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INTRODUCTION

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Muaam (d. 624/12–27) is the prime example. Biographers extol his dedication to learning (and his humility), claiming that he would go by foot to the homes of his grammar and qh (jurisprudence) teachers, and carry with him on his travels and military campaigns a ten-volume compilation of Óanaf law, that he had ordered from one of his protégés. He composed a polemical treatise in defense of Ab¨ Óanfa (the founder of the school of law he had adopted in adulthood and promoted fervently), a work that gave him the credentials necessary in order to be considered one of the ulamå.26 Al-Malik al-Muªsin Yamn al-Dn, one of the younger sons of Saladin, “dressed himself in the garb of ahl al-ilm,” traveled to hear ªadth-scholars in far-a-way cities, and transmitted ªadth himself in the congregational mosque of Aleppo.27 The historian and biographer al-Íafad (d. 764/1363) introduces al-Muaam’s son, al-Nå‚ir Dåw¨d b. Ûså of Karak, a man whose biography is replete with political feats, combats and changing fortunes, by formulas typical of the necrologies of ulamå. Al-Íafad begins the entry with a list of al-Nå‚ir Dåw¨d’s teachers and the locales of his study, and ends it with a long poem (qa‚da) praising al-Nå‚ir’s literary production. He also tells us that the prince was a collector of precious books, who was willing to spend thousands of dnårs on rare and beautiful volumes.28 Most Zangid and Ayy¨bid princes were not religious scholars, of course, but patrons of religious scholarship. They followed the pattern of the Seljuks and B¨rids29 in creating a symbiotic relationship with Sunn ulamå. They repressed the Sha, founded a legion of religious institutions, endowed waqfs, and appointed the graduates of madrasas to ofcial positions, determining the balance of power between the schools of law. Saladin, according to the estimate of his secretaries Imåd al-Dn al-I‚fahån and al-Qå al-Fåil, supported no less than 600 jusrist, with the overall annual expenditure of 200,000–300,000 dinårs.30 Al-Man‚¨r Muªammad I b. al-Muaffar Umar (r. 587/1191–617/1220–21) lord of Óamåh and neighboring

law”) with Saladin (Ibn Shaddåd, Srat al-Sul†ån, 77, 85; trans. in Richards, Rare and Excellent, 28, 33). 26 Ibn Wå‚il, Mufarrij, 4:208–218; Humphreys, From Saladin, 189. 27 Ibn al-Adm, Bughya, 3:1258–59. See also Chamberlain, Knowledge, 49. 28 Íafad, al-Wåf, 13:480–488. 29 Mouton, Damas, 252, 359. 30 Lev, Charity, 15.

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Jsrc 007 talmon heller islamic piety in medieval syria mosques, cemeteries and sermons under the zan  

Jsrc 007 talmon heller islamic piety in medieval syria mosques, cemeteries and sermons under the zan  

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