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because he did not repeat the things they were accustomed to hear, and they complained that his sermon touched upon too many issues. Ibn al-Adm, who transmits this appraisal of al-Óårith, adds that it should not impinge on the man’s reputation. Perhaps Ibn al-Adm was more appreciative of originality and innovation,85 but typical audiences clearly preferred preachers who evoked emotion and tears—such as Shaykh Ab¨ Umar.86 As for criticism of ruling authorities, Izz alDn al-Sulam seems to have been an extraordinary case. Obviously annoyed by a current practice of his colleagues (“khu†abå hådha al-a‚r”), al-Sulam argues that contemporary rulers should not be mentioned during the sermon, and certainly not praised unless they are worthy of praise. He condemns in sharp words even routine use of the laudatory titles (alqåb) “the Just” (al-ådil ) or “the Learned” (al-ålim), and their counterparts, which were routinely employed to address Ayy¨bid rulers.87 He warns the kha†b that if he phrases his supplication in false terms (using al-ådil for a tyrant, for example), his power of intercession (shafåa)—the very resource of preachers that Saladin so cherished, according to the quotation that opens this chapter—would come to nothing.88 Al-Sulam’s Egytian disciple, Taq al-Dn Daqq ibn al-Ûd (d. 702/ 1303), is said to have followed his master in this respect: he always addressed the sultans by the simplest designation “Yå insån (O human being),” by which he addressed everyone else, but renowned scholars. According to his biographers, Ibn al-Ûd’s main purpose was to grant equal treatment to the high and the low, not degrade the poor and humble, nor elevate the rulers and emirs. In other words, he conveyed a social message, rather than a strict formalistic attitude towards laudatory titles.89 The issue of proper titles was raised also earlier: the Óanbal ͨf al-Y¨nn (d. 617/1220) refused to accept the imåma of Ab¨ Umar, virtuous as he was, because in his khu†ba he had mentioned the controversial titles of rulers.90 N¨r al-Dn is


Ibn al-Adm, Bughya, 7:3315. Ibn al-Imåd, Shadharåt, 7:53. 87 About Ayy¨bid titles, see Eddé, Alep, 197–204. 88 Al-Sulam, Fatåwå, 400–401. (Ab¨ Shåma, Taråjim, 72; Sib† ibn al-Jawz, Miråt, 8:549). For a similar dispute in mid-eleventh century Baghdad, see Cook, Commanding, 125, n. 76. 89 Al-Sulam, Óall al-Rum¨z, 87. This principle of his seems to have been quite exceptional. 90 Ab¨ Shåma, al-Rawatayn, 1997, 1:373. 86

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Jsrc 007 talmon heller islamic piety in medieval syria mosques, cemeteries and sermons under the zan  

Jsrc 007 talmon heller islamic piety in medieval syria mosques, cemeteries and sermons under the zan