MOSQUES IN SOCIETY
the mountain,58 Shaykh Aªmad went down to the river, performed the ritual ablutions, and returned to lay several stones on what had allegedly been the place of the ancient qibla (wall or niche pointing towards Mecca). He prayed and blessed the place. Only then did he call on his people to begin construction on the site. Working in consort—the men building, the women baking bread and preparing food together59—they put up their own mosque and their own homes.60 Anecdotes about the measures taken by the rst settlers against robbers, wolves, lions and Bedouin slave-dealers indicate that the mountain was very sparsely populated at that time,61 but the new mosque was to become the center of a ourishing suburb (al-Íåliªiyya) with bustling mosques, madrasas, Í¨f lodges and commemorative shrines.62 Already in 598/1201–1202, the Óanbals of Mt. Qåsy¨n undertook the establishment of a Friday Mosque. They were able to complete this ambitious project, however, only after the governor of Damascus and the ruler of Irbil had both established waqfs to help nance the works.63 In Manbij, the otherwise anonymous shaykhs Ab¨ al-Maªåsin Y¨suf b. Al and Abd al-Raªmån b. al-Aghå erected a minaret in 581/1185. The ªåjj Fuayl b. Y¨suf b. Zaydån constructed a mosque in Bu‚rå in 614/1217–18, while another ªåjj of the same locality, Ûså b. Al b. Hunayd, took upon himself works in an older mosque.64 Both men may have been in a particularly pious mood under the inuence of their pilgrimage to Mecca, and sought to express their invigorated faith by the performance of good works for the benet of the community of the faithful. Members of the inuential and well-to-do Ban¨ al-Adm Aleppan family erected a mosque in their 58 Perhaps the site of the prayer of the companions of the Prophet, Kab al-Aªbår and Makª¨l, alluded to in a tradition that Ibn Asåkir quotes (and criticizes!) (see Ibn Asåkir, Tarkh, 2:330–331); or else of the prophets Ilyås, Ibråhm, M¨så, Ûså and Ayy¨b, in accordance with traditions in praise of Mt. Qåsy¨n (Kister, Sanctity, 26). 59 ¤iyå al-Dn al-Maqdis, Aªwål, 121a. 60 Ibn ¨l¨n, al-Qalåid, 37. For a detailed description, see Talmon-Heller Kedar, Muslim Survivors. 61 Ibn ¨l¨n, al-Qalåid, 42–44, 83–84. 62 See Toru Miura, al-Íåliªiyya. 63 Ab¨ Shåma, Taråjim, 29; Sib† ibn al-Jawz, Miråt, 8:510; RCEA, 9:241–244, 10: 90. The mosque became known by several names: Jåmi al-Jabal, Jami Ab Umar, Jåmi al-Óanåbila and Jåmi al-Muaar (Humphreys, Women, 54 n. 59). 64 RCEA, 9:144, 10:142, 183. Another small mosque was constructed in Bu‚rå in 655/1257 (ibid., 12:16).