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of ªadth and qh, Bahå al-Dn stipulated that fourteen qurrå recite the Qurån in his mausoleum, each one half a sub (one seventh of the book) after the last evening prayer. He is said to have wished for even more: that a full khatma (a complete reading) be recited there every single night.122 While formal prayer by grave sites was controversial, a personal supplication addressed to God (duå)—was wholly endorsed by ulamå. It was probably the primary means employed by those attempting to benet their dead relatives throughout the centuries.123 Also, Muslim scholars were not opposed to Qurån recitation in cemeteries, though opinions regarding the possibility of transferring the credit for the recitation from the performer to the dead man he wishes to benet (wu‚¨l thawåb qiråat al-Qurån ilå al-amwåt) vary. In a question posed to Ibn al-Íalåª al-Shahraz¨r he is asked to explain why duå does reach (i.e. benets) the dead, while the benet of the Qurån, which stands higher in rank, is disputed.124 Al-Sulam argues that the recompense for Qurån recitation does not reach the dead; but after his own death he appears to one of his pupils in a dream and confesses to have been mistaken on this matter after all.125 Ibn Qudåma refrains from stating his opinion; he merely says that there is nothing reprehensible in reciting Qurån with such intention.126 Shaykh Sad of the village of Qra (south of Nåblus) takes alSulams theological stand, albeit in a postmortem dream rather than in a fatwå. The deceased shaykh appears in a dream of his nephew, who asks him whether the Qurån can reach the dead, and, more generally, whether the dead can be helped by good deeds performed by the living on their behalf. Shaykh Sad answers unequivocally: Only his own deeds can help him.127 I nd it somewhat surprising that a rural shaykh should insist on such an unpopular notion, but of course, the author of the treatise who quotes the conversation, ¤iyå

122

abbåkh, Ilåm, 4:364 Gardet, Duå, 617–618; Taylor, In the Vicinity, 73–74, 173–74, 188–191; al-Nawaw, al-Adhkår, 209. 124 Al-Shahraz¨r, Fatåwå, 1:149. 125 Al-Sulam, Fatåwå, 429, 430, n. 2; Diem, The Living, 2:150. 126 Ibn Qudåma, al-Mughn, 3:518. For a similar discussion, based on several other sources, see Pahlitzsch, Memoria, 84–87. 127 ¤iyå al-Dn al-Maqdis, al-Óikåyåt, 92b; trans. in Talmon-Heller, Cited Tales, 23). 123

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Jsrc 007 talmon heller islamic piety in medieval syria mosques, cemeteries and sermons under the zan  

Jsrc 007 talmon heller islamic piety in medieval syria mosques, cemeteries and sermons under the zan  

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