b. Muªammad al-Khall (d. 439/1047–8), at the Óanbal study circle in the congregational mosque of Damascus, and in other, non-specied places.48 Ibn Qudåma must have disapproved of commoners who fought for a scrap of the shrouds of their shaykh over his open grave, or scurried to dip their clothes in the water that had puried his body,49 but rulers, and even scholars, also vied for blessed objects. The difference was that they could acquire them in more respectable ways, or receive them as presents.50 Susm had not reached the apogee of its inuence in the Ayy¨bid period. Michael Winter has noted that by the late Middle Ages “Susm inherited the cherished position which ªadth held during the early centuries of Islam, both as a movement and as an ilm, an intellectual pursuit . . . the sphere in Islam where a ruler, an ålim, or a commoner could request a personal, or at least a partially creative and active participation in religion.”51 In the sixth– seventh/twelfth–thirteenth centuries, the recitation of ªadth and Qurån and the practice of ziyåra seem to have been at least as important marks of piety and spirituality as ascetic or Í¨f practices. Óanbal activism seems to have had an equally important effect on the religious climate of the era. It was exercised regarding jihåd (as expressed in treatises,52 in the emigration of villagers from Frankish-ruled Mt. Nåblus,53 in partaking in ghazawåt (raids) and in accompanying regular armies), by their uncompromising attitude towards what they regarded as heterodoxy, and their commitment to the sunna.54 Prominent shaykhs of the two categories enjoyed the veneration of commoners and rulers, and were sought after for religious knowledge, or for blessing; often for both.
Leder, et al., Samååt, 41. See p. 161, above. 50 See p. 204, above, and Morray, Ayyubid Notable, 184–85. 51 Winter, Society and Religion, 28–29. 52 For example: Abd al-Ghan al-Maqdis’s Tuªfat al-ålibn f al-Jihåd wa-lMujåhidn, ¤iyå al-Dn al-Maqdis’s Faåil Bayt al-Maqdis and Faåil al-Jihåd, Muwaffaq al-Dn Ibn Qudåma’s chapter on jihåd in his al-Mughn. See also Sivan, LIslam, 106–108, 141–143. 53 See Drory, “Óanbals”; Talmon-Heller, “The Shaykh.” 54 The Óanbal shaykh Imåd al-Dn is designated as “dåiyan ilå al-sunna—calling to the sunna” (Dhahab, Siyar, 22:49). 49