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points to the exact location of the seat of the judge in the Umayyad Mosque, likening it to a kings throne, while other sources mention a court secretary who sits at the gate of the great mosque (min kuttåb al-ªukkam . . . bi-båb al-jåmi).114 In Aleppo, both the mosque of the citadel and the great mosque served as the qås court.115 Mosques also served as an asylum for the homeless, the vagabond, the insane and the refugee. Evidently, the muªtasib did not lock the doors of mosques at the end of communal prayers and—contrary to the wishes of al-Shayzar and another anonymous composer of a ªisba manual116—he did not throw out children and madmen, or, for that matter, people who came in to sleep, eat, chat, do business or announce lost property.117 Other scholars made an attempt to regulate all these secular usages of mosques, rather than eliminate them altogether. Al-Ghazzål, for example, dierentiates between the infrequent use of the terrain of the mosque for commerce in certain kinds of merchandise, playing games, sheltering the insane and the drunkards (if they are quiet) and the like, on the one hand, and frequent and regular practices on the other. While he delegates all those practices to the category of minor sins or objectionable practices, if performed in mosques, he is ready to tolerate them there as long as they occur only infrequently.118 Likewise, ur†¨sh held that strangers, poor men and pious mutakif¨n may be allowed to spend the night in the mosque, though they should not bring their luggage in, so as not to turn the mosque into a permanent residence. He quotes Målik ibn Anass objection to the use of fans, the consumption of meat, and the use of foreign languages (alsinat al-ajam) inside the mosque.119 Izz al-Dn al-Sulam also permitted temporary sleep in the mosque, and the consumption of food (to the exclusion of foul-smelling dishes). He did not object to copyists and calligraphers doing their work in


Ab¨ Shåma, Taråjim, 234. Morray, Ayyubid Notable, 40. 116 Do not allow anyone to be in the mosques except for prayer or remembrance of God . . . for the mosques are the domain of the soul, and the scales for judging what people do outwardly, and what they possess within. It is more betting that only those who pray should be in the mosques at night, and not those who sit in conversation (Buckley, The Book, 201). Al-Nawaw quotes ªadth commanding each believer to perform al-nahyi an al-munkar against improper conduct in mosques (al-Nawaw, al-Adhkår, 77–78). 117 Shayzar, Nihåya, 106; trans. in Buckley, The Book, 128. 118 Buckley, The Book, 175. 119 ur†¨sh, Kitåb al-Bida, 79–82. 115

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Jsrc 007 talmon heller islamic piety in medieval syria mosques, cemeteries and sermons under the zan  

Jsrc 007 talmon heller islamic piety in medieval syria mosques, cemeteries and sermons under the zan