the means by which unity and social solidarity were constructed, but also exposes social tensions, deviations from conventional modes of behavior, and conicts between religious ideals and social norms. Chapter six seeks to explain the place of the mausoleum (turba) and commemorative shrine (maqåm, mashhad ) in medieval Syrian landscape and culture. It deals with the growing popularity of the visitation of sanctied graves—rediscovered ancient graves of Qurånicbiblical gures and of companions of the Prophet (‚aªåba), as well as newly dug graves of various shaykhs, scholars and martyrs, and sacred places. It surveys the geographical spread of shrines, the dynamics of the establishment and renovations of new shrines, and the emergence of the narratives supporting the specically Islamic sanctity of sites that had formerly been (or, were simultaneously) identied with other religious traditions. Part three is an endeavor to articulate the perceptions of piety, impiety and religious dissent, as understood by medieval Muslims of Syria. Chapter seven draws the ideal types of pious rulers, scholars and commoners, male and female, and highlights conicting visions of perfect devotion to God in Zangid and Ayy¨bid society. It also suggests that moderate Susm and Óanbal activism, two powerful trends at the time, had a profound inuence on the perceptions and the practices of contemporaries. Chapter eight analyzes the vocabulary and discourse used in our sources to dene impiety and dissent from established religious norms. It draws attention to a range of trends and phenomena that remained at the margins of the central arenas: the so-called zindqs (heretics), antinomian Í¨fs and unruly ascetics, plebeian miracle-workers, astrologers, self-proclaimed prophets, certain theologians and philosophers. As their own voices are rarely heard, the perspective is, inevitably, that of mainstream scholars, reecting their strategies of coping with challenging sources of authority and with deviation from established norms. Appendix I is a tentative calendar of personal and public religious activity in twelfth-thirteenth century Syria: rituals conducted in daily, weekly and annual cycles, lifecycle rites and ofcial statecelebrations. Appendix II supplies maps and dynastic tables. The index includes short denitions of the many Arabic terms used in this book, so it may serve as a basic glossary as well.