri Lankan Geotecnical Society. Biabani, M. Mahdi., Indraratna, B. & Nimbalkar, S. (2015). Behaviour of geocell reinforced sub-ballast under cyclic loading. In D. Manzanal & A. O. Sfriso (Eds.), Proceedings of the XV Panamerican Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (pp. 109-119). Netherlands: IOS Press BV. Cai, D., Gibson, G., Baafi, E. Y. & Porter, I. (2015). Simulation of underground roadway development practice. The 7th International Conference on Mining Science and Technology China: China University of Mining and Technology. Gilbert, D. Mirzaghorbanali, A. Li, X and Resekh, H. Aziz, N and Nemcik, J (2015) The Strength properties of fibre glass dowels used for strata reinforcement in coal mines, In coal operator conference, Wollongong, Australia.

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IMPACT

Heitor, A., Indraratna, B., Rujikiatkamjorn, C. & Golaszewski, R. (2015). Assessment of the postcompaction fill characteristics at the Penrith Lakes development site. In B. Indraratna, J. Chu & C. Rujikiatkamjorn (Eds.), Ground Improvement Case Histories: Compaction, Grouting, and Geosynthetics (pp. 399-428). United Kingdom: Elsevier.

susceptibility. In G. Lollino, D. Giordian, G. Crosta, J. Corominas, R. Azzam, J. Wasowski & N. Sciarra (Eds.), Engineering Geology for Society and Territory - Volume 2 (pp. 1191-1194). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

PUBLICATIONS

Production (pp. 313-343). United Kingdom: Woodhead Publishing.


Goldston, M., Remennikov, A. M. & Sheikh, M. Neaz. (2015). Energy absorption and impact response of GFRP reinforced concrete beams. 3rd International Conference on Protective Structures (ICPS3) (pp. 168-176). Australia: University of Newcastle. Heitor, A., Indraratna, B. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2015). Effect of compaction history on the shearing behaviour of a silty sand under constant water content conditions. In A. Kulathilaka, K. Senanayake, J. S. M. Fowze, N. Priyankara, P. Rathnaweera, U. Nawagamuwa & N. De Silva (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering (ICGEColombo2015) (pp. 157-160). Sri Lanka: Sri Lankan Geotecnical Society. Heitor, A., Indraratna, B. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2015). Effect of suction history on the small strain response of a dynamically compacted soil. 12th Australia New Zealand Conference on Geomechanics (ANZ 2015): “The Changing Face of the Earth – Geomechanics & Human Influence” (pp. 1-8). New Zealand: The Conference Company Ltd. Indraratna, B. & Nimbalkar, S. S. (2015). Recent advances in railroad infrastructure and track performance - Australian experience. 12th Australia New Zealand Conference on Geomechanics (ANZ 2015): “The Changing Face of the Earth – Geomechanics & Human Influence” (pp. 1-8). New Zealand: The Conference Company Ltd. Indraratna, B. & Pathirage, U. (2015). Installation of a permeable reactive barrier in the containment of acid pollution. 6th International Geotechnical Symposium on Disaster Mitigation in Special Geoenvironmental Conditions (pp. 25-34). Indraratna, B., Athukorala, R. & Vinod, J. S. (2015). Shear behaviour of a lignosulfonate treated silty sand. 12th Australia New Zealand Conference on Geomechanics (ANZ 2015): “The Changing Face of the Earth – Geomechanics & Human Influence” (pp. 1-8). New Zealand: The Conference Company Ltd.

IMPACT

PUBLICATIONS

Indraratna, B., Navaratnarajah, S. K., Nimbalkar, S., Rujikiatkamjorn, C. & Neville, T. (2015). Performance monitoring: case studies of tracks stabilised by geosynthetic grids and prefabricated vertical drains. In P. Dight (Eds.), Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Field Measurements in Geomechanics (pp. 1-14). Western Australia, Australia: Australian Centre for Geomechanics. Indraratna, B., Ni, J., Rujikiatkamjorn, C. & Zhong, R. (2015). A new model for describing the behaviour of soft soils

