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(d. 616/1219–20), for example, composed a Qurån exegesis and a commentary on abyåt al-jumal (general Qurånic statements, made more specic by a ªadth).38 Typical secondary occupations of kha†bs (unless the kha†åba should be considered as the secondary occupation) included the posts of imåm and mudarris.39 In the course of their careers, some kha†bs held secular administrative posts, such as those of treasurer (wakl bayt al-mål), helper to the vizier in scal matters, collector of waqf incomes of a madrasa ( jåb madrasa), senior superintendent of the administration,40 and even vizier.41 Abd al-Azz b. Man‚¨r b. al-Wadåa al-Óalab (d. 666/1268) was a preacher in Jabla when he joined the entourage of al-Malik al-Nå‚ir Y¨suf in Aleppo, and after some time was appointed as shadd al-dawåwn (superintendent of the bureaus) of Damascus and its province. He was well respected and very close to his patron, whom he survived. Under Baybars his fortunes were reversed: his Sh inclinations made him a target of abuse by a senior member of the new administration.42 Due to their prestigious position, or due to their intimacy with rulers, kha†bs were often sent out on ofcial diplomatic missions. In 570/1174, Shams al-Dn ibn al-Wazr temporarily quit his Fridaypreaching in Damascus and left for Baghdad, in order to announce there the restoration of the khu†ba to the Abbåsid caliph in the former Fa†imid domains. He was a courier of great news: the return of Egypt to the Sunn fold after more than two hundred years of Sh rule.43 Another kha†b, Jamål al-Dn Muªammad al-Dawla (d. 637/1239), accompanied by the qå al-askar Najm al-Dn Khall al-Óanaf, was sent by al-Malik al-Ådil in 615/1218 to the Khwarizmshåh at Hamadhån. Some ten years later he participated in the delegation that negotiated the termination of a particularly brutal siege on Damascus.44 The kha†b A‚l al-Dn al-Isird was sent to Damascus and 38

Dhahab, Tarkh, 62:415. Abd Allåh b. Zayd al-Dawlå, kha†b Damascus, taught at the Ghazzåliyya (Dhahab, Tarkh, 50:358). 40 Eddé, Alep, 253–54, 363. 41 See Sib† ibn al-Jawz, Miråt, 8:394; Ibn al-Adm, Bughya, 3:1211, 1297–8, 7:3312–16; Ab¨ Shåma, Taråjim, 32, 117; Ibn Wå‚il, Mufarrij, 4:313; Pouzet, Damas, 133, 157. Compare with preachers in Maml¨k Cairo, described in Petry, Civilian Elite, 260–262. 42 Al-Y¨nn, Dhayl, 2:390–92. 43 Ab¨ Shåma, al-Rawatayn, 1997, 2:357. 44 Sib† ibn al-Jawz, Miråt, 8:593; Ab¨ Shåma, Taråjim, 109–110, 155. 39

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Jsrc 007 talmon heller islamic piety in medieval syria mosques, cemeteries and sermons under the zan  

Jsrc 007 talmon heller islamic piety in medieval syria mosques, cemeteries and sermons under the zan