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APPENDIX I: THE LITURGICAL CALENDAR

cemeteries, where women spent hours in the shade of provisional tents. Women also conducted their own prayer sessions.40 Rulers invited ulamå to the citadel, and distributed presents to members of the military and administrative elite.41 The emirs (in Egypt, at least) walked in procession before the sultan, kissing the earth in front of him.42 There was merry-making by beating drums, singing, dancing and reciting poetry, contested by some scholars and approved by others, and games for the soldiers.43 Dh¨ al-Óijja—Men and women of all social classes performed the ªajj—preferably more than once.44 People went out in the company of elderly parents.45 The sending of a messenger to perform the pilgrimage in the place of his dispatcher seems to have been an acceptable practice as well.46 An amr al-ªajj (leader of the pilgrimage caravan) was nominated in Damascus every year, and the Syrian caravan left for Mecca regularly. Some years, however, it failed to reach its destination, usually as a result of war, banditry, or extreme weather conditions. It also happened that the pilgrims made it to Mecca, but could not complete the rites.47 Some people made the ªajj after having experienced

40

Ibn al-Athr, ¤iyå al-Dn, al-Mathal, 2:154; al-Nawaw, Fatåwå, 38. Ibn al-Adm, Zubda, 3:205; Ibn Wå‚il, Mufarrij, 4:227. 42 Al-Sulam, Óall al-Rum¨z, 89. 43 Al-Sulam, who discusses the issue at some length, approves of all those customs if performed on the days of the two festivals, as well as on weddings, homecoming banquets (qud¨m al-ghåib) and the aqqa ritual (see below)—if intended to evoke joy and pleasure, and not to stir up carnal desires and passion for this world (al-Sulam, Óall al-Rum¨z, 66–68). 44 Four hundred autograph ªajj or umra certicates that recorded their itinerary in detail, sometimes with colorful schematic illustrations (dating 476/1108–711/1311) were found in the Umayyad Mosque. See Sourdel-Thomine et Sourdel, Une collection; idem, A propos des documents; and Aksoy and Milstein, A Collection, who point out that an especially large portion of those especially well-executed and beautifully illustrated documents date to the early Ayy¨bid period (ibid., 102). See also narrative sources: Ibn al-Adm, Bughya, 2:922; 10:4418; Subk, abaqåt, 8:405; ¤iyå al-Dn al-Maqdis, al-Óikåyåt, 92b, 94a; trans. in Talmon-Heller, Cited Tales, 134; and al-Sulam, Fatåwå, 232. Ab¨ Shåmas father went on ªajj four times (Ab¨ Shåma, Taråjim, 168); Yåsn b. Abd Allåh al-Muqr (d. 687/1288)—twenty times throughout his long life (Ibn Kathr, al-Bidåya, 1988, 13:312); Åmina bint Muªammad, a granddaughter of a qå, mother of another, and a patron of a ribå† in Damascus, performed the ªajj three times, once in the company of her sister (Dhahab, Tarkh, 50:180). 45 Shaykh Ismål b. Ab al-Óasan accompanied his parents, and took care of them on the journey (Subk, abaqåt, 8:405). 46 See Sourdel-Thomine and Sourdel, Une collection; Aksoy and Milstein, A Collection, 103; and al-Sulam, Fatåwå, 289, 518 (dealing with the employment and wages of a messenger, and with the performance of ªajj for ones parents). 47 The ªajj of 557/1162, for example, ended before all pilgrims had completed the rituals, because of a violent conict between the emir of Mecca and the amr 41

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Jsrc 007 talmon heller islamic piety in medieval syria mosques, cemeteries and sermons under the zan  

Jsrc 007 talmon heller islamic piety in medieval syria mosques, cemeteries and sermons under the zan  

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