clothes away, so as to prevent them from returning to their families and their homes. In al-Jawbars eyes, their asceticism was feigned, and their extraordinary powers but a trick: they were heretics, ibåªs (literally, those who permit things forbidden by the religious law; licentious men), sexually and morally corrupt, the very negation of an Islamic model of piety.80 Ibn al-Íalåª al-Shahraz¨r uses the same term—ibaªs, or ikhwån ahl al-ibåªa (the brethren of licentuousness)—to denote those men and women who dress like ascetics (he refrains from calling them Í¨fs) and participate in sessions of singing and dancing accompanied by musical instruments, which they scandalously claim to be the best kind of worship (min afal al-ibådåt). In his description they appear as men who reject the authority of the prophets and scholars, hold heretical doctrines and perform wicked acts.81
Al-Jawbar, Kashf, 12–20. al-Shahraz¨r, Fatåwå, 499–501.