APPENDIX I: THE LITURGICAL CALENDAR
According to al-Maqdis (tenth century), a festival was held on that date at Mt. Íiddqa, at the tomb of Íiddq, the son of the prophet Íåliª, with pilgrims from the vicinity (Tyre, Banyas, Sidon, and Qadas), and a representative of the sultan.29 Ramaan—The muezzin would awaken the believers for the last meal before daybreak (saª¨r) with verses of poetry.30 The fast seems to have been generally observed, even by those who were not meticulous in performing daily prayers.31 Some people spent the whole month in retreat,32 while rulers exhibited their generosity by hosting ulamå for the meal at the end of the day, and by sending out sweets to mosques, Í¨f establishments and villages.33 Wealthy citizens hosted the poor,34 and communal dinners were held in madrasas.35 Íalåt al-taråwª was performed during the nights of Ramaån. The prayer was composed of twenty rakås (according to al-Nawaw). Supplications, and the recitation of certain Qurånic verses were added.36 The completion of a full reading of the Qurån during the month was a prevalent custom.37 On Ûd al-Fi†r, communal prayers were held in the mu‚allå.38 A vigil with prayer and dhikr was considered desirable.39 Many visited
Al-Maqdis, Aªsan, 188; trans. in Wheatley, The Places, 415, n. 415. I found no later evidence. 30 Tabbaa, Constructions, 177, n. 35. 31 See al-Sulams passing remark, that people regard eating in Ramaån as a far more severe transgression than skipping the prescribed prayers (al-Sulam, Fatawå, 339). 32 Ab¨ Isªåq b. Abd al-Azz (d. 644/1246), the personal physician of two Ayy¨bid rulers, used to do so, refraining also from speech during Ramaån (Ibn Ab¨ U‚aybia, Uy¨n, 2:192). Jamål al-Dn of Aleppo spent his itikåf on Ramaån copying the Qurån (Yåq¨t, Irshåd, 4:34). 33 Ibn Khallikån, Wafåyåt, 7:91; Subk, abaqåt, 8:222; Ibn Kathr, al-Bidåya, 1988, 13:148; Sib† ibn al-Jawz, Miråt, 8:714. 34 Sib† ibn al-Jawz, Miråt, 8:747. 35 Få†ima b. Muªammad al-Samarqand, the wife of the Óanaf scholar al-Kåsån, sponsored such dinners for the residents of al-Madrasa al-Óallåwiyya in Aleppo (Eddé, Alep, 373). 36 Ab¨ Shåma, al-Båith, 257–261; al-Sulam, Fatåwå, 424; Ibn al-Adm, Bughya; 2:764; Ibn Rajab, Dhayl, 2:61. For details on this selection of verses see Gardet, Duå, and Rippin, Sadjda. 37 Al-Nawaw recommends the explanation of each recited section, and warns against two customs: stretching the reading beyond one juz, and reading s¨rat al-anåm in its entirety on the seventh night of Ramaån, as practiced by ignorant imåms, who mistakenly believe that it was revealed as a whole (al-Nawaw, al-Adhkår, 277). 38 Ibn Qudåma, al-Mughn, 3:263. 39 Al-Nawaw, al-Adhkår, 260. It was performed at least in one madrasa in Damascus (see above).