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under cyclic loading. 12th Australia New Zealand Conference on Geomechanics (ANZ 2015): “The Changing Face of the Earth – Geomechanics & Human Influence” (pp. 1-8). New Zealand: The Conference Company Ltd. Indraratna, B., Nimbalkar, S. S. & Heitor, A. (2015). Geotechnics of granular materials for railways and port reclamation. 50th Indian Geotechnical Conference (pp. 1-18). Indraratna, B., Nimbalkar, S., Rujikiatkamjorn, C. & Heitor, A. (2015). Ground improvement in transport geotechnics - from theory to practice. In F. Oka, A. Murakami, R. Uzuoka & S. Kimoto (Eds.), Computer Methods and Recent Advances in Geomechanics (pp. 35-44). United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis. Indraratna, B., Rujikiatkamjorn, C. & Ardana, M. (2015). Characterization of smear zone caused by mandrel action. In M. Iskander, M. T. Suleiman, J. Anderson & D. F. Laefer (Eds.), Geotechnical Special Publication (pp. 2225-2232). United States: American Society of Civil Engineers. Indraratna, B., Rujikiatkamjorn, C., Ni, J. & Carter, J. (2015). Application of geosynthetic vertical drains under cyclic loads for track stabilization. In F. Oka, A. Murakami, R. Uzuoka & S. Kimoto (Eds.), Computer Methods and Recent Advances in Geomechanics (pp. 1157-1162). United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis. Indraratna, B., Rujikiatkamjorn, C., Nimbalkar, S., Zhong, R. & McIntosh, G. W. (2015). Ground improvement for enhancing the performance of road, rail, and port infrastructure. In A. Kulathilaka, K. Senanayake, J. S. M. Fowze, N. Priyankara, P. Rathnaweera, U. Nawagamuwa & N. De Silva (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering (ICGEColombo2015) (pp. 15-44). Sri Lanka: Sri Lankan Geotecnical Society. Indraratna, B., Sun, Q. & Nimbalkar, S. (2015). A critical state based constitutive model for the triaxial response of ballast incorporating particle breakage. In D. Manzanal & A. O. Sfriso (Eds.), Proceedings of the XV Panamerican Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (pp. 12321239). Netherlands: IOS Press BV. Jayasuriya, W., Indraratna, B. & Nimbalkar, S. (2015). Analysis of the performance of under sleeper pads - a critical review. In A. Kulathilaka, K. Senanayake, J. S. M. Fowze, N. Priyankara, P. Rathnaweera, N. De Silva & U. Nawagamuwa (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering (ICGEColombo2015) (pp. 601-604). Sri Lanka: Sri Lankan Geotecnical Society. Kaewunruen, S. & Remennikov, A. M.

(2015). Impact responses of prestressing tendons in railway concrete sleepers in high speed rail environments. In M. Papadrakakis, V. Papadopoulos & V. Plevris (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Computational Methods in Structural Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering (COMPDYN 2015) (pp. 38-48). Greece: National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). Kaewunruen, S. & Remennikov, A. M. (2015). Under sleeper pads: field investigation of their role in detrimental impact mitigation. Proceedings of the 13th International Railway Engineering Conference (pp. 1-17). Kahawatta Gamage, E., Kaewunruen, S. & Remennikov, A. M. (2015). Design of holes and web openings in railway prestressed concrete sleepers. Proceedings of the 13th International Railway Engineering Conference (pp. 1-12). Kaliboullah, C. I., Indraratna, B., Heitor, A. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2015). Influence of particle breakage on the geomechanical behaviour of compacted coalwash. In A. Kulathilaka, K. Senanayake, J. S. M. Fowze, N. Priyankara, P. Rathnaweera, U. Nawagamuwa & N. De Silva (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering (ICGEColombo2015) (pp. 169-172). Sri Lanka: Sri Lankan Geotecnical Society. Kaliboullah, C. Ibrahim., Indraratna, B., Rujikiatkamjorn, C. & Heitor, A. (2015). Evaluation of coalwash as a potential structural fill material for port reclamation. 12th Australia New Zealand Conference on Geomechanics (ANZ 2015): “The Changing Face of the Earth – Geomechanics & Human Influence” (pp. 1-8). New Zealand: The Conference Company Ltd. Karim, H., Noel-Gough, B., Sheikh, M. Neaz. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2015). Strength and ductility behavior of circular concrete columns reinforced with GFRP bars and helices. In Z. Wu, G. Wu & X. Wang (Eds.), Joint Conference of the 12th International Symposium on Fiber Reinforced Polymers for Reinforced Concrete Structures (FRPRCS-12) & the 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on Fiber Reinforced Polymers in Structures (APFIS-2015) (pp. 1-6). Khan, Q. S., Sheikh, M. Neaz. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2015). Axial compressive behaviour of circular concrete filled fibre reinforced polymer tube (CFFT) columns. In Z. Wu, G. Wu & X. Wang (Eds.), Joint Conference of the 12th International Symposium on Fiber Reinforced Polymers for Reinforced Concrete Structures (FRPRCS-12) & the 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on Fiber Reinforced Polymers in Structures (APFIS-2015) (pp. 1-6).

