IMPIETY AND RELIGIOUS DISSENT
unlawful attire.74 Moreover, odd attire allowed a dangerous freedom of expression, which was unacceptable among normal members of the community. One example is that of the above-mentioned Al alKurd al-muwallah, who blurted out at the preacher al-Dawla that he avoided going on ªajj only because of his fear that his pulpit at the great mosque of Damascus be taken away from him in his absence.75 Another example is that of Qadb al-Bån, who stood naked before the disciples of the Í¨f Shaykh Ab¨ al-Najå, and impertinently told them that their shaykh was behaving like the devil (or associating with the devil) at that very moment. As it turned out later, Ab¨ al-Najå was, at that time, in the company of the atåbeg of Mosul (namely, associating with the ruler).76 The disciples of al-Óarr were known in Damascus as a‚ªåb al-ziyy al-munåf li-l-shara—those, whose dress counters the regulations of the shara. Ab¨ Shåma complains that they were even worse on the inside than on the outside, though some of them repented and returned to God. He and some other chroniclers admit that young men from the old and established families of Damascus were drawn to the Óarriyya and adopted its codes of dress and behavior.77 Al-Harr, who was harshly condemned and even found deserving of death by several of the leading Damascene jurisconsults, was arrested by al-Malik al-Ashraf in 628/1231. By the end of the decade, he and his disciples were banished from Damascus, as were the Í¨fs of the Qalandariyya.78 In 655/1257, strange-looking derwishes reappeared in Damascus. They were dressed like their master, with open robes and high hats, beardless, but sporting big mustaches. According to al-Jawbar they would seduce the sons of the Damascene elite to go out of the city and smoke hashish with them,79 and then they would shave their heads and take their regular
74 Al-Nawaw, Fatåwå, 70; al-Sulam, Fatåwå, 464. See Karamustafa, Gods Unruly Friends, 18. 75 Sib† ibn al-Jawz, Miråt, 8:638. Apparently, others thought it likely, too—see, p. 94, above. 76 Ibn Ab al-Man‚¨r, Risåla, 30. 77 Ibn Kathr, al-Bidåya, 1988, 13:174, 78 Ab¨ Shåma, Taråjim, 180; Ibn Kathr, al-Bidåya, 1988, 13:173–174; Sib† ibn al-Jawz, Miråt, 8:666; Dhahab, Siyar, 23:224–228. See also Humphreys, From Saladin, 209–210; Dols, Majn¨n, 114. 79 According to al-Y¨nn, the son of the rst Maml¨k sultan, al-Malik al-Muizz, was seen in the attire of the Í¨fs of the Óarriyya (Guo, Early Maml¨k, 13; Ibn alTaghribird, al-Nuj¨m, 7:14). About the use of intoxicants and hallucinogens in dervish groups see Karamustafa, Gods Unruly Friends, 19.