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qub¨r), stopped by Kamål al-Dns grave and admired the lines of poetry inscribed on it. Al-Sakhaw pleaded for mercy on his behalf (waqafa alayhi mutaraªªiman).82 The inscription on the shrine of Shaykh Óayåt in Óarrån includes the date of the completion of the construction (592/1196, eleven years after the death of the shaykh), the names of the founders two sons, the name of the supervisor of the work (the shaykhs nephew), and the customary request for heavenly mercy upon the deceased and upon all the Muslims. The massive dimensions of the shrine83 clearly indicate that it was expected to immediately become a site of pilgrimage—a topic which will be discussed in detail in the following chapter. 5.4. Grief and Mourning Al-Malik al-Afal sat in the Umayyad Mosque during the three days of mourning for his father, Saladin.84 Upon the death of the Ayy¨bid sultan al-Malik al-Ådil in 615/1218, his son, al-Muaam Ûså, ripped his clothes and struck his head and face.85 The people of Jerusalem manifested their grief and distress in similar ways on Muªarram 1,616 (March 19th 1219), when they had heard al-Malik al-Muaam Ûsås decision to tear down the city walls and dismantle its fortications. A terrible cry arose, as if the Day of Resurrection had arrived, in Ab¨ Shåmas words. Everyone, including women and girls, the elderly and the very young, went up to the Óaram, ripped their clothes and tore their hair out, mourning the foreseen desertion of the holy city, and anticipating their own exile.86 Nevertheless, when al-Muaam himself passed away, even women who never left their homes (i.e. very chaste women) stood with their children at the foot of the citadel, in the streets and marketplaces, ripping their clothes and disheveling their hair. They lamented him for a full month.87 Al-Malik al-Muaam was an especially popular ruler (despite his desertion of Jerusalem) thanks to his simple man-


Ab¨ Shåma, Taråjim, 90. See photographs of the shrine and inscription, in Rice, A Muslim Shrine. 84 Mujr al-Dn, al-Uns, 394. 85 Ab¨ Shåma, Taråjim, 112. 86 Ab¨ Shåma, Taråjim, 115–116. For the political circumstances (the Fifth Crusade), see Humphreys, From Saladin, 164–165. 87 Sib† ibn al-Jawz, Miråt, 8:649; Ab¨ Shåma, Taråjim, 112. 83

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Jsrc 007 talmon heller islamic piety in medieval syria mosques, cemeteries and sermons under the zan  

Jsrc 007 talmon heller islamic piety in medieval syria mosques, cemeteries and sermons under the zan