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


Leigh, E., Goldfinch, T., Dawes, L., Prpic, K., McCarthy, T. & Kennedy, J. (2015). Shifting the focus. Incorporating knowledge about Aboriginal engineering into main stream content. 26th Annual Conference of the Australasian Association for Engineering Education – AAEE2015 (pp. 641-650). Geelong, VIC: School of Engineering, Deakin University. Li, X. Nemcik, I. Aziz, N. Mirzaghorbanali, A. Rasekh, H (2015) Modelling of rebar and cable bolt behaviour in tension/shear, In coal operator conference, Wollongong, Australia. Navaratnarajah, S. K., Indraratna, B. & Nimbalkar, S. (2015). Performance of rail ballast stabilized with resilient rubber pads under cyclic and impact loading. In A. Kulathilaka, K. Senanayake, J. S. M. Fowze, N. Priyankara, P. Rathnaweera, U. Nawagamuwa & N. De Silva (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering (ICGEColombo2015) (pp. 617-620). Sri Lanka: Sri Lankan Geotecnical Society. Ngo, N. T., Indraratna, B. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2015). A study of the behaviour of fresh and coal fouled ballast reinforced by geogrid using the discrete element method. In K. Soga, K. Kumar, G. Biscontin & M. Kuo (Eds.), Geomechanics from Micro to Macro (pp. 559-563). United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis. 2014 Ngo, N., Indraratna, B. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2015). A hybrid DEM-FDM approach for load-deformation analysis of stone columns. In D. Manzanal & A. O. Sfriso (Eds.), Proceedings of the XV Panamerican Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (pp. 1256-1264). Netherlands: IOS Press BV. Ngo, N., Rujikiatkamjorn, C. & Indraratna, B. (2015). Deformation behaviour of coalfouled ballast reinforced with geogrid.

Nimbalkar, S. & Choudhury, D. (2015). Design of earth retaining structures and tailing dams under static and seismic conditions. 50th Indian Geotechnical Conference (IGC-2015) (pp. 1-10). Nimbalkar, S. & Indraratna, B. (2015). Implications of ballast degradation under cyclic loading. 12th Australia New Zealand Conference on Geomechanics (ANZ 2015): “The Changing Face of the Earth – Geomechanics & Human Influence” (pp. 1-8). New Zealand: The Conference Company Ltd. Nimbalkar, S. & Indraratna, B. (2015). Numerical and analytical modeling of particle degredation. Computer Methods and Recent Advances in Geomechanics (pp. 261-266). United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis. Nimbalkar, S. S., Tennakoon, N. & Indraratna, B. (2015). Effects of fouling and degradation on geotechnical behaviour of railway ballast. 50th Indian Geotechnical Conference (pp. 1-10). Palamakumbure, D., Flentje, P. & S, D. (2015). Flow category landslide susceptibility modelling of the Sydney Basin. 12th Australia New Zealand Conference on Geomechanics (ANZ 2015): “The Changing Face of the Earth – Geomechanics & Human Influence” (pp. 1-6). New Zealand: The Conference Company Ltd. Pallewattha, M., Indraratna, B. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2015). Soil stabilisation using native vegetation. In A. Kulathilaka, K. Senanayake, J. S. M. Fowze, N. Priyankara, P. Rathnaweera, U. Nawagamuwa & N. De Silva (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering (ICGEColombo2015) (pp. 625-628). Sri Lanka: Sri Lankan Geotecnical Society. Pathirage, U. & Indraratna, B. (2015). Mineral precipitation and the associated reduction of hydraulic conductivity in a PRB. In A. Kulathilaka, K. Senanayake, J. S. M. Fowze, N. Priyankara, P. Rathnaweera, U. Nawagamuwa & N. De Silva (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering (ICGEColombo2015) (pp. 265-268). Sri Lanka: Sri Lankan Geotecnical Society. Pathirage, U. & Indraratna, B. (2015). Reducing the risk of acidic groundwater through modelling the performance of a permeable reactive barrier in Shoalhaven Floodplain. 12th Australia New Zealand Conference on Geomechanics (ANZ 2015): “The Changing Face of the Earth – Geomechanics & Human Influence”

Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering 2015-2017 School Report

(pp. 1-8). New Zealand: The Conference Company Ltd. Pathirage, U., Indraratna, B., McIntosh, G. & Banasiak, L. (2015). Modeling of mineral fouling in an alkaline permeable reactive barrier in Australia. In F. Oka, A. Murakami, R. Uzuoka & S. Kimoto (Eds.), Computer Methods and Recent Advances in Geomechanics (pp. 623-628). United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis. 2014 Porter, I., Cai, D. & Baafi, E. (2015). A simulation study regarding the inherent constraints of the continuous roadway development process. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium: Mineral Resources and Mine Development (pp. 451-458). Germany: AIMS. Qiao, Q., Nemcik, J., Porter, I. & Baafi, E. (2015). Compressive strength testing of toughskin thin spray-on liner. In N. Aziz & B. Kininmonth (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2015 Coal Operators’ Conference (pp. 198-203). Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia: The University of Wollongong. Rao, M. V. M. S., Bhaskar, G. Uday. & Karekal, S. (2015). Estimation of UCS of coal measures of Pranhita Godhavari Valley, India using sonic logs. Coal Operator Conference (pp. 36-47). Wollongong, Australia: University of Wollongong. Rasekh, H. Aziz, N. Nemcik, J. Mirzaghorbanali, A and Li, X (2015) An experimental study on the contact surface area of cable bolted strata, In coal operator conference, Wollongong, Australia, Ren, T., Wang, Z., Cheng, Y., Zhang, J. & Hungerford, F. (2015). Modelling of gas and ventilation flow characteristics at an underground in-seam drilling site. Proceedings of 32nd Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference Omnipress. Rujikiatkamjorn, C., Indraratna, B. & Kianfar, K. (2015). Radial consolidation model incorporating the effects of vacuum preloading and non-Darcian flow. In F. Oka, A. Murakami, R. Uzuoka & S. Kimoto (Eds.), Computer Methods and Recent Advances in Geomechanics (pp. 1163-1167). United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis. 2014 Rujikiatkamjorn, C., Indraratna, B. & Perera, D. (2015). Alternative design approach for soft clay improved by PVDs. 12th Australia New Zealand Conference on Geomechanics (ANZ 2015): “The Changing Face of the Earth – Geomechanics & Human Influence” (pp. 1-8). New Zealand: The Conference Company Ltd. S. Nikolic, T. Suesse, T. Goldfinch & T. McCarthy, “Relationship between learning in the engineering laboratory and student evaluations,” in Proceedings of the Australasian Association for Engineering Education Annual Conference, 2015, pp. 1-9.

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IMPACT

Khan, Q. S., Strong, J. S., Sheikh, M. Neaz. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2015). Flexural testing of concrete filled fibre reinforced polymer tubes (CFFT) with and without internal fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcement. Proceedings of the 27th Biennial National Conference of the Concrete Institute of Australia in conjunction with the 69th RILEM Week (pp. 400-407). North Sydney, Australia: Concrete Institute of Australia.

In G. Ramsay (Eds.), 12th Australia New Zealand Conference on Geomechanics (ANZ 2015): “The Changing Face of the Earth – Geomechanics & Human Influence” (pp. 1-8). New Zealand: The Conference Company Ltd.

PUBLICATIONS

Khan, Q. S., Sheikh, M. Neaz. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2015). Tension and compression testing of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) bars. In Z. Wu, G. Wu & X. Wang (Eds.), Joint Conference of the 12th International Symposium on Fiber Reinforced Polymers for Reinforced Concrete Structures (FRPRCS-12) & the 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on Fiber Reinforced Polymers in Structures (APFIS-2015) (pp. 1-6).


