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or undertaken tawba (repentance), resigning from active in in the life of this world in order to devote themselves to divine worship.48 Some combined the ªajj with a visit to Medina and Jerusalem, or to Jerusalem and Hebron.49 Sexes were separated during most of the rituals, with only certain times and places assigned for women.50 The return of the caravan, at least its return to Damascus, was celebrated by an enthusiastic reception: men and women went out to welcome the pilgrims (ªujjåj), expecting to draw upon themselves some of the blessings of the pilgrimage.51 The climax of the ªajj, the great assembly of pilgrims on Mt. Arafåt (al-wuq¨f), was duplicated in Syrian mosques in an event known as Layl Arafåt, or al-tarf. People used to gather, bareheaded (a symbol of humility), in mosques and in the Óaram of Jerusalem, and recite special prayers from the afternoon prayer of the day till sunset.52 ͨfs (at least in the Óaram of Jerusalem) performed samå in honor of that night, and rulers used the occasion to manumit slaves and perform other benevolent gestures.53 Some people made pilgrimages to Jerusalem for the purpose of celebrating Ûd al-Aªå, and making the ritual sacrice on the Óaram.54

al-ªajj. Ibn al-Athrs grandmother, who was among the pilgrims that year, returned on the next year, according to a fatwå she had received from the renowned Shå muft Ab¨ al-Qåsim al-Baraz (d. 560/1165), and thus completed two pilgrimages (Ibn al-Athr, al-Kåmil, 1966, 11:288). For the route of the Syrian caravan, see Pouzet, Damas, 347–48. 48 Ibn al-Adm, Bughya, 2:735; ¤iyå al-Dn al-Maqdis, al-Óikåyåt, 94a; trans. in Talmon-Heller, Cited Tales, 136. 49 Pouzet, Damas, 348–351. For criticism of these customs, see Ab¨ Shåma, alBåith, 283–284. Visitation of Hebron and Jerusalem were done on other occasions as well, especially by ͨfs (see examples in al-Y¨nn, Dhayl, 3:58; Ibn al-Adm, Bughya, 2:923, 788; 4:1620, 1627, 1648, 8:3593, 3834; 10:4304; Ibn Kathr, al-Bidåya, 13:229). On an eleventh-century itinerary for the visitation of Jerusalem see Elad, Medieval Jerusalem, 69–71. 50 Tolmacheva, Female Piety, 167–169. 51 Ibn Jubayr, Riªla, 286. 52 Al-ur†¨sh describes a large assembly of townsmen and villagers, who stood in Jerusalem facing the qibla, raising their voices in supplication. After sunset, they dispersed in tears, expressing their sorrow for not having been in the real place. He comments with sorrow, that some of the participants in those rites mistakenly thought that four such standings were equal to one ªajj (al-ur†¨sh, Kitåb al-Bida, 92). See earlier description by Nå‚ir-i Khusraw, and later description by Ibn Taymiyya, in Elad, Medieval Jerusalem, 61. 53 Sib† ibn al-Jawz, Miråt, 8:690; Ab¨ Shåma, Taråjim, 136. 54 Elad, Medieval Jerusalem, 62. For other customs typical of Ûd al-Aªå see section on Ûd al-Fi†r, above.

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Jsrc 007 talmon heller islamic piety in medieval syria mosques, cemeteries and sermons under the zan  

Jsrc 007 talmon heller islamic piety in medieval syria mosques, cemeteries and sermons under the zan