Damascus demonstrates this process: around 535/1130, the Óanbals established a new mosque in the dark of night, having been denied permission to open a madrasa on the same spot. At the beginning of the thirteenth century, they erected a congregational mosque, partially nanced by the sultan. In the period separating those two building projects, Óanbals established a new neighborhood and a new mosque on the outskirts of Damascus, and were accorded a miªråb (prayer niche) of their own in the Umayyad Great Mosque. The Musnad of Ibn Óanbal was read out loud in a series of crowded assemblies, patronized by the ruler. During those same years, twenty three Í¨f lodges were built in Damascus, Í¨f recluses dwelled in its mosques, dhikr and samå were performed in public.44 Rulers endowed Í¨f institutions and honored Í¨fs and ascetics in public. The following scene, depicted by Ibn al-Adm, is a case in point: the ruler of Aleppo al-Malik al-åhir, who was a benefactor of the sciences and a patron of the philosopher al-Suhraward, got off his horse in order to request the baraka of the Í¨f Shaykh Rab al-Mardn.45 Al-åhir’s father, Saladin, had stipulated that the Í¨fs whom he had settled in the Khånqåh al-Íåliªiyya in Jerusalem pray for him and for all the Muslims every afternoon and every Friday at sunrise, either at the khånqåh, or in the al-Aq‚å Mosque.46 Recourse to baraka did not contradict more learned perceptions: by the thirteenth century the existence of the friends of God (al-awliyå) and the validity of their baraka and karåmåt (wondrous doings) were widely recognized in scholarly literature of sorts, well beyond Í¨f circles. The Óanbal jurist Ibn Qudåma, for example, writes (in his theological treatise against kalåm) with no hint of reproach, that “they [al-awliyå] are a refuge to men aficted by hardship, and kings and others of lesser ranks go out and visit them, and are blessed by their supplications (yatabarrak¨na bi-duåihim), and appeal to God through their intercession (yastash¨na bihim).”47 Abd al-Ghan alMaqdis performed many readings of Karåmåt al-Awliyå of al-Óasan
44 Gilbert, “Institutionalization,” 117–118. For the spread of Í¨f inuence and establishments in Palestine during that period see, Ephrat, “From Wayfaring,” 100–104. 45 Morray, Ayyubid Notable, 141. See also Subk, abaqåt, 8:406–407, for the various visitors of shaykh Ibn Qawåm al-Bålis. 46 Pahlitzsch, “Concern,” 340. 47 Makdisi, Ibn Qudåma, 14; trans. (partly used here) ibid., 10.