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Damascus demonstrates this process: around 535/1130, the Óanbals established a new mosque in the dark of night, having been denied permission to open a madrasa on the same spot. At the beginning of the thirteenth century, they erected a congregational mosque, partially nanced by the sultan. In the period separating those two building projects, Óanbals established a new neighborhood and a new mosque on the outskirts of Damascus, and were accorded a miªråb (prayer niche) of their own in the Umayyad Great Mosque. The Musnad of Ibn Óanbal was read out loud in a series of crowded assemblies, patronized by the ruler. During those same years, twenty three ͨf lodges were built in Damascus, ͨf recluses dwelled in its mosques, dhikr and samå were performed in public.44 Rulers endowed ͨf institutions and honored ͨfs and ascetics in public. The following scene, depicted by Ibn al-Adm, is a case in point: the ruler of Aleppo al-Malik al-åhir, who was a benefactor of the sciences and a patron of the philosopher al-Suhraward, got off his horse in order to request the baraka of the ͨf Shaykh Rab al-Mardn.45 Al-åhir’s father, Saladin, had stipulated that the ͨfs whom he had settled in the Khånqåh al-Íåliªiyya in Jerusalem pray for him and for all the Muslims every afternoon and every Friday at sunrise, either at the khånqåh, or in the al-Aq‚å Mosque.46 Recourse to baraka did not contradict more learned perceptions: by the thirteenth century the existence of the friends of God (al-awliyå) and the validity of their baraka and karåmåt (wondrous doings) were widely recognized in scholarly literature of sorts, well beyond ͨf circles. The Óanbal jurist Ibn Qudåma, for example, writes (in his theological treatise against kalåm) with no hint of reproach, that “they [al-awliyå] are a refuge to men aficted by hardship, and kings and others of lesser ranks go out and visit them, and are blessed by their supplications (yatabarrak¨na bi-duåihim), and appeal to God through their intercession (yastash¨na bihim).”47 Abd al-Ghan alMaqdis performed many readings of Karåmåt al-Awliyå of al-Óasan

44 Gilbert, “Institutionalization,” 117–118. For the spread of ͨf inuence and establishments in Palestine during that period see, Ephrat, “From Wayfaring,” 100–104. 45 Morray, Ayyubid Notable, 141. See also Subk, abaqåt, 8:406–407, for the various visitors of shaykh Ibn Qawåm al-Bålis. 46 Pahlitzsch, “Concern,” 340. 47 Makdisi, Ibn Qudåma, 14; trans. (partly used here) ibid., 10.

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Jsrc 007 talmon heller islamic piety in medieval syria mosques, cemeteries and sermons under the zan  

Jsrc 007 talmon heller islamic piety in medieval syria mosques, cemeteries and sermons under the zan