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of the people)”; “kåna lahu minhum a‚ªåb wa-jamåa wa-ªasuna fhi al-ann (they ˜the worshippers· were his friends and community, and they thought of him well),” to describe such relationships.123 ¤iyå al-Dn al-Maqdis tells of the Óanbal imåm of Nåblus after its reconquest by Saladin, Abd al-Raªmån b. Ibråhm al-Maqdis (d. circa 624/1227), who spent his days in the mosque to the benet of the people. He was a native of a near-by village, and son of its imåm. His contemporary, Shaykh Imåd al-Dn ibn Qudåma, the prayer leader of the Óanbals in the congregational mosque of Damascus, is said to have habitually invited the poor to his home for dinner after the last evening prayer.124 Funerary steles also tell of the devotion of imåms to their vocation. The inscription on the grave of Abd al-Målik b. Zayd al-Dawla, who died on 598/1201 at the age of 91, claims that he had taken his last breath after having completed the afternoon prayer, and that he had not stopped praising the Lord until death overtook him. The inscription on the grave of the imåm of the mausoleum of Zayn alAbidn (in the cemetery of Båb al-Saghr) is similar in content, while that of Shå b. Sålim simply states that he was the prayer leader of the mosque of al-Qa‚‚ån for fty consecutive years.125 Prayer leaders seem to have been only rarely involved in the affairs of the state. There is one conspicuous example that I am aware of: hearing about the agreement of 626/1229 between al-Malik al-Kåmil and Frederick II, according to which Jerusalem was to be ceded back to the Franks again, the imåms and muezzins of the holy city traveled to the sultan’s camp at Tall al-Aj¨l and dramatically announced an irregular prayer—“f ghayri waqt al-adhån”. The punishment they received did not deter the muezzin of al-Masjid al-Aq‚å to add to his adhån a few anti-Christian verses from the Qurån (such as 23:93, 19:34) while the emperor was visiting Jerusalem, a daring act in face of al-Malik al-Ådil’s order not to call to prayer at all during Frederick II’s sojourn in Jerusalem.126


Ab¨ Shåma, Taråjim, 207; Ibn al-Adm, Bughya, 2:695. Ibn ¨l¨n, al-Qalåid, 2:475, Ibn Rajab, Dhayl, 2:171; Ab¨ Shåma, Taråjim, 105–106. 125 Moaz & Ori, Inscriptions arabes, 57–58, 61, 71. 126 Cahen, “La chronique,” 138; Sib† ibn al-Jawz, Miråt, 8:656–668; Sivan, “Sanctity,” 296–300. 124

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Jsrc 007 talmon heller islamic piety in medieval syria mosques, cemeteries and sermons under the zan  

Jsrc 007 talmon heller islamic piety in medieval syria mosques, cemeteries and sermons under the zan