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relatives, asking anyone reading these words to add a supplication of his own and say amen.118 Most ulamå considered the performance of the formal daily prayers at the cemetery reprehensible. Ibn Qudåma quotes the Prophet saying: The whole world is a place of prostration, with the exception of the bathhouse and the cemetery. Ibn Qudåma also states that the connection between the cult of the dead and the worship of idols is the reason for the prohibition of turning the cemetery into a place of prayer.119 Yet, funerary mosques were common, and those who could aord it often arranged to be buried in such a complex, no doubt sensing the advantage of being interred in a place of constant prayer, all the more so, one that they themselves had founded. The tombs of the Ayy¨bid rulers Saladin, al-Malik al-Ådil and al-Malik al-Kåmil are located in proximity to the great mosque, a setting imbued with more than one symbolic property, of course. The window, cut open in the wall separating the turba (mausoleum) of al-Malik al-Kåmil from the great mosque, clearly reveals that in the minds of whoever planned the edice, the prayers performed in the mosque were conducive to the proper rest of the sultan. In a similar vein, founders of madrasas wished to lie to rest in the institutions of study they had patronized, or brought their relatives to burial within them. N¨r al-Dns funerary madrasa is an early example of such an arrangement.120 The mausoleum Ibn Shaddåd intended for himself was located in between the two institutions of learning he had endowed during his lifetime: a madrasa (founded in 601/1204–5) and a dår al-ªadth. The whole complex had connecting doors and seven inner grille windows on a single axis.121 Not quite satised with the baraka 118 Istaghr lahu ayan idhå qarata hådhå al-kitåb wa-qul: åmin (el-Hawary, Most Ancient, 322). For other examples from the rst decades of Islam, see Donner, Narratives, 85–86, 53–55. 119 Ibn Qudåma, al-Mughn, 2:468–475. 120 For funerary mosques and madrasas in Ayy¨bid Damascus see Humphreys, Women, 38–49. In contrast, the Jewish Moses Maimonides enumerates the cemetery and the proximity of the dead (alongside the bathhouse and the privy), as places forbidden for prayer, the study of the Torah and the use of sacred cultic objects, such as prayer shawls. He writes: In the presence of the dead, nothing but things pertaining to the dead should be the topic of conversation. It is forbidden to engage in words of Torah in his presence, or in the cemetery (Maimonides, The Code, 2:9 (Reciting Shema 3/2), 3:199 (Mourning 13/9)). 121 Richards, Rare and Excellent, 3.

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Jsrc 007 talmon heller islamic piety in medieval syria mosques, cemeteries and sermons under the zan  

Jsrc 007 talmon heller islamic piety in medieval syria mosques, cemeteries and sermons under the zan