Siahaan, F., Indraratna, B. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2015). Three dimensional modelling of the behaviour of stone columns using the discrete element method. Geomechanics from Micro to Macro (pp. 553-558). United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis. Sivakumar, M. & Ramezanianpour, M. (2015). Sustainable solar powered vaccum membrane distillation for water treatment. In S. Mande, A. Tripathy & R. K. Sarangi (Eds.), Proceedings - International Conference on Technologies for Sustainable Development, ICTSD 2015 (pp. 1-6). United States: IEEE. Tasalloti, S., Indraratna, B., Chiaro, G. & Heitor, A. (2015). Field investigation on compaction and strength performance of two coal wash-BOS slag mixtures. In M. Iskander, M. T. Suleiman, J. Anderson & D. F. Laefer (Eds.), Geotechnical Special Publication (pp. 2359-2368). United States: American Society of Civil Engineers. Tennakoon, N., Indraratna, B. & Nimbalkar, S. (2015). Effect of plastic fines on drainage capacity of ballasted rail track. In A. Kulathilaka, K. Senanayake, J. S. M. Fowze, N. Priyankara, P. Rathnaweera, U. Nawagamuwa & N. De Silva (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering (ICGEColombo2015) (pp. 613-616). Sri Lanka: Sri Lankan Geotecnical Society. Thevakumar, K., Indraratna, B. & Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2015). The factors affecting the behaviour of soft soil under cyclic loading in railway. In A. Kulathilaka, K. Senanayake, J. S. M. Fowze, N. Priyankara, P. Rathnaweera, U. Nawagamuwa & N. De Silva (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering (ICGEColombo2015) (pp. 633-636). Sri Lanka: Sri Lankan Geotecnical Society.

U. Nawagamuwa & N. De Silva (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering (ICGEColombo2015) (pp. 193-196). Sri Lanka: Sri Lankan Geotecnical Society. Walker, R. T. R. (2015). Equal strain vertical drain consolidation with creep. In A. Kulathilaka, K. Senanayake, J. S. M. Fowze, N. Priyankara, P. Rathnaweera, U. Nawagamuwa & N. De Silva (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering (ICGEColombo2015) (pp. 343-346). Sri Lanka: Sri Lankan Geotecnical Society. Wang, W., Al-Baali, A. Q., Sheikh, M. Neaz. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2015). Behaviour of GFRP tube reinforced concrete columns under eccentric loading. In Z. Wu, G. Wu & X. Wang (Eds.), Joint Conference of the 12th International Symposium on Fiber Reinforced Polymers for Reinforced Concrete Structures (FRPRCS-12) & the 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on Fiber Reinforced Polymers in Structures (APFIS-2015) (pp. 1-6). Wang, W., Sheikh, M. Neaz. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2015). Confining concrete cover of GFRP tube reinforced concrete columns with polymer grids. In Z. Wu, G. Wu & X. Wang (Eds.), Joint Conference of the 12th International Symposium on Fiber Reinforced Polymers for Reinforced Concrete Structures (FRPRCS-12) & the 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on Fiber Reinforced Polymers in Structures (APFIS-2015) (pp. 1-6). Zhao, H. & Hadi, M. N. S. (2015). Using conventional materials as concrete confinement. Proceedings of the 27th Biennial National Conference of the Concrete Institute of Australia in conjunction with the 69th RILEM Week (pp. 476-481). North Sydney, Australia: Concrete Institute of Australia.

Thirukumaran, S., Indraratna, B. & Brown, E. T. (2015). Modelling the shear behaviour of sedimentary rock joints under constant normal stiffness conditions. 49th US Rock Mechanics / Geomechanics Symposium 2015 (pp. 2918-2922). United States: American Rock Mechanics Association.

IMPACT

PUBLICATIONS

Vinod, J. S., Hyodo, M., Indraratna, B. & Kajiyama, S. (2015). Shear behaviour of methane hydrate bearing sand: DEM simulations. In K. Soga, K. Kumar, G. Biscontin & M. Kuo (Eds.), Geomechanics from Micro to Macro (pp. 355-359). United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis. Vinod, J. S., Sheikh, N., Mastello, D., Indraratna, B. & Mashiri, M. S. (2015). The direct shear strength of sand-tyre shred mixtures. In A. Kulathilaka, K. Senanayake, J. S. M. Fowze, N. Priyankara, P. Rathnaweera,

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Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences


CONTACT eis.uow.edu.au/cme Alex Remennikov, Head of School Phone: +61 2 4221 5574 Email: alexrem@uow.edu.au Location: Building 4 Room 137 School Administration Carmen Tang Phone: +61 2 4221 5881 Email: ctang@uow.edu.au Room: Building 4 Room G14

WRITTEN ENQUIRIES Civil Mining & Environmental Engineering Northfields Ave University of Wollongong NSW, Australia, 2522

The University of Wollongong attempts to ensure the information contained in this publication is correct at the time of production (June 2018); however, sections may be amended without notice by the University in response to changing circumstances or for any other reason. Check with the University for any updated information. UNIVERSITY OF WOLLONGONG CRICOS: 00102E

CME 2015 2017 School Report  
CME 2015 2017 School Report  
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