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al-Dn al-Maqdis (an urban Óanbal scholar), may have been voicing his own convictions here. Other reputable representatives of the major schools of law in Damascus—the Shå al-Nawaw, the Óanaf Sib† ibn al-Jawz, and the Óanbal Ibn Qudåma al-Maqdis—agree that the living may grace the dead with the recompense for duå and istighfår (begging for mercy), and for almsgiving (‚adaqa).128 Commoners clearly had no doubts about the ecacy of recitation of Qurån on behalf of the dead: if the learned Ibn Shaddåd had established pious endowments to cover the costs of such daily recitation by his grave, so did less educated men and women.129 Ibn Jubayr tells of a wealthy and pious man by the name of al-Sumaysa†, who converted a house he owned in Damascus into a khånqåh, and adds: He enjoined that he should be buried in it, and that the whole of the Qurån should be read over his tomb every Friday. He stipulated that a ri†l (5 lb.) of bread be given to all the poor and strangers who participate in the recitation and say a prayer on his behalf.130 A waqf was assigned for the salaries of specic reciters who recited daily at the mausoleum of al-Malik al-Ådil.131 His daughter, ¤ayfa Khåt¨n, endowed a funerary madrasa with a large number of Qurån reciters in Aleppo. Tabbaa suggests, that the fact that women were prevented by the shara from passing their estate to brothers or sisters may have impelled some of them to use their assets for providing their siblings with a proper burial place in a funerary madrasa or khånqåh, thereby also enhancing the prestige of their natal families.132 One last variation on the theme of intercession for the dead, before we move on to its counterpart—intercession for the living—is that of the postmortem intervention of holy men on behalf of other, less righteous dead. This activity, normally hidden from the eyes of human beings on earth, was sometimes brought to their attention through dreams. A woman from the Óanbal community of Mt. Qåsy¨n, for

128 Ibn Qudåma, al-Mughn, 3:519–522; Sib† ibn al-Jawz, al-Inti‚år, 26; al-Sulam, Fatåwå, 430 n. 2; al-Nawaw, Fatåwå, 52. 129 Al-Nawaw, Fatåwå, 93; al-Shahraz¨r, Fatåwå, 1:375. The daughters of al-Malik al-Kåmil appointed Qurån-reciters to his mausoleum (Humphreys, Women, 41). 130 Ibn Jubayr, Riªla, 289–290; trans. in Broadhurst, Travels, 302–304. On the construction of the khånqåh in 450/1058, see Sourdel et Sourdel-Thomine, Dossiers, 137–138. 131 Ab¨ Shåma, Taråjim, 132. 132 Tabbaa, Constructions, 48.

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Jsrc 007 talmon heller islamic piety in medieval syria mosques, cemeteries and sermons under the zan  

Jsrc 007 talmon heller islamic piety in medieval syria mosques, cemeteries and sermons under the zan