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own alley.65 Three Damascene artisans who were known as ascetics (zuhhåd ) and righteous (‚åliª¨n)—the carpenter Ab¨ al-Thanå al-Óawrån (d. 642/1227), the handy man al-Aff b. Ab al-Fawåris (d. 662/1263), and Muªammad al-Sabt (d. 626/1229)—are said to have built small mosques with their own hands.66 A woman was the patron of another Damascene mosque, built in the last decade of the twelfth century. The widow of the physician Asad b. Mi†rån al-Muwa

aq (who was a manumitted female-slave of the sultan) constructed a mosque, which included the mausoleum of her late husband.67 In Jerusalem, after ninety years of Frankish rule during which Muslims were absent from the city, there was barely an indigenous population capable of sponsoring building activities. Yet, Jåmi al-Íaghr in the center of Jerusalem was founded by an individual named Muªammad al-Muªårib (no rank or title mentioned) in 595/1199.68 The Turkish emir Izz al-Dn Aybak (d. 645 or 647/1247 or 1249), who was the muqtå (assigned lord) of the town of Íalkhad in Óawrån, renovated mosques in two small nearby settlements. In 630/1233 he ordered that his endowments—the revenue of ten shops intended for the renovation of the portico, the minaret and the oors—be recorded on the minaret of the local congregational mosque.69 An inscription placed at the entrance to a neighborhood mosque in Aleppo indicates that the servant Al b. Óaydar, yearning for Gods pardon for himself and for his parents, constructed the mosque in 606/1209. A similar inscription, adding a specic and quite unusual dedication to Óanafs, indicates that another neighborhood mosque was established by one Ibn Abd Allåh al-Sharaf.70 Following the destructive Mongol conquest of Aleppo, a member of a local secretarial family (his name is not given) dedicated 18,000 dnårs to the restoration of the great mosque, and an additional sum of 2,000 dnårs for the purchase of mats and prayer beads.71


Morray, Ayyubid Notable, 42, 94. They must have nanced the reconstruction works in the great mosque and in another mosque beyond the city walls with waqf money (Ab¨ Shåma, Taråjim, 136, 157; Ibn al-Adm, Bughya, 6:2908). 67 Sib† ibn al-Jawz, Miråt, 8:412. 68 Korn, Structure, 82, 85. 69 Ory, Cimetiéres, 40–48. He must have been a great builder: four caravansaries and three madrasas are also attributed to him. 70 RCEA, 10:40, 156; see also 9:33. 71 Ibn Shaddåd, al-Alåq, 1:117. 66

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Jsrc 007 talmon heller islamic piety in medieval syria mosques, cemeteries and sermons under the zan  

Jsrc 007 talmon heller islamic piety in medieval syria mosques, cemeteries and sermons under